Journal of Animal Science Advances

Prospects of Utilizing Insects as Alternative Sources of Protein in Poultry Diets in Botswana: a Review
Moreki J. C., Tiroesele B. and Chiripasi S. C.

J Anim Sci Adv 2012, 2(8): 649-658

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. This makes the prospects of utilising insects as a source of protein feasible because they are available throughout the year. Botswana College of Agriculture. Botswana Received on: 24 Jul 2012 Revised on: 27 Jul 2012 Accepted on: 13 Aug 2012 Online Published on: 30 Aug 2012 649 J. Private Bag 0027. C. the presence of chitin which detrimentally affects protein digestibility must be considered.Botswana College of Agriculture. nutrition. chitin. C. minimize the use of pesticides for management of pests and reduce environmental pollution. thus contributing to the profitability of smallholder poultry production. Botswana College of Agriculture.Harvesting insects for use as feed ingredients will reduce damage in the crop fields. Therefore. Sci. Private Bag 0027.. grasshoppers. complete feeds are expensive and out of reach of smallholder poultry farmers who lack economies of scale and access to credit. fish meal. Botswana Abstract Feed costs account for nearly 70 to 80% of the total production costs as nearly all ingredients used in feed manufacturing in Botswana are imported. the seasonality aspect. only phane (Imbrasia belina) has been used as source of protein in poultry diets in Botswana. This work has shown that the nutrient composition of phane. However. Private Bag 0027. Of all insects. Gaborone. 2Tiroesele B. smallholder poultry  Corresponding author: Department of Animal Science and Production. Gaborone. 2(8):649-658 . crickets and fly maggots compare favourably with major conventional protein sources such as fish meal. Anim. insects.ISSN: 2251-7219 MOREKI ET AL. and 1Chiripasi S. Further investigations on the nutritional composition of insects used for human consumption should be conducted with a view to utilizing them in livestock nutrition as well.The inclusion of insect meals in poultry diets is likely to lower the cost of feeds. A Review Prospects of Utilizing Insects as Alternative Sources of Protein in Poultry Diets in Botswana: a Review 1 1 Moreki J. Insects have played an important role in human nutrition as a source of protein since time immemorial. Department of Animal Science and Production. protein. 2012. Gaborone. Keywords: Botswana. as well as. Adv. Botswana 2 Department of Crop Science and Production. indicating that insect meals can partially or completely replace fish meal in poultry diets. in utilizing insects as sources of proteins in poultry diets.

2003). Ojewola et al. indicating that there is limited information on the use of insects as alternative sources of protein in livestock diets in Botswana. Most edible insects are cheap. the insects are a popular delicacy (Vogt.. insects are a good alternative as they are consumed all over the world (Melo et al. Of these. smoked or fried.. The demand for low cost poultry feed is high. The nutritive value of phane is summarised in Table 1. (2012). (2009) contended that the cost of feed ingredients has been steadily increasing due to growing number of poultry farms and feed compounding mills. Presently. the demand for feed grade fish and fish meal far exceeds availability. (2011) noted that several species of Orthoptera order. the high cost of animal protein has directed interest towards several insects as potential sources of proteins for humans. 2012.. field crickets and mophane worms (also locally known as phane) occur in good numbers in most parts of Botswana and could be easily harvested and utilized as protein sources in poultry diets. this work endeavours to draw attention to the nutritional value of insects as constituents of poultry diets in smallholder poultry production. Protein is a very important nutrient source in poultry diets and is useful in maintaining and repairing tissues for organisms to enable proper growth and development (Bondari and Sheppard. The high cost and scarcity of feedstuffs particularly the protein sources such as soybean cake. phane has attracted some attention. 1998). Feed constitutes approximately 75% of the variable costs in poultry production (Mupeta et al. 2007). due to the rising cost and limited supply of commercial feeds (Mupeta et al. especially J. Therefore. Dried. 2009). Namibia. 2010). 2011). (2005) stated that the search for alternative protein sources of feed ingredients as a partial or complete 650 substitute to fish meal. Nutritional value of some selected insects Mopane worms The Mophane caterpillar is the larval stage of the Mophane moth. grasshoppers form part of the diet of some ethnic groups in all continents. Colophospermum mophane and feeds on its leaves (Motshegwe et al. Imbresia belina (Westwood) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). 2005).. Similarly. Anim. the larva of Oryctes monoceros is one of the insects that are commonly consumed raw. As a result. 1981).. a conventional costly ingredient in poultry diets has been long and tortuous. phane used to be an important food source mainly for north-eastern Botswana. stewed.2011). (2007) opined that locally produced feed using locally available ingredients will reduce the cost of production. However. 2(8):649-658 .. Insects such as grasshoppers fly lava. Hassan et al. In the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.Traditionally. especially with regard to its nutritional value (Motshegwe et al. According to Womeni et al. Gabriel et al. available and can provide a good source of protein and minerals needed to complement cereal-based foods consumed in the developing countries (Ifie et al. Mophane worms (Imbresia belina) form an important source of protein in human nutrition and to a lesser extent animal nutrition in Botswana. groundnut cake and fish meal are the major factors militating against commercial poultry production (Adeniji. The mophane caterpillar derives its name from the host plant.. Insects have played an important role in human nutrition as a source of protein since time immemorial. Sci. smoked or fried. Mophane worms are commonly used as relish and snacks. As an important food source for the people of Botswana and other ethnic groups in southern Africa... As a result. corn crickets. a time when other staples can be in short supply.PROSPECTS OF UTILIZING INSECTS AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF … Introduction Most developing countries are facing difficulties of acute shortage of animal protein that adversely affects the protein intake level of the country’s population resulting in malnutrition ( Das et al. boiled. South Africa and Zimbabwe. 2003) or 70% of the total production costs of broiler meat (Teguia and Beynen. In Nigeria. 1998) and are among the cheapest sources of animal protein in most African countries. phane is now consumed all over Botswana and has become a much sought after delicacy in southern Africa (Motshegwe et al. Adv. Melo et al. These caterpillars of the emperor moth emerge in southern Africa’s summer. 1998). only phane has recently been utilized as a protein source in livestock feeds.

Ohiokpehai et al.. % Calcium. 2009). carbohydrate and mineral content than beef and chicken (Table 2). especially in Botswana where there is inadequate supply of animal protein for livestock feeds. (2004) stated that the percentage ratio 651 J. % Carbohydrate. phane contains about 50% crude protein (CP) and is abundant in the wilderness during its season of availability. (2009) Botswana heavily relies on imported fishmeal as a source of animal protein in livestock diets. which forms 27% of the dry weight (Sekhwela. According to Siame et al. The authors stated that fatty acid composition differs with stage of growth of phane with the highest unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 71:25 attained at the third instar stage of growth.60 g/kg dry matter (DM). According to Madibela et al.2 Acid Detergent Insoluble Nitrogen (%) 0..458 Fishmeal 65. 2004). (1998) reported that the oil from phane is much more like unsaturated seed oil than a typical fat. Adv. Salting increased the mineral content of phane from 48. . Jurgens (2002) As shown in Table 2. The differences in ash content may be attributable to differences in soil types in different locations which influence the organic component of the mophane tree leaves on which the worms feed. Sci.7 Magnesium (mg/g) 4. the different processing methods influence the mineral content of phane i. Anim. (2007).0 Phosphorus (mg/g) 14. fat. the mineral content of phane differs with location. respectively. Pharithi et al. not salting and roasting.e. among the malnourished.8 16. immunosuppressed.1 Iron (mg/g) 12. (1989) and Madibela et al. Motshegwe et al. Moreomabele and Sefophe in Botswana had ash contents of 54. Furthermore.8 0.8 Acid Detergent Fibre (%) 16 Acid Detergent Lignin (%) 5.19 g/kg DM while roasting increased mineral content to 61 g/kg DM (Madibela et al.2 Calcium (mg/g) 16. Table 2: Comparison of nutritive value of phane and other animal protein sources Protein source Crude protein. Animal proteins have higher nutritive value than plant proteins because the former have larger amounts of essential amino acids required by poultry (Yen.7 Potassium (mg/g) 35. For example. a component or the outermost part of the worm.07 Source: Akpalu et al.. Though seasonal.5 6. Madibela et al. 2009).8 Neutral Detergent Fibre (%) 27. 2008).MOREKI ET AL.9 Fat (%) 16.9 Sodium (mg/g) 33. According to the workers.1 0 4. Fishmeal is imported from neighbouring countries such as South Africa and Namibia at high expense. (2009) reported that degutting improves the CP concentration of the phane by 10%. Furthermore. 48. 2(8):649-658 of total unsaturated fatty acids to total saturated fatty acids in phane is 57:40 with α-linolenic acid being the single most abundant unsaturated fatty acid. % Beef 22 8 0 0.4 13.010 Mopane worms 56.94. thus affecting the utilization of these nutrients (Mahata et al.3 Source: Headings and Rahnema (2002).7 Zinc (mg/g) 1. salting vs.46 to 50. (2007). 2012. phane is a more readily available and cheaper source of animal protein. 1996). Chitin physically blocks the access of digestive enzyme to hydrolyze protein and lipid.5 0 0. Phane contains chitin.43 and 44. 1989.016 Chicken 20. phane has higher crude fat content than beef and chicken. Madibela et al. phane can also be used as an animal feed. phane from Maunatlala. (2007) and Yen (2009).5 4. Mophane worms contain higher protein.. % Fat. pregnant and nursing populations (FAO. phane is a better source of linolenic and linolenic acids than many other food sources. Table 1: Chemical composition of phane meal Nutrient (units) Content Crude Protein (%) 55 Ash (%) 5.

2(8):649-658 . 1. and two of the most commonly utilized insects in zoos are larval forms. In West Africa.67%.67%). In addition.25. mealworm larvae and wax moth larvae. Melo et al. DeFoliart et al. 4.97% ash. acridids have a good amount of calories (4.75% lipids. Anim. respectively.5%).57% K.89% CF and 16. carcass weight.4% for females and males. ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE) contents of grasshopper to be 94. 50% and 100% grasshopper meal to broiler chickens and concluded that grasshopper meal can replace significant quantity of fish meal in broiler diets. ash (6.17%. Rhaphidophoridae) play a role in human nutrition.38%) probably due to stage of growth and locality. (2012) from 43. they may present a disproportionately high fat content. respectively. EE (15. The authors contended that if these larvae constitute a substantial part of the diet. Mareko et al. Na and P in the meat.05) for slaughter weight.52%. Furthermore. 28.1%.50% minerals. 2.50. On the other hand.31% and 6.. roast and eat them.75 and 5% grasshopper meal and observed that carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0. the CP content of B. leading to excess energy intake relative to other essential nutrients. 26. Crickets Previous studies indicate that crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae.. 3. (2009) reported DM.21%.008% Na and 2. (2008) reported that protein content of acridids ranges from 60 to 66% and Blasquezet al.06%). total carbohydrate (3. Njidda and Isidahomenl (2010) fed rabbits diets containing 0. 2. Meat from birds fed diets containing 40% phane had higher mineral content (1. dressing percentage. 53. 3. CF (1. Additionally. Because of their high nutritional value and ubiquitous presence. These findings 652 indicate that the protein content of grasshopper varies widely (28.13 to 53.52% K.86%). 5. 9. the slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2. (1997) mentioned that EE is highly variable among invertebrate species. The protein content of acridids compares favourably with that of soybean meal (48%) and fish meal (50 to 55%) (Anand et al. Anand et al. ranging from 4-55% on a dry matter basis and that it may vary substantially within a species depending on developmental stage.5% CP. 0. Ojewola et al. total fat (6 to 7. 2005) that grasshopper has DM content of 91.9 to 77. (2005) found DM content of grasshopper to be 97.6 to 7. Also. for instance. Most edible insects are collected in the wild.38% crude fibre (CF). harvesting food acridids from croplands will minimize the use of pesticides for management of pest acridids and reduce the environmental pollution (Anand et al. feet and abdominal fat. Also.8 and 32. the J.08 g and CP content of 58%. acridids present a potential sustainable food resource in animal nutrition.5%) and mineral contents. (1982) reported that corn cricket (Anabrus simplex Haldeman) had a mean dry weight (males and females combined) of 1.PROSPECTS OF UTILIZING INSECTS AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF … Recently. CP. It is estimated (Ojewola and Udom.36% NFE on a DM basis. There is growing interest in the use of insects as protein source in diets of farm animal genetic resources due to high expense of conventional animal protein sources.57% P) than those fed 20% (1. Sci. Adv.. 2012. tail. (2009) fed 0%. CF. farmers collect young grasshoppers from their maize and alfalfa fields. Also. CP (35. Many insects accumulate fat during larval development.23%. 0. 2008).40%. 4.006% Na and 2. Hassan et al. 9. Hassan et al.39% P). where they would otherwise do damage (Vogt. 2008). EE. Crickets come out of their holes at night when they can be picked life. Similarly. 2010).5 to 7 kcal/g). Furthermore.18% ether extract (EE) and 1618 Kcal/g gross energy (GE).02%) and GE (1917 kcal/kg). (2011) found that grasshopper contains 71. (2010) found that broilers which were fed different levels of phane had different levels of K. 2. 2012). Grasshoppers Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) and most other Acrididae family members have high nutritive value and are most utilized by people to significantly improve the peasants diet (Blásquezet al. In Mexico.membranaceuswas 25.5% grasshopper meal (50% fish meal replacement). some children dig the brown crickets (Brachytrypes membranaceus L. skin pelt. Bernard et al.58%.) from their holes in the fields.13% CP.

(2005) on the nutritional value of field cricket (Gryllus testaceus) as poultry feed.49% respectively in fishmeal.45% CP (dry weight).(2005) Wang et al. According to Mayhew and Macmillan (1998).3%) showing that in addition to high protein content. As shown in Table 3. feed ratios improved significantly when diets were supplemented with methionine and arginine. Also.59% and 0.51%. These values indicate that insect larva could serve as an alternative source of protein and other nutrients supplement in human and animal diets. K (746 . The authors also 653 J. Also. beef and eggs . The protein digestibility was found to be 58. it also has good amounts of digestible amino acids. respectively. carbohydrate and energy. Sci. Previously. respectively. Mg. The energy content of cricket meal ranged from 15 MJ (male) to 16 MJ (female) which compared favourably with the cereal value of 13 . (1985) evaluated the protein quality of Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex Haldeman) in broiler chick diets and found that the corn cricket diet compared favourably with a corn-soybean meal diet with no significant differences in weight gain or feed/gain ratios.7%. Anim.79%. 1. membranaceus was a good source of protein.MOREKI ET AL. membranaceus samples also showed that total essential amino acids were comparable to those of milk. thus energy content was higher in field crickets compared to soybean meal. Ifie et al.51 4.0 mg/100 g. 175. 34% crude fat.3 58.0% ash contents. (2005) compared the total amino acid profiles for field cricket to fishmeal and found that amino acids percentages of field cricket were higher than those of fishmeal.13 1.84 46.8 Source: Wang et al.1122 mg/kg). dry matter basis) Content (%) Proximate analysis Ash Chitin Fat Crude protein Field cricket 2. These values indicate that field crickets could be excellent source of protein in poultry diets.00 mg/100 g and 38.47 48.96 8.. DeFoliart et al.7 10.) and found the CP to be 324 and 258 g/kg for males and females.9%) than that of fish meal (91. the Fe content is 31–100 mg/kg. Adv.and minerals (major and trace).05%. meat and bone meal.01%. Fe and K. However. (1982) fed corn-cricket to broilers and found that corn cricket-based diets produced significantly better growth of broiler chicks than was produced by a conventional corn-soybean based diet. (2011) found that larva of O.5 Soybean meal 6.3 Fish meal 12. The chitin content of this insect was 8.5% CF and 4. methionine and cysteine were 4. indicating that these were probably limiting. 85. carbohydrate for males was lower (489 g/kg) than that of females (548 g/kg). field crickets have 58. Table 3: Comparison of chemical analysis of field cricket and other feedstuffs (g/100 g. respectively while carbohydrate was 489 and 548 g/kg for females and males.40 mg/100 g of Na. Finke et al. respectively and fibre content for males and females 85 and 80 g/kg. respectively in field cricket compared to 4.0 mg/100 g. and fishmeal. 2012. The fat content for males and females were 32 and 53 g/kg. Brachytrypes membranaceus is a good source of Zn (515 . 2010). 1.16 MJ/kg.2 Meat and bone meal 31. The amino acid composition of B.65 8.The authors concluded that B.11 60. The ash contained 440. monoceros had 36. Na (1037 – 2226 mg/kg) and P (10880 10936 mg/kg). respectively. The study by Wang et al. fat and. Similarly. The average total amino acid digestibility coefficient of field cricket was higher (92.3% CP on a dry basis. respectively (Adeyeye and Awokunmi. Nakagaki et al. (1987) incorporated dried house cricket meal into practical diets replacing soybean meal as the major protein source and reported no significant differences in weight gain between chicks fed corn-soybean meal diet and those fed cricket diets. Adeyeye and Awokunmi (2010) also worked on the proximate compositions of field cricket (Brachytrypes membranaceus L. 2(8):649-658 found that field crickets had good amounts of digestible amino acid for poultry. Lysine. the protein and fat contents of locusts are 490 to 610 and 100 to 180 g/kg.1032 mg/kg).93% and 1. 10.

18 0. The CP for maggot meal ranges from 37. 2012.20 0. 7.938±0.17±0.001 0.75±0.876±0. Ajani et al.11 0. the total essential amino acid was reported to be higher in all the cricket samples ranging from 288.911±0.22 1.002 Proline 1.945±0.9-316. 2006).001 Histidine 1.63±0.35 1.18 0.922±0.004 Tryptophan 3. Sci.930±0.001 Cysteine 0. 1.933±0.. which is called maggot meal or magmeal.92±0.002 0.002 0.932±0.8 mg/g protein (without histidine).16 0.93-11% ash in maggot meal..956±0.29% ash.001 Essential amino acids 29.26 0.002 Glutamic acid 5.22±0.901±0. Olele (2011) showed that maggots have 44.13 0.955±0.01±0. the percentage of lipids in maggots ranges from 12.893±0. 1991) and sustainable environmentally friendly management of poultry wastes (Akpodiete et al.003 0. The advantages of utilizing maggot meal in poultry nutrition are recycling of poultry waste (El Boushy.957±0.947±0.84% CF.09±0.. These results compare favourably with the total essential amino acid values found in cow’s milk.15 0. Ogunji et al. The amino acid profile showed that maggot meal contains 17 amino acids among which are nine essential amino acids J.003 0.980±0. (2006) found that maggot meal contains 36 to 61.99±6.22±0. 10% ash and 24% lipid.922±0. and 0.81% NFE.15 1.10±0.003 Aspartic acid 2.985±0.23 0.42±0.12 3.46±0.34±0.03% Ca and 0. 2004). 2006) to 40-61.5% (Ogunji et al.932±0.81 44.25 1.947±0. (2008) showed that maggot meal contains 47.25% ash at DM level of 92.27 0. 1973.5 to 21%. Spinelli et al. For instance.76±0.31 0.17 0.18 3.20 0.948±0. 2(8):649-658 .36±0.76±0.956±0.11 1.58±0.15 0. 14.976±0. Adesulu and Mustapha (2000) reported 61.22 16.21 18.57±0.002 0.939±0.05% P.13 0. and CF from 5.5-21% lipid.15±0.939±0.001 Glycine 3.24 0.001 Methionine 2.001 Leucine 5.14 0.951±0. indicating that B. whereas Aniebo et al.5% CP.60±7.2% (Ogunji et al.17 0. carbohydrate.76% EE.27±0.002 Arginine 3.70±0.1% CP.004 0.23±0.961±0.21 3.901±0.8 to 8.924±0.006 0. 12.30 0. 2010).35 2.98±0.17 1.001 0.4% DM (Teotia and Miller. 16.71±0.925±0..34±0.001 0.46±0.21±0.31±0. Okah and Onwujiariri (2012) found that maggot meal contains 44. Adv. 9. Table 4: Amino acid composition and coefficient of apparent digestibility of maggots and soybean meal (SBM) for broiler chickens Composition (%) Coefficients Amino acids Maggots SBM Maggots SBM Crude protein 63.67±0.004 0.54±0.005 Valine 2.15 0. Anim.001 0.947±0. Fly maggots Maggots (Diptera: Muscidae) can be obtained from housefly (Musca domestica) and then prepared into poultry meal.932±0.18 2.3% fat. 1979.PROSPECTS OF UTILIZING INSECTS AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF … (Adeyeye and Awokunmi.27±0.934±0.81±0.001 Tyrosine 4.26±0. 12.933±0.5 to 21% lipid and 5.68±0.5% CF and 6.63±0.951±0.938±0.8 to 8.4% CP. In addition.927±0. indicating that 654 maggot meal is of high biological value.002 0. 0..4% CP.002 0.55±0. (2009:611) In Nigeria.968±0.55±0.002 0.20±0.20 0.7 mg/g protein (with histidine) and 267.7%.85±0. membranaceus is a good source of protein.11 0.002 Non-essential amino acids 28..15 3.937±0. Furthermore.003 0. 1998).2% CF.002 Source: Hwangbo et al.003 Serine 5. 25.927±0.003 0.22±0.927±0. energy and minerals.13 3. beef and eggs.002 0.002 Threonine 2.002 Lysine 5.002 0.44% CP.17 0.001 0.912±0. Other studies by Ajayi (1998).59±0.12 0.002 Isoleucine 1.001 0.003 Phenylalanine 3. Several studies have shown that maggot meal is of high nutritive value.001 Alanine 4.14 1.17 1.5 to 339.956±0.

30. Anim.58%) values. Additionally. In a similar study.44% ash content.28%.05% CF. Hwangbo et al. Akpodiete et al.MOREKI ET AL. suggesting that the use of maggot meal in poultry diets may reduce cholesterol intake through consumption of eggs.25% and 12. 5. (2011) found slightly lower Lysine (5.0% maggots and found that maggots significantly increased dressing percentage. Again. The authors found that the replacement of a 4. (1979) in the diets of rainbow trout and it was found that it boosted growth and feed conversion levels equivalent to fish meal at substitution levels ranging from 25 to 100%. Diets were formulated such that maggot meal replaced fish meal at 0.0 and 20. Odesanya et al. 2003) and differences in processing. Table 4 summarises the amino acid composition and coefficient of apparent digestibility of maggots and soybean meal (SBM) for broiler chickens. 75 and 100% maggot meal to broilers and reported that maggot meal could replace up to 100% of dietary groundnut cake level in the diets of broilers without adverse effect on performance. 3755 ± 190 kcal/kg energy.75%. Usually. The variations in CP of maggot meal can be related to the quality of poultry droppings or food given to maggots (Fasakin et al.05). Fatty acids profile showed lauric acid.0% dietary fish meal in finisher broiler chicken’s diet with 50% maggot 655 J. The name monakamongwe is derived from the short upright horn. 2(8):649-658 meal gave superior performance characteristics to the basal diet. Fashina-Bombata and Balogun (1997) and Ajaniet al. Adv.. 1973)... especially to the rural populace. (2011) indicated 86.05) compared to the birds fed the basal diet. Maggot meal is rich in phosphorus.0 ±0.05) declined with increased inclusion of maggot meal in layin g chickens’ diet. and was a more economical option.03%) and methionine (2.convolvuli larvae which is available during the rainy season (i. palmitic acid.47% moisture content. According to FashinaBombata and Balogun (1997).. 2004). in the maggotfed broilers.04% and 2. Maggot meal protein was used in the study by Spinelli et al.03 ± 0. respectively. breast muscle. The authors also found that egg yolk cholesterol and calcium concentration significantly (P<0. and thigh muscle (P<0.0 CP. A.) caterpillar commonly known as monakamongwe in Botswana is a larva of the Hawk moth. Hawk moth caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) The Hawk moth (Agrius convolvuli L. 20. The very characteristic larvae are smooth and bear a short upright horn at the end of the abdomen (Picker et al. 2008). The results showed that feed intake and feed conversion ratio of birds on maggot meal were superior to commercial diet. 15. trace elements and B complex vitamins (Teotia and Miller. 2. October to January) derives its nutrition from leaves of . Furthermore. drying and storage methods. Adeniji (2007) fed diets containing 0. 10. lysine and methionine were found to be higher in the maggot meal (6. 48.0. breast muscle lysine and tryptophan levels increased significantly (P<0. In another study.92%. 50. 15. 2012. (2009) in South Korea fed male broiler chickens either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 5.76 ± 0. Sci.0. The caterpillars of this insect are a natural resource to many people in Botswana because it is regarded as a highly nutritious food source.. 40 and 50%. 1 kg maggot meal is 20% cheaper to harvest and process than 1 kg of fish meal.09%. respectively) compared to other conventional protein sources including fish meal. with tryptophan not identified (Aniebo et al. oleic acid and stearic acid to be 69. (1998) determined the replacement values of maggot meal for fish meal in diet of laying chickens and concluded that maggot meal can nutritionally and productively replace fish meal in layer diet without adverse consequences on performance and egg quality characteristics. 10. 25.89 ± 0. Okah and Onwujiariri (2012) evaluated the performance of finisher broilers fed maggot meal as a replacement for fish meal in a 35 day trial. niloticus). (2004) showed that the nutritive value of maggot meal compared favourably with that of fish meal. It was concluded that maggot meal can replace up to 100% of fish meal in the diets of Nile tilapia (O.02% crude fat.e. Proximate analysis of maggot meal in a study by Odesanya et al. The authors concluded that feeding diets containing 10 to 15% maggots in chicken dropping after biodegradation can improve the carcass quality and growth performance of broiler chickens. 31.

Can the restrictive harvest period policy conserve mopane worms in Southern Africa? A bio-economic modelling approach.PROSPECTS OF UTILIZING INSECTS AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF … creeping plants. EE (2010). Maggot meal as a substitute for fish meal in laying chicken diet. Oreochromis niloticus. It appears that the utilization of insects as alternative sources of protein is feasible in Botswana. Zikhali P (2007). J. from August to May and absent in winter months of June and July (Table 5). insects are a potential sustainable food resource in animal nutrition. Mareko et al. OJ.. Potential value of acridids as high protein supplement for poultry feed.. Sci.. Awokunmi. J. (2010) Jul X Aug X X X Sept X X X Oct X X X X Nov X X X X X Dec X X X X X Conclusion References Due to their high nutritional value and ubiquitous presence. it produces two generations per rainy season annually.e. Pharma Bio Sci. Mpuchane et al.Proximate J. 2012. 31: 137-142. Onifade AA (1998). Therefore. producing and processing. Musa BO (2004). This finding is consistent with Ditlhogo (1996) who stated thatphane is bivoltine. promoting cultivation and improved preservation techniques will ensure a regular and good source of income for people who grow these insects not only for their utilization in poultry feeds but also for their own consumption. A. From Table 5.. their population is likely to decline during winter season. Ganguly A. On the other hand. maggots are available throughout the year. the numbers of A. (2011) stated that the availability of insects may change according to biotic and abiotic conditions of the environment. In Botswana..World Aquaculture. Sci. Nwanna LC. Haldar P (2008). a second small crop of phane may also be expected from April to May. Poult. Mareko et al. more work has to be done focusing on the multidimensional aspects of hawk moth nutrition.. Ologhobo AD. Table 5: Availability of insects during the year in Botswana Species Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Grasshopper X X X X X Crickets X X X X X Maggots X X X X X X Phane X X X X X Hawk moth Source: Ditlhogo (1996). Int. producing feeds using locally available ingredients will reduce the cost of production. 1(1): 125-136. Chemical composition of female and male giant African crickets. (2000). Int. J. Availability of insects Table 5 shows the availability of insects during theyear. (2000) reported that the two generations of phane occur in December/January and April/May for first and second generations. Anim. Brachytrypes membranaceus L. The first generation appears from October/November to December/January and the second generation is from February/March to April/May.Owen OJ (2008). On the other hand. respectively. i. it is apparent that phane is available from November to May. As insects are generally easy to cultivate.. Ghana Jnl. it is important to conduct further investigations on new methods of gathering. Muchapondwa E. especially under smallholder poultry production practised by resource-poor farmers who cannot afford expensive compounded poultry feeds.convolvuli larvae are available during the rainy season.e. Ajani EK. (2010) also mentioned that depending on the availability of rain. Sci. (Mpuchane et al. Adv.Working Paper Number 65: 1-11. Anand H. Aniebo AO. 656 Adeniji AA (2007). i.e. i. 35/1: 52-54. convolvuli insect larva.convolvuli larvae appear to be declining. Therefore. 2(8):649-658 . However. Agric.University of Pretoria.. Melo et al. 6 (11): 822-825. Adeyeye EI. Effect of replacing groundnut cake with maggot meal in the diet of broilers. grasshoppers and crickets are available for 10 months. October to December.Int. no studies have been done to document the nutrient composition of A. Akpalu W. Replacement of fishmeal with maggot meal in the diets of Nile tilapia. Sci. Erondu ES. 7(7): 722-725. To date. However. Akpodiete. Poult. Furthermore.

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