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Student Name : Student Reg. No : Section No. : Lab. Day : Lab. Date :

**Ahmed Hani Salem Al-Omari
**

431900 4 Wednesday 22/ 11 / 2006

Experiment # : Experiment Title:

7 Tensile Test

**Submitted to Instructor: Engineer:
**

Dr. Ahmed Al-Shyyab Yousef Zakariya

Due Date:

29 / 11 / 2006

These are quantities based on the original dimensions of the specimens defined as:- o And there is a lot of definitions in figure (1): - The Modulus of elasticity (E): It is the ratio of stress to strain. and engineering strain .ε. o They typical stress-strain diagram with some of common nomenclature for a typical lowcarbon steel specimen is shown in fig (1). σ.com/ahmed : Theory: o The Tensile test is used to obtain basic design information on the strength of materials. And fig (2) shows a typical stress . Determine the strength and other several elastic and plastic Properties of various materials Study the fracture of metallic material. . \W 6 GFDLCC just4just. When the standard methods of test are employed the results are acceptable criteria of quality of materials and a given level of quality means satisfactory behavior in service. o Figure (1) & (2) are plotted in terms of engineering stress.T{Åxw [tÇ| ftÄxÅ TÄ@bÅtÜ| Civil Engineering : Objective: We want from this experiment to: Observe the behavior of materials under tensile load.strain diagram for brittle materials.

The material in this point is steel elastic. this quantity is important in selecting materials for applications where high overloads are likely to occur and large amounts of energy must be absorbed.ε curve.1% to 0. and measured from the stress stain curve shown in fig (1). - The ductility of material: is ability of material to deform under load.ε curve. ductility is indicated by the tensile property of percentage of elongation. The value of E for a material shows the elastic resistance to an applied load that causes deformation. indicated as 0. the elongation occurs for the first time without any increase in loading.This ratio is valid only for elastic strain. For brittle materials the fracture point is essentially the same as the ultimate stress. The percentage of elongation. (2/3*σ max *ε max and is given by the total area under the σ . The amount of elastic strain can be determined by unloading the specimen at some deformation.3%). but offset from the origin of this curve by some value of ε (usually between 0. the specimen shortens by an amount equal to the stress divided by (E). it is often approximated by ). - Rupture stress: The stress at which the fracture occurs. - Elastic limit: The elastic limit is the maximum load that can be applied to the specimen without permanently deforming it. This quantity is important in selecting materials for energy storage such as springs. but for high strength steel the proportional limit is 550 MPa and more. the fracture is located at the last point in the curve (point E). - The modulus of Toughness (UT): is the total energy absorption capabilities of the materials to failure and it is given by.001 and 0. - Proportional limit: The curve in Fig (1) begins with a straight line from 0 to A. when the load is removed. the proportional limit is the place on the curve where it deviates for the first time from a straight line (point A).003. Thus. (ε = σ/ E) in the elastic region. The Method for finding the yield stress of the sample is to draw a line parallel to the original straight portion of the stress-strain curve. - The Modulus of Resilience (UR): is the amount of energy stored in stressing the material to the elastic limit as given by the area under the elastic portion of σ . . - Yield stress: If a slight increase in loading is applied to the elastic. - Ultimate stress: It is the point on the curve that represents the maximum stress that can be applied to a ductile material before fracture (point D). which is the percent strain to fracture. is given by. It is a measure of the stiffness of materials. the value of σ is taken from a point of Intersection of this line and the curve. For low carbon steel this limit is in the range 200 to 280 MPa. the Modulus of Resilience is given by.

Percentage of reduction in cross-sectional area of a specimen is another way to indicate the tensile property of ductility. thus Note : If the percentage of elongation and reduction of cross-sectional are large. Note: These two definitions of true strain are equivalent in the plastic region where the material volume can be considered constant during deformation.L = A. o o i Where the Shear modulus of elasticity is given by the equation: ÎÎ Finally.L This is only true in the plastic region of deformation. the material is said to be brittle. . are based on area and lengths that no longer exist at the time of measurement. and. using engineering quantities σ & ε. Since A . situation true stress (σ ) and true strain (ε ) quantities are use. the material is said to be ductile. To correct this. A: the instantaneous cross-sectional area at the time P is measured. The true stress and true strain quantities are defined as: T T Where: A : the instantaneous area at the time is measured L: the instantaneous length between gage marks at the time P is measured. when they are low. the relation ship between the engineering values and true values are given below: Where: .The stress-strain diagram previously discussed. in the elastic region the change in volume (ΔV) per unit volume is given by the bulk Modulus (K)..

04224 0.00192 0.6 22.0987111 127.98 Stress (Mpa) 0 42. strain display.66 0.1152 0.6303049 400. Direct shear test.01056 0.6438227 395.06336 0.12 0.19184 .6 0.0905376 360.5381955 169. Capable doing the following tests: 1.1728 0. 4.00336 0.02448 0.32 1.6 16. and Computer.8 18 19. It uses sensor which has high accuracy of the load value.97768 233.42 0. crosshead. crosshead moving part.04 3.7356177 369.01632 0.8 5.2 20.87896888 106. Experimenter can save the result by mean of connecting the U.2961333 336.4 21.6 12 14.2 1.0528 0.6765168 Strain 0 0. jig part.6 7.8 23.00528 0.M.1344 0.0877083 352.4171644 254.6369066 275.00672 0.43948444 63.1248 0.06 4. Tensile test.T.8566489 297.00384 0.28 6.0048 0.56 2.65922666 84.4190506 407.: Equipments: Universal Testing Machine (UTM): The machine is digital type Tensile Strength Test Machine.48 0. load cell sensor.0763911 318.9553599 392.6765168 408.0768 0.1536 0.0024 0. and displacement sensor. : Data Results & Analysis: P (N) 0 2700 4050 5400 6750 8100 9450 10800 12150 14850 16200 17550 18900 20250 21400 21700 22400 22950 23530 24300 24980 25170 25460 25650 25840 25920 25930 26000 26000 Δ (mm) 0 0.0096 0. The machine is composed of: • Loading part: Main body.84 1.4 15. 3.00096 0.92 9.1615844 407.3184533 148. Experimenters can get well-done results. 3 points bending test.7579378 190. 2.1751022 406.8522477 381.0384 0.1632 0.3 0.01248 0.1886199 403. Compression test.37221 341.5762339 408.144 0. • Measuring part: Load display.24 0.1824 0.096 0. and speed control device.

15 0.2 0.25 0 0.1 0.450 400 350 300 250 Stress (M pa) 200 150 100 50 0 0.05 Strain .

Sample of calculations: 1234567Proportional limit = 250 MPa.2* 0. and the bulk modulus of elasticity. 12.192) = 52.3 )] = 17857. 8.67 MPa.Modulus of toughness = UT = (2/3) ( σmax * εmax) = (2/3)(406.98/125]*100% = 19.Shear modulus of elasticity = G = (25000)/ [2 (1. 2) The shape of the cylindrical body is not fully symmetric because of the operations done on it.2% = 288. Elongation = [23.0.Modulus of resilience = UR = (250)2/ (2*25000) = 1. o Knowing the characteristics of the materials by the diagram and know the behaviour of materials under tensile load. and temperature and many other factors.3 MPa. ADVANTAGES FOR STRESS STRAIN CURVE o Gets the modulus of elasticity. the shear modulus of elasticity.3 )] = 20833. 3) The material characteristics changes by many factors such as pressure or tension for long time without reaching yield. .054 MPa.67 * 0.Bulk modulus of elasticity = K = (25000)/ [3 (1. Ultimate stress = σu = 406. 9.ν for brass = 0.184 % Modulus of elasticity = E = slop = Δσ/Δε = (250)/ (0. Yield point = 0.3 11. Fracture (Rupture) stress = 406. : Discussion & Conclusion: DIFFICULTIES IN TESTING BRITTLE MATERIALS 1) Incorrect position in the testing machine while doing this experiment.33 MPa.01 Yield stress for an offset 0.25 MPa.01) = 25000 MPa.67 MPa. o This experiment gives us information to know the failure cases for the structure or tested specimen. 10.1 MPa.

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