Arsitektur Atap Respon Terhadap Iklim Tropis

Dr. Henry Feriadi
Department of Architecture Duta Wacana Christian University

Harmony with Nature and Culture

Posisi matahari terhadap bumi menentukan iklim

Konteks Tropis:
Lebih dari 70 negara Multi etnik, budaya, agama

Sinar matahari berlimpah, langit berawan curah hujan, kelembaban udara tinggi angin kencang

36 34 32

Monthly  Temperature Jogjakarta Indonesia 1988 ­ 1998 Minimum Maximum Average
April June August March November September December February October January May July

Temperature (C)

30 28 26 24 22 20 18

Months  of the year

Rata-rata Suhu Udara Bulanan

City 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Tokyo Dhaka Mumbai Sao Paulo Delhi Mexico City New York Jakarta Calcutta Karachi Lagos Los Angeles Shanghai Buenos Aires Metro Manila Beijing Rio de Janeiro Cairo Istanbul Osaka Tianjin

Population
(millions)

27.2 22.8 22.6 21.2 20.9 20.4 17.9 17.3 16.7 16.2 16.0 14.5 13.6 13.2 12.6 11.7 11.5 11.5 11.4 11.0 10.3

Fenomena Megacities dan Metacities
Perkiraan di tahun 2015

“Megacities” is a term the United Nations uses to designate an urban agglomeration with a population of 10 million or more; “metacities” have populations of 20 million or more (UN-Habitat 2006: 6-7). Asia is predicted to host 12 megacities and at least four metacities by 2015.

Kowloon - Hongkong

Chinatown - Singapore

Respon desain pada iklim tropis
Design considerations Built form configuration Building orientation Façade and windows Energy Source Energy Loss Environmental control Comfort level Low-energy response Energy Consumption Design with climate Insensitive Others influences Relatively unimportant Others influences Dependent Relatively unimportant Electro-mechanical Artificial Strict control Electro-mechanical Generally high energy Tropical responsive Hot-humid Climate influenced Crucial Climate responsive Less dependent / natural Crucial Electro-mech / manual Artificial / natural Variable / consistent Passive / electro-mech Low energy

Traditional Architecture (local wisdom)

Local wisdom : Traditional Lio Flores Architecture
wooden structure

Local wisdom : Istana Pagaruyung Padang

Local wisdom : Batak Toba

Lesson from Aceh Architecture

Colonial Architecture (Western Encounter)

Western encounter

Colonial style Indische style
-Elaborated Roof -High ceiling -Corridor / Verandah

Western encounter
Bungalow (Singapore) Hotel Du Pavillion (Semarang)  Terrace space for semi outdoor activities.

Chinatown (shophouses) + western thinking

Contemporary Architecture (Re-interpretation)

Tay Kheng Soon
Vihara at Choa Chu Kang

Tay Kheng Soon
Bishan Institute of Technical Education - Singapore

Principle Based Line, edge, and shade

Kenneth Yeang (malaysia)

Roof-roof House: - Building orientation - Shading devices - Double roof

Kenneth Yeang (malaysia)

Interpretation : Local Material Bamboo Architecture

Community Centre di Botokenceng,Bantul

Transfer of “values” to our future architects and engineers ….

Built Environment impacts on its environment (Yeang 1995)
Exhaust heat Climatic changes Smoke, dust. Noise, smell

Energy fuel Material waste Paving

Solid waste

Interference with Vegetation and Wildlife habitats Erosion

Ground water contamination

Stored waste

Sewerage

Earthworks

Idea Design  Build  Operate Building Life
Cycle

Demolish  Refurbish  Maintain

Building System:
Roofing System and materials

Building Utility Systems: -Water supply
- Power Generation - Waste treatment - etc Wall System and materials

Foundation System and materials

Perhatikan karakteristik bahan dalam menghantarkan panas b k R= U= b k
U= 1 R

Material Aluminium Tembaga (copper) Seng (zinc) Besi baja Stainless steel Gypsum Kayu Kaca Keramik (genting) Beton Bitumen (Onduline)

Konduktifitas panas(k) W/m 0K

236 384 112 47 24 0.170 0.159 1.053 1.298 1.442 0,099 0.040 0,035

R = Hambatan panas (Thermal Resistance)  unit: m2 K/Watt U = Hantaran panas (Thermal Conductance)  unit: Watt / m2 K k = Nilai konduktifitas panas (Thermal Conductivity)  unit: W/m 0K b = Ketebalan material (Thickness)  unit: m

R = ΣR T i R =R + R + R + ..... + R + R T out 1 2 n in

Fiberglass EPS (polystyrene)

Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV)

where Aw, Af = wall and window area (m2); Ai = Aw + Af Uw, Uf = U-values of wall and window (W/m2.K) TDeq DT SC SF = equivalent temperature difference (oC) = delta temperature (oC) = shading coefficienct of window glass = solar factor (W/m2)

Test

U.S. Building Impacts:

12%
Water Use

30%
Greenhouse
Gas Emissions

65%
Waste Output

70%
Electricity Consumption

Test

Average Savings of Green Buildings

CARBON SAVINGS

WATER USE SAVINGS

WASTE COST SAVINGS

50-90%

35%
ENERGY SAVINGS

30-50%

30%

Source: Capital E

Test

Occupants and tenants perceive value of working in a green building to be:

REDUCED ENERGY CONSUMPTION

INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY

LOWER OPERATING COSTS

HEALTH BENEFIT
POSITIVE MARKETING AND PROMOTION

OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFIT
Test

What is the LEED System?

LEADERSHIP in ENERGY and ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN A leading-edge system for certifying DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, & OPERATIONS of the greenest buildings in the world

Scores are tallied for different aspects of efficiency and design in appropriate categories. For instance, LEED assesses in detail: 1. Site Planning 2. Water Management 3. Energy Management 4. Material Use 5. Indoor Environmental Air Quality 6. Innovation & Design Process
Test

Levels of LEED Ratings

Green Buildings worldwide are certified with a voluntary, consensus-based rating system. USGBC has four levels of LEED.
Test

Australia

Singapore
The BCA Green Mark was launched in January 2005 to promote environmental awareness in the construction and real estate sectors. It is used to rate the environmental friendliness of a building ('green building'). It encourages the adoption of various Green Building Technologies (GBTs) to achieve a sustainable built environment by improving :

• Energy efficiency • Water efficiency • Indoor environment quality and environmental management

UIA Charter for Architectural Education (UIA 2005):
a decent quality of life for all the inhabitants of human settlements. a technological application which respects the social, cultural and aesthetic needs of people and is aware of the appropriate use of materials in architecture and their initial and future maintenance costs. an ecologically balanced and sustainable development of the built and natural environment including the rational utilisation of available resources. an architecture which is valued as the property and responsibility of everyone.

thank you

good design = future investment