Distribution Network Automation & Control

Seminar Jan 29/30, 2008 Tehran/Iran

Dr. Roland Eichler
©

Siemens AG 2008

Seminar

ƒ Strategies for distribution automation ƒ Control in substations and outstations ƒ Communication ƒ Process optimization in the Control
Center and customer related activities
Control Center

Substation

Substation

Substation

Outstation Outstation Outstation

Outstation Outstation Outstation Outstation Outstation Outstation
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Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Seminar Contents (I)

Tuesday, Jan 29, 2008 Section 1: Goal, task and aspects of distribution automation Section 2: Impacts on planning of distribution automation Section 3: Selection of substations to work under automation – automation layout Section 4: Which parameters should be measured or controlled ? Section 5: Selection criteria for hardware, software and communications Section 6: Distribution automation standards

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Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

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Seminar Contents (II)

Wednesday, Jan 30, 2008 Section 7: SCADA functionalities Section 8: DMS functionalities Section 9: Case study presentation Section 10: Distribution system automation personnel skills Section 11: Maintenance and support procedures

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Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

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Seminar Contents (I)

Tuesday, Jan 29, 2008 Section 1: Goal, task and aspects of distribution automation Section 2: Impacts on planning of distribution automation Section 3: Selection of substations to work under automation – automation layout Section 4: Which parameters should be measured or controlled ? Section 5: Selection criteria for hardware, software and communications Section 6: Distribution automation standards

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Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

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Mission of the Electricity Supply System

The primary aim of an electricity supply system is to meet the customer’s demands for energy (in sufficient quantity and quality, at the required time and at an acceptable price)

Similarity to other goods consumption processes, the Electricity Business comprises 4 basics components
„ „ „ „

Demand Production (Generation) (Sub-)Transmission Distribution
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution
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Dr. Roland Eichler

Requirements to the Distribution System Supplier’s View „ high Customer’s View „ high efficiency with low losses „ few assets „ easy service „ less maintenance „ fast fault detection availability „ no faults „ high power quality „ low price „ quick recovery Page 8 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Portugal) „ Some consider Acts of God.Customer Requirements and Supply Standards Availability „ no interrupts i. some define a 1 minute limit (Great Britain. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . continuity of supply Power Quality „ Voltage „ Frequency „ Harmonics „ Transients Definitions of supply reliability are quite different „ therefore statistic values can not be compared exactly „ most countries count outages longer than 3 minutes. some don’t Page 9 Jan 2008 Dr. Portugal) „ Continuity indicators are calculated in a different way „ Weighted by the number of customer „ Weighted by the power affected (Spain.e.

and „ 120/240V ±8. in interconnected networks (e. Frequency „ The vast majority of equipment appliances are not much sensitive to variation of frequency. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .) the frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz) is generally very stable and secondly source of problems. Quality „According IEC 61000 Page 10 Jan 2008 Dr.g.Power Quality Standards Voltage in Europe „According IEC 61000 Voltage in the USA : the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) defines "Voltage Range " as: „ 120/240V ±5% at the user's service entrance.33% at the point of utilisation.. UCPTE.. Furthermore.

Power Interrupt Statistic in Europe Length of power interrupts in minutes per year (1999) in some countries 400 364 350 300 Customer-weighted indicators Power-weighted indicators Time [min] 250 200 152 191 157 180 150 100 57 63 50 15 25 0 GER NLD FRA GBR SWE NOR ITA SPA POR © Country Page 11 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Source: Council of European Energy Regulators CEER 2001 Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution .

2 +$ 1 Domestic 20 Page 12 Jan 2008 Dr. 1993 95 1. W /k + $ 60 9.7 / kW / kWh 0 0 .Social Cost for Unplanned Outage Customer’s Cost for an Unexpected Outage [ $ per Interrupted kW ] 7 Swedish nationwide survey for unexpected outages.3 +$ / kW 5 5. 0 $ h 0 / kW 5 . Roland Eichler $ 0.30 / kWh 40 © Outage’s Duration [ Minutes ] Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution . +$3 3 2 lture u c i r Ag 5 / kW 7 .15 / kW + $ 0. h W k / $ 6 5 de a Tr & es c i rv e S 4 ustry d n I e Larg Sm y str u Ind l l a $ kW / 5 1.2 h 0 $ 2.

Energy not Supplied due to Fault Outages Transmission 33 . Paris.420 kV 27% Distribution 1-22 kV Transmission 33 . Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .420 kV Distribution 1-22 kV 73% Source: Cigré Conference. 2002 Page 13 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Why to Improve the Distribution System The transmission and the sub-transmission system have already high reliability Therefore: „ Distribution Automation has the best ratio Improvement to Invest Strategies to optimize the distribution system „ n-1 strategies are very expensive „ structure of the system can not be changed easily But even with rather cheap measures one can reduce the outage times dramatically Page 14 Jan 2008 Dr.

8 0.0 Reliability [Rel] 25% 10% Assembly Design 0.2 ∆C2 ∆Rel2 40% Equipment Diminishing Returns ∆C1 = ∆C2 ∆Rel1 >> ∆Rel2 Investment [C] 0 Page 15 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .6 ∆Rel1 0.Breakdown of Capital Expenditure Reliability vs Investment Cost 10kV Overhead Line 10% 5% 10% Maintenance Commissioning Erection 1.4 ∆C1 0.

Penalties) Supply Quality Page 16 Jan 2008 Dr. Cost: A Macro Economic Consideration Macro Economic Costs Costs Limits (Law. Standards) Cost for Invest and Maintenance Cost for Interrupts (Less Sold. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Supply Quality vs.

Page 17 Jan 2008 Dr.What is ‘Distribution Automation’ There is no fixed definition of the term. by automating the following three processes of distribution operation control: „ data preparation in near-real-time. and „ the control of distribution operations in coordination with transmission and generation systems (Note: Distributed Energy Resources !) operations Others (e. Definition from EPRI 2004: The objective of (Advanced) Distribution Automation Function is to enhance „ the reliability of power system service. „ power quality. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . and „ power system efficiency. „ optimal decision-making. CIRED AD HOC Working Group 2 ) add topics such as ‚establish closer and more responsive relationship with customers‘.g.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . more rational use of energy “ (ENEL) Page 18 Jan 2008 Dr.Utilities’ view on ‘Distribution Automation’ “ Improved automated workflow of the Operation and Planning Department ” ( North York Hydro ) “ Improved supply quality and minimising of not sold kWh “ (CIRED 1987) “ Improved efficiency and quality of service.

Optimization Network Operation Simulation Switching Actions Scheduling Power Import Scheduling and Optimization Management Information System Customer Interface. Management & Control Loads and Meters Readings Control Customer Trouble Information Maintenance Management Data Management Network Operation Monitoring Operation Feedback Analysis Maintenance Works Scheduling and Control Technical Data Management Network Control Dynamic Data Management Fault Management Operation Statistics and Reporting Geographical Displays Billing & Settlement Source: CIRED Ad Hoc Working Group 2 Page 19 Jan 2008 Dr.Distribution Automation Main Function Sets Network Operation Operational Planning. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

monitoring and remote control also at remote sites allows responding to alert and emergency conditions quickly and confidently and with the correct action.g. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Benefits in Network Operation (I) Improving the quality of service „ Data acquisition. e. „ low voltage „ unbalanced flows „ low power factor „ overload „ Less and shorter outages lead to increased revenue Better network supervision means less equipment failure „ Equipment lifetime is lengthened „ Cost for maintenance material and manpower is reduced Page 20 Jan 2008 Dr.

Energy and Power Balances „ some utilities have high amount of energy losses. The first step for correcting this problem is to determine where losses larger than normal are located.Benefits in Network Operation (II) Increased safety and security „ Operation of any electrically controllable device can be securely inhibited at the SCADA master station „ Remote outstations can be monitored for intrusion Reduction of staff in remote outstations Power Quality Calculations (Power Auditing) „ the open market imposes penalties for quality of service not compliant with minimum characteristics. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . this includes both technical and non-technical losses Page 21 Jan 2008 Dr.

4% 0.Benefits in Network Operation (III) Improve Quality of Service „ SPM: Operator always has a clear picture about the current status and further planned steps of each switching sequence – faster switching at lower risk „ Floc / FISR: Shorten interruption time by automatically identifying candidate switching actions for „isolation of faults „restoration of supply „switching back to normal „ DSPF: Detection of Limit Violations that would occur after planned switching actions – avoiding overloads and accidental customer supply interruptions Improve Efficiency of Network Operation „ VVC/OFR: Keep the system at the minimum of technical losses thus reducing cost Fichtner Fichtner Consulting Consulting estimates estimates reduction reduction of of losses losses gained gained from from optimized optimized network network operation operation using using applications applications such such as as OFR OFR and and VVC © Siemens AG 2008 VVC to to 0.5% of of the the electrical electrical energy energy delivered. Page 22 Jan 2008 Dr.5% 0. delivered. Roland Eichler Power Transmission and Distribution .4% – – 0.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Distribution Automation Main Function Sets Network Operation Operational Planning. Optimization Network Operation Simulation Switching Actions Scheduling Power Import Scheduling and Optimization Management Information System Customer Interface. Management & Control Loads and Meters Readings Control Customer Trouble Information Maintenance Management Data Management Network Operation Monitoring Operation Feedback Analysis Maintenance Works Scheduling and Control Technical Data Management Network Control Dynamic Data Management Fault Management Operation Statistics and Reporting Geographical Displays Billing & Settlement Source: CIRED Ad Hoc Working Group 2 Page 23 Jan 2008 Dr.

„ Loss „ Load profile via web access „ Security services e. Roland Eichler .Benefits from Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) Systems identification Æ Loss reduction Æ Revenue enhancement „ Operational Efficiency and Asset Utilization „ Monitor energy balance & peak demand reduction „ Faster response time to customers „ Earn from innovative services to consumers e.g.g. door control „ By using the AMR infrastructure „ Power Quality system on top Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 24 Jan 2008 Dr.

Distribution Automation Main Function Sets Network Operation Operational Planning. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Management & Control Loads and Meters Readings Control Customer Trouble Information Maintenance Management Data Management Network Operation Monitoring Operation Feedback Analysis Maintenance Works Scheduling and Control Technical Data Management Network Control Dynamic Data Management Fault Management Operation Statistics and Reporting Geographical Displays Billing & Settlement Source: CIRED Ad Hoc Working Group 2 Page 25 Jan 2008 Dr. Optimization Network Operation Simulation Switching Actions Scheduling Power Import Scheduling and Optimization Management Information System Customer Interface.

Roland Eichler . and system reliability of customer data and meter data repositories ¾ Improve trust and reduce cost „ Consolidation „ Allowing web-based display and usage of energy demand and consumption information at the consumer‘s site ¾ Reduce cost.Benefits from Real Time Energy Management System (RTEMS) „ Integration of meter-to-bill processes and systems ¾ Improve cash flow. improve customer retention / satisfaction and quality real time monitoring of power quality information and automated response to energy distribution events power quality services and increase margin Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © „ Enabling „ Sell Page 26 Jan 2008 Dr.

Distribution Automation Main Function Sets Network Operation Operational Planning. Management & Control Loads and Meters Readings Control Customer Trouble Information Maintenance Management Data Management Network Operation Monitoring Operation Feedback Analysis Maintenance Works Scheduling and Control Technical Data Management Network Control Dynamic Data Management Fault Management Operation Statistics and Reporting Geographical Displays Billing & Settlement Source: CIRED Ad Hoc Working Group 2 Page 27 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Optimization Network Operation Simulation Switching Actions Scheduling Power Import Scheduling and Optimization Management Information System Customer Interface.

at the right time at the right place. Calculation of Quality of Service Indices for individual distribution points – clear proof of power supply quality Page 28 Jan 2008 Dr. everybody can create the reports he/she needs (no software or database knowledge required. on-time.g. more reliable and more efficient operation „ extremely useful for cost efficient network planning because information on real equipment loading avoids over-sizing e.000 US$/per year saving because new distribution substations could be better planned . and comprehensive information increases management awareness of actual situation and increases efficiency of department cooperation A distribution utility has reported a 100.Benefits from Management Information System Obtain more information from the network for a safer. only brief handling training) „ Precise. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . for installed transformer capacity „ planning of just-in-time maintenance based on actual equipment stress „ generation of logs and reports for after-the-fact system analysis and management information.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . less recruitment costs (and related training) Page 29 Jan 2008 Dr.Distribution Automation Some more potential achievements Minimization of non-in-time delivered energy „ reduce by 20% the current values (conservative figure) Network losses minimization „ reduce by 5% the current values (conservative figure) Improved Operation efficiency „ 10% of the Operation’s budget Improved Image „ equivalent or better market penetration with reduced marketing costs Improved working conditions and environment „ stable personnel.

Jan 29.Seminar Contents (I) Tuesday. software and communications Section 6: Distribution automation standards Page 30 Jan 2008 Dr. 2008 Section 1: Goal. task and aspects of distribution automation Section 2: Impacts on planning of distribution automation Section 3: Selection of substations to work under automation – automation layout Section 4: Which parameters should be measured or controlled ? Section 5: Selection criteria for hardware. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Page 31 Jan 2008 Dr. what will be done first. what is more important to achieve: „ increasing supply reliability „ increasing power quality „ decreasing cost „ decreasing loss of revenue „ etc This priority list will guide the selection of the most suitable program for distribution automation i. The utility‘s priority of goals defines WHAT shall be done i.e. This has answered the WHY of distribution automation.e.Impacts on planning of distribution automation (I) The general benefits from distribution automation have been clarified in Section 1. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Impacts on planning of distribution automation (II) After the utility has answered the strategic WHAT question the next question is HOW the distribution automation solution shall be implemented i.e. what are technical / environmental / legal / … constraints. This concerns issues such as:
„ overhead vs. underground networks „ availability of communication technology „ available (inter-)national standards „ already existing automation / communication infrastructure „ accessibility of substations „ current and future importance of substations „ etc

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Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

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Impacts on planning of distribution automation (III) Normally there will be several proposals for achieving the ‘WHAT goals’ considering the ‘HOW constraints’. Besides the achievement of the strategic WHAT criteria there are general criteria for selecting the most suitable distribution automation proposal:
„ flexibility of the distribution automation solution in case of changing

strategic goals of the utility „ flexibility for adding more services/business in the future „ expandability of the distribution automation solution in case of growing system size e.g. due to mergers with other utilities „ reliability of the distribution automation solution itself „ investment cost & cost for operation and maintenance of the distribution automation solution vs. monetary achievements
Page 33 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution
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Components of a distribution automation solution (I) A properly selected distribution automation solution will comprise answers to the following questions:
„ Which substations should be automated to what extent ? ¾Remote metering/monitoring ¾Remote switch control „ Which data shall be collected from which substation ? „ Which control centers shall be built/used (centralized/distributed) ? „ Which redundancy concepts shall be implemented ? „ Which communication media shall be built/used for which type of

link? „ Which communication configuration shall be built (point-to-point, network, radial, ...) ?
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution
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Dr. Roland Eichler

Components of a distribution automation solution (II)

„ Which software packages are required ? „ Which interfaces are required ? ¾to external control centers ¾to external applications, such as GIS, CRM, etc „ Which metering, accounting, settlement and billing process shall be

applied ?
„ Which standards shall be used ?

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Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

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Components of a distribution automation solution (III)

„ What is the capital expenditure for such a system ? „ Which achievements are expected with regard to the strategic WHAT

goals ?
¾reduction of outage frequency ¾reduction of outage duration ¾cost reduction ¾etc „ How can such a system be implemented and maintained ? „ How can databases be populated and maintained ? „ How can the implementation be split in several phases for early

benefit achieving ? „ Which training is needed at what time for operational staff and administration ?
Page 36 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution
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Anticipated Problems with Distribution Automation #1: Centralized Control System Apprehension: „Due to the automation of distribution networks the number of data points and RTU lines to be processed increases dramatically and thus exceeds the processing capabilities of centralized systems“
„ large amount of data is not any more limiting the processing

capabilities of modern SCADA/DMS „ modern process interfaces can handle hundreds of RTU lines, furthermore there are possibilities for ¾running several RTU servers in parallel ¾‚lean‘ RTU interfacing by means of TCP/IP based protocols ¾use of modem pools ¾cascading of RTUs, i.e. small field RTUs talk ‚through‘ large substation RTUs
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Anticipated Problems with Distribution Automation #2: Communication Apprehension: „The automation of distribution networks fails due to insufficient communication lines. GPRS „ dial-up lines over public phone companies Page 38 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .” „ cascading of RTUs reduces the number of communication lines needed „ alternative communication media are available „ power line carrier over distribution lines „ mobile phone networks such as GSM.

” „ in the course of energy market liberalization the pressure for cost reduction from regulation authorities on distribution companies will constantly grow and justify ever more investment in distribution automation „ cost for energy automation equipment and communication equipment is decreasing particularly for compact RTUs and dial-up connections via mobile telephone systems „ distribution automation does not come as ‚big bang‘.Anticipated Problems with Distribution Automation #3: Cost Apprehension: „The automation of the entire distribution network is too expensive. it rather grows over time closely coordinated with investment / maintenance programs for substations Page 39 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

2008 Section 1: Goal.Seminar Contents (I) Tuesday. software and communications Section 6: Distribution automation standards Page 40 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . task and aspects of distribution automation Section 2: Impacts on planning of distribution automation Section 3: Selection of substations to work under automation – automation layout Section 4: Which parameters should be measured or controlled ? Section 5: Selection criteria for hardware. Jan 29.

Canada. Mexico. Roland Eichler . Korea. Brasilia. Philippines „ typical 60 Hz and „ requires transformer nearby the consumer „ main distribution to the end consumer is done by the MV grid 230 V / 400 V Systems „ Mainly used in Europe „ typical 50 Hz „ Ohmic power losses enable distance up to 2 km to the next MV / LV transformer „ main distribution to the end consumer is done by the LV grid Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 41 Jan 2008 Dr.The Last Meters: Low Voltage 115 V /125 V Systems „ Mainly used in USA. Saudi Arabia.

Structure of the Power System in USA 115 V Transmission National / International Subtransmission Regional Distribution System Low Voltage Page 42 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Structure of the Power System in Europe 230 / 400 V Transmission National / International Subtransmission Regional Distribution System Low Voltage Page 43 Jan 2008 Dr.

Stn. Stn 220KV X X X X X X X X X 33KV 33KV/11KV Rec. Scope of this seminar 11KV Compact Distribution Station – Ring Main Units Page 44 Jan 2008 Dr.Typical sub-transmission/distribution configuration 220KV/33KV Rec. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

© Siemens AG 2008 Page 45 Jan 2008 Dr. This may be a circuit breaker.4kV S Isolation point At a suitable point on the network the loop is opened by a sectionalising device S. fuse or link. The system then effectively operates as two radial feeders. switch.Urban underground MV networks 20/0. Roland Eichler Power Transmission and Distribution .4kV C A c 110/20kV B d S D Load-breaking switch Circuit breaker Fuse 20/0.

Overhead rural MV networks The figure shows schematically typical arrangements for a rural overhead radial feeder. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . with some of the manually operated disconnectors omitted for simplicity. It will be noted that each main trunk feeder has a number of lateral spurs. Page 46 Jan 2008 Dr.

Applications such as RTU and AMR use TCP/IP. Often the fibres of a secondary communication network are interconnected with a node (receiving station) of the primary fibre optic ring. VT Battery charger Battery 24/48V DC Sample configuration Dr. other communication media / protocols are possible. Page 47 Jan 2008 FO from R/S.g.Substation type #1 with permanent data access Substations of type 1 establish permanent communication between the control centre and the distribution substation e. S/S FO to next S/S Fibre panel 1 (2) *24 Fibre optic to UTP Media Converters 8 port Ethernet HUB RTU (IEC…104) Control & Monitor switch states. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . IEC 60870-5-104 is recommended for RTU communication. Of course. Short circuit indicators motorized 11kV Switchgear Meter CT. by means of optical fibres.

Substation type #2 with temporary data access
Substations of type 2 use switched telephone communication facilities (fixed wired or mobile communication) to transfer data on demand. The demand for data exchange can be initiated by the control centre or the distribution substation itself. The control centre needs to control switchgears remotely, to ask for data update or just to test the connection. The substation need to call in the control centre if there is some urgent data to transfer, for example a fault indication on a 11kV incoming or outgoing line.
Page 48 Jan 2008

Dial up Modem (WLL/Fixed wired)

RTU (IEC…101)

Control & Monitor switch states, Short circuit indicators

motorized 11kV Switchgear Energy Meter CT, VT

Battery charger 24/48 V DC Battery 24/48V DC

Sample configuration

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

©

Steps of Distribution Automation Step 0: Centralization of distribution system operation

„ centralized distribution system operation is less costly „ centralized distribution system operation reduces time to restore

supply after disturbances
„ existing mixed structures of local and centralized operation often

have grown over time but do not have justification as of today
„ mixed structures in case of disturbances, i.e. local operation only

temporarily, are questionable in terms of organization reliability

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Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

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Steps of Distribution Automation Step 1a: Automation of feeder heads in HV/MV substations
„ in

case of a new HV/MV substation the whole scope of automation shall be built in:
„ remote

signaling of all switching element statuses „ remote control of circuit breakers „ digital protection devices provide analog measurements in normal operation and fault operation
„ in

case of retrofitting HV/MV substations the following priority applies
„ must: „ optional: „ nice-to-have:

fault information from protection equipment per field remote control of circuit breakers analog measurements of feeder currents more switching status information (isolator, earthing switch, ...)
Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution
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Steps of Distribution Automation Step 1b: Automation of major switching substations

Major switching substation: „ three (3) outgoing feeders or more „ circuit breaker and protection In case of a new switching substation the whole scope of automation shall be built in (see Step 1a) In case of retrofitting switching substations the same priorities apply as in Step 1a.

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Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

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Steps of Distribution Automation Step 1c: Remote signaling of selected fault current sensors

With this step the utility has reached the level of automated centralized fault location:
„ evaluation of topology information „ evaluation of fault impedances „ evaluation of fault current sensor information „ consideration of additional information received via phone

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Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

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Steps of Distribution Automation Step 2a: Automation of selected MV/LV substations

Selected MV/LV substations:
„ ‘normally open’ section point „ midway of long feeders

Remote control of load switches This normally implies the necessity to motorize the switches.

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Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

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Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 54 Jan 2008 Dr.Steps of Distribution Automation Step 2b: Automation of selected customer substations Selected customer substations: „ high-volume consumer „ high-sensitive consumer „ remote signaling of fault information „ remote switching „ remote signaling of analog measurements This enables new business opportunities for providing high-quality power supply services to those customers. Roland Eichler .

Within a short time a part of the affected consumers can be re-supplied by reconfiguring the distribution network by remote control actions from the SCADA/DMS. In case of a feeder trip the SCADA/DMS operators get fault indication from automated distribution substations. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . DMS applications will support the operator in defining the most appropriate switching sequence (Section 8).Selection of distribution substations for automation For the selection of distribution substations for automation two main questions have to be answered: „ (A) What is the most reasonable and beneficial rate of automation for distribution substations? „ (B) Which dedicated distribution substations shall be automated ? The goal of distribution substation automation is basically to reduce the average interruption time of energy supply in the distribution network. Page 55 Jan 2008 Dr.

This can be done within a time period of 3 minutes. Two distribution substations will send fault indications and faultdirection to the control centre.5. Automation rate assumed to be 25%.5 substations / feeder 2. open 5. Page 56 Jan 2008 Dr. close Fault indicator Automated substation 4.2 million consumers D537 consumers / substation R/S feeder 1.Selection of distribution substations for automation Question (A): Automation Rate (I) A fault on a cable section causes the feeder to trip. trip 3. Based on this information the operator can re-supply ~ 50% of the affected consumers by performing switching actions 2 . close Normally open point 2. R/S feeder 650 feeders 4099 distribution substations D6. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . open About 50% of the affected customers re-supplied after 3 minutes.

Page 57 Jan 2008 Dr. Fault isolation and service restoration are done by conventional methods. The crew on site can be supported by the operators in the control centre. the restoration crew can work faster since the area of intervention is only a part of the feeder.Selection of distribution substations for automation Question (A): Automation Rate (II) Compared to nonautomation. Automation rate assumed to be 25%. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . R/S feeder R/S feeder Fault indicator Automated substation Remaining 50% of the affected customers re-supplied after 20 minutes. Average conventional restoration time is estimated to be reduced by 50 % (40 minutes Î 20 minutes).

Selection of distribution substations for automation Question (A): Automation Rate (III) As result of this scenario the service restoration time will be reduced from approximately 40 minutes to approximately 11 Minutes. the benefits are calculated from more energy sold due to reduced average interruption time. The costs are based on the substation adaptation investments. 50 % of consumers are re-supplied after 50 % of consumers are re-supplied after => average interruption time 3 minutes 20 minutes ~11 minutes This kind of estimation of outage time reduction can be repeated for other values of the automation rate. Page 58 Jan 2008 Dr. Relevant study case data are given on the following page. The blue curve is representing the Net Present Value (cost/benefit ratio). Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . The diagram on the next page indicates the average interruption time as function of the number of automated substations (magenta) taken from a study case.

Selection of distribution substations for automation Question (A): Automation Rate (IV) „ Detailed Case Study on Cost-Benefit- Analysis of Distribution Automation with different Automation Rates in Section 9. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Page 59 Jan 2008 Dr.

It is rather guided by fuzzy criteria on two levels: „ Feeder level Such feeders will be preferred that have ¾ higher load density ¾ higher fault density than others „ Substation level Obviously the substation with ‚normal open points‘ will be automated first on a selected feeder. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .e. those substations will be preferred that have ¾ large industrial consumers connected ¾ spur lines with high load connected Finally. the leading criterion is the load that can be affected i.Selection of distribution substations for automation (VI) Question (B): Selection of Substations The selection of dedicated substations for automation does not follow a strict and simple algorithm. those substations will be preferred that have ¾ long travel time to reach Page 60 Jan 2008 Dr. As regards other substations.e. the time needed for manual switching plays a role i.

2008 Section 1: Goal. Jan 29. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . task and aspects of distribution automation Section 2: Impacts on planning of distribution automation Section 3: Selection of substations to work under automation – automation layout Section 4: Which parameters should be measured or controlled ? Section 5: Selection criteria for hardware.Seminar Contents (I) Tuesday. software and communications Section 6: Distribution automation standards Page 61 Jan 2008 Dr.

„ Status from the protection devices „ Transformer tap position Page 62 Jan 2008 Dr. Currents from all ¾incoming feeders ¾outgoing feeders ¾capacitor banks ¾etc „ Switch Positions of the ¾Isolators (Single Pole) ¾Circuit Breakers (Double Pole) „ Indications of other auxiliary devices such as UPS. Battery system. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Communication Devices etc. Reactive Power.Data to be collected from HV/MV Substations „ Active Power. Voltages. Chargers.

Roland Eichler Output from SCADA Command (Command) Status Status Measured Value Alarm Alarm Alarm Alarm Alarm Alarm Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Data to be collected from Distribution S/S Input to SCADA Switches Circuit breakers Load switches Analogs I/P/Q/V Protection (each feeder) Phase-to-phase short circuit Phase-to-ground short circuit Fault current sensors Battery System Power supply failure Charger failure Charge low Page 63 Jan 2008 Dr.

Extend by SCADA data model of distribution feeders (topology. switches) Î enabling Operation Applications (Section 8) 2. Add measurements from automated distribution substations. Extend by engineering data of line/cable segments and load models Î enabling Distribution Network Applications (Section 8) 3. substitute load models Page 64 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Data to be collected for distribution automation Step 2: Line/cable segment engineering data Typical load curves for load transformers Bulk supply Substation 220 kV bus 33 kV bus Step 1: Extended SCADA Data Model Step 3: Measurements from distribution automation Receiving Substation 33 kV bus M Step Step 0: 0: SCADA SCADA data data model model 11 kV bus M M M M M M M 1.

Short-circuits and earth-faults indicators I> (t) criterion Is1 and dt fullfilled -> indication is activated selected pick-up current IS1 enveloping of failure current Integrative measurement avoids erroneous indication! Red signal curves must not activate the indicator dt t pick-up time dt selectable: 40 oder 80 ms For effective failure detection and location short-circuits and earth-faults must be observed. the facility shall prevent faulty indications due to magnetizinginrush currents. Page 65 Jan 2008 Dr. However. The fault detection facility generates alarms in case of high current peaks. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Combined shortcircuit and earth-fault indicators are most economical. other transient and nofault conditions. Indicators can be installed on outgoing feeders of RMUs.

Fault detection in low resistance terminated networks by means of short-circuit indicators Umspannwerk Power substation Knotenpunktstation nodal point substation I>> Ie RMU I>> Ie RMU I>> Ie I>> Ie RMU I>> Ie RMU I>> Ie RMU I>> Ie RMU I>> Ie RMU I>> Ie Page 66 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

relay data. line repaired „ Remove grounding and close isolator or replace fuse „ Switch back to normal state Page 67 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . visually „ Open isolator and ground equipment „ Restore supply as much as possible „ Do nessesary repair work „ Fault removed.Typical Repairing of Permanent Faults „ Protection has tripped circuit breaker CB „ Transient fault? Automatic recovery? „ Localize fault ¾phone calls. Remote Terminal Units (RTU).

Rural Regions Urban ƒ underground cables with less external faults Rural ƒ a lot of overhead lines ƒ intermediate short circuits ƒ birds ƒ trees ƒ wind ƒ Auto recloser strategies Page 68 Jan 2008 Dr.Urban vs. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Distribution Automation in Urban Areas Example for Ring Main Automation Page 69 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Typical open ring configuration OC OC FI OC: over current protection FI: fault indicator Page 70 Jan 2008 Dr.

Outstation (Ring Main Station. Satellite Station) Page 71 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Ring unit 1 Current Phase L2 Ring unit 1 Voltage L2-N Ring unit 2 Current Phase L2 Ring unit 2 Voltage L2-N © Page 72 Jan 2008 Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution .Typical mini RTU solutions Ring main unit with one feeder Double indications: Ring unit 1 isolator Earth switch 1 Ring unit 2 isolator Earth switch 2 Feeder Earth switch Feeder On/OFF On/OFF On/OFF On/OFF On/OFF On/OFF Single indications: Q0 1 M Q0 1 M Q0 1 M -F1 Short circuit indicator RK1 Short circuit indicator RK2 Fuse blown Grouped Indication Auxiliary power failure Transformer temperature alarm Remote control off UPS failure Station open A5 1 -T1 3 A5 1 -T1 3 A5 1 Meters (optional): Meter feeder Double commands: -T5 -T5 Ring unit 1 isolator Ring unit 2 isolator Feeder On/OFF On/OFF On/OFF Analogs (optional): Ring Unit 1 Ring Unit 2 Feeder to LV transformer Dr.

The network is divided into four sections.SB-R.Automation in a MV Ring (1) E1 SB11 SB-R E2 SB21 SB22 0 20 40 60 [sec] Example of network configuration.These units get information from a voltage sensing system and control each line switch. Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 73 Jan 2008 Dr. A central control unit is placed with the circuit breakers (E1. In the example is there a fault between SB21 and SB22. Decentral control units are placed with the line switches in each section (SB11. Roland Eichler .SB21 and SB22) . The circuit breakers could be taken in and out from the central control unit. In a ring configuration it is a must to have a voltage sensing system on both sides of the line switch.E2).

but in a faulty network configuration the protection relay will take out the circuit breaker again. Page 74 Jan 2008 Dr. The central control unit will try to put the circuit breaker in. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . the protection relay will take the circuit breaker (E2) out.Automation in a MV Ring (2) E1 SB11 SB-R E2 SB21 SB22 0 20 40 60 [sec] With a fault in the network configuration.

SB22 and SB-R) that the network configuration is faulty. Page 75 Jan 2008 Dr.Automation in a MV Ring (3) E1 SB11 SB-R E2 SB21 SB22 0 20 40 60 [sec] This procedure indicates to all units (SB21. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . and the automatic sectioning starts. All decentral control units (SB21 and SB22) take out the line switches .

Page 76 Jan 2008 Dr.Automation in a MV Ring (4) E1 SB11 SB-R E2 SB21 SB22 0 20 40 60 [sec] The central control unit closes the circuit breaker after 20 seconds. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . to test the first part of the network configuration .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Page 77 Jan 2008 Dr.Automation in a MV Ring (5) E1 SB11 SB-R E2 SB21 SB22 0 20 40 60 [sec] After 40 seconds the decentral control unit (SB21) closes the line switch.

and then takes out the line switch and locks it. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Automation in a MV Ring (6) E1 SB11 SB-R E2 SB21 SB22 0 20 40 60 [sec] Because this part of the configuration (SB21 – SB22) is faulty. the central unit will take out the circuit breaker. The decentral control unit (SB21) discovers that the voltage only was in for a short time. Page 78 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Page 79 Jan 2008 Dr. The decentral control unit (SB22) will then lock the line switch. and because of the voltage sensing system of both sides of the switch. the unit knows that the fault is between SB21 and SB22.Automation in a MV Ring (7) E1 SB11 SB-R E2 SB21 SB22 0 20 40 60 [sec] The decentral control unit (SB22) discovers that the voltage was in only for a short time.

© Page 80 Jan 2008 Dr. After a time (60 seconds) the unit knows that the fault is between SB21 and SB 22. Now at this time the part between SB21 and SB22 (the faulty) is disconnected from the healthy part of the network configuration. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution . The decentral control unit (SB-R) has not detected any voltage on the side SB-R – SB22. and the line switch (SB-R) is closed.Automation in a MV Ring (8) E1 SB11 SB-R E2 SB21 SB22 0 20 40 60 [sec] The decentral control unit (SB-R) have detect the start of the automatic sectioning.

Distribution Automation in Rural Areas Sectionalizer Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 81 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler .

the system will take out the faulty part of the configuration. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Automatic sectioning is based on switching on and out line switches and circuit breaker in a controlled sequence to find errors in the network.Sectionalizing in Overhead Lines Sectionalizer enable a system for automatic sectioning in a network configuration. Page 82 Jan 2008 Dr. When the errors are found.

The network is divided into six sections (S1 – S6) Page 83 Jan 2008 Dr. 110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW Circuit breaker Load-breaking switch Power Transformer Voltage sensing system Example of network configuration. g. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Sectionalizing in Overhead Lines S4: 250 kW e.

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 84 Jan 2008 Dr. g.Sectionalizer (1) S4: 250 kW e. the protection relay will take out the circuit breaker. Roland Eichler . 110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] With at fault in the network configuration.

Sectionalizer (2) S4: 250 kW e. 110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] The central control unit (E1) will try to put the circuit breaker in but in a faulty network configuration. Roland Eichler . g. Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 85 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler . g. Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 86 Jan 2008 Dr.Sectionalizer (3) S4: 250 kW e. 110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] The protection relay will take out the circuit breaker again.

All decentral control units (L1 ... The automatic sectioning starts at relative time 0 seconds. Page 87 Jan 2008 Dr. 110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] This procedure indicates to all units (E1 and L1 . L5) that the network configuration is faulty. L5) take out the line switches . g. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . and the automatic sectioning starts.Sectionalizer (4) S4: 250 kW e.

Page 88 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . 110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] The central control unit closes the circuit breaker after 20 seconds.Sectionalizer (5) S4: 250 kW e. to test the first part of the network configuration (S1). g.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution . © Page 89 Jan 2008 Dr. g. 110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] After 40 seconds the decentral control unit (L1) closes the line switch.Sectionalizer (6) S4: 250 kW e.

110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] Because this part of the configuration (S2) is faulty.Sectionalizer (7) S4: 250 kW e. g. Page 90 Jan 2008 Dr. the central unit (E1) will take out the circuit breaker. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] The decentral control unit (L1) discovers that the voltage only was in for a short time. and then takes out the line switch and locks it. Page 91 Jan 2008 Dr.Sectionalizer (8) S4: 250 kW e. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . At this time the section S2 (the faulty) is disconnected from the healthy part of the network configuration. g.

Page 92 Jan 2008 Dr. g. 110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] After 60 seconds the central unit (E1) closes the circuit breaker. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Sectionalizer (9) S4: 250 kW e.

110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] The decentral control unit (L2) closes the line switch in due to the voltage sensing system. Page 93 Jan 2008 Dr.Sectionalizer (10) S4: 250 kW e. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . g.

g. 110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] After 80 seconds the decentral unit (L3) close the line switch in due to the voltage sensing system. Page 94 Jan 2008 Dr.Sectionalizer (11) S4: 250 kW e. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Sectionalizer (12) S4: 250 kW e. Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 95 Jan 2008 Dr. 110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] After 100 seconds the decentral unit (L4) close the line switch in due to the voltage sensing system. g. Roland Eichler .

110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] Because this part of the configuration (S4) is faulty. the central unit (E1) will take out the circuit breaker. g. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Page 96 Jan 2008 Dr.Sectionalizer (13) S4: 250 kW e.

110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] The decentral control unit (L4) discovers that the voltage only was in for a short time. g.Sectionalizer (14) S4: 250 kW e. and then takes out the line switch and locks it. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . At this time the section S4 (the faulty) is disconnected from the healthy part of the network configuration. Page 97 Jan 2008 Dr.

110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] After 120 seconds the central unit closes the circuit breaker and the automatic sectioning is finished. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . The decentral control unit (L5) could be designed to close the line switch after 120 seconds. Page 98 Jan 2008 Dr. g.Sectionalizer (15) S4: 250 kW e.

110/ 20kV E1 L3 S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW L2 L1 S2: 250 kW S3: 375 kW L4 See next page L5 S6: 150 kW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 [sec] The central control unit sets outputs (lamps) for each section (S1 – S6) which is faulty. g. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Sectionalizer (16) S4: 250 kW e. Page 99 Jan 2008 Dr. It is also possible to send this information to a network control system via IEC 6870-5-101 protocol. or/and send SMS messages.

Sectionalizer: Switch and Control Line Switch with voltage transformer Electronic with storage battery. local control and communication Page 100 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

task and aspects of distribution automation Section 2: Impacts on planning of distribution automation Section 3: Selection of substations to work under automation – layout Section 4: Which parameters should be measured or controlled ? Section 5: Selection criteria for hardware. software and communications Section 6: Distribution automation standards automation Page 101 Jan 2008 Dr. 2008 Section 1: Goal. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Jan 29.Seminar Contents (I) Tuesday.

market. Trading) planning (applications and systems) DB . Local automation local control & automation Substation Protection RTUs automation Page 102 Jan 2008 Dr.Power Systems Control and Energy Management Multi-Level Environment Integrated utility business operation Added value network management & optimization Network control & supervision (single-or multi-utility) Partner. etc. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . DMS. Gateway IT Integration Information gateway ASP Administration $Trader Private & public networks Multi-site Power Exchange Meters xxxx x xxx xxx xx Operation E-Commerce Maintenance Communication Field data acquisition... SCADA etc. F&A MIS Asset Energy Sales Management Data & Care Warehouse .. EBM. Business Services Enterprise Integration Bus Meter data Advanced applications Network Network management information (EMS..

Communication Media

Optical Fiber

Public Network

Copper Cable

GSM/CDMA – Network

Radio

Power Line
Page 103 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution
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Backbone Network / Access network
MV - Line
RTU

RTU

Backbone Network
MV - Line

RTU

RTU

RTU RTU
Page 104 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution
©

Backbone Network / Distribution Data Acquisition

Control Center

TCI

No. 1
Optical Fibre

No. Z

MV - Line

MUX

RTU

RTU RTU
Page 105 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution
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Aspects of Network Design

Costs

Reliability

Network Design

Regulations
Page 106 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler

Performance
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution
©

Communication Selection Criteria Leased Public Line
„ The

telephone company provides direct point-to-point connectivity between the RTU location and the control centre. On both end of the communication, a suitable modem appropriate to bandwidth (9600 bauds, 86 Kbps) is required. cost of the communication of this nature comprises the fixed cost to be paid as one-time charges (for Registration fees, Installation fees of the equipment) and the operational charges (for periodical subscription as well as usage). this type of communication facility seems to be economical, on a long term it may not turn up to be cost-effective, since one has to pay the periodical operation charges. other disadvantage is due to frequent failures of the lines, dependence of third party state-owned service provider. type of communication has limitations for future expansion as the number of RTUs / mRTUs increases. © Siemens AG 2008
Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Power Transmission and Distribution

„ The

„ Though

„ The

„ This

Page 107

Communication Selection Criteria Dial-up Public Line

„ Few

telephones / modems are provided having dial-up facility at the control centre end, whereas at the RTU / mRTU ends the modems are to be provided with answering facility. a real-time operation, this kind of communication is not preferred due to the time consuming dial-up and answering process. However, for Automated Meter Reading or for checking the status of reclosers after disturbances dialup communication can be effectively utilized. cost of the communication of this nature comprise of the fixed cost to be paid as one time Registration fees, Installation fees of the equipment) and the periodical subscription as well as usage charges. however, are the same as indicated above for the ’Leased line communication’.
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution
©

„ For

„ The

„ Disadvantages,

Page 108

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

is also an acceptable solution. Using GSM modems at the RTU end and the Control Centre end the data exchange can be introduced using urban mobile (GSM) networks. „ While „ GPRS „ Disadvantages are similar as indicated above for leased line communication. Even more. Page 109 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . considering the GSM network as a feasible solution one has to be sure that mobile connectivity is available at all the RTU locations. usage of GSM communication is becoming quite popular and widely used for data communication. GSM networks tend to be overloaded during peak hours and might make RTU communication unavailable for quite a while.Communication Selection Criteria GSM Mobile Communication „ With the advent of mobile telephony.

other IT applications. makes an ideal communication between distribution substations. „ Though the solution does not look to be cost effective at first sight due to high initial costs. if the utility makes use of the extra fibers of the FO cable for other communication facility requirements such as voice. requires considerably high cost. receiving substations and the control centre. „ Fast wireless Ethernet modems are gradually becoming popular. it may turn out to be cost effective. subdivisions and the control centre. Fax. though “The Best” technical option to establish a TCP/IP network. The Ethernet modems are available in the rated range of 5 miles to 25 miles. the utility has the responsibility for operation and maintenance of the network. Such systems. Making use of such Ethernet modems together with FO based communication network as backbone. Page 110 Jan 2008 Dr.Communication Selection Criteria Digital Networks via Fiber Optic „ It is required to lay extensive FO cables connecting primary stations. but at the same time it has full control of system expansion in case of increasing number of (field-) RTUs. „ With the establishment of an own FO network. „ In addition to establishing of an extensive FO network. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . the associated terminating equipment and multiplexers are required at all the location from where the data is to be collected or to be dropped in.

Thus it helps the utility to establish its own communication network. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © „ However. is necessary to obtain the frequency allotment / approval from the wireless agency or the prescribed authority as nominated by the state / govt. implementing the solution. Jan 2008 Dr. yearly subscription fees for utilizing the frequency are required to be paid. „ It „ Before Page 111 . Obstruction make occur due to high rise buildings (also by not yet existing ones !). a detailed Sight of Line study is required to be carried out for the feasibility of the solution in a particular town / city. once installed and put into operation. the communication system has low. annual costs for operations and maintenance. installation of towers and masts for antennas etc.Communication Selection Criteria Radio Communication „ The communication system using radio requires considerably high costs associated with procurement of radio systems. In general.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Costs „Hardware „Commissioning / Installation „Base fees „Connection fees „Excavation work Page 112 Jan 2008 Dr.

the example based on the European / African market.Cost Comparison Telecontrol service (RTU) and remote load profile reading Invest for assembly and operation 1800% 1600% 1400% 1200% 1000% 800% 600% 400% 200% 0% e r) BT ow adio t R (no C I M DC r) CD line al) ble a C GS f c e a S ( S (lo tc ne l mod DC DC ilo ine ed li p l a i w s D ed Ne ea as L e L Connection fee Base fee Assembly/commisioning Hardware cable Hardware equipment 9 km MV line with 4 kiosks Over 5 years 12 polling per day PLC over Medium Voltage dio Ra *) This calculation depends on the regional conditions. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Transmission method Page 113 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Data Transmission with Distribution Line Carrier (DLC) Page 114 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler .Data Transmission with Distribution Line Carrier (DLC) .Inductive coupling device Conductor 1 Conductor 2 Conductor 3 Sealing end Earthing strap CDI (ferrite ring) Earthing bar BU The coupling transformer encloses the earthing strap of the MV cable Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 115 Jan 2008 Dr.

Capacitive coupling device Conductor 1 Conductor 2 Conductor 3 Connecting element CDC Earthing bar Bracket or separate supporting bar for CDC Cable outlet Page 116 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Data Transmission with Distribution Line Carrier (DLC) .

8kbit/s (depending on the line) „ Bypass of MV switchgear „ Simple & complex: MV line. tree or ring networks „Interfaces „ Telecontrol per IEC 60870-5-101 or DNP 3.0 „ Meters per IEC 61107 „ Medium-voltage line and telecontrol line Page 117 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Data Transmission with Distribution Line Carrier (DLC) – Basic Unit „Communication „ Multi carrier principle „ Transmission in the frequency range of CENELEC „ Uniform hardware for Master & Slave „ Transmission rates up to 28.

6kBd Distribution point V.24 IEC 60870-5-101 Pole mounted repeater Pole mounted switch 1 Pole mounted switch 2 MasterBU MV Line V.24 IEC 60870-5-101 V. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Data Transmission with Distribution Line Carrier (DLC) – Sample project: MEA Bangkok/Thailand Control center MV substation automation .24 IEC 60870-5-101 BU MV Line BU BU Page 118 Jan 2008 Dr.field trail ƒ DLC runs with microRTU and control center by using IEC communication standard ƒ Test with out-door CDC coupling units ƒ Transmission rate 9.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Data Transmission with Distribution Line Carrier (DLC) – Sample project: MEA Bangkok/Thailand Mounting a BU cabinet on an overhead line pole Pole mounted cabinet including DCS3000 BU Fully-installed cabinet. with DCS 3000 BU and SICAM microRTU Page 119 Jan 2008 Dr.

Power Systems Control and Energy Management Multi-Level Environment Integrated utility business operation Added value network management & optimization Network control & supervision (single-or multi-utility) Partner. market. DMS. EBM. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Business Services Enterprise Integration Bus Meter data Advanced applications Network Network management information (EMS. Trading) planning (applications and systems) DB .. Gateway IT Integration Information gateway ASP Administration $Trader Private & public networks Multi-site Power Exchange Meters xxxx x xxx xxx xx Operation E-Commerce Maintenance Communication Field data acquisition.. F&A MIS Asset Energy Sales Management Data & Care Warehouse . SCADA etc.. etc.. Local automation local control & automation Substation Protection RTUs automation Page 120 Jan 2008 Dr.

Basic SCADA/EMS/DMS System Architecture Interfaces ORACLE DW Front End ELCOM HIS SDM DMS SA RO DW EA Operational DW Database BASE ICCP SCADA DSM NA PA DTS Interfaces Base Distribution Dr. Roland Eichler Generation Transmission Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 121 Jan 2008 .

Sample SCADA/EMS/DMS Modularity ƒ MultiBck ƒ Base ƒ CFE ƒ Data ƒ DNA ƒ DSM ƒ ELCOM ƒ EMM ƒ FA ƒ GEI ƒ GIS ƒ GSA ƒ ICCP ƒ IndC ƒ IS&R ƒ LTOP ƒ OA ƒ PA ƒ SCADA ƒ SDT ƒ TNA ƒ TS ƒ UI Multisite/Backup System Base System Communication Front End Data Engineering Distribution Network Applications Demand Side Management Electricity Utilities Communication Energy Market Management Forecasting Applications General External Interface Interface to GIS Generation Scheduling Applications Inter Control Center Protocol Industrial Communication Information Storage & Retrieval Long-Term Operation Planning Operational Applications Power Applications Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Software Development Tools Transmission Network Applications Training System and Simulation User Interface & Operator Support Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Transmission Generation LTOP LTOP GSA GSA EMM EMM FA FA SDT SDT PA PA DSM DSM SCADA SCADA IS&R IS&R DNA DNA OA OA UI UI Base Base Data Data GIS GIS Multi Multi BCK BCK CFE CFE Elcom Elcom ICCP ICCP TNA TNA TS TS GEI GEI IndC IndC SCADA Distribution Page 122 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler .

means software components that have been designed and implemented to form an integrated solution together with the SCADA base system. Integrated DMS applications. however. VVC) Page 123 Jan 2008 Dr. This provides benefits to the user: ƒ Applications obtain current loading/switching states from SCADA ƒ Applications are triggered by SCADA (periodically.Advantages of SCADA-integrated DMS Applications (I) There are solutions available rather where a separate DMS software is linked to the SCADA system.g. on event) ƒ Switching procedures determined by applications are automatically. fast and securely executed via the SCADA system ƒ Closed-loop applications possible (e. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

This provides benefits to the user: ƒ same user interface . staff is productive earlier ƒ same system base .less effort for data maintenance ƒ common database . operators actually use the applications and realize their benefits Page 124 Jan 2008 Dr. operators actually use the applications and realize their benefits ƒ common system environment . means software components that have been designed and implemented to form an integrated solution together with the SCADA base system.no extra cost for dealing with another system base ƒ same data model .less training effort. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .operator sees consistent values in SCADA and applications.Advantages of SCADA-integrated DMS Applications (II) There are solutions available rather where a separate DMS software is linked to the SCADA system. operators have ‘trust’ in the applications. however. Integrated DMS applications.applications are easy to use.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .System Configuration Non-Redundant All-In-One System UI RTS CFE PSOS AAS Web TS : User Interface : Real Time Server (SCADA) : Communication Front-End : Power System Object Server (Data Model) : Advanced Application Server : Web Terminal Server Page 125 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .external UI Clients UI RTS CFE PSOS AAS Web TS : User Interface : Real Time Server (SCADA) : Communication Front-End : Power System Object Server (Data Model) : Advanced Application Server : Web Terminal Server Page 126 Jan 2008 Dr.System Configuration Non-Redundant All-In-One System w/.

System Configuration Non-Redundant Dual-Server System UI RTS CFE PSOS AAS Web TS : User Interface : Real Time Server (SCADA) : Communication Front-End : Power System Object Server (Data Model) : Advanced Application Server : Web Terminal Server Page 127 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .System Configuration Redundant Multi-Server System UI RTS CFE PSOS AAS Web TS : User Interface : Real Time Server (SCADA) : Communication Front-End : Power System Object Server (Data Model) : Advanced Application Server : Web Terminal Server Page 128 Jan 2008 Dr.

Integration Solution for GIS Interface Rear projection Wall’s 84‘‘ 84‘‘ Support GPS Time system Support Operation Operation 2 x Laser printer b/w Laser printer color m-Term m-Term SCADA-DMS LAN to Bckp Router / Modem to PDS Front-end Front-end Server Server Firewall IM / ISR IM Server / ISR Server SCADA-DMS SCADA-DMS Server Server ICCP ICCP Server Server Ultimately: IEC 60 870-5-104 Legend: MMI IM/AC ISR FE DMS RTU GPS Man-Machine-Interface Information Management Information Storage & Retrieval Front End Distribution Management System Remote Terminal Unit Global Positioning System Web Server Support Serial Serial interfaces interfaces RTU RTU RTU RTU Primary Substations Corporate Network Initially: IEC 60870-5-101 GIS © SAP AMR Page 129 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution .Integration Solution for SAP Interface Rear projection Wall’s 84‘‘ 84‘‘ Support GPS Time system Support Operation Operation 2 x Laser printer b/w Laser printer color m-Term m-Term SCADA-DMS LAN to Bckp Router / Modem to PDS Front-end Front-end Server Server Firewall IM / ISR IM Server / ISR Server SCADA-DMS SCADA-DMS Server Server ICCP ICCP Server Server Ultimately: IEC 60 870-5-104 Legend: MMI IM/AC ISR FE DMS RTU GPS Web Server Man-Machine-Interface Information Management Information Storage & Retrieval Front End Distribution Management System Remote Terminal Unit Global Positioning System Support Serial Serial interfaces interfaces RTU RTU RTU RTU Primary Substations Corporate Network Initially: IEC 60870-5-101 GIS © SAP AMR Page 130 Jan 2008 Dr.

Integration Solution for AMR Interface Rear projection Wall’s 84‘‘ 84‘‘ Support GPS Time system Support Operation Operation 2 x Laser printer b/w Laser printer color m-Term m-Term SCADA-DMS LAN to Bckp Router / Modem to PDS Front-end Front-end Server Server Firewall IM / ISR IM Server / ISR Server SCADA-DMS SCADA-DMS Server Server ICCP ICCP Server Server Ultimately: IEC 60 870-5-104 Web Server Legend: MMI IM/AC ISR FE DMS RTU GPS Man-Machine-Interface Information Management Information Storage & Retrieval Front End Distribution Management System Remote Terminal Unit Global Positioning System Support Serial Serial interfaces interfaces RTU RTU RTU RTU Primary Substations Corporate Network Initially: IEC 60870-5-101 GIS © SAP AMR redundant Meter Page 131 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution .

with centralized database maintenance and data exchange MCC CC 1 CC 2 CC 1 CC 2 CC 3 Independent CC’s with different software configuration and data exchange over ICCP with CC1 CC 1 CC 2 Page 132 Jan 2008 ? CC 3 Dr.Possible control center structural configurations Independent CC’s with different software configuration Dependent CC’s in Multi-Site configuration. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Page 133 Jan 2008 Dr.Multisite Operation of Control Centers Multiple Control Centers in a hierarchical and/or equal-rank configuration can cooperatively manage a power system. manual updates. Multisite keeps statuses and values in the process images of the Control Centers up-todate with statuses and values from other Control Centers and distributes supervisory control commands. tagging and alarm acknowledgments.

e. Roland Eichler . reduced maintenance effort „ Controlling the network from different Control Centers „ Increased availability „ Compensation of communication failures (i.Multisite Operation of Control Centers Features Exchange of information between Control Centers „ Uniform data model and central data management.e. i. automatic transmission of missing data after return of the connection) „ Possibility of delegating operator tasks permanently or during periods where Control Centers are un-staffed or understaffed „ Provision of backup or emergency systems „ Simple and fast design of emergency and system management concepts as well as straightforward implementation (configurability) „ Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 134 Jan 2008 Dr.

The control centers communicate with each other via TCP/IP. Page 135 Jan 2008 Dr. each control center is regarded “as a unit” by all other control centers. Each control center is autonomous and independent in the Multisite network. The hardware configuration of one system is not visible to the software system of other control centers. Hierarchical or equal-rank configurations and also combinations of them are possible. i. All control centers are connected to each other via LAN/WAN links.e. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . The control centers can have different hardware combinations and different data.Multisite Operation of Control Centers Basic Concept The Multisite concept allows connecting two or more control centers to a Multisite network.

Multisite features enable the configuration of an emergency system. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Page 136 Jan 2008 Dr. The hardware configuration and functions need not be identical. Delegation of Operation Control Task The operation control task can be moved between the control centers at request of the operator.g. This allows operating a control center unmanned during periods when management requirements are low e. identical information areas are assigned to both control centers. For this aim. Two control centers can share the operation control tasks for the same area. during night time. if the information areas of the control centers are defined with an appropriate large overlapping.Multisite Operation of Control Centers Basic Concept Control Center Redundancy Multisite features enable control center redundancy.

ICCP. . ICCP... ICCP..) Information Information Network Network (RTUs... ICCP. ICCP. ...) .. (RTUs. . (RTUs.) Main Main Control ControlCenter Center Regional Regional Control ControlCenter Center Regional Regional Control ControlCenter Center Regional Regional Control ControlCenter Center Information Information Network Network (RTUs.) ... ICCP.. ICCP. (RTUs. ICCP.. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . ..) .) Information Information Network Network (RTUs. (RTUs...Multisite Operation of Control Centers Hierarchical Configuration Information Information Network Network (RTUs.) ..) Page 137 Jan 2008 Dr.

. (RTUs.) Page 138 Jan 2008 Dr..Multisite Operation of Control Centers Main/Backup Configuration Main Main Control Control Center Center Backup Backup Control Control Center Center Information Information Network Network (RTUs.. ICCP. ICCP. ICCP.. ..) .. ..) ..) .) Information Information Network Network (RTUs. (RTUs. (RTUs.) Information Information Network Network (RTUs..... ICCP. ICCP. ICCP. . Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 139 .Sample Main/Backup Configuration Backup CC Link FO Link > 2 MBps Main PC SB PC SB Bckp Initially: IEC 101 Ultimately: IEC 104 via FO Port 1 Port 2 RTU ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Primary Substations Independent (dual port) communication between RTU and Main/Bckp The Multisite backup concept allows data entry once for both locations Main and Backup are redundant and self-contained Fully automatic update of databases at both locations Jan 2008 Dr.

Sample Main/Backup Configuration Backup CC Link FO Link > 2 MBps Main PC SB PC SB Bckp Initially: IEC 101 Ultimately: IEC 104 via FO Port 1 Port 2 RTU Normal operation: ƒ Port 1 sends to/receives from Main ƒ Port 2 sends to Backup Primary Substations ƒ Backup is continuously updated from Main (operator entered data) ƒ Backup is ready for take-over at any instant of time without any human interaction © Page 140 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution .

completely transparent to operator ƒ Fault of communication link to ECS  data to /from the affected RTU goes via the Backup CC Link and BCS. incl. no other changes. Roland Power Transmission and Distribution Siemens AG 2008 . spares !)  operator at ECS can immediately connect © Page 141 his/her to BCS orEichler operation is performed from BCS Jan 2008 workstation Dr.e. completely transparent to operator ƒ All servers down at ECS (i. no other changes.Sample Main/Backup Configuration Backup CC Link FO Link > 2 MBps Main PC SB PC Initially: IEC 101 Ultimately: IEC 104 via FO PC SB Bckp Port 1 Port 2 RTU Disturbed operation: Primary Substations ƒ Server fault at ECS  standby server at ECS takes over.

System Security IT Trends for SCADA/EMS/DMS Page 142 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

System Security Thread Analysis Page 143 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

System Security Thread Analysis – Potential Attackers Page 144 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .System Security Thread Analysis – Sample Attacks & Countermeasures Page 145 Jan 2008 Dr.

to other utility Computer networks.) User access to system functionality (none. etc. Roland Eichler . modify) User Authorization by login Logging (audit records) User access rights for controlling the access to the IMM data model Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 146 Jan 2008 Dr.g. Internet. view.System Security Multi Level Security Concept Interconnection (e.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .System Security Typical Secure Network Setup (*) (*) Page 147 Support TLS/SSL/PKI Security for ICCP Communications Jan 2008 Dr.

establishing separate accounts for multiple administrators.System Security Sample System Integrity and Confidentiality Methods ƒ Adding. deleting and modifying user profiles with an O/S User Administration application of the SCADA/DMS database management system ƒ Assigning of user roles to users ƒ Runtime verification of user authorities ƒ Assigning of ‘Areas of Responsibility’ to users ƒ Restricted access by outside parties and security protection against unauthorized attempts to procure internal passwords ƒ Mechanisms for data authentication to ensure data integrity (complete and unmodified data) and data privacy ƒ Networking and internet security settings. setting up an administrator password control process and configuring of administrator access with critical but limited privileges. © Page 148 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution . renaming the account. turning off of unnecessary network services ƒ All user logon/ logoff activities are logged in the ‘System Alarm Summary’ list ƒ Automatic user logoff with configurable timer (configurable) ƒ Password security. including encryption of transmitted and stored passwords ƒ Administrator security measures that include enabling account lockout methods.

Distribution Automation projects are multi-part/multi-technology Bulk Data Management Systems Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) systems. MV MV MV R Cable R n. consoles. HV Communication Equipment Power Line Carrier.o. Remote Terminal Units. OverheadLine T R R Substation Equipment S R Meters. etc. etc. etc. Radio. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Motorized Switchgear. large screen projections. SCADA/DMS Control Center Severs. etc. GSM. DistributionSubstation NS Page 149 Jan 2008 Dr.

multitechnology projects 9 Need profound vendor understanding of business processes in the electricity distribution business Page 150 Jan 2008 Dr. complex.) 9 DA grows over time 9 Must stay open to technology advances during implementation time 9 DA constitutes a system/solution business (as opposed to a product business) 9 Need long-term vendor stability 9 Need profound vendor experience in large. capacity.Distribution Automation projects call for particular vendor qualifications 9 DA systems must be designed as a whole.. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . . redundancy. parts must fit together (interfaces..

software and communications Section 6: Distribution automation standards automation Page 151 Jan 2008 Dr.Seminar Contents (I) Tuesday. Jan 29. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . 2008 Section 1: Goal. task and aspects of distribution automation Section 2: Impacts on planning of distribution automation Section 3: Selection of substations to work under automation – layout Section 4: Which parameters should be measured or controlled ? Section 5: Selection criteria for hardware.

SCADA.Standards The Scope of IEC TC57 scope To prepare international standards for power systems control equipment and systems including EMS. Page 152 Jan 2008 Dr. used in the planning. teleprotection. Power systems management comprises control within control centres. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . DA. substations and individual pieces of primary equipment including telecontrol and interfaces to equipment. systems and databases. and associated information exchange for real-time and non-real-time information. which may be outside the scope of TC 57. operation and maintenance of power systems.

Standards Simplified TC57 Groups WG3 – 60870-5 RTU Communications WG7 – 60870-6 Control Center to Control Center Communications WG10 – 61850 Substation Automation WG13 – 61970 Control Center API WG14 – 61968 DMS WG15 – 62351 Security WG16 – 62325 CIM Market Extensions WG17 – 61850-7 Distributed Generation WG18 – 62344 =>61850 Hydro WG19 – 62357 Architecture Standardization activities colored in red are relevant for distribution automation. Page 153 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Overview Page 154 Jan 2008 Dr.Standards IEC 60870-5 series .

or between a power utility and independent power producers on a HV or MV network as a part of energy management systems functionality. 60870-5-102 It standardizes the transmission of integrated totals representing the amount of electrical energy transferred between power utilities. In general the values of integrated totals are transmitted at periodic intervals to update the energy interchanges. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © „IEC Page 155 . It is not concerned with LV networks or the interfaces to the energy consumption meters themselves. Jan 2008 Dr.Standards IEC 60870-5 series – Details (I) „IEC 60870-5-101 This standard defines the functionality for the interoperability of telecontrol equipment of different manufactures for the communication between substations (outstations) and between substation (outstation) and control centers (central station). Therefore it applies to telecontrol equipment and systems with coded bit serial data transmission for controlling and monitoring geographically widespread processes.

FR (Frame Relay). 60870-5-104 This standard enables Application Data Units. to be transmitted over a variety of digital data networks using the standard TCP-IP transport interface. Thus the specifications of this standard present a combination of the application layer of IEC 60870-5-101 and the transport functions provided by a TCP/IP. as defined in IEC 60870-5-101.Standards IEC 60870-5 series – Details (II) „ IEC 60870-5-103 This standard is used to upload protection data. and ISDN (Integrated Service Data Network). Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . It is applicable for substation automation systems with star coupled protection devices using point-to-point links and a master slave transmission procedure. „IEC Page 156 Jan 2008 Dr. Within TCP/IP various network types can be utilised including X.25. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode).

Standards Protocol architecture IEC 60870-5-104 vs. 101 Page 157 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Standards Simplified TC57 Groups WG3 – 60870-5 RTU Communications WG7 – 60870-6 Control Center to Control Center Communications WG10 – 61850 Substation Automation WG13 – 61970 Control Center API WG14 – 61968 DMS WG15 – 62351 Security WG16 – 62325 CIM Market Extensions WG17 – 61850-7 Distributed Generation WG18 – 62344 =>61850 Hydro WG19 – 62357 Architecture Standardization activities colored in red are relevant for distribution automation. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Page 158 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Functional requirements are met independent of substation size and operational conditions. Other functions are related to the system itself. e.g. Page 159 Jan 2008 Dr. The functions of an substation automation system are control and supervision. meeting the same functional and operational requirements. as well as protection and monitoring of the primary equipment and of the grid. supervision of the communication.Standards Purpose of IEC 61850 The standard defines a communication system that provides interoperability between the functions to be performed in a substation but residing in equipment (physical devices) from different suppliers.

00 Profibus FMS IEC 60870-5-103 Modbus/Profibus DP Page 160 Jan 2008 Dr.IN1 1100 F1 1530 1530 >1 1503 Log.00 Control Centre Substation Automation System IEC 60870-5-104 Time signal Log.IN3 1530 8888 Log.Out1 F2 2173 2173 Ethernet IEC 60870-5-101 DNP V3. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .IN2 Log.Standards Traditional substation automation system Control Centre IEC 60870-5-101 DNP V3.

OPC where necessary Page 161 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Standards Substation automation system based on IEC 61850 Control Centre HMI Clients IEC 60870-5-104 Ethernet Full Server Full Server Stationsbus IEC 61850 plus Profibus FMS.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Controller) non IEC61850based equipment (as needed) Bay units (7SJ. controller) non IEC61850based equipment (as needed) Page 162 Jan 2008 Dr. controller) non IEC61850based equipment (as needed) Bay units (7SJ. IEC 103 Bay units (7SJ.g. 10 km Mobile Work desk SICAM PAS Full Server Substation bus IEC61850 IEC 60870-5-101 Field unit 6MD63 for central I/Os Bay unit 6MD63 for central I/Os Bay unit 6MD63 for central I/Os Station bus IEC61850 25/6kV HSA Equipment Station bus IEC61850 110 kV HSA Equipment Station bus IEC61850 6kV BSP Equipment Gateway Remote substations via SICAM miniRTU e.Standards Real substation automation system based on IEC 61850 IEC 60870-5-101 Engineering Workdesk Remote access to the engineering work desk via Remote Desktop Time synchronization via GPS antenna SICAM PAS DIP 25/6kV HSA SICAM PAS DIP 110kV HSA 6 kV BSP Transformer monitoring IEC61850 approx.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Standards IEC 61850 Application Fields Today Control Center IEC 60870-5101 /-104 Control Center Remote Service / Diagnostics Firewall Router IEC61850 Station Bus IED IED IEC 61850 (Ethernet) Protection & Control Hard-wired process interface Page 163 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler .Standards Full Benefit of Ethernet and IEC 61850 Technology ƒ Station bus is one and only communication infrastructure ƒ Tunneling of legacy protocols ƒ Various network topologies supported ƒ Full GOOSE support for inter-bay applications ƒ System-wide time synchronization by SNTP ƒ System-wide network monitoring by SNMP ƒ Remote diagnostics Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 164 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler Merging Unit Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Standards IEC 61850 Future Application Fields *in standardization work Control Center IEC 61850 To be harmonized with CIM IEC 61970* IEC 61850 Firewall Router communication to other substatons* IEC61850 Station Bus IED IED IEC 61850 (Ethernet) Protection & Control IEC61850 Process Bus Digital Instrument Transformer Data via IEC61850-9-2 CT VT Page 165 Jan 2008 Dr.

Standards Simplified TC57 Groups WG3 – 60870-5 RTU Communications WG7 – 60870-6 Control Center to Control Center Communications WG10 – 61850 Substation Automation WG13 – 61970 Control Center API WG14 – 61968 DMS WG15 – 62351 Security WG16 – 62325 CIM Market Extensions WG17 – 61850-7 Distributed Generation WG18 – 62344 =>61850 Hydro WG19 – 62357 Architecture Standardization activities colored in red are relevant for distribution automation. Page 166 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Standards IEC Standard 61970: Goals and Background „Goals of the project: Reduce the cost and time needed to add new applications to an EMS/DMS Protect the investment in existing applications that are working effectively in an EMS/DMS „Background Information: ¾ International Standard IEC 61970 is being prepared by IEC Technical Committee 57 ‘Power system control and associated communications’ (WG 13) ¾ The standard defines an application program interface for an energy management system ¾ Part of the IEC Standard IEC 61970 is the Common Information Model (CIM) ¾ The work is based upon the work of EPRI Control Center API (CCAPI) research project (RP-3654-1) Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 167 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler .

05. Waiting for IEC publication or circulation 2 2 7 3 10 8 7 ? ? 2 2 2 3 24.2005 26.2002 14.08.08. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .05.07.2005 24.2005 05.2005 15.2006 IS 1 CIM 302 401 402 403 404 405 407 450 451 452 453 501 502-7 CIM Energy Scheduling.09.03. Reservations.2006 01.2006 24. Prepare w orking draft 5.08.06.2005 IS IS IS Second Ed 01.2006 16. Incorporate comments and send to IEC for circulation 3.09. CD 3.12.2006 01.2006 11.05.04.05.2006 FDIS CDV FDIS FDIS FDIS CD CD FDIS CDV IS CD CD FDIS CDV 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 7 1 1 7 1 3 28. CDV 4.2006 01.05.Standards IEC Standard 61970 – Status of May 2006 Stages of Standardization: 1.2006 19.06.06.2004 24.05.2006 01.2006 01.2006 01.12.05.05.2006 01.05. Need NWIP Page 168 Jan 2008 Dr.2005 19.2005 01.2006 CD on hold IS CDV CD CDV CDV CDV WD WD CDV CD FDIS WD WD CDV CD 6.08.2004 01.08.07.05.08.04.2003 11.05.2006 04.07.05.2006 24.10.2006 24.08.2005 01. IS Part Nam e Current Version First Edition First Edition First Edition Current Date Current Status Planned Version Due Date Planned Status Action Required (see note) 1 2 301 Guidelines and General Requirements Glossary CIM Base 01.2006 05. Need to assign editor 4.08.2006 04.2006 24. Ready to send to IEC 7.1905 CD 1 CIS Formats 503-7 552-4 553-4 Notes: 1. Incorporate comments and prepare new version for WG13 review 2. Fi Overview i l CIS and Framew ork Common Services (Base Services) Generic Data Access (Request and Reply ) High Speed Data Access Generic Eventing and Subscription (Events and Subscription) Historical Data Access CIS Information Exchange Model Specification Guide (CIS Data Content) SCADA CIS CIM Model Exchange Specification CIM Based Graphics Exchange CIM RDF Schema Common Services (Base Services) C Lang Profile GDA C Language Mapping CIM XML Model Exchange Format CIM SVG Graphics Exchange Format 2 First Edition 9 7 6 ? 2 or 3 ? 1a 1 1 2 First Edition 1 1 6 2 01. FDIS 5.2006 24. WD 2.

Standards CIM: Relationship to other standards CIM is: CIM is: CIM is: „ The „ The basis for the Application Program Interface IEC 61970 basis for the emerging inter-system interface architecture IEC 61968 control system data model harmonizing with substation communication based on IEC 61850 „ The Page 169 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Page 170 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Standards Simplified TC57 Groups WG3 – 60870-5 RTU Communications WG7 – 60870-6 Control Center to Control Center Communications WG10 – 61850 Substation Automation WG13 – 61970 Control Center API WG14 – 61968 DMS WG15 – 62351 Security WG16 – 62325 CIM Market Extensions WG17 – 61850-7 Distributed Generation WG18 – 62344 =>61850 Hydro WG19 – 62357 Architecture Standardization activities colored in red are relevant for distribution automation.

Standards Typical Distribution Utility Roadmap for Tomorrow‘s World Traditional Infrastructure Workforce Management Asset Management Integrate Applications Workforce Management Asset Management Extend and Connect Trouble Call Center GIS/NIS Outage Management Vendors & Partners Customers Employees Finance/ Controlling Outage Management Trouble Call Center Finance/ Controlling Customer Information System SCADA/ EMS/DMS Network Planning EAI Enterprise Application Integration Portals GIS/NIS Interf. Roland Eichler Vendors & Partners Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Customer Information System SCADA/ EMS/DMS EAI Enterprise Application Integration B2B Marketplaces Meter Data Acquisition Network Planning Meter Data Acquisition Energy Data Warehouse Interface Billing System Energy Data Warehouse Billing System Customers IEC 61968 Page 171 Jan 2008 Dr.

They provide for interoperability among different computer systems. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Subsequent parts of this standard are based on each interface identified in the IRM. Page 172 Jan 2008 Dr.Standards Purpose of IEC 61968 This standard define interfaces for the major elements of an interface architecture for Distribution Management Systems (DMS). Methods and technologies used to implement functionality conforming to these interfaces are considered outside of the scope of these standards. platforms. This set of standards is limited to the definition of interfaces and is implementation independent. This standard identifies and establishes requirements for standard interfaces based on an Interface Reference Model (IRM). only the interface itself is specified in these standards. and languages.

Condition Message Type Definitions Information Exchange Models AttributeApp App A Logical B Model UI Bus.ID Asset.Standards IEC 61968 Methodology Process-Led Design Methodology Process Step Sender Component Receiver Component Information Exchanged Business Process Use Cases Logical Data Model Verb Show Noun Asset Attribute Definitions Asset.Code Asset. Logic Data App A App B © Application Interfaces Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution Page 173 Jan 2008 Dr. Logic Data XML FTP CORBASOAP BOD COM EDI UI Bus. Roland Eichler .Description Asset.

Standards IEC 61968 Target Configuration Grid Wires Model DAC Dist Wires Model VRU Information Exchange Model Outage Reporting Interface Adapter EMS OMS Distribution Automation CIS Interface Adapter Interface Adapter Interface Adapter .. IEC 61968 Compliant Middleware Services Interface Adapter Event History AM/FM/GIS Human Resources Work Management Substation Automation Data Warehouse Page 174 Jan 2008 Dr.. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Services could also be addressed (61850 services. security. and extensions to the CIM that were recommended for IEC 61850. Web Services. Page 175 Jan 2008 Dr. operations.Standards TC57 WG19 (founded Jan 2005) Mission: With regards to the CIM (IEC 61970. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Vision: All new TC57 standards should use/extend the CIM as the common semantics for their configuration/engineering modeling. and 61850 for [SCADA oriented / IED / field] communications. IEC 61968). ensuring harmonization of the expansion of the CIM. this new working group would be the coordinator of the electronic model for TC57. Liaison with CIGRE SC-D2 WG25. SOA and GID services could be harmonized). Other existing standards would likely take a mapping approach.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .More Standards ƒ SCADA/DMS solution call for further standardized interfaces for stateof-the-art openness to other IT systems ¾SQL/ODBC data access to historical data from Corporate Network ¾ODBC for access from PC client ¾X-11-Window for remote PC console access (in case of Unix O/S) ¾ISDN for remote maintenance access Page 176 Jan 2008 Dr.

Jan 30.Seminar Contents (II) Wednesday. 2008 Section 7: SCADA functionalities Section 8: DMS functionalities Section 9: Case study presentation Section 10: Distribution system automation personnel skills Section 11: Maintenance and support procedures Page 177 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Front-End The front-end domain comprises of the components: ƒ Interconnections to RTUs ƒ Inter Control Center Communication Page 178 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler . telegram buffering) ƒ Integration of standardized IEC protocols and capability to integrate different supplierspecific RTU protocols ƒ Extensive communication diagnostic capability including monitoring and listening modes (protocol-specific) ƒ Engineering via the regular SCADA/EMS/DMS database management tool Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 179 Jan 2008 Dr.Front End Requirements ƒ Reliable and Efficient Process Data Acquisition ƒ State-of-the-art standard hardware basis ƒ High availability features (line-level redundancy.

Roland Eichler .Front-End RTU Interfacing . smoothing) „ General interrogation and completeness check „ Keeping an RTU real-time database „ Centralized test & diagnosis „ Time synchronization of RTUs via protocol Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 180 Jan 2008 Dr.Tasks „ Analog Values Change Detection (Hysteresis threshold) „ Old-/new comparison. time tagging assignment „ Renewal check (analogues and digitals) „ Analog Values Zero Suppression „ Calculation of analog engineering values (linear and non linear characteristic) „ Analogues filtering (spike suppression.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .. 7 TCR ..... .. TCB 14 1 . 7 ....... HUB (star coupler) TCI LAN TCR TCB 1 1 .Front-End RTU Interfacing – Protocol processing in dedicated HW System Configuration SCADA LAN TCS TCI .. PS + backplane RTU RTU RTU TCB : TCR : TCS : PS : TeleControl Interface Board TeleControl Interface Rack TeleControl Interface Server Power Supply Page 181 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler .Front-End RTU Interfacing – Protocol processing in the server Power System Object Server (PSOS) Communications Front-End 1 (CFE 1) Real Time Server (RTS) UI Client SCADA EMS/DMS LAN Communications Front-End 2 (CFE 2) Router Real-Time Data LAN to RTU to RTU Router to RTU to RTU WAN RTU RTU Configuration with redundant CFE subsystem and different RTU interface connections Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 182 Jan 2008 Dr.

including telegram buffering Maximized availability during engineering ƒ Only the required RTUs are affected when changing engineering data Page 183 Jan 2008 Dr.Front-End RTU Interfacing – High Availability Requirements Redundancy Features ƒ Server failover to redundant CFE server in case of active CFE server failure ƒ Line connection failover to standby line connection in case of a failure of the active line connection ƒ Configurable load sharing between two or more CFE servers ƒ Supervision of standby line connection (channel). Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Front End Inter Control Center Communication (Local (LocalControl ControlCenter) Center) SCADA/EMS/DMS SCADA/EMS/DMS (Remote (RemoteControl ControlCenter) Center) WAN (or permanent lines) SCADA/EMS/DMS SCADA/EMS/DMS (other (othervendor’s vendor’ssystem) system) Other OtherUtilities Utilities Non-utility Non-utility Generators Generators Regional Regional Control ControlCenters Centers Power PowerPools Pools Page 184 Jan 2008 Dr.

Front End ELCOM-90 (IEC 60870-6 TASE. archive data) *) Counters are not supported by standard ELCOM. every 10 seconds) „ Initiated data transmission (initial scan. Roland Eichler . 64-Bit „float“ for counters added by SCADA vendors Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 185 Jan 2008 Dr.1) Supported data objects „ „ „ „ „ Indications and alarms Analog values and counter*) values Archive data Commands Setpoints Data transmissions mechanisms „ Spontaneous data transmission (on value change) „ Periodic data transmission (e.g.

2) Supported data objects „ „ „ „ „ Indications and alarms Analog values and counter values Archive data Commands Setpoints Data transmissions mechanisms „ One-shot data transmission „ Periodic data transmission „ Transmission of event data „ Transmission of exception data Security Protocols „ Transport Layer Security (TLS) „ Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) „ Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Page 186 Jan 2008 Dr.Front End ICCP (IEC 60870-6 TASE. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Front End ICCP (IEC 60870-6 TASE. Can as well be done via ftp file transfer. Can as well be done with tcp/ip based messaging tool. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution Use of ICCP Conformance Blocks investigated over 40 projects. Too risky ? Block 7 supposed to signal the completion of a Block 5 supervisory command. Supposed to transfer historian data. Too risky ? Transfer of messages between control center operators. Supposed to transfer scheduling data. Can as well be done via ftp file transfer.2) – Conformance Blocks Conformance Block 1 Basic Services Transfer of real-time cyclic data 100% Conformance Block 2 Extended Data Set Condition Monitoring Transfer of real-time data by exception Could be a bit matrix transfer for accelerated data transfer. Supposed start/stop of a program in control center A from control center B. . Use of Block 2 instead is industry standard. Issues supervisory control operations from the local Control Center to the remote system. © 100% Conformance Block 3 Blocked Transfer --- Conformance Block 4 Operator Stations / Information Message 8% Conformance Block 5 Device Control 25% Conformance Block 6 Programs --- Conformance Block 7 Events --- Conformance Block 8 Accounts 8% Conformance Block 9 Time series Page 187 Jan 2008 --- Dr.

ELCOM 90 Wireless Alarming SCADA SCADA External External Communication Communication Applications Applications Historical Historical Information Information System System Energy Energy Accounting Accounting Alarming Telecontrol Monitoring Page 188 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) RTU. ICCP.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .SCADA SCADA Functions ƒ Data Processing ƒ Event and Alarm Processing ƒ Marking and Tagging ƒ Limit Monitoring ƒ Supervisory Control ƒ Switching Procedure Management ƒ Real-time Accumulator Processing ƒ Real-time Calculations ƒ Topology Processing Page 189 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler . Authorization Data Calculation ƒ Definition of Formulas. Arithmetical / Comparison / Logical / Functional Operators Dynamic Network Coloring ƒ Network Topology. Normal / Abnormal States. Threshold Adaptation. Operational Status Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 190 Jan 2008 Dr.SCADA Data Processing Status Data Processing ƒ Alarms./Ave. Values Accumulator Processing ƒ Completeness Check. Network Groups./Min. States. Max. Sequence of Events Analog Data Processing ƒ Limit Check.

Escalation Strategy. Wireless Alarming (SMS. Alarm Suppression Alarm Forwarding ƒ Central Control Room Klaxon. Consideration of Local/Remote state Event / Alarm Presentation ƒ Visual Annunciation in Displays and Summaries. Technological Area and Responsibility. Pager).SCADA Event and Alarm Processing Event / Alarm Administration ƒ Operator Alarming. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Acoustical Annunciation Event / Alarm Handling and Control ƒ Single/ Multiple Acknowledgement. Assignment to Alarm Classes. including Shift Plan and Acknowledgement Page 191 Jan 2008 Dr.

g. SETPOINT) ƒ Two-step procedure for safety reasons (SELECT.SCADA Supervisory Control Control Device Operations & Execution Monitoring ƒ Single switching devices (ON/OFF.g.g. of sliders and valves ƒ Generator units (e. EXECUTE) ƒ Monitoring of interlocking conditions ƒ Security mechanisms e. Telecontrol is monitored for timeout of control execution ƒ Supervisory Control can be applied by the operator through ¾ Substation one-line diagrams ¾ Switching Procedure Management (also from applications) ¾ tabular displays (runtime explorer) – mainly during commissioning phase Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 192 Jan 2008 Dr. OPEN/CLOSE) ƒ Tap changers (one step UP/DOWN) ƒ Continuously regulating devices (RAISE/LOWER) e. Roland Eichler .

...SCADA Switching Procedure Management Switching Switching Operation Operation Commands Commands Creation Creation Recording in study context Testing in study context Modification of an existing procedure Fault Isolation and Service Restoration (FISR) Outage Management System (OMS) . study and execute clearance operations Alleviate fault conditions . Switching Switching Operation Operation Commands Commands Restore power following a fault Page 193 Jan 2008 Dr. Switching Switching Procedure Procedure Management Management Switching Procedure Switching Switching Operation Operation Commands Commands Switching Switching Operation Operation Commands Commands create create edit edit select select sort sort print print execute execute store store Usage Usage Prepare. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © ..

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .SCADA Switching Procedure Management Check Check Start Start Create Create Storage Storage Approve Approve Remove Remove Archive Archive Execute Execute Suspend Suspend // Resume Resume Page 194 Jan 2008 Dr.

SCADA Switching Procedure Management – User Interface ƒ Step-by-Step preparation using schematic displays ƒ Full screen editor for general data ƒ Simulation of all switching actions with power flow checks ƒ Execution with temporary pause/resume ƒ Automatic documentation Page 195 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

SCADA Topology Processing ƒ Network Status Processing ƒ Definition of network groups ƒ Distinguished statuses for each electrical phase (energized. energized uncertain. single/multi phase level. coupled network groups) ƒ Distinguished coloring views (normal/abnormal. loop parallel) ƒ Interactive Topological Tracing The topology processor is activated by each change of a switch device and by topological changes of the network model. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Page 196 Jan 2008 Dr. energization. network group. grounded uncertain) ƒ Topological Coloring ƒ Coloring of network groups (incl. undefined. grounded. voltage level. de-energized.

Load Shedding Functions ƒ Load rejection or disconnection (shedding) of parts of the network ƒ Analyzes the state of the network ƒ Detects significant events ƒ Defines load to be rejected ƒ Prepares selected items of equipment for actions ƒ Individual configuration of emergency strategies such as ƒ Manual load reduction ƒ Rotating load reduction ƒ Load reduction on underfrequency ƒ Load reduction on contract violation ƒ Load reduction on equipment overload ƒ Load reduction for island stabilization Page 197 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Simatic Disturbance Scenario Dependent Switching Tables remote commands control centre power system under-frequency relay priming commands remote commands under-frequency relay latching relay feeder breaker feeder breaker feeder breaker feeder breaker Page 198 Jan 2008 Dr.g.Load Shedding Modes Manual Planned Load Shedding Fixed wired under frequency Load Shedding predetermined under-frequency Load Shedding Load Shedding in Emergencies Man Machine Interface Schedule with Control Sequences Man Machine Interface Schedule with Priming Sequences PLC e.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .g. etc.) The Input Data for IAP are ƒ The topology of the network ƒ The alarms from the automatism ƒ Logical working schema of the automatism Page 199 Jan 2008 Dr. breaker failure. automatic re-closer successful / unsuccessful.SCADA Intelligent Alarm Processor (IAP) The Diagnosis provided by IAP includes ƒ Date and time of the disturbance ƒ Faulty devices/equipments ƒ Protection systems which cleared the fault ƒ Specifics in the sequence of a disturbance (e.

SCADA Intelligent Alarm Processor (IAP) Outage location Outage type Process data IAP Protection malfunction Intelligent Alarm Processor Earth fault location Multiple outages Affected busbars Actual topology Page 200 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Overview Once only EXCEL Forms Protection System Models Algorithm Diagnosis Continuous SCADA Events and Alarms Page 201 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .SCADA Intelligent Alarm Processor (IAP) .

fault detectors. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . not affected by data modification. Gathering by an EXCEL form ƒ systematic description of the logic behaviour of protections and automatisms ƒ alarms produced by the systems and received in the SCADA Models are defined only once.g. integrated in database management system of the SCADA/DMS Page 202 Jan 2008 Dr. over-current.SCADA Intelligent Alarm Processor (IAP) – Models used Protection Systems ƒ all installed types of protection systems e. distance. differential. distance protection systems with different behaviour) Automatisms ƒ ARE (automatic recloser equipment). ƒ various types of a protection system (e. etc. etc.g.

e. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .User Interface Key Requirements (I) ƒ Graphic displays ƒ High resolution ƒ Multi-window technique ƒ Fast display response time ƒ Java-based User Interface using Java Webstart ƒ Menue-guided operation and interactive dialogs ƒ Graphically oriented User Interface with extensive standard functions ƒ Open system (i. access to office automation and engineering on the same screen) ƒ Interactive display construction ƒ Definable console access rights Page 203 Jan 2008 Dr.

…) ƒ Access rights (e.g. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . District Heating. Field Crew. partial modification. process control.g. …) ƒ Areas of responsibility (AOR) Page 204 Jan 2008 Dr. viewing only. Electricity. …) ƒ Domain assignment (e. Control Room. Water.User Interface Access Rights SCADA security is associated with specific user accounts and based on a combination of: ƒ User role (e.g. Data Maintenance. Gas.

User Interface Key Requirements (II) ƒ Dynamic coloring of ƒ Network groups ƒ Grounded network parts ƒ Network parts with grounded faults ƒ De-energized parts of the network ƒ Network islands ƒ RDBMS Data Access via operational data displays ƒ Extensive Web-based Online Help ƒ Wireless Alarming (Out of Office Assistant) ƒ Improved Alarm Acknowledging Page 205 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

User Interface Display Types ƒ Basic Signaling Display ƒ Network Diagrams (Worldmaps) ƒ Summaries ƒ Tables (Data Explorer) ƒ Curve Displays (Curvetool) ƒ RDBMS Displays ƒ Motif Forms Page 206 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Trace Up from Distribution Substation ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Trace up Trace down Trace between Trace all Trace common point ƒ Trace loop ƒ Trace parallel Page 207 Jan 2008 Dr.User Interface Path Tracing in Distribution Networks e. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .g.

filtered and printed Example: Result of Graphical Queries in a worldmap Page 208 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .User Interface Graphical Queries using RDBMS Displays ƒ Selecting network areas in a one-line diagram and performing pre-canned queries like ƒ Switching states ƒ Deviation from normal switching status ƒ Attribute date for equipments ƒ Power flow values ƒ Raster image data ƒ The queries can be displayed at predefined places in the worldmap ƒ Data in the list can be sorted.

User Interface Basic Signalling Display (Example) ƒ Access to all SCADA/EMS/DMS displays by associated buttons ƒ Single signaling by a button on the display ƒ Summary signaling (indicated by the color of the respective tab) Page 209 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .User Interface Network Operation through Context Menu (Example) Context Menu ƒ By right-clicking the selected element and holding down the right mouse button ƒ Shows all operations associated with the selected element Page 210 Jan 2008 Dr.

User Interface Data Export through Drag & Drop Simple data export through ƒ copy & paste to ƒ MS Word ƒ MS Excel ƒ MS Outlook ƒ or other mail programs Page 211 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

09.User Interface Representation of a Worldmap by its Planes Station C Station D plane 1 network level Station A Station B zooming plane 2 Station A sub network level zooming Station B plane 3 110kV 0A 230A station level Station A zooming Transformer 1 Transformer 2 plane 4 Transformer 1 feeder level zooming Transformer 110kV/20kV Next inspection 06.1993 Page 212 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

User Interface Zooming Example Layer 1 Network Overview Layer 2 Network Connectivity Layer 3 Substation Connectivity Layer 4 GIS Information Page 213 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .g. SINAUT® Spectrum LAN Terminals Page 214 Jan 2008 Dr.User Interface Large Screen Projection Visibly yours Video. RGB signals EOS Controller NT/2000 Application Client e.

User Interface Concept Study: Navigation capabilities Jump to Google Earth Jump to Worldmap Page 215 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .User Interface Concept Study: Geo-referencing of substations and lines • Localization of substations • Support for fault location Page 216 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .User Interface Concept Study: Geo-referencing of crews and assets • Crew location • Work order • Asset tracking Page 217 Jan 2008 Dr.

Page 218 Jan 2008 Dr.User Interface Concept Study: Integration of external data • Trouble tickets • SLA time ranges • Routes. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . etc. borders.

User Interface Concept Study: Integration of weather data • • • • Rain radar Cloud development Forecast Storm warning Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 219 .

User Interface Concept Study: Geographic reporting • Power Quality • Quality of Service Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 220 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler .

10 Fo Y. Layer 4 Mapping Information Page 221 Jan 2008 Dr.. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .User Interface GIS Integration GIS SCADA/DMS Sub 3 rot rot Layer 1 Network Overview Sub3 2 G G EE O O TAG TAG A A T T T T R R I I B B U U T T E E Rules Rules 120A 50% 22 kV 22 kV 180A 60% Layer 2 Network Connectivity 21 kV GIS GIS Import Import Tools Tools TAG/TA TAG/TA Table Table Layer 3 Substation Connectivity Av ill H V st k re .. N N V 0k . e.1 Y.

User Interface GIS Integration . Roland Eichler .Import of Attribute Data (1st Step) GIS SCADA/DMS Database Attribute Data Import 3) Export IDDUG files Attribute Data 3) Bulk or incremental Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 222 Jan 2008 Dr.

3) SCADA/DMS Database dxf files 1) Geographical Data Schematic Data Use geographical displays only X UI Software Attribute Data Import 3) Export IDDUG files Attribute Data Real-time Data 1) 2) More formats available Autograph format 3) Bulk or incremental Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 223 Jan 2008 Dr.User Interface GIS Integration .Import of Geographical Data (2nd Step) GIS Geographical Data Import 2. Roland Eichler .

N Import Attribute Data Layer 4 Mapping Information e. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Use of imported geographical data (1/3) Sub 3 rot rot Layer 1 Network Overview Sub3 2 SCADA/DMS Database Import 120A 50% 22 kV 22 kV 180A 60% Layer 2 Network Connectivity Geographical Data Schematic Data 21 kV Layer 3 Substation Connectivity Av ill H V st k re .10 Fo Y... N V 0k . Page 224 Jan 2008 Dr.User Interface GIS Integration .1 Y.

User Interface GIS Integration . Network Groups) Sub 3 red red blu e green Sub 1 Sub 2 Display Level 2 "Network Connectivity" (Primary and Secondary Feeder. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Switches) 21 kV Page 225 Jan 2008 Dr. HV/MV Substations. all Distribution Substations) 120A 50% 22 kV 22 kV 180A 60% Sub3 Display Level 3 "Substation Connectivity" (all Buses.Use of imported geographical data (2/3) Display Level 1 "Overview" (Primary Feeder.

Fo N Display Level 5 "Mapping Information" Geographical Display Dr.Use of imported geographical data (3/3) 120A 50% 22 kV 22 kV 180A 60% Sub3 21 kV Display Level 3 "Substation Connectivity" (all Buses. Leistungsschalter..1 Y.. Window with Display Level 4 "One-Line Diagram" Window with "Facility Data" Page 226 Jan 2008 V 0k .. .User Interface GIS Integration ...... 1 re Y... N e.. Switches) Transformator... FWG . Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .. Av ill V H 0k st ....

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .User Interface – Case Study Iberdrola/Spain: Example for incremental download of data and graphics from GIS GIS ƒ ƒ ƒ All data is maintained solely in the GIS Use powerful tools there and save money Both schematics and geographics ‚live‘ available in SCADA&DMS SCADA/EMS/DMS Page 227 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .User Interface – Case Study Iberdrola/Spain: Example for incremental download of data and graphics from GIS GIS SCADA/EMS/DMS Page 228 Jan 2008 Dr.

User Interface – Case Study EPM/Columbia: Example for ‘living’ geographical SCADA&DMS displays Page 229 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

SQL. etc.) ƒ The system provides services to transfer historical and future data to an ORACLE database Page 230 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . ODBC.g.Information Storage & Retrieval (IS&R) Key Requirements ƒ Easy operability (graphic user interface) ƒ High data availability ƒ Easy reconstruction of historical data ƒ Consistency of stored data (primary and derived data) ƒ Open interfaces to other systems (e.

ƒ Modification of stored data Defined dependencies of individual values (formulas) are automatically updated when any of the involved values changes. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Information Storage & Retrieval (IS&R) Components of IS&R ƒ Data storage (periodic or spontaneous) ƒ Data retrieval By means of predefined queries (archive filters) it is possible to retrieve values of different time ranges and storage cycles from archives. ƒ Interface for long-term archiving ƒ SQL interface for external data exchange ƒ Export interface to a RDBMS (ORACLE) Page 231 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Information Storage & Retrieval (IS&R) Data to be archived ƒ Analoge values or accumulator values with time stamp ƒ Calculated values ƒ Switching state changes and alarms ƒ Data of the network topology ƒ Forecast values ƒ Trend data ƒ Disturbance data (including switching states) ƒ Schedules Page 232 Jan 2008 Dr.

logs.Information Storage & Retrieval (IS&R) Archiving Functions ƒ Data reduction via technological filtering ƒ Cyclical archiving ƒ Spontaneous storage of status data changes (e.g. modification and deletion of archives ƒ Trend data archives ƒ Post mortem review ƒ No loss of data during failover of archive server Page 233 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . or single values in one-line diagrams (network displays) ƒ Correction of archived data including recalculation of derived data ƒ Online initialization. for network reconstruction) ƒ Visualization of stored values as curves.

Information Storage & Retrieval (IS&R) Embedded Reporting Functions ƒ Report layout definition via editor ƒ Periodic output and output on demand ƒ Reports may include worldmap display segments (worldmap segments are automatically scaled) ƒ Report management tool ƒ Output of reports to printers. file or operator consoles Page 234 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .g. planning and administrative purposes ƒ Access to the data can be performed using standard Structured Query Language (SQL) statements (data import / export) ƒ For further data analysis also 3rd party products (e.Information Storage & Retrieval (IS&R) SQL Interface ƒ Provides the capability to access various types of data of the SCADA/EMS/DMS ƒ The SQL interface can be used for operational. Microsoft EXCEL) can be used ƒ The type and precise scope of the exchange can be configured freely by the user Page 235 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Information Storage & Retrieval Archive System for Disturbance Data Disturbance Data Collection Disturbance Disturbance Data Data Continuous Continuous Data Data Collection Collection Archive Archive System System Trigger Event Trigger configuration ƒ Use any field device (i. any alarming condition) as trigger ƒ Assign to a trigger which data will be collected ƒ Define the collection time interval of the assigned data (pre-trigger.e. post-trigger) Page 236 Jan 2008 Dr.

Information Storage & Retrieval Overview Sources • Front-end • SCADA Remote Console Local Console Incoming Incoming Data Data ƒ ƒ Analogs Analogs ƒ ƒ Digitals Digitals ƒ ƒ Calculations Calculations ƒ ƒ Accumulators Accumulators ƒ ƒ Events/Alarms Events/Alarms Disturbance Disturbance Data Data Data Data Collection Collection Buffered Buffered for for Redundancy Redundancy HTTP Server Offline Offline Archive Archive Online Online Archive Archive Long Long Term Term Archive Archive Oracle Oracle DB DB External External Reporting Reporting Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 237 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler .

B. © Page 238 Jan 2008 Dr. ODBC. z. ODBC. JDBC) Other customer specific systems Remote Metering Systems External Data Access ASCII.Information Storage & Retrieval Connecting External Report Tools Sonstige projekt-/ External Data kundenspezifische Access Systeme ASCII. CSV External tools for reporting or web access may also connect directly to the Oracle archive of the SCADA system. CSV Excel RepGen Report Generator WOP Direct Data Interface via SQL Internet/Intranet (ADO. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution . JDBC) Access External Applications FDWH Data Warehouse & Report Generator Analogs Digitals Administrator Tool based on ORACLE SCADA Direct Data Interfaces via SQL (ADO. z. B.

Information Storage & Retrieval Connecting External Report Tools SCADA Archiving Servers LAN Firewall Web-Server with WebAccess/ WOP and ReportGenerator for automatic reporting Firewall FDWH-Server with ORACLE database Office LAN Office PC with ReportGenerator an/or Webbrowser Office PC with ReportGenerator an/or Webbrowser Page 239 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

g. graphics) with all available Excel features „ complex queries with SQL and macros possible „ capabilities for automated reporting Page 240 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Information Storage & Retrieval Sample External Report Tool „ based on MS Excel „ simple report definition w/o database knowledge „ processing of data (e.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Information Storage & Retrieval Sample Web Access Tool „ online access via browser „ filter capabilities „ graphical and tabular display capabilities „ export to csv-files „ simple formula editor Page 241 Jan 2008 Dr.

Seminar Contents (II) Wednesday. 2008 Section 7: SCADA functionalities Section 8: DMS functionalities Section 9: Case study presentation Section 10: Distribution system automation personnel skills Section 11: Maintenance and support procedures Page 242 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Jan 30.

Distribution Management Applications Functionality Overview Enterprise Integration Bus Distribution Network Applications GIS Operation Applications Optimal Feeder Reconfiguration Volt/Var Volt/Var Dispatch Distribution Power Flow Geographical Displays Fault Isolation/ System Restoration Outage Management System Switching Procedure Management SCADA Dynamic Network Tracing Dynamic Network Coloring Large Network Displays Open Archiving & Reporting Page 243 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Distribution Management Applications Operation Applications Operations Applications (OA) is a suite of modules that enable the operator to view outages and to effectively manage resources to restore the electrical network. The OA component provides the following functions: ƒ Outage Management System (OMS) ƒ Trouble Call System (TCS) ƒ Crew Management System (CMS) Page 244 Jan 2008 Dr.

g. and restoration of service ƒ Manages unplanned outages or faults as well as planned outages OMS Requirements ƒ Quick and safe localization. location. for preventive maintenance. to increase the supply reliability and to reduce the system operation risks and costs Page 245 Jan 2008 Dr. e. isolation of faults and restoration of service within the power system ƒ Handling of planned outages. tools and procedures for outage management ƒ Supports the detection. isolation of faults.Distribution Management Applications Outage Management System (OMS) OMS Characteristics ƒ Collection of functions. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Distribution Management Applications Unplanned Outage Life Cycle Fault Fault Detection Detection & & Outage Outage Record Record Creation Creation Fault Fault Location Location Crew Crew Assignment Assignment Reports Reports & & Statistics Statistics Generation Generation OMS OMS Database Database Fault Fault Isolation Isolation Outage Outage Record Record Archiving Archiving Fault Fault Repair Repair Outage Outage Record Record Closing Closing Restoration Restoration of of Service Service Page 246 Jan 2008 Dr.

Distribution Management Applications Planned Outage Life Cycle Outage Outage Schedules Schedules Creation Creation Switching Switching Procedures Procedures Generation Generation Crew Crew Assignment Assignment OMS OMS Database Database Execute Execute Planned Planned Work Work Outage Outage Record Record Closing Closing Generation Generation of of Reports & Statistics Reports & Statistics Outage Outage Record Record Archiving Archiving Page 247 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Interfaces Fault Fault Location Location Application Application (FLOC) (FLOC) Fault Fault Isolation Isolation & & Service Restoration Service Restoration (FISR) (FISR) Outage Outage Management Management System System Switching Switching Procedure Procedure Management Management (SPM) (SPM) Trouble Trouble Call Call System System (TCS) (TCS) Crew Crew Management Management Page 248 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Distribution Management Applications Outage Management System .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Distribution Management Applications Unplanned Outage Life Cycle FLOC OMS Fault Fault Detection Detection & & Outage Outage Record Record Creation Creation Fault Fault Location Location Operation Application CMS Crew Crew Assignment Assignment Reports Reports & & Statistics Statistics Generation Generation OMS OMS OMS Database Database Outage Outage Record Record Archiving Archiving Fault Fault Isolation Isolation FISR SPM OMS Fault Fault Repair Repair Field crew activity Outage Outage Record Record Closing Closing Service Service Restoration Restoration OMS FISR SPM Page 249 Jan 2008 Dr.

Distribution Management Applications Planned Outage Life Cycle Operation Application Outage Outage Schedules Schedules Creation Creation Switching Switching Procedures Procedures Creation Creation OMS SPM Crew Crew Assignment Assignment CMS OMS OMS Database Database Execute Execute Planned Planned Work Work Field crew activity Outage Outage Record Record Closing Closing OMS Reports Reports & & Statistics Statistics Generation Generation Outage Outage Record Record Archiving Archiving OMS OMS Page 250 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

affected Network Area. Status. Roland Eichler . List of all Switching) ƒ Creation of an Outage Data Set for every Disconnected Equipment Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 251 Jan 2008 Dr. customer ƒ An Outage Record can be initiated by ƒ Trouble Call System ƒ Switch Trip ƒ Operator ƒ Reports and statistics by ORACLE reports ƒ Documentations of all Switching (Date.Distribution Management Applications Outage Management System . energy. Operator.Requirements ƒ Scheduled and unscheduled outages ƒ Outaged equipment.

Distribution Management Applications Outage Management System . Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Requirements ƒ Calculation of Quality of Service Indices ƒSystem Average Interruption Frequency Index SAIFI ƒSystem Average Interruption Duration Index SAIDI ƒCustomer Average Interruption Duration Index CAIDI ƒAverage Service Availability Index ASAI ƒ Calculation of Outaged Energy ƒ Export to Excel Page 252 Jan 2008 Dr.

short-circuit faults) and non-outage faults (i. earth faults) ƒ Responds to state change of fault indications and on feeder CB’s unexpected tripping ƒ For fast localization of faulty section ƒ Designed to determine the smallest possible faulted section based on available real-time information ƒ Paramount to restore supply fast and to as many customers as possible Page 253 Jan 2008 Dr.e. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .e.Distribution Management Applications Fault Location (FLOC) ƒ Handles outage faults (i.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .) ƒ Status of fault passing indicators ƒ Status of earth fault relays ƒ Trouble calls Page 254 Jan 2008 Dr. etc. re-closers.Distribution Management Applications FLOC Processing Uses remote metered and manually updated information such as: ƒ Protective devices’ tripping (CB’s.

g. Roland Eichler .: bisection search Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 255 Jan 2008 Dr.Distribution Management Applications FLOC Methods Immediate Search ƒ Combine available status info ƒ Determine the smallest faulted segment ƒ Determine boundary switches t1a-5 t1a-4 t1a-3 Protective Device1a t1a-1 t1-2 t1-5 Substation Protective Device1 t1-1 t1a-2 t1-4 t1-3 t1c-4 Protective Device1c t1c-1 t1-6 t1c-3 t1c-2 t1-7 t1d-1 t1d-2 t1d-3 t1d-4 t1d-5 Protective Device1d t1-8 t1-9 Procedural Search ƒ Extends the “immediate search” by trial switching operations ƒ Narrows down the faulty segment. e.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Distribution Management Applications FLOC Results Fault Records ƒ Record automatically created ƒ Includes all equipment in faulty segment ƒ Includes boundary devices Highlighted in one-line diagram: ƒ Fault Passing Indicators’ status ƒ Faulty feeder segment ƒ Related non-faulty segments ƒ Suggested trial switch actions to locate the fault more accurately ƒ Procedural search history ƒ Summary of fault records Graphical Rendering Additional Information Page 256 Jan 2008 Dr.

Distribution Management Applications FLOC Event Record Page 257 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

create and modify crew information and to assign field crews to work tasks ƒ Provides timing statistics about multiple field crews ƒ CMS works in close relationship to the Outage Management System (OMS) Page 258 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Distribution Management Applications Crew Management System (CMS) ƒ Provides tools to view.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Distribution Management Applications Crew Management System (CMS) ƒ Crew Composition Assigning of people and equipment to the crew ƒ Crew Tracking Support of crew and truck locations ƒ Crew Statistic Report Processing ƒ OMS Interface Association with outage records Page 259 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Distribution Management Applications Distribution Network Applications Distribution Network Applications (DNA) comprise the following functions: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Fault Isolation/System Restoration Distribution Power Flow Feeder Reconfiguration Volt/Var Control Page 260 Jan 2008 Dr.

Distribution Management Applications Fault Isolation/System Restoration (FISR)
Once the faulty segment has been identified (e.g. by FLOC): ƒ Finds out how to isolate the faulty segment ƒ Finds out how to restore power to all related non-faulty segments ƒ Minimizes the outage time for the affected customers ƒ Establishes the series of required switching operations Useful also when network is not in faulty condition (e.g. equipment isolation for planned maintenance) Uses the topological model of the network to generate the required switching procedures

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Distribution Management Applications FISR – Requirements

Fault Isolation

ƒ Equipment to isolate selected by operator or from FLOC results ƒ Minimize the number of switching steps ƒ Provides the possible ways to restore service and the corresponding steps ƒ Feasibility validation and solutions’ ranking based on performance indexes ƒ Combines the two above features ƒ Generates a single switching procedure ƒ Generates a switching procedure that restores the given network part to its normal configuration

Service Restoration

Isolation & Immediate Restoration Restore to Normal

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Distribution Management Applications FISR – Output

Tabular Output

ƒ Switching steps of the procedure ƒ Total kW load restored (incl. the number of transformers/customers) ƒ Total kW load not restored (incl. the number of transformers/customers) ƒ Violations (voltages & overloads) ƒ Total power losses ƒ Index for difficulty to access or operate ƒ Follow-up of switching actions involved in procedure can be done within the one-line diagrams

Graphical Output

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Distribution Management Applications FISR – User Interface

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Distribution Management Applications Distribution System Power Flow (DSPF)

Purpose: ƒ Continuously checks the distribution network for voltage problems / overloads ƒ Allows to detect overloads or voltage problems before they occur ƒ in the course of Switching Procedure Management ƒ in Study Mode ƒ Provides the basis for further applications that reduce distribution network losses

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Distribution Management Applications Distribution System Power Flow (DSPF)

ƒ For 3 phase unbalanced and balanced power systems ƒ Real time and study mode ƒ Execution ƒ Periodically ƒ Upon change in the network and ƒ On Demand ƒ Robust current injection algorithm ƒ Calculation of ƒ Feeder Profiles: V, A, MW, MVAR and Losses ƒ Total Losses ƒ Detection of Limit Violations
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Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Roland Eichler .Distribution Management Applications DSPF – Load Estimation In distribution networks (sparsely measured) the accuracy of the power flow results relies much upon the quality of the load estimates ƒ Loads derived for time and date of the study ƒ Generic load curves for different consumers’ types (residential. industrial. feeder-head or along the feeder ƒ Reactive load based on cos ϕ Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Load Curve Data Load Modeling Page 267 Jan 2008 Dr. etc. commercial.) ƒ Loads with constant P or I or Z ƒ Hourly load profile over several seasons and day types ƒ Conforming loads calculated based on peak value and load curve ƒ Loads calibration with available RT measurements at injection source.

Distribution Management Applications DSPF . voltage drop ƒ Resulting P & Q Loads ƒ Small Gen unit P & Q & V ƒ Violations (voltages & overloads) ƒ Total power losses ƒ Network coloring in one-line diagrams for voltage violations and branch overloads Graphical Output Page 268 Jan 2008 Dr.Results Tabular Output ƒ Busbar kV. voltage imbalances ƒ Slack bus P & Q & V ƒ Line & transformer P & Q (from & to nodes) ƒ Line losses (kW/kVAr). Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

voltage regulators) and switchable shunt reactive (typically capacitors) ƒ Optimize the objective functions for the whole system ƒ Improves results against local control only solutions (where coordination problems exist and Volt/VAr optimization opportunities are missed by not taking into account the whole power system) ƒ Eliminates local trade-off (e.Distribution Management Applications Volt/Var Control (VVC) Important function for dealing with the complexity of voltages’ and reactive powers’ control in a modern distribution system ƒ Used to support the control of transformer tap (LTC. no need for controllers’ dead-band and time delays to avoid oscillation) that reduce efficiency of the Volt/VAr Control Page 269 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .g.

or to ƒ minimize power demand. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Distribution Management Applications Volt/Var Control (VVC) ƒ The objectives of the VVC function are to ƒ minimize power loss. line voltage regulators and switchable shunts (in the form of a SPM procedure) Page 270 Jan 2008 Dr. or to ƒ maximize generated reactive power while satisfying voltage and loading constraints ƒ VVC uses the same power flow model as DSPF ƒ Allows working with a subset of the network ƒ Operates in either realtime or study mode ƒ Output: ƒ Summary of power flow before and after optimization ƒ Recommended Control Actions on transformer tap position changers.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Distribution Management Applications VVC – Sample Output Display Page 271 Jan 2008 Dr.

or ƒ a weighted combination of the above while satisfying voltage and loading constraints ƒ OFR uses the same power flow model as DSPF ƒ Allows working with a subset of the network ƒ Operates in either realtime or study mode ƒ Output: ƒ Summary of power flow before and after optimization ƒ Reconfiguration switching procedure (SPM) Page 272 Jan 2008 Dr. or ƒ balancing of substation transformers.Distribution Management Applications Optimal Feeder Reconfiguration (OFR) ƒ The objectives of the OFR function are ƒ minimization of power losses. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Distribution Management Applications DSPF/VVC/OFR Execution Control Display Page 273 Jan 2008 Dr.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Distribution Management Applications Non-Technical Losses (NTLO) The NTLO application is based on: Read Meters (billed energy) ¾Taken over from SAP and fed into the SCADA&DMS Oracle database via middleware Distribution Transformer Loads ¾Calculated online by DSPF power flow Page 274 Jan 2008 Dr.

09. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Days (EBI days) Transformer list Non-Technical losses [kWh] [%] 23 Alparos Tereal 5487 36 (36) 5300 25 35 (36) Helui 4900 21 36 (36) Percentage of Total Feeder Energy NTLO points the operator to the most prominent spots of revenue losses. Page 275 Jan 2008 Dr.02 – 16.02 Eval.Distribution Management Applications NTLO – Typical Results Non-Technical feeder level Feeder Name losses in EBI 10.10.

2 2.10. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .02–16. Feeder: Alparos EBI 10. Page 276 Jan 2008 Dr.02 Distribution transformer name (TA) Non-technical losses [kWh] 759 617 601 [%] 3.09.Distribution Management Applications NTLO – Typical Results Distribution transformers with highest non-technical losses.6 2.5 alpa/24ds/traf1 alpa/24ds/traf2 alpa/24ds/traf3 Percentage of Total Feeder Energy NTLO points the operator to the most prominent spots of revenue losses.

in planned cases the relief of equipment loads Reconfiguration of the network to come back to normal switching status Analysis of the case of a failing equipment including the appropriate counteractions Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Corrective measures Normal switching status Contingency evaluation Page 277 Jan 2008 Dr.Advanced Network Operation (ANOP) Advanced Network Operation (ANOP) uses a specially developed algorithm in order to generate the optimal solution for the following tasks typical in a Distribution Network Unplanned outages / disturbances Fault Isolation and Network Restoration Planned outages Reconfiguration of the network without interruption of customer supply In emergency cases the removal of overloads and under voltages. Roland Eichler .Distribution Management Applications Expert System .

by the operator) ƒ Enables immediate and automatic execution of the switching sequence ƒ Provision of such a solution which has passed all checks and does not violate any operational or electrical restriction ƒ Presentation of a balance of typical values of interest such as transformer loading. ƒ The shown values are the values which will be obtained after the execution of the switching sequence Page 278 Jan 2008 Dr.Distribution Management Applications Expert System .g. etc. transferred load. no further checks. voltage. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . etc.Advanced Network Operation (ANOP) Required Features ƒ Availability of a fully prepared switching sequence together with additional comments ƒ The switching sequence totally fulfils the given task (e.

Distribution Management Applications ANOP Application Example – How to use Operator describes task ƒ Select equipment on MMI ƒ Select task ANOP evaluates solution for task ƒ Switching job ƒ Load Balance Operators executes task ƒ Execute switching job Page 279 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Roland Eichler .Distribution Management Applications Trend towards Distributed Energy Generation New Generation Technologies Increasing Energy Consumption world wide Distributed Energy Generation Political Targets Increasing Energy Costs Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 280 Jan 2008 Dr.

Z Z Mod. Z Mod. Roland Eichler . Z Z Z Mod. Fuel Cells Distributed Small Fuel Cells Wind Power Plants Distributed Loads Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 281 Jan 2008 Dr. Mod.Distribution Management Applications Virtual Power Plants Decentralized Energy Management System DEMS Network Control System Energy Exchange Billing G Biomass Power Plant G Meteorological Service Communication Network Block-type Heating Power Plant Flexible Loads Meter Reading PV Power Plants Data Concentrator Mod. Mod.

e. e. optimization and monitoring of decentralized power units Load forecasting system for very short-term forecasts (1 hour) and short-term forecasts (up to 7 days) Forecasting system for the generation of wind power plants and photovoltaic Generation/Load Scheduling & Control functions covering all flexible units like contracts. loads. i. generation units. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © ƒ ƒ Page 282 . storages and flexible demands. Jan 2008 Dr.Distribution Management Applications DEMS – Functional Requirements ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Energy management system for planning. the profit.g. contractual data Powerful front-end for the communication of the energy management system with the decentralized power units. maximizing the difference of revenue minus costs. Energy data management for collecting and keeping the required information.

Distribution Management Applications DEMS – Functionality Load Forecast Renewable Energy Forecast Generation scheduling User interface Basic SCADA Communication Front End Reporting Generation Control Load scheduling Archiving DEMS Page 283 Jan 2008 Communication System Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

DDE DEMS SQL Database. ODBC Excel and ASCII Files XML Interface for Time Series COM / DCOM Interface Communication Network TCP / IP Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 284 Jan 2008 Dr.Distribution Management Applications DEMS – Interfaces SIMATIC Protocols Profibus. Modbus OPC. Roland Eichler .

Jan 30. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . 2008 Section 7: SCADA functionalities Section 8: DMS functionalities Section 9: Case study presentation Section 10: Distribution system automation personnel skills Section 11: Maintenance and support procedures Page 285 Jan 2008 Dr.Seminar Contents (II) Wednesday.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Net Present Value. NPV [MUSD] . Page 286 Jan 2008 Dr.Selection of distribution substations for automation Question (A): Automation Rate (IV) Substation retrofitting and adaptation calculation 45 15 40 Average interruption time [minutes] 35 30 25 20 0 15 10 5 0 0 250 500 750 1000 1500 2000 4000 Number of adapted substations -10 5 10 -5 Interruption dependancy NPV In this study case the optimum automation rate is about 12%.

000 US$. Around 650 feeders are supplying around 4000 distribution substations.2 distribution substations per feeder.Selection of distribution substations for automation Study case data Average outage time: 40 minutes. Average cost for retrofitting & adaptation of one (1) distribution substation in: 30. That is an average of 6. Roland Eichler . Number of substations that can be retrofitted per year. without serious consumer interruptions and additional costs: 250 Study period considered: (average from 25 years for automation equipment and 15 years for communication equipment) Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © 23 years Page 287 Jan 2008 Dr.

000 substation RTUs (commissioned 1988) ƒ Extension to the 6.6 kV substation RTUs using Distribution Line Carrier over cable sheath Page 288 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .000 substation RTUs ƒ Unique communication solution for 6. with more than 3.SCADA&DMS reference project: PowerGrid Singapore ƒ SCADA&DMS for the entire 22kV network.6kV network started 1994 with additional more than1.

man power ƒ Minimize operational errors ƒ Improve assets utilization ƒ Maximize return on existing investment ƒ Make timely new investment Page 289 Jan 2008 Dr.PowerGrid Singapore‘s benefits from SCADA&DMS ƒ Enhance reliability and service quality ƒ Provide speedy restoration of supply ƒ Minimize/eliminate revenue losses (due to forced consumer outages) ƒ Enhance operational efficiency and safety ƒ Reduce operating cost e.g. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

6 kV Average Interruption Time Experienced by Customers in a Year Page 290 Jan 2008 Dr.SCADA&DMS reference project: PowerGrid Singapore Experience Commissioning SCADA&DMS on 22 kV Extension to 6. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

2008 Section 7: SCADA functionalities Section 8: DMS functionalities Section 9: Case study presentation Section 10: Distribution system automation personnel skills Section 11: Maintenance and support procedures Page 291 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . Jan 30.Seminar Contents (II) Wednesday.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution . commission & maintain field communication equipment. Basic Medium Expert © -- Page 292 Jan 2008 Dr. plan. commission & maintain field automation equipment Design. erect. plan. develop new algorithms.Distribution System Automation Personnel Skills Role Task Supervise and control the distribution network Keep the SCADA / DMS running at required level of performance Collect and continuously update data required in the SCADA/DMS Design. Substation Automation and Front-end equipment Medium Medium -Basic Computer HW/SW Electronics Basic Expert Power System Operation Modeling & Algorithms Communication Control Room SCADA/DMS Maintenance & Administration Expert Basic Basic Basic -Basic Field Engineer and Technician Communication Engineer and Technician Telecontrol Engineer and Technician Medium Basic -- Expert Medium Basic -- Medium Power System Analyst Define models and data needed for the SCADA/DMS. erect. Design. erect. commission & maintain RTU. plan.

Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .Seminar Contents (II) Wednesday. Jan 30. 2008 Section 7: SCADA functionalities Section 8: DMS functionalities Section 9: Case study presentation Section 10: Distribution system automation personnel skills Section 11: Maintenance and support procedures Page 293 Jan 2008 Dr.

release upgrade) 9Testing of new operational practices Page 294 Jan 2008 Dr.Testing Concept Depending on the purpose of testing different concepts are necessary 9Point to point tests during commissioning and revision work (adding. patch.g. extending or modifying of RTU. reconfiguration of communication network) 9RTU tests 9Communication path tests 9Test of data model modifications when expanding or modifying network configuration 9Functional system test when upgrading or modifying functionality (e. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Testing Concept Object-in-Test Tag 9During commissioning and revision work. 9After finishing the work the separate summary can be saved to document the commissioning or revision work. This means usually: No alarming. After the test the flag will be removed by the operator. no archiving. Before starting the revision the flag is set by the operator on all devices which shall be tested. 9For this purpose a flag 'Object In Test' can be used. This means that the whole way from the device outside till the data processing in the control center must be tested and documented. the equipment at site must be tested under operational conditions. 9The (test) information sent in this phase to the control center has to be processed in another way than the ’real’ process data. Page 295 Jan 2008 Dr. The information are displayed in the one-line diagrams to ensure that the graphical representation is working properly. 9The tag OBJECT IN TEST has the same impact concerning alarming as the tag ALARM INHIBIT. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . 9The data related to objects flagged as ‘in test’ are displayed in a separate summary.

testing and other activities of the SCADA/EMS/DMS. Contexts are differentiated from each other by their sources of data and their use. Roland Eichler . Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Real. planning. Contexts satisfy the operational.Testing Concept Using Contexts other than Real-Time A context is a user's specific view on a set of resources (variable information /data) that models the working environment (workspace) and its behavior. A context consists of a set of software packages.Time IMM Suite Study Planning IMM Suite Engineering DOR DOR App Suite App Suite App Suite Run-Time App ASR App ASR App ASR Save case repository Save Save Save Case Case Case Saving a save Initializing from a case Page 296 Jan 2008 Dr. This set of context components works with a consistent view of power system data and the perceived time. data sets and displays that are necessary to run a complete functional subset of the SCADA/EMS/DMS.

An example is running load flow studies. The real-time context provides direct operator interaction with the external world. Only one real-time control context can be active in the system. 9A Study Context is used to support the operators during different network analysis and operational activities.e. Roland Eichler .Testing Concept Using Contexts other than Real-Time 9The Realtime Context is used to monitor. 9A Planning Context comes with its own data model i. Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Run-Time Engineering Page 297 Jan 2008 Dr. This is the only context that allows control commands to the external world. Real. it allows testing of changes to the data model (without changes to RTU data or communication data) in parallel and independent of the other contexts. independently or in parallel to their realtime activities.Time IMM Suite Study Planning IMM Suite DOR DOR App Suite App Suite App Suite App ASR App ASR App ASR Save case repository Save Save Save Case Case Case Saving a save Initializing from a case control and manage the domain process.

.. . 1 2 7 1 .. .. RCC 7 Page 298 Jan 2008 Dr.Testing Concept Using a Separate Testing/Development System OTS Testing & Development (TDS) • IEC 870-5-101 • IEC 870-5-104 • non IEC protocols • IEC 870-5-101 • IEC 870-5-104 • non IEC protocols MAIN IS&R OTS-LAN PDS-LAN EMS-LAN DMZ-LAN MultiportRouter 1 MultiportRouter 2 CC-LAN non trusted IS&R : Information Storage& Retrieval OTS : Operator Training Simulator IT-LAN non trusted ... . Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . 2 7 IT WAN CC WAN CC WAN trusted RCC 1 RCC 2 .

In each case the control direction is usually locked i. that runs a test context on separate hardware.e. configuration with less servers). 9TDS can ¾interface data via listen mode from the MAIN or ¾get directly information via its own Front-End. 9TDS can be used for testing of ¾new RTUs ¾new data models ¾new/upgraded software Page 299 Jan 2008 Dr. An exception is the front-end which might be shared between MAIN and TDS in some cases 9TDS runs either the complete or a subset of the functionality of the MAIN. no redundancy.Testing Concept Using a Separate Testing/Development System 9TDS is a separate system. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . The deployment of the test system may differ from the deployment of the MAIN (e. bypass process interface). Successful and not successful reply as result of remote control needs to be simulated. allowing tests completely decoupled from the real-time context.g.g. supervisory control actions need to be simulated without interfering with the real process (e.

changes to the network. SDM is used both during commissioning of the system and afterwards for subsequent modifications and extensions of the network (new substations. Page 300 Jan 2008 Dr. It is important that a single tool provides the functionality to enter and maintain all power system-related as well as computer system-related data. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . etc.Information Model Management SDM (Source Data Management) manages the input of the data of the electric power system into the database of the power control system.).

etc. power stations. Transformer. Customer transformer XY. Contract 23 according to contract pattern A Page 301 Jan 2008 Dr. Tariff contract.) ƒ Based on prepared object types (templates) ƒ All the data points build on it (instances) ƒ Are further maintained by the user ƒ Examples: Customer generator West-A. Server Customer-defined Object Types ƒ Examples: Customer generator. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . adapted contract pattern A.Information Model Management Object Data Model Standard Object Types Standard Object Types Customer-defined Objects Types Customer-entered Objects (Instances) ƒ Standard delivery with the product ƒ Examples: Generator. ƒ Created while the project is being carried out Customer ƒ Provides all the required additional object types transformer. (templates) configured server ƒ Dependent on industry sector and division Customer-entered Objects (Instances) ƒ Are entered by the user during the data input phase and describe the user process (networks.

) ƒ SCADA/EMS/DMS SW ƒ Mapping to HW ƒ Editing … ƒ Instances ƒ Links ƒ Network Diagrams ƒ System ƒ System-Wide Settings ƒ User Administration ƒ Adding Project Specials via API Tailoring System Delivery Adapting Data.. adding Project Specials Day to Day Activities repetitive use Page 302 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © ..Information Model Management Engineering Process Engineering Phases System Configuration ƒ Hardware ƒ Network ƒ Servers Customization ƒ Definition of new ƒ Instances ƒ Attributes ƒ Associations ƒ Graphic Objects Data Entry ƒ Import/Export ƒ XDF/RDF File ƒ SVG File ƒ Software ƒ 3rd PP (Oracle.

Information Model Management Functional Overview ƒ Common Information Model CIM ƒ Job Management ƒ Fully graphicoriented data editing ƒ Workflow oriented and Wizard-based technologies ƒ Syntactic and generic data validations ƒ Import/Export ƒ On-line Activation ƒ Reports Page 303 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

report generator The data model is independent from the physical data storage Available functions for .Backup and recovery .Information Model Management Advantages from RDBMS Use „ „ „ „ „ Standard query language SQL Easy modification and extension of the data base scheme Comfortable tools available .Distributed data bases Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 304 Jan 2008 Dr.Data integrity .Transaction management .graphical user interface .Security and access rights . Roland Eichler .

job activation.g.Information Model Management Requirements on Job Management Job Management allows multiple and simultaneous data modifications without any impact on the runtime system ƒ Job Interlocks prevent multiple users from editing the same data ƒ Automatic change detection generates Change Log files describing all changes ƒ Activation of a job transfers the changed data to the run-time system and notifies those applications affected by the change ƒ A clearly laid out Job History bookkeeping (e. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 305 . ÎNo easy and secure data maintenance interrupt of process control during on-line activation and undo function Jan 2008 Dr. job creation. undo) is available ÎQuick.

Information Model Management Job Management & Data Validation Extensive Data Validation before start of activation in on-line system ƒ Syntactic and generic data validations. which can be extended by user-defined constraints Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © Page 306 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler .

precisely coordinated with online system operation. As an example. or entire substations) can immediately be called up and displayed by the operator. prepared and checked. station feeders. „ Activation means the takeover of modified data from the source database to the operational database. „ After activation newly entered data (e. „ Once entered. so that current online data and online system operations remain unaffected. „ Data activation is coordinated automatically with all subsystems or activities of the SCADA/EMS/DMS. analogue values. it is impossible for an IMM engineer to activate a data modification for a breaker while a supervisory control action is active for this device.g. the set of data within a job can then be activated at a time convenient to the operator. without interruption of system operation and without losing any manually entered data.Information Model Management Principle of Online Database Changes „ Input and checking of the data is performed in the source database. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © . status information. „ Activation includes updating of all servers of the SCADA/EMS/DMS. Page 307 Jan 2008 Dr.

Assets/ Work Order Systems Distribution Apps GIS SCADA Protection Coordination Front/Back Office Integration Bus Enterprise Data Model Management On-Line Ratings Transmission Reliability Power Flow Stability PSS/E Model Data High-Speed Data Files Files Page 308 Jan 2008 Dr.Information Model Management Integration with Enterprise Data Model Management Aggregation of enterprise data sources and software applications through common industry standards. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .

Bibliography on Distribution Automation Page 309 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution © .