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Distribution Network Automation & Control

Seminar Jan 29/30, 2008 Tehran/Iran

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008

Seminar

Strategies for distribution automation Control in substations and outstations Communication Process optimization in the Control
Center and customer related activities
Control Center

Substation

Substation

Substation

Outstation Outstation Outstation

Outstation Outstation Outstation Outstation Outstation Outstation

Page 3

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Seminar Contents (I)

Tuesday, Jan 29, 2008 Section 1: Goal, task and aspects of distribution automation Section 2: Impacts on planning of distribution automation Section 3: Selection of substations to work under automation automation layout Section 4: Which parameters should be measured or controlled ? Section 5: Selection criteria for hardware, software and communications Section 6: Distribution automation standards

Page 4

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Seminar Contents (II)

Wednesday, Jan 30, 2008 Section 7: SCADA functionalities Section 8: DMS functionalities Section 9: Case study presentation Section 10: Distribution system automation personnel skills Section 11: Maintenance and support procedures

Page 5

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Seminar Contents (I)

Tuesday, Jan 29, 2008 Section 1: Goal, task and aspects of distribution automation Section 2: Impacts on planning of distribution automation Section 3: Selection of substations to work under automation automation layout Section 4: Which parameters should be measured or controlled ? Section 5: Selection criteria for hardware, software and communications Section 6: Distribution automation standards

Page 6

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Mission of the Electricity Supply System

The primary aim of an electricity supply system is to meet the customers demands for energy (in sufficient quantity and quality, at the required time and at an acceptable price)

Similarity to other goods consumption processes, the Electricity Business comprises 4 basics components

Demand Production (Generation) (Sub-)Transmission Distribution


Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 7

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Requirements to the Distribution System

Suppliers View
high

Customers View
high

efficiency with low losses few assets easy service less maintenance fast fault detection

availability no faults high power quality low price quick recovery

Page 8

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Customer Requirements and Supply Standards


Availability no interrupts i.e. continuity of supply Power Quality Voltage Frequency Harmonics Transients Definitions of supply reliability are quite different therefore statistic values can not be compared exactly most countries count outages longer than 3 minutes, some define a 1 minute limit (Great Britain, Portugal) Continuity indicators are calculated in a different way Weighted by the number of customer Weighted by the power affected (Spain, Portugal) Some consider Acts of God, some dont
Page 9 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Power Quality Standards


Voltage in Europe According IEC 61000 Voltage in the USA : the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) defines "Voltage Range " as: 120/240V 5% at the user's service entrance, and 120/240V 8,33% at the point of utilisation. Frequency The vast majority of equipment appliances are not much sensitive to variation of frequency. Furthermore, in interconnected networks (e.g. UCPTE,..) the frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz) is generally very stable and secondly source of problems. Quality According IEC 61000
Page 10 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Power Interrupt Statistic in Europe


Length of power interrupts in minutes per year (1999) in some countries
400
364

350 300

Customer-weighted indicators

Power-weighted indicators

Time [min]

250 200
152 191 157

180

150 100
57 63

50
15

25

0
GER NLD FRA GBR SWE NOR ITA SPA POR

Country
Page 11 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler

Source: Council of European Energy Regulators CEER 2001

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Social Cost for Unplanned Outage


Customers Cost for an Unexpected Outage
[ $ per Interrupted kW ] 7

Swedish nationwide survey for unexpected outages, 1993


95 1. W /k

60 9.

h W k /

$
6

de a Tr

&

es c i rv e S

ustry d n I e Larg

Sm

y str u Ind l l a

kW / 5 1.3

+$

/ kW 5 5.2

0 $ 2.7

/ kW

/ kWh 0 0 . +$3

lture u c i r Ag

5 / kW 7 . 0 $

h 0 / kW 5 . 2 +$

Domestic
20 Page 12 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler

$ 0.15 / kW + $ 0.30 / kWh


40

Outages Duration

[ Minutes ] Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Energy not Supplied due to Fault Outages

Transmission 33 - 420 kV 27%

Distribution 1-22 kV Transmission 33 - 420 kV

Distribution 1-22 kV 73%

Source: Cigr Conference, Paris, 2002

Page 13

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Why to Improve the Distribution System

The transmission and the sub-transmission system have already high reliability Therefore: Distribution Automation has the best ratio Improvement to Invest Strategies to optimize the distribution system n-1 strategies are very expensive structure of the system can not be changed easily But even with rather cheap measures one can reduce the outage times dramatically

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Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Breakdown of Capital Expenditure


Reliability vs Investment Cost

10kV Overhead Line 10% 5% 10% Maintenance Commissioning Erection

1.0
Reliability [Rel] 25% 10% Assembly Design

0.8 0.6 Rel1 0.4 C1 0.2

C2

Rel2

40%

Equipment

Diminishing Returns C1 = C2 Rel1 >> Rel2


Investment [C]

Page 15

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Supply Quality vs. Cost: A Macro Economic Consideration


Macro Economic Costs Costs Limits (Law, Standards)

Cost for Invest and Maintenance Cost for Interrupts


(Less Sold, Penalties)

Supply Quality
Page 16 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

What is Distribution Automation


There is no fixed definition of the term. Definition from EPRI 2004: The objective of (Advanced) Distribution Automation Function is to enhance the reliability of power system service, power quality, and power system efficiency, by automating the following three processes of distribution operation control: data preparation in near-real-time; optimal decision-making; and the control of distribution operations in coordination with transmission and generation systems (Note: Distributed Energy Resources !) operations Others (e.g. CIRED AD HOC Working Group 2 ) add topics such as establish closer and more responsive relationship with customers.
Page 17 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Utilities view on Distribution Automation


Improved automated workflow of the Operation and Planning Department ( North York Hydro ) Improved supply quality and minimising of not sold kWh (CIRED 1987) Improved efficiency and quality of service, more rational use of energy (ENEL)

Page 18

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Automation Main Function Sets


Network Operation Operational Planning, Optimization
Network Operation Simulation Switching Actions Scheduling Power Import Scheduling and Optimization Management Information System

Customer Interface, Management & Control


Loads and Meters Readings Control Customer Trouble Information

Maintenance Management

Data Management

Network Operation Monitoring

Operation Feedback Analysis Maintenance Works Scheduling and Control

Technical Data Management

Network Control

Dynamic Data Management

Fault Management Operation Statistics and Reporting Geographical Displays

Billing & Settlement

Source: CIRED Ad Hoc Working Group 2

Page 19

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Benefits in Network Operation (I)


Improving the quality of service Data acquisition, monitoring and remote control also at remote sites allows responding to alert and emergency conditions quickly and confidently and with the correct action, e.g. low voltage unbalanced flows low power factor overload Less and shorter outages lead to increased revenue Better network supervision means less equipment failure Equipment lifetime is lengthened Cost for maintenance material and manpower is reduced

Page 20

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Benefits in Network Operation (II)

Increased safety and security Operation of any electrically controllable device can be securely inhibited at the SCADA master station Remote outstations can be monitored for intrusion Reduction of staff in remote outstations Power Quality Calculations (Power Auditing) the open market imposes penalties for quality of service not compliant with minimum characteristics. Energy and Power Balances some utilities have high amount of energy losses. The first step for correcting this problem is to determine where losses larger than normal are located, this includes both technical and non-technical losses
Page 21 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Benefits in Network Operation (III)


Improve Quality of Service SPM: Operator always has a clear picture about the current status and further planned steps of each switching sequence faster switching at lower risk Floc / FISR: Shorten interruption time by automatically identifying candidate switching actions for isolation of faults restoration of supply switching back to normal DSPF: Detection of Limit Violations that would occur after planned switching actions avoiding overloads and accidental customer supply interruptions Improve Efficiency of Network Operation VVC/OFR: Keep the system at the minimum of technical losses thus reducing cost
Fichtner Fichtner Consulting Consulting estimates estimates reduction reduction of of losses losses gained gained from from optimized optimized network network operation operation using using applications applications such such as as OFR OFR and and VVC Siemens AG 2008 VVC to to 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.5% of of the the electrical electrical energy energy delivered. delivered.
Page 22 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Automation Main Function Sets


Network Operation Operational Planning, Optimization
Network Operation Simulation Switching Actions Scheduling Power Import Scheduling and Optimization Management Information System

Customer Interface, Management & Control


Loads and Meters Readings Control Customer Trouble Information

Maintenance Management

Data Management

Network Operation Monitoring

Operation Feedback Analysis Maintenance Works Scheduling and Control

Technical Data Management

Network Control

Dynamic Data Management

Fault Management Operation Statistics and Reporting Geographical Displays

Billing & Settlement

Source: CIRED Ad Hoc Working Group 2

Page 23

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Benefits from Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) Systems

identification Loss reduction Revenue enhancement Operational Efficiency and Asset Utilization Monitor energy balance & peak demand reduction Faster response time to customers Earn from innovative services to consumers e.g.
Loss Load

profile via web access Security services e.g. door control

By

using the AMR infrastructure


Power

Quality system on top


Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 24

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Distribution Automation Main Function Sets


Network Operation Operational Planning, Optimization
Network Operation Simulation Switching Actions Scheduling Power Import Scheduling and Optimization Management Information System

Customer Interface, Management & Control


Loads and Meters Readings Control Customer Trouble Information

Maintenance Management

Data Management

Network Operation Monitoring

Operation Feedback Analysis Maintenance Works Scheduling and Control

Technical Data Management

Network Control

Dynamic Data Management

Fault Management Operation Statistics and Reporting Geographical Displays

Billing & Settlement

Source: CIRED Ad Hoc Working Group 2

Page 25

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Benefits from Real Time Energy Management System (RTEMS)

Integration

of meter-to-bill processes and systems Improve cash flow, and system reliability of customer data and meter data repositories Improve trust and reduce cost

Consolidation

Allowing

web-based display and usage of energy demand and consumption information at the consumers site Reduce cost, improve customer retention / satisfaction and quality real time monitoring of power quality information and automated response to energy distribution events power quality services and increase margin
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Enabling

Sell

Page 26

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Distribution Automation Main Function Sets


Network Operation Operational Planning, Optimization
Network Operation Simulation Switching Actions Scheduling Power Import Scheduling and Optimization Management Information System

Customer Interface, Management & Control


Loads and Meters Readings Control Customer Trouble Information

Maintenance Management

Data Management

Network Operation Monitoring

Operation Feedback Analysis Maintenance Works Scheduling and Control

Technical Data Management

Network Control

Dynamic Data Management

Fault Management Operation Statistics and Reporting Geographical Displays

Billing & Settlement

Source: CIRED Ad Hoc Working Group 2

Page 27

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Benefits from Management Information System


Obtain more information from the network for a safer, more reliable and more efficient operation extremely useful for cost efficient network planning because information on real equipment loading avoids over-sizing e.g. for installed transformer capacity planning of just-in-time maintenance based on actual equipment stress generation of logs and reports for after-the-fact system analysis and management information; everybody can create the reports he/she needs (no software or database knowledge required, only brief handling training) Precise, on-time, and comprehensive information increases management awareness of actual situation and increases efficiency of department cooperation
A distribution utility has reported a 100,000 US$/per year saving because new distribution substations could be better planned - at the right time at the right place.

Calculation of Quality of Service Indices for individual distribution points clear proof of power supply quality
Page 28 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Automation Some more potential achievements


Minimization of non-in-time delivered energy reduce by 20% the current values (conservative figure) Network losses minimization reduce by 5% the current values (conservative figure) Improved Operation efficiency 10% of the Operations budget Improved Image equivalent or better market penetration with reduced marketing costs Improved working conditions and environment stable personnel, less recruitment costs (and related training)
Page 29 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Seminar Contents (I)

Tuesday, Jan 29, 2008 Section 1: Goal, task and aspects of distribution automation Section 2: Impacts on planning of distribution automation Section 3: Selection of substations to work under automation automation layout Section 4: Which parameters should be measured or controlled ? Section 5: Selection criteria for hardware, software and communications Section 6: Distribution automation standards

Page 30

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Impacts on planning of distribution automation (I) The general benefits from distribution automation have been clarified in Section 1. This has answered the WHY of distribution automation. The utilitys priority of goals defines WHAT shall be done i.e. what is more important to achieve:
increasing supply reliability increasing power quality decreasing cost decreasing loss of revenue etc

This priority list will guide the selection of the most suitable program for distribution automation i.e. what will be done first.
Page 31 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Impacts on planning of distribution automation (II) After the utility has answered the strategic WHAT question the next question is HOW the distribution automation solution shall be implemented i.e. what are technical / environmental / legal / constraints. This concerns issues such as:
overhead vs. underground networks availability of communication technology available (inter-)national standards already existing automation / communication infrastructure accessibility of substations current and future importance of substations etc

Page 32

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Impacts on planning of distribution automation (III) Normally there will be several proposals for achieving the WHAT goals considering the HOW constraints. Besides the achievement of the strategic WHAT criteria there are general criteria for selecting the most suitable distribution automation proposal:
flexibility of the distribution automation solution in case of changing

strategic goals of the utility flexibility for adding more services/business in the future expandability of the distribution automation solution in case of growing system size e.g. due to mergers with other utilities reliability of the distribution automation solution itself investment cost & cost for operation and maintenance of the distribution automation solution vs. monetary achievements
Page 33 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Components of a distribution automation solution (I) A properly selected distribution automation solution will comprise answers to the following questions:
Which substations should be automated to what extent ? Remote metering/monitoring Remote switch control Which data shall be collected from which substation ? Which control centers shall be built/used (centralized/distributed) ? Which redundancy concepts shall be implemented ? Which communication media shall be built/used for which type of

link? Which communication configuration shall be built (point-to-point, network, radial, ...) ?
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 34

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Components of a distribution automation solution (II)

Which software packages are required ? Which interfaces are required ? to external control centers to external applications, such as GIS, CRM, etc Which metering, accounting, settlement and billing process shall be

applied ?
Which standards shall be used ?

Page 35

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Components of a distribution automation solution (III)

What is the capital expenditure for such a system ? Which achievements are expected with regard to the strategic WHAT

goals ?
reduction of outage frequency reduction of outage duration cost reduction etc How can such a system be implemented and maintained ? How can databases be populated and maintained ? How can the implementation be split in several phases for early

benefit achieving ? Which training is needed at what time for operational staff and administration ?
Page 36 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Anticipated Problems with Distribution Automation #1: Centralized Control System Apprehension: Due to the automation of distribution networks the number of data points and RTU lines to be processed increases dramatically and thus exceeds the processing capabilities of centralized systems
large amount of data is not any more limiting the processing

capabilities of modern SCADA/DMS modern process interfaces can handle hundreds of RTU lines, furthermore there are possibilities for running several RTU servers in parallel lean RTU interfacing by means of TCP/IP based protocols use of modem pools cascading of RTUs, i.e. small field RTUs talk through large substation RTUs
Page 37 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Anticipated Problems with Distribution Automation #2: Communication

Apprehension: The automation of distribution networks fails due to insufficient communication lines.
cascading of RTUs reduces the number of communication lines

needed
alternative communication media are available power line carrier over distribution lines mobile phone networks such as GSM, GPRS dial-up lines over public phone companies

Page 38

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Anticipated Problems with Distribution Automation #3: Cost

Apprehension: The automation of the entire distribution network is too expensive.


in the course of energy market liberalization the pressure for cost

reduction from regulation authorities on distribution companies will constantly grow and justify ever more investment in distribution automation
cost for energy automation equipment and communication

equipment is decreasing particularly for compact RTUs and dial-up connections via mobile telephone systems
distribution automation does not come as big bang; it rather grows

over time closely coordinated with investment / maintenance programs for substations
Page 39 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Seminar Contents (I)

Tuesday, Jan 29, 2008 Section 1: Goal, task and aspects of distribution automation Section 2: Impacts on planning of distribution automation Section 3: Selection of substations to work under automation automation layout Section 4: Which parameters should be measured or controlled ? Section 5: Selection criteria for hardware, software and communications Section 6: Distribution automation standards

Page 40

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

The Last Meters: Low Voltage 115 V /125 V Systems Mainly used in USA, Canada, Brasilia, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Philippines typical 60 Hz and requires transformer nearby the consumer main distribution to the end consumer is done by the MV grid 230 V / 400 V Systems Mainly used in Europe typical 50 Hz Ohmic power losses enable distance up to 2 km to the next MV / LV transformer main distribution to the end consumer is done by the LV grid
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 41

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Structure of the Power System in USA 115 V


Transmission National / International

Subtransmission Regional

Distribution System

Low Voltage
Page 42 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Structure of the Power System in Europe 230 / 400 V


Transmission National / International

Subtransmission Regional

Distribution System

Low Voltage
Page 43 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Typical sub-transmission/distribution configuration

220KV/33KV Rec. Stn

220KV

X X X X

X X

X X 33KV

33KV/11KV Rec. Stn.

Scope of this seminar


11KV

Compact Distribution Station Ring Main Units

Page 44

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Urban underground MV networks


20/0,4kV C A c 110/20kV B d S D
Load-breaking switch Circuit breaker

Fuse

20/0,4kV S
Isolation point

At a suitable point on the network the loop is opened by a sectionalising device S. This may be a circuit breaker, switch, fuse or link. The system then effectively operates as two radial feeders. Siemens AG 2008
Page 45 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Power Transmission and Distribution

Overhead rural MV networks


The figure shows schematically typical arrangements for a rural overhead radial feeder, with some of the manually operated disconnectors omitted for simplicity. It will be noted that each main trunk feeder has a number of lateral spurs.

Page 46

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Substation type #1 with permanent data access


Substations of type 1 establish permanent communication between the control centre and the distribution substation e.g. by means of optical fibres. Often the fibres of a secondary communication network are interconnected with a node (receiving station) of the primary fibre optic ring. Applications such as RTU and AMR use TCP/IP. IEC 60870-5-104 is recommended for RTU communication. Of course, other communication media / protocols are possible.
Page 47 Jan 2008

FO from R/S, S/S

FO to next S/S

Fibre panel 1 (2) *24 Fibre optic to UTP Media Converters


8 port Ethernet HUB

RTU (IEC104)

Control & Monitor switch states, Short circuit indicators

motorized 11kV Switchgear

Meter

CT, VT

Battery charger Battery 24/48V DC

Sample configuration

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Substation type #2 with temporary data access


Substations of type 2 use switched telephone communication facilities (fixed wired or mobile communication) to transfer data on demand. The demand for data exchange can be initiated by the control centre or the distribution substation itself. The control centre needs to control switchgears remotely, to ask for data update or just to test the connection. The substation need to call in the control centre if there is some urgent data to transfer, for example a fault indication on a 11kV incoming or outgoing line.
Page 48 Jan 2008

Dial up Modem (WLL/Fixed wired)

RTU (IEC101)

Control & Monitor switch states, Short circuit indicators

motorized 11kV Switchgear Energy Meter CT, VT

Battery charger 24/48 V DC Battery 24/48V DC

Sample configuration

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Steps of Distribution Automation Step 0: Centralization of distribution system operation

centralized distribution system operation is less costly centralized distribution system operation reduces time to restore

supply after disturbances


existing mixed structures of local and centralized operation often

have grown over time but do not have justification as of today


mixed structures in case of disturbances, i.e. local operation only

temporarily, are questionable in terms of organization reliability

Page 49

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Steps of Distribution Automation Step 1a: Automation of feeder heads in HV/MV substations
in

case of a new HV/MV substation the whole scope of automation shall be built in:
remote

signaling of all switching element statuses remote control of circuit breakers digital protection devices provide analog measurements in normal operation and fault operation
in

case of retrofitting HV/MV substations the following priority applies


must: optional: nice-to-have:

fault information from protection equipment per field remote control of circuit breakers analog measurements of feeder currents more switching status information (isolator, earthing switch, ...)
Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 50

Jan 2008

Steps of Distribution Automation Step 1b: Automation of major switching substations

Major switching substation: three (3) outgoing feeders or more circuit breaker and protection In case of a new switching substation the whole scope of automation shall be built in (see Step 1a) In case of retrofitting switching substations the same priorities apply as in Step 1a.

Page 51

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Steps of Distribution Automation Step 1c: Remote signaling of selected fault current sensors

With this step the utility has reached the level of automated centralized fault location:
evaluation of topology information evaluation of fault impedances evaluation of fault current sensor information consideration of additional information received via phone

Page 52

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Steps of Distribution Automation Step 2a: Automation of selected MV/LV substations

Selected MV/LV substations:


normally open section point midway of long feeders

Remote control of load switches This normally implies the necessity to motorize the switches.

Page 53

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Steps of Distribution Automation Step 2b: Automation of selected customer substations

Selected customer substations:


high-volume consumer high-sensitive consumer

remote signaling of fault information remote switching remote signaling of analog measurements

This enables new business opportunities for providing high-quality power supply services to those customers.
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 54

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Selection of distribution substations for automation For the selection of distribution substations for automation two main questions have to be answered:
(A) What is the most reasonable and beneficial

rate of automation for distribution substations? (B) Which dedicated distribution substations shall be automated ? The goal of distribution substation automation is basically to reduce the average interruption time of energy supply in the distribution network. In case of a feeder trip the SCADA/DMS operators get fault indication from automated distribution substations. Within a short time a part of the affected consumers can be re-supplied by reconfiguring the distribution network by remote control actions from the SCADA/DMS. DMS applications will support the operator in defining the most appropriate switching sequence (Section 8).
Page 55 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Selection of distribution substations for automation Question (A): Automation Rate (I)
A fault on a cable section causes the feeder to trip. Two distribution substations will send fault indications and faultdirection to the control centre. Based on this information the operator can re-supply ~ 50% of the affected consumers by performing switching actions 2 - 5. This can be done within a time period of 3 minutes.

Automation rate assumed to be 25%.


R/S feeder 650 feeders 4099 distribution substations D6,5 substations / feeder 2,2 million consumers D537 consumers / substation R/S feeder

1. trip 3. close

Normally open point


2. open

5. close Fault indicator Automated substation

4. open

About 50% of the affected customers re-supplied after 3 minutes.


Page 56 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Selection of distribution substations for automation Question (A): Automation Rate (II)
Compared to nonautomation, the restoration crew can work faster since the area of intervention is only a part of the feeder. Fault isolation and service restoration are done by conventional methods. The crew on site can be supported by the operators in the control centre. Average conventional restoration time is estimated to be reduced by 50 % (40 minutes 20 minutes).

Automation rate assumed to be 25%.


R/S feeder R/S feeder

Fault indicator Automated substation

Remaining 50% of the affected customers re-supplied after 20 minutes.


Page 57 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Selection of distribution substations for automation Question (A): Automation Rate (III)
As result of this scenario the service restoration time will be reduced from approximately 40 minutes to approximately 11 Minutes. 50 % of consumers are re-supplied after 50 % of consumers are re-supplied after => average interruption time 3 minutes 20 minutes ~11 minutes

This kind of estimation of outage time reduction can be repeated for other values of the automation rate. The diagram on the next page indicates the average interruption time as function of the number of automated substations (magenta) taken from a study case. Relevant study case data are given on the following page. The blue curve is representing the Net Present Value (cost/benefit ratio). The costs are based on the substation adaptation investments, the benefits are calculated from more energy sold due to reduced average interruption time.

Page 58

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Selection of distribution substations for automation Question (A): Automation Rate (IV)

Detailed Case Study on Cost-Benefit-

Analysis of Distribution Automation with different Automation Rates in Section 9.

Page 59

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Selection of distribution substations for automation (VI) Question (B): Selection of Substations
The selection of dedicated substations for automation does not follow a strict and simple algorithm. It is rather guided by fuzzy criteria on two levels: Feeder level Such feeders will be preferred that have higher load density higher fault density than others Substation level Obviously the substation with normal open points will be automated first on a selected feeder. As regards other substations, the leading criterion is the load that can be affected i.e. those substations will be preferred that have large industrial consumers connected spur lines with high load connected Finally, the time needed for manual switching plays a role i.e. those substations will be preferred that have long travel time to reach
Page 60 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Seminar Contents (I)

Tuesday, Jan 29, 2008 Section 1: Goal, task and aspects of distribution automation Section 2: Impacts on planning of distribution automation Section 3: Selection of substations to work under automation automation layout Section 4: Which parameters should be measured or controlled ? Section 5: Selection criteria for hardware, software and communications Section 6: Distribution automation standards

Page 61

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Data to be collected from HV/MV Substations


Active Power, Reactive Power, Voltages, Currents from all incoming feeders outgoing feeders capacitor banks etc Switch Positions of the Isolators (Single Pole) Circuit Breakers (Double Pole) Indications of other auxiliary devices such as UPS, Battery

system, Chargers, Communication Devices etc. Status from the protection devices Transformer tap position

Page 62

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Data to be collected from Distribution S/S


Input to SCADA Switches Circuit breakers Load switches Analogs I/P/Q/V Protection (each feeder) Phase-to-phase short circuit Phase-to-ground short circuit Fault current sensors Battery System Power supply failure Charger failure Charge low
Page 63 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler

Output from SCADA Command (Command)

Status Status Measured Value Alarm Alarm Alarm Alarm Alarm Alarm

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Data to be collected for distribution automation


Step 2: Line/cable segment engineering data Typical load curves for load transformers Bulk supply Substation 220 kV bus 33 kV bus Step 1: Extended SCADA Data Model Step 3: Measurements from distribution automation

Receiving Substation 33 kV bus


M

Step Step 0: 0: SCADA SCADA data data model model 11 kV bus


M

M M M M

1. Extend by SCADA data model of distribution feeders (topology, switches) enabling Operation Applications (Section 8) 2. Extend by engineering data of line/cable segments and load models enabling Distribution Network Applications (Section 8) 3. Add measurements from automated distribution substations; substitute load models
Page 64 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Short-circuits and earth-faults indicators

I> (t)

criterion Is1 and dt fullfilled -> indication is activated


selected pick-up current

IS1

enveloping of failure current

Integrative measurement avoids erroneous indication!


Red signal curves must not activate the indicator

dt

pick-up time dt selectable: 40 oder 80 ms

For effective failure detection and location short-circuits and earth-faults must be observed. Combined shortcircuit and earth-fault indicators are most economical. Indicators can be installed on outgoing feeders of RMUs. The fault detection facility generates alarms in case of high current peaks. However, the facility shall prevent faulty indications due to magnetizinginrush currents, other transient and nofault conditions.

Page 65

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Fault detection in low resistance terminated networks by means of short-circuit indicators

Umspannwerk Power substation

Knotenpunktstation nodal point substation


I>> Ie RMU I>> Ie RMU I>> Ie

I>> Ie

RMU

I>> Ie

RMU

I>> Ie

RMU

I>> Ie

RMU

I>> Ie

RMU

I>> Ie

Page 66

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Typical Repairing of Permanent Faults

Protection has tripped circuit breaker CB Transient fault? Automatic recovery? Localize fault phone calls, relay data, Remote Terminal Units (RTU),

visually Open isolator and ground equipment Restore supply as much as possible Do nessesary repair work Fault removed, line repaired Remove grounding and close isolator or replace fuse Switch back to normal state

Page 67

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Urban vs. Rural Regions

Urban underground cables with less external faults

Rural a lot of overhead lines intermediate short circuits birds trees wind Auto recloser strategies

Page 68

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Automation in Urban Areas Example for Ring Main Automation


Page 69 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Typical open ring configuration

OC

OC

FI OC: over current protection FI: fault indicator

Page 70

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Outstation (Ring Main Station, Satellite Station)

Page 71

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Typical mini RTU solutions


Ring main unit with one feeder
Double indications:
Ring unit 1 isolator Earth switch 1 Ring unit 2 isolator Earth switch 2 Feeder Earth switch Feeder On/OFF On/OFF On/OFF On/OFF On/OFF On/OFF

Single indications:
Q0 1
M

Q0 1
M

Q0 1
M

-F1

Short circuit indicator RK1 Short circuit indicator RK2 Fuse blown Grouped Indication Auxiliary power failure Transformer temperature alarm Remote control off UPS failure Station open

A5 1 -T1
3

A5 1 -T1
3

A5 1

Meters (optional):
Meter feeder

Double commands:
-T5 -T5 Ring unit 1 isolator Ring unit 2 isolator Feeder On/OFF On/OFF On/OFF

Analogs (optional): Ring Unit 1 Ring Unit 2 Feeder to LV transformer Dr. Roland Eichler
Ring unit 1 Current Phase L2 Ring unit 1 Voltage L2-N Ring unit 2 Current Phase L2 Ring unit 2 Voltage L2-N

Page 72

Jan 2008

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Automation in a MV Ring (1)


E1

SB11

SB-R E2 SB21 SB22

20

40

60 [sec]

Example of network configuration. The network is divided into four sections. In the example is there a fault between SB21 and SB22. A central control unit is placed with the circuit breakers (E1,E2). The circuit breakers could be taken in and out from the central control unit. Decentral control units are placed with the line switches in each section (SB11,SB-R,SB21 and SB22) .These units get information from a voltage sensing system and control each line switch. In a ring configuration it is a must to have a voltage sensing system on both sides of the line switch.
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 73

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Automation in a MV Ring (2)


E1 SB11

SB-R E2 SB21 SB22

20

40

60 [sec]

With a fault in the network configuration, the protection relay will take the circuit breaker (E2) out. The central control unit will try to put the circuit breaker in, but in a faulty network configuration the protection relay will take out the circuit breaker again.
Page 74 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Automation in a MV Ring (3)


E1 SB11

SB-R E2 SB21 SB22

20

40

60 [sec]

This procedure indicates to all units (SB21,SB22 and SB-R) that the network configuration is faulty, and the automatic sectioning starts. All decentral control units (SB21 and SB22) take out the line switches .

Page 75

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Automation in a MV Ring (4)


E1 SB11

SB-R E2 SB21 SB22

20

40

60 [sec]

The central control unit closes the circuit breaker after 20 seconds, to test the first part of the network configuration .

Page 76

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Automation in a MV Ring (5)


E1 SB11

SB-R E2 SB21 SB22

20

40

60 [sec]

After 40 seconds the decentral control unit (SB21) closes the line switch.

Page 77

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Automation in a MV Ring (6)


E1 SB11

SB-R E2 SB21 SB22

20

40

60 [sec]

Because this part of the configuration (SB21 SB22) is faulty, the central unit will take out the circuit breaker. The decentral control unit (SB21) discovers that the voltage only was in for a short time, and then takes out the line switch and locks it.
Page 78 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Automation in a MV Ring (7)


E1 SB11

SB-R E2 SB21 SB22

20

40

60 [sec]

The decentral control unit (SB22) discovers that the voltage was in only for a short time, and because of the voltage sensing system of both sides of the switch, the unit knows that the fault is between SB21 and SB22. The decentral control unit (SB22) will then lock the line switch.
Page 79 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Automation in a MV Ring (8)


E1 SB11

SB-R E2 SB21 SB22

20

40

60 [sec]

The decentral control unit (SB-R) have detect the start of the automatic sectioning. The decentral control unit (SB-R) has not detected any voltage on the side SB-R SB22. After a time (60 seconds) the unit knows that the fault is between SB21 and SB 22, and the line switch (SB-R) is closed. Now at this time the part between SB21 and SB22 (the faulty) is disconnected from the healthy part of the network configuration.
Page 80 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Automation in Rural Areas Sectionalizer


Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 81

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Sectionalizing in Overhead Lines

Sectionalizer enable a system for automatic sectioning in a network configuration. Automatic sectioning is based on switching on and out line switches and circuit breaker in a controlled sequence to find errors in the network. When the errors are found, the system will take out the faulty part of the configuration.

Page 82

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sectionalizing in Overhead Lines


S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

Circuit breaker

Load-breaking switch

Power Transformer

Voltage sensing system

Example of network configuration. The network is divided into six sections (S1 S6)
Page 83 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sectionalizer (1)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

With at fault in the network configuration, the protection relay will take out the circuit breaker.
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 84

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Sectionalizer (2)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

The central control unit (E1) will try to put the circuit breaker in but in a faulty network configuration.
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 85

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Sectionalizer (3)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

The protection relay will take out the circuit breaker again.
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 86

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Sectionalizer (4)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

This procedure indicates to all units (E1 and L1 .. L5) that the network configuration is faulty, and the automatic sectioning starts. The automatic sectioning starts at relative time 0 seconds. All decentral control units (L1 .. L5) take out the line switches .
Page 87 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sectionalizer (5)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

The central control unit closes the circuit breaker after 20 seconds, to test the first part of the network configuration (S1).
Page 88 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sectionalizer (6)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

After 40 seconds the decentral control unit (L1) closes the line switch.

Page 89

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sectionalizer (7)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

Because this part of the configuration (S2) is faulty, the central unit (E1) will take out the circuit breaker.
Page 90 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sectionalizer (8)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

The decentral control unit (L1) discovers that the voltage only was in for a short time, and then takes out the line switch and locks it. At this time the section S2 (the faulty) is disconnected from the healthy part of the network configuration.
Page 91 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sectionalizer (9)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

After 60 seconds the central unit (E1) closes the circuit breaker.

Page 92

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sectionalizer (10)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

The decentral control unit (L2) closes the line switch in due to the voltage sensing system.
Page 93 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sectionalizer (11)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

After 80 seconds the decentral unit (L3) close the line switch in due to the voltage sensing system.
Page 94 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sectionalizer (12)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

After 100 seconds the decentral unit (L4) close the line switch in due to the voltage sensing system.
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 95

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Sectionalizer (13)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

Because this part of the configuration (S4) is faulty, the central unit (E1) will take out the circuit breaker.
Page 96 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sectionalizer (14)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

The decentral control unit (L4) discovers that the voltage only was in for a short time, and then takes out the line switch and locks it. At this time the section S4 (the faulty) is disconnected from the healthy part of the network configuration.
Page 97 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sectionalizer (15)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

After 120 seconds the central unit closes the circuit breaker and the automatic sectioning is finished. The decentral control unit (L5) could be designed to close the line switch after 120 seconds.
Page 98 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sectionalizer (16)
S4: 250 kW

e. g. 110/ 20kV E1

L3
S1: 500 kW S5: 250 kW

L2 L1
S2: 250 kW

S3: 375 kW

L4 See next page

L5

S6: 150 kW

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 [sec]

The central control unit sets outputs (lamps) for each section (S1 S6) which is faulty. It is also possible to send this information to a network control system via IEC 6870-5-101 protocol, or/and send SMS messages.
Page 99 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sectionalizer: Switch and Control

Line Switch with voltage transformer

Electronic with storage battery, local control and communication

Page 100

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Seminar Contents (I)

Tuesday, Jan 29, 2008 Section 1: Goal, task and aspects of distribution automation Section 2: Impacts on planning of distribution automation Section 3: Selection of substations to work under automation layout Section 4: Which parameters should be measured or controlled ? Section 5: Selection criteria for hardware, software and communications Section 6: Distribution automation standards automation

Page 101

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Power Systems Control and Energy Management Multi-Level Environment


Integrated utility business operation Added value network management & optimization Network control & supervision
(single-or multi-utility)
Partner, market, etc. F&A MIS Asset Energy Sales Management Data & Care Warehouse

...

Business Services

Enterprise Integration Bus Meter data Advanced applications Network Network management information (EMS, DMS, EBM, Trading) planning

(applications and systems)


DB

...
SCADA etc.

Gateway IT Integration

Information gateway

ASP Administration

$Trader
Private & public networks Multi-site Power Exchange Meters
xxxx x xxx xxx xx

Operation E-Commerce Maintenance

Communication

Field data acquisition, Local automation local control & automation

Substation Protection RTUs automation

Page 102

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Communication Media

Optical Fiber

Public Network

Copper Cable

GSM/CDMA Network

Radio

Power Line
Page 103 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Backbone Network / Access network


MV - Line
RTU

RTU

Backbone Network
MV - Line

RTU

RTU

RTU RTU
Page 104 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Backbone Network / Distribution Data Acquisition

Control Center

TCI

No. 1
Optical Fibre

No. Z

MV - Line

MUX

RTU

RTU RTU
Page 105 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Aspects of Network Design

Costs

Reliability

Network Design

Regulations
Page 106 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler

Performance
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Communication Selection Criteria Leased Public Line


The

telephone company provides direct point-to-point connectivity between the RTU location and the control centre. On both end of the communication, a suitable modem appropriate to bandwidth (9600 bauds, 86 Kbps) is required. cost of the communication of this nature comprises the fixed cost to be paid as one-time charges (for Registration fees, Installation fees of the equipment) and the operational charges (for periodical subscription as well as usage). this type of communication facility seems to be economical, on a long term it may not turn up to be cost-effective, since one has to pay the periodical operation charges. other disadvantage is due to frequent failures of the lines, dependence of third party state-owned service provider. type of communication has limitations for future expansion as the number of RTUs / mRTUs increases. Siemens AG 2008
Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Power Transmission and Distribution

The

Though

The

This

Page 107

Communication Selection Criteria Dial-up Public Line

Few

telephones / modems are provided having dial-up facility at the control centre end, whereas at the RTU / mRTU ends the modems are to be provided with answering facility. a real-time operation, this kind of communication is not preferred due to the time consuming dial-up and answering process. However, for Automated Meter Reading or for checking the status of reclosers after disturbances dialup communication can be effectively utilized. cost of the communication of this nature comprise of the fixed cost to be paid as one time Registration fees, Installation fees of the equipment) and the periodical subscription as well as usage charges. however, are the same as indicated above for the Leased line communication.
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

For

The

Disadvantages,

Page 108

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Communication Selection Criteria GSM Mobile Communication

With

the advent of mobile telephony, usage of GSM communication is becoming quite popular and widely used for data communication. Using GSM modems at the RTU end and the Control Centre end the data exchange can be introduced using urban mobile (GSM) networks. considering the GSM network as a feasible solution one has to be sure that mobile connectivity is available at all the RTU locations. is also an acceptable solution.

While

GPRS

Disadvantages

are similar as indicated above for leased line communication. Even more, GSM networks tend to be overloaded during peak hours and might make RTU communication unavailable for quite a while.

Page 109

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Communication Selection Criteria Digital Networks via Fiber Optic


It

is required to lay extensive FO cables connecting primary stations, subdivisions and the control centre. Such systems, though The Best technical option to establish a TCP/IP network, requires considerably high cost. In addition to establishing of an extensive FO network, the associated terminating equipment and multiplexers are required at all the location from where the data is to be collected or to be dropped in. Though the solution does not look to be cost effective at first sight due to high initial costs, it may turn out to be cost effective, if the utility makes use of the extra fibers of the FO cable for other communication facility requirements such as voice, Fax, other IT applications. With the establishment of an own FO network, the utility has the responsibility for operation and maintenance of the network, but at the same time it has full control of system expansion in case of increasing number of (field-) RTUs. Fast wireless Ethernet modems are gradually becoming popular. The Ethernet modems are available in the rated range of 5 miles to 25 miles. Making use of such Ethernet modems together with FO based communication network as backbone, makes an ideal communication between distribution substations, receiving substations and the control centre.
Page 110 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Communication Selection Criteria Radio Communication


The

communication system using radio requires considerably high costs associated with procurement of radio systems, installation of towers and masts for antennas etc. once installed and put into operation, the communication system has low, annual costs for operations and maintenance. Thus it helps the utility to establish its own communication network. is necessary to obtain the frequency allotment / approval from the wireless agency or the prescribed authority as nominated by the state / govt. In general, yearly subscription fees for utilizing the frequency are required to be paid. implementing the solution, a detailed Sight of Line study is required to be carried out for the feasibility of the solution in a particular town / city. Obstruction make occur due to high rise buildings (also by not yet existing ones !).
Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

However,

It

Before

Page 111

Costs

Hardware Commissioning / Installation Base fees Connection fees Excavation work

Page 112

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Cost Comparison
Telecontrol service (RTU) and remote load profile reading
Invest for assembly and operation
1800% 1600% 1400% 1200% 1000% 800% 600% 400% 200% 0%
e r) BT ow adio t R (no C I M DC r) CD line al) ble a C GS f c e a S ( S (lo tc ne l mod DC DC ilo ine ed li p l a i w s D ed Ne ea as L e L

Connection fee Base fee Assembly/commisioning Hardware cable Hardware equipment

9 km MV line with 4 kiosks Over 5 years 12 polling per day

PLC over Medium Voltage

dio Ra

*) This calculation depends on the regional conditions, the example based on the European / African market.

Transmission method Page 113 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Data Transmission with Distribution Line Carrier (DLC)

Page 114

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Data Transmission with Distribution Line Carrier (DLC) - Inductive coupling device
Conductor 1 Conductor 2 Conductor 3

Sealing end

Earthing strap

CDI (ferrite ring)

Earthing bar

BU

The coupling transformer encloses the earthing strap of the MV cable


Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 115

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Data Transmission with Distribution Line Carrier (DLC) - Capacitive coupling device
Conductor 1 Conductor 2 Conductor 3

Connecting element

CDC

Earthing bar

Bracket or separate supporting bar for CDC

Cable outlet Page 116 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Data Transmission with Distribution Line Carrier (DLC) Basic Unit


Communication Multi carrier principle Transmission in the frequency range of

CENELEC Uniform hardware for Master & Slave Transmission rates up to 28.8kbit/s (depending on the line) Bypass of MV switchgear Simple & complex: MV line, tree or ring networks
Interfaces Telecontrol per IEC 60870-5-101 or DNP 3.0 Meters per IEC 61107 Medium-voltage line and telecontrol line
Page 117 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Data Transmission with Distribution Line Carrier (DLC) Sample project: MEA Bangkok/Thailand

Control center

MV substation automation - field trail


DLC runs with microRTU and control center by using IEC communication standard Test with out-door CDC coupling units Transmission rate 9.6kBd

Distribution point
V.24 IEC 60870-5-101

Pole mounted repeater

Pole mounted switch 1

Pole mounted switch 2

MasterBU MV Line

V.24

IEC 60870-5-101

V.24

IEC 60870-5-101

BU MV Line

BU

BU

Page 118

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Data Transmission with Distribution Line Carrier (DLC) Sample project: MEA Bangkok/Thailand

Mounting a BU cabinet on an overhead line pole

Pole mounted cabinet including DCS3000 BU

Fully-installed cabinet, with DCS 3000 BU and SICAM microRTU

Page 119

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Power Systems Control and Energy Management Multi-Level Environment


Integrated utility business operation Added value network management & optimization Network control & supervision
(single-or multi-utility)
Partner, market, etc. F&A MIS Asset Energy Sales Management Data & Care Warehouse

...

Business Services

Enterprise Integration Bus Meter data Advanced applications Network Network management information (EMS, DMS, EBM, Trading) planning

(applications and systems)


DB

...
SCADA etc.

Gateway IT Integration

Information gateway

ASP Administration

$Trader
Private & public networks Multi-site Power Exchange Meters
xxxx x xxx xxx xx

Operation E-Commerce Maintenance

Communication

Field data acquisition, Local automation local control & automation

Substation Protection RTUs automation

Page 120

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Basic SCADA/EMS/DMS System Architecture

Interfaces

ORACLE DW

Front End

ELCOM

HIS

SDM

DMS

SA RO

DW EA

Operational DW Database
BASE ICCP SCADA

DSM

NA

PA

DTS

Interfaces
Base

Distribution
Dr. Roland Eichler

Generation

Transmission
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 121

Jan 2008

Sample SCADA/EMS/DMS Modularity


MultiBck Base CFE Data DNA DSM ELCOM EMM FA GEI GIS GSA ICCP IndC IS&R LTOP OA PA SCADA SDT TNA TS UI Multisite/Backup System Base System Communication Front End Data Engineering Distribution Network Applications Demand Side Management Electricity Utilities Communication Energy Market Management Forecasting Applications General External Interface Interface to GIS Generation Scheduling Applications Inter Control Center Protocol Industrial Communication Information Storage & Retrieval Long-Term Operation Planning Operational Applications Power Applications Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Software Development Tools Transmission Network Applications Training System and Simulation User Interface & Operator Support Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Transmission Generation
LTOP LTOP GSA GSA EMM EMM FA FA SDT SDT PA PA DSM DSM SCADA SCADA IS&R IS&R DNA DNA OA OA UI UI Base Base Data Data GIS GIS Multi Multi BCK BCK CFE CFE Elcom Elcom ICCP ICCP TNA TNA TS TS GEI GEI IndC IndC

SCADA

Distribution

Page 122

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Advantages of SCADA-integrated DMS Applications (I) There are solutions available rather where a separate DMS software is linked to the SCADA system. Integrated DMS applications, however, means software components that have been designed and implemented to form an integrated solution together with the SCADA base system. This provides benefits to the user: Applications obtain current loading/switching states from SCADA Applications are triggered by SCADA (periodically, on event) Switching procedures determined by applications are automatically, fast and securely executed via the SCADA system Closed-loop applications possible (e.g. VVC)

Page 123

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Advantages of SCADA-integrated DMS Applications (II) There are solutions available rather where a separate DMS software is linked to the SCADA system. Integrated DMS applications, however, means software components that have been designed and implemented to form an integrated solution together with the SCADA base system. This provides benefits to the user: same user interface - less training effort, staff is productive earlier same system base - no extra cost for dealing with another system base same data model - less effort for data maintenance common database - operator sees consistent values in SCADA and applications, operators have trust in the applications, operators actually use the applications and realize their benefits common system environment - applications are easy to use, operators actually use the applications and realize their benefits
Page 124 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

System Configuration Non-Redundant All-In-One System

UI RTS CFE PSOS AAS Web TS

: User Interface : Real Time Server (SCADA) : Communication Front-End : Power System Object Server (Data Model) : Advanced Application Server : Web Terminal Server

Page 125

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

System Configuration Non-Redundant All-In-One System w/- external UI Clients

UI RTS CFE PSOS AAS Web TS

: User Interface : Real Time Server (SCADA) : Communication Front-End : Power System Object Server (Data Model) : Advanced Application Server : Web Terminal Server

Page 126

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

System Configuration Non-Redundant Dual-Server System

UI RTS CFE PSOS AAS Web TS

: User Interface : Real Time Server (SCADA) : Communication Front-End : Power System Object Server (Data Model) : Advanced Application Server : Web Terminal Server

Page 127

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

System Configuration Redundant Multi-Server System

UI RTS CFE PSOS AAS Web TS

: User Interface : Real Time Server (SCADA) : Communication Front-End : Power System Object Server (Data Model) : Advanced Application Server : Web Terminal Server

Page 128

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Integration Solution for GIS Interface


Rear projection Walls 84 84

Support
GPS Time system

Support

Operation

Operation
2 x Laser printer b/w

Laser printer color


m-Term m-Term

SCADA-DMS LAN

to Bckp

Router / Modem

to PDS
Front-end Front-end Server Server
Firewall

IM / ISR IM Server / ISR Server

SCADA-DMS SCADA-DMS Server Server

ICCP ICCP Server Server

Ultimately: IEC 60 870-5-104


Legend: MMI IM/AC ISR FE DMS RTU GPS Man-Machine-Interface Information Management Information Storage & Retrieval Front End Distribution Management System Remote Terminal Unit Global Positioning System

Web Server

Support

Serial Serial interfaces interfaces

RTU RTU RTU RTU


Primary Substations
Corporate Network

Initially: IEC 60870-5-101

GIS

SAP

AMR

Page 129

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Integration Solution for SAP Interface


Rear projection Walls 84 84

Support
GPS Time system

Support

Operation

Operation
2 x Laser printer b/w

Laser printer color


m-Term m-Term

SCADA-DMS LAN

to Bckp

Router / Modem

to PDS
Front-end Front-end Server Server
Firewall

IM / ISR IM Server / ISR Server

SCADA-DMS SCADA-DMS Server Server

ICCP ICCP Server Server

Ultimately: IEC 60 870-5-104


Legend: MMI IM/AC ISR FE DMS RTU GPS

Web Server

Man-Machine-Interface Information Management Information Storage & Retrieval Front End Distribution Management System Remote Terminal Unit Global Positioning System

Support

Serial Serial interfaces interfaces

RTU RTU RTU RTU


Primary Substations
Corporate Network

Initially: IEC 60870-5-101

GIS

SAP

AMR

Page 130

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Integration Solution for AMR Interface


Rear projection Walls 84 84

Support
GPS Time system

Support

Operation

Operation
2 x Laser printer b/w

Laser printer color


m-Term m-Term

SCADA-DMS LAN

to Bckp

Router / Modem

to PDS
Front-end Front-end Server Server
Firewall

IM / ISR IM Server / ISR Server

SCADA-DMS SCADA-DMS Server Server

ICCP ICCP Server Server

Ultimately: IEC 60 870-5-104

Web Server

Legend: MMI IM/AC ISR FE DMS RTU GPS

Man-Machine-Interface Information Management Information Storage & Retrieval Front End Distribution Management System Remote Terminal Unit Global Positioning System

Support

Serial Serial interfaces interfaces

RTU RTU RTU RTU


Primary Substations
Corporate Network

Initially: IEC 60870-5-101

GIS

SAP

AMR

redundant

Meter

Page 131

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Possible control center structural configurations


Independent CCs with different software configuration
Dependent CCs in Multi-Site configuration, with centralized database maintenance and data exchange

MCC CC 1 CC 2

CC 1

CC 2

CC 3

Independent CCs with different software configuration and data exchange over ICCP with CC1

CC 1 CC 2
Page 132 Jan 2008

?
CC 3
Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Multisite Operation of Control Centers


Multiple Control Centers in a hierarchical and/or equal-rank configuration can cooperatively manage a power system. Multisite keeps statuses and values in the process images of the Control Centers up-todate with statuses and values from other Control Centers and distributes supervisory control commands, manual updates, tagging and alarm acknowledgments.

Page 133

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Multisite Operation of Control Centers Features

Exchange of information between Control Centers Uniform data model and central data management, i.e. reduced maintenance effort Controlling the network from different Control Centers Increased availability Compensation of communication failures (i.e. automatic transmission of missing data after return of the connection) Possibility of delegating operator tasks permanently or during periods where Control Centers are un-staffed or understaffed Provision of backup or emergency systems Simple and fast design of emergency and system management concepts as well as straightforward implementation (configurability)

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 134

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Multisite Operation of Control Centers Basic Concept

The Multisite concept allows connecting two or more control centers to a Multisite network. Hierarchical or equal-rank configurations and also combinations of them are possible. Each control center is autonomous and independent in the Multisite network. The control centers can have different hardware combinations and different data. The hardware configuration of one system is not visible to the software system of other control centers, i.e. each control center is regarded as a unit by all other control centers. All control centers are connected to each other via LAN/WAN links. The control centers communicate with each other via TCP/IP.

Page 135

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Multisite Operation of Control Centers Basic Concept


Control Center Redundancy Multisite features enable control center redundancy, if the information areas of the control centers are defined with an appropriate large overlapping. Two control centers can share the operation control tasks for the same area. Multisite features enable the configuration of an emergency system. For this aim, identical information areas are assigned to both control centers. The hardware configuration and functions need not be identical. Delegation of Operation Control Task The operation control task can be moved between the control centers at request of the operator. This allows operating a control center unmanned during periods when management requirements are low e.g. during night time.

Page 136

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Multisite Operation of Control Centers Hierarchical Configuration

Information Information Network Network (RTUs, (RTUs, ICCP, ICCP, ...) ...)

Main Main Control ControlCenter Center

Regional Regional Control ControlCenter Center

Regional Regional Control ControlCenter Center

Regional Regional Control ControlCenter Center

Information Information Network Network (RTUs, (RTUs, ICCP, ICCP, ...) ...)

Information Information Network Network (RTUs, (RTUs, ICCP, ICCP, ...) ...)

Information Information Network Network (RTUs, (RTUs, ICCP, ICCP, ...) ...)

Page 137

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Multisite Operation of Control Centers Main/Backup Configuration

Main Main Control Control Center Center

Backup Backup Control Control Center Center

Information Information Network Network (RTUs, (RTUs, ICCP, ICCP, ...) ...)

Information Information Network Network (RTUs, (RTUs, ICCP, ICCP, ...) ...)

Information Information Network Network (RTUs, (RTUs, ICCP, ICCP, ...) ...)

Page 138

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sample Main/Backup Configuration


Backup CC Link FO Link > 2 MBps

Main

PC

SB

PC

SB

Bckp

Initially: IEC 101 Ultimately: IEC 104 via FO

Port 1

Port 2

RTU

Primary Substations

Independent (dual port) communication between RTU and Main/Bckp The Multisite backup concept allows data entry once for both locations Main and Backup are redundant and self-contained Fully automatic update of databases at both locations
Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 139

Sample Main/Backup Configuration


Backup CC Link FO Link > 2 MBps

Main

PC

SB

PC

SB

Bckp

Initially: IEC 101 Ultimately: IEC 104 via FO

Port 1

Port 2

RTU
Normal operation: Port 1 sends to/receives from Main Port 2 sends to Backup

Primary Substations

Backup is continuously updated from Main (operator entered data) Backup is ready for take-over at any instant of time without any human interaction
Page 140 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Sample Main/Backup Configuration


Backup CC Link FO Link > 2 MBps

Main

PC

SB PC Initially: IEC 101 Ultimately: IEC 104 via FO

PC

SB

Bckp

Port 1

Port 2

RTU
Disturbed operation:

Primary Substations

Server fault at ECS  standby server at ECS takes over, no other changes, completely transparent to operator Fault of communication link to ECS  data to /from the affected RTU goes via the Backup CC Link and BCS, no other changes, completely transparent to operator All servers down at ECS (i.e. incl. spares !)  operator at ECS can immediately connect

Page 141

his/her to BCS orEichler operation is performed from BCS Jan 2008 workstation Dr. Roland Power Transmission and Distribution

Siemens AG 2008

System Security IT Trends for SCADA/EMS/DMS

Page 142

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

System Security Thread Analysis

Page 143

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

System Security Thread Analysis Potential Attackers

Page 144

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

System Security Thread Analysis Sample Attacks & Countermeasures

Page 145

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

System Security Multi Level Security Concept

Interconnection (e.g. to other utility Computer networks, Internet, etc.)

User access to system functionality (none, view, modify)

User Authorization by login

Logging (audit records)

User access rights for controlling the access to the IMM data model
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 146

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

System Security Typical Secure Network Setup

(*)

(*)

Page 147

Support TLS/SSL/PKI Security for ICCP Communications Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

System Security Sample System Integrity and Confidentiality Methods


Adding, deleting and modifying user profiles with an O/S User Administration application of the SCADA/DMS database management system Assigning of user roles to users Runtime verification of user authorities Assigning of Areas of Responsibility to users Restricted access by outside parties and security protection against unauthorized attempts to procure internal passwords Mechanisms for data authentication to ensure data integrity (complete and unmodified data) and data privacy Networking and internet security settings, turning off of unnecessary network services All user logon/ logoff activities are logged in the System Alarm Summary list Automatic user logoff with configurable timer (configurable) Password security, including encryption of transmitted and stored passwords Administrator security measures that include enabling account lockout methods, renaming the account, establishing separate accounts for multiple administrators, setting up an administrator password control process and configuring of administrator access with critical but limited privileges.
Page 148 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Automation projects are multi-part/multi-technology


Bulk Data Management Systems
Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) systems, etc.

SCADA/DMS Control Center


Severs, consoles, large screen projections, etc.
HV

Communication Equipment
Power Line Carrier, Radio, GSM, etc.
MV MV MV

R Cable R n.o.

OverheadLine T R

Substation Equipment
S

Meters, Remote Terminal Units, Motorized Switchgear, etc.

DistributionSubstation NS

Page 149

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Automation projects call for particular vendor qualifications


9 DA

systems must be designed as a whole, parts must fit together (interfaces, capacity, redundancy, ...) 9 DA grows over time 9 Must stay open to technology advances during implementation time
9 DA

constitutes a system/solution business (as opposed to a product business)

9 Need

long-term vendor stability 9 Need profound vendor experience in large, complex, multitechnology projects 9 Need profound vendor understanding of business processes in the electricity distribution business
Page 150 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Seminar Contents (I)

Tuesday, Jan 29, 2008 Section 1: Goal, task and aspects of distribution automation Section 2: Impacts on planning of distribution automation Section 3: Selection of substations to work under automation layout Section 4: Which parameters should be measured or controlled ? Section 5: Selection criteria for hardware, software and communications Section 6: Distribution automation standards automation

Page 151

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards The Scope of IEC TC57 scope

To prepare international standards for power systems control equipment and systems including EMS, SCADA, DA, teleprotection, and associated information exchange for real-time and non-real-time information, used in the planning, operation and maintenance of power systems. Power systems management comprises control within control centres, substations and individual pieces of primary equipment including telecontrol and interfaces to equipment, systems and databases, which may be outside the scope of TC 57.

Page 152

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards Simplified TC57 Groups WG3 60870-5 RTU Communications WG7 60870-6 Control Center to Control Center Communications WG10 61850 Substation Automation WG13 61970 Control Center API WG14 61968 DMS WG15 62351 Security WG16 62325 CIM Market Extensions WG17 61850-7 Distributed Generation WG18 62344 =>61850 Hydro WG19 62357 Architecture Standardization activities colored in red are relevant for distribution automation.
Page 153 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards IEC 60870-5 series - Overview

Page 154

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards IEC 60870-5 series Details (I)

IEC

60870-5-101 This standard defines the functionality for the interoperability of telecontrol equipment of different manufactures for the communication between substations (outstations) and between substation (outstation) and control centers (central station). Therefore it applies to telecontrol equipment and systems with coded bit serial data transmission for controlling and monitoring geographically widespread processes. 60870-5-102 It standardizes the transmission of integrated totals representing the amount of electrical energy transferred between power utilities, or between a power utility and independent power producers on a HV or MV network as a part of energy management systems functionality. It is not concerned with LV networks or the interfaces to the energy consumption meters themselves. In general the values of integrated totals are transmitted at periodic intervals to update the energy interchanges.
Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

IEC

Page 155

Standards IEC 60870-5 series Details (II)

IEC 60870-5-103 This standard is used to upload protection data. It is applicable for substation automation systems with star coupled protection devices using point-to-point links and a master slave transmission procedure. 60870-5-104 This standard enables Application Data Units, as defined in IEC 60870-5-101, to be transmitted over a variety of digital data networks using the standard TCP-IP transport interface. Thus the specifications of this standard present a combination of the application layer of IEC 60870-5-101 and the transport functions provided by a TCP/IP. Within TCP/IP various network types can be utilised including X.25, FR (Frame Relay), ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), and ISDN (Integrated Service Data Network).

IEC

Page 156

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards Protocol architecture IEC 60870-5-104 vs. 101

Page 157

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards Simplified TC57 Groups WG3 60870-5 RTU Communications WG7 60870-6 Control Center to Control Center Communications WG10 61850 Substation Automation WG13 61970 Control Center API WG14 61968 DMS WG15 62351 Security WG16 62325 CIM Market Extensions WG17 61850-7 Distributed Generation WG18 62344 =>61850 Hydro WG19 62357 Architecture Standardization activities colored in red are relevant for distribution automation.
Page 158 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards Purpose of IEC 61850 The standard defines a communication system that provides interoperability between the functions to be performed in a substation but residing in equipment (physical devices) from different suppliers, meeting the same functional and operational requirements. Functional requirements are met independent of substation size and operational conditions. The functions of an substation automation system are control and supervision, as well as protection and monitoring of the primary equipment and of the grid. Other functions are related to the system itself, e.g. supervision of the communication.

Page 159

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards Traditional substation automation system


Control Centre
IEC 60870-5-101 DNP V3.00

Control Centre

Substation Automation System

IEC 60870-5-104 Time signal


Log.IN1 1100

F1

1530 1530

>1
1503 Log.IN2 Log.IN3 1530

8888 Log.Out1

F2

2173 2173

Ethernet

IEC 60870-5-101 DNP V3.00 Profibus FMS IEC 60870-5-103

Modbus/Profibus DP

Page 160

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards Substation automation system based on IEC 61850


Control Centre

HMI Clients

IEC 60870-5-104
Ethernet

Full Server

Full Server

Stationsbus

IEC 61850
plus Profibus FMS, OPC where necessary

Page 161

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards Real substation automation system based on IEC 61850


IEC 60870-5-101 Engineering Workdesk Remote access to the engineering work desk via Remote Desktop

Time synchronization via GPS antenna

SICAM PAS DIP 25/6kV HSA SICAM PAS DIP 110kV HSA 6 kV BSP Transformer monitoring IEC61850 approx. 10 km

Mobile Work desk

SICAM PAS Full Server

Substation bus IEC61850

IEC 60870-5-101

Field unit 6MD63 for central I/Os

Bay unit 6MD63 for central I/Os

Bay unit 6MD63 for central I/Os

Station bus IEC61850 25/6kV HSA Equipment

Station bus IEC61850 110 kV HSA Equipment

Station bus IEC61850 6kV BSP Equipment

Gateway

Remote substations via SICAM miniRTU

e.g. IEC 103


Bay units (7SJ, controller) non IEC61850based equipment (as needed) Bay units (7SJ, Controller) non IEC61850based equipment (as needed) Bay units (7SJ, controller) non IEC61850based equipment (as needed)

Page 162

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards IEC 61850 Application Fields Today

Control Center
IEC 60870-5101 /-104

Control Center

Remote Service / Diagnostics

Firewall Router

IEC61850 Station Bus


IED IED
IEC 61850 (Ethernet) Protection & Control

Hard-wired process interface

Page 163

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards Full Benefit of Ethernet and IEC 61850 Technology Station bus is one and only communication infrastructure Tunneling of legacy protocols Various network topologies supported Full GOOSE support for inter-bay applications System-wide time synchronization by SNTP System-wide network monitoring by SNMP Remote diagnostics
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 164

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Standards IEC 61850 Future Application Fields


*in standardization work

Control Center
IEC 61850

To be harmonized with CIM IEC 61970*

IEC 61850
Firewall Router

communication to other substatons*

IEC61850 Station Bus


IED IED
IEC 61850 (Ethernet) Protection & Control

IEC61850 Process Bus


Digital Instrument Transformer Data via IEC61850-9-2 CT VT
Page 165 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Merging Unit

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards Simplified TC57 Groups WG3 60870-5 RTU Communications WG7 60870-6 Control Center to Control Center Communications WG10 61850 Substation Automation WG13 61970 Control Center API WG14 61968 DMS WG15 62351 Security WG16 62325 CIM Market Extensions WG17 61850-7 Distributed Generation WG18 62344 =>61850 Hydro WG19 62357 Architecture Standardization activities colored in red are relevant for distribution automation.
Page 166 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards IEC Standard 61970: Goals and Background


Goals

of the project:

Reduce the cost and time needed to add new applications to an EMS/DMS Protect the investment in existing applications that are working effectively in an EMS/DMS
Background

Information:

International

Standard IEC 61970 is being prepared by IEC Technical Committee 57 Power system control and associated communications (WG 13) The standard defines an application program interface for an energy management system Part of the IEC Standard IEC 61970 is the Common Information Model (CIM) The work is based upon the work of EPRI Control Center API (CCAPI) research project (RP-3654-1)
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 167

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Standards IEC Standard 61970 Status of May 2006


Stages of Standardization: 1. WD 2. CD 3. CDV 4. FDIS 5. IS

Part

Nam e

Current Version First Edition First Edition First Edition

Current Date

Current Status

Planned Version

Due Date

Planned Status

Action Required (see note)

1 2 301

Guidelines and General Requirements Glossary CIM Base

01.12.2005 01.07.2004 01.03.2005

IS IS IS Second Ed 01.05.2006 IS 1

CIM
302 401 402 403 404 405 407 450 451 452 453 501 502-7 CIM Energy Scheduling, Reservations, Fi Overview i l CIS and Framew ork Common Services (Base Services) Generic Data Access (Request and Reply ) High Speed Data Access Generic Eventing and Subscription (Events and Subscription) Historical Data Access CIS Information Exchange Model Specification Guide (CIS Data Content) SCADA CIS CIM Model Exchange Specification CIM Based Graphics Exchange CIM RDF Schema Common Services (Base Services) C Lang Profile GDA C Language Mapping CIM XML Model Exchange Format CIM SVG Graphics Exchange Format 2 First Edition 9 7 6 ? 2 or 3 ? 1a 1 1 2 First Edition 1 1 6 2 01.09.2005 24.05.2006 11.07.2005 26.04.2006 04.05.2006 04.05.2006 05.10.2002 14.05.2003 11.05.2006 19.05.2006 16.12.2005 01.09.2005 15.07.2005 05.05.2005 19.05.2006 CD on hold IS CDV CD CDV CDV CDV WD WD CDV CD FDIS WD WD CDV CD 6. Ready to send to IEC 7. Waiting for IEC publication or circulation 2 2 7 3 10 8 7 ? ? 2 2 2 3 24.08.2006 01.05.2006 24.08.2006 24.08.2006 24.08.2006 01.05.2006 01.08.2006 24.08.2004 24.08.2006 01.04.2006 01.06.2006 01.06.2006 01.05.2006 24.08.2006 FDIS CDV FDIS FDIS FDIS CD CD FDIS CDV IS CD CD FDIS CDV 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 7 1 1 7 1 3 28.06.1905 CD 1

CIS

Formats

503-7 552-4 553-4 Notes:

1. Incorporate comments and prepare new version for WG13 review 2. Incorporate comments and send to IEC for circulation 3. Need to assign editor 4. Prepare w orking draft 5. Need NWIP

Page 168

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards CIM: Relationship to other standards

CIM is: CIM is: CIM is:

The The

basis for the Application Program Interface IEC 61970

basis for the emerging inter-system interface architecture IEC 61968 control system data model harmonizing with substation communication based on IEC 61850

The

Page 169

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards Simplified TC57 Groups WG3 60870-5 RTU Communications WG7 60870-6 Control Center to Control Center Communications WG10 61850 Substation Automation WG13 61970 Control Center API WG14 61968 DMS WG15 62351 Security WG16 62325 CIM Market Extensions WG17 61850-7 Distributed Generation WG18 62344 =>61850 Hydro WG19 62357 Architecture Standardization activities colored in red are relevant for distribution automation.
Page 170 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards Typical Distribution Utility Roadmap for Tomorrows World


Traditional Infrastructure
Workforce Management Asset Management

Integrate Applications
Workforce Management Asset Management

Extend and Connect

Trouble Call Center GIS/NIS

Outage Management

Vendors & Partners Customers Employees

Finance/ Controlling

Outage Management

Trouble Call Center Finance/ Controlling Customer Information System SCADA/ EMS/DMS Network Planning

EAI Enterprise Application Integration

Portals
GIS/NIS

Interf. Customer Information System

SCADA/ EMS/DMS

EAI Enterprise Application Integration B2B


Marketplaces

Meter Data Acquisition

Network Planning

Meter Data Acquisition

Energy Data Warehouse

Interface Billing System

Energy Data Warehouse

Billing System

Customers

IEC 61968
Page 171 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler

Vendors & Partners


Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards Purpose of IEC 61968 This standard define interfaces for the major elements of an interface architecture for Distribution Management Systems (DMS). This standard identifies and establishes requirements for standard interfaces based on an Interface Reference Model (IRM). Subsequent parts of this standard are based on each interface identified in the IRM. This set of standards is limited to the definition of interfaces and is implementation independent. They provide for interoperability among different computer systems, platforms, and languages. Methods and technologies used to implement functionality conforming to these interfaces are considered outside of the scope of these standards; only the interface itself is specified in these standards.

Page 172

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards IEC 61968 Methodology

Process-Led Design Methodology


Process Step Sender Component Receiver Component Information Exchanged

Business Process Use Cases

Logical Data Model


Verb Show Noun Asset Attribute Definitions Asset.Code Asset.ID Asset.Description Asset.Condition

Message Type Definitions Information Exchange Models

AttributeApp App A Logical B Model

UI Bus. Logic Data

XML FTP CORBASOAP BOD COM EDI

UI Bus. Logic Data

App A

App B

Application Interfaces
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 173

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Standards IEC 61968 Target Configuration

Grid Wires Model

DAC

Dist Wires Model

VRU

Information Exchange Model

Outage Reporting
Interface Adapter

EMS

OMS

Distribution Automation

CIS

Interface Adapter

Interface Adapter

Interface Adapter

...

IEC 61968 Compliant Middleware Services


Interface Adapter

Event History

AM/FM/GIS

Human Resources

Work Management

Substation Automation

Data Warehouse

Page 174

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Standards TC57 WG19 (founded Jan 2005) Mission: With regards to the CIM (IEC 61970, IEC 61968), and extensions to the CIM that were recommended for IEC 61850, this new working group would be the coordinator of the electronic model for TC57, ensuring harmonization of the expansion of the CIM. Vision: All new TC57 standards should use/extend the CIM as the common semantics for their configuration/engineering modeling, and 61850 for [SCADA oriented / IED / field] communications. Other existing standards would likely take a mapping approach. Services could also be addressed (61850 services, Web Services, security, operations, SOA and GID services could be harmonized). Liaison with CIGRE SC-D2 WG25.
Page 175 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

More Standards

SCADA/DMS solution call for further standardized interfaces for stateof-the-art openness to other IT systems SQL/ODBC data access to historical data from Corporate Network ODBC for access from PC client X-11-Window for remote PC console access (in case of Unix O/S) ISDN for remote maintenance access

Page 176

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Seminar Contents (II)

Wednesday, Jan 30, 2008 Section 7: SCADA functionalities Section 8: DMS functionalities Section 9: Case study presentation Section 10: Distribution system automation personnel skills Section 11: Maintenance and support procedures

Page 177

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Front-End

The front-end domain comprises of the components: Interconnections to RTUs Inter Control Center Communication

Page 178

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Front End Requirements


Reliable and Efficient Process Data Acquisition State-of-the-art standard hardware basis High availability features (line-level redundancy, telegram buffering) Integration of standardized IEC protocols and capability to integrate different supplierspecific RTU protocols Extensive communication diagnostic capability including monitoring and listening modes (protocol-specific) Engineering via the regular SCADA/EMS/DMS database management tool
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 179

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Front-End RTU Interfacing - Tasks


Analog Values Change Detection (Hysteresis threshold) Old-/new comparison, time tagging assignment Renewal check (analogues and digitals) Analog Values Zero Suppression Calculation of analog engineering values (linear and non linear characteristic) Analogues filtering (spike suppression, smoothing) General interrogation and completeness check Keeping an RTU real-time database Centralized test & diagnosis Time synchronization of RTUs via protocol
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 180

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Front-End RTU Interfacing Protocol processing in dedicated HW System Configuration


SCADA LAN TCS TCI

....
HUB (star coupler) TCI LAN TCR
TCB 1
1 ... 7

TCR

...

TCB 14
1 ... 7

...

...

PS + backplane

RTU RTU

RTU
TCB : TCR : TCS : PS : TeleControl Interface Board TeleControl Interface Rack TeleControl Interface Server Power Supply

Page 181

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Front-End RTU Interfacing Protocol processing in the server

Power System Object Server (PSOS) Communications Front-End 1 (CFE 1)

Real Time Server (RTS)

UI Client SCADA EMS/DMS LAN Communications Front-End 2 (CFE 2)

Router

Real-Time Data LAN

to RTU

to RTU

Router
to RTU to RTU

WAN

RTU

RTU

Configuration with redundant CFE subsystem and different RTU interface connections
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 182

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Front-End RTU Interfacing High Availability Requirements

Redundancy Features Server failover to redundant CFE server in case of active CFE server failure Line connection failover to standby line connection in case of a failure of the active line connection Configurable load sharing between two or more CFE servers Supervision of standby line connection (channel), including telegram buffering Maximized availability during engineering Only the required RTUs are affected when changing engineering data
Page 183 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Front End Inter Control Center Communication

(Local (LocalControl ControlCenter) Center)

SCADA/EMS/DMS SCADA/EMS/DMS

(Remote (RemoteControl ControlCenter) Center) WAN (or permanent lines)

SCADA/EMS/DMS SCADA/EMS/DMS

(other (othervendors vendorssystem) system)

Other OtherUtilities Utilities

Non-utility Non-utility Generators Generators Regional Regional Control ControlCenters Centers

Power PowerPools Pools

Page 184

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Front End ELCOM-90 (IEC 60870-6 TASE.1)

Supported data objects


Indications and alarms Analog values and counter*) values Archive data Commands Setpoints

Data transmissions mechanisms

Spontaneous data transmission (on value change) Periodic data transmission (e.g. every 10 seconds) Initiated data transmission (initial scan, archive data)

*) Counters are not supported by standard ELCOM, 64-Bit float for counters added by SCADA vendors Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 185

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Front End ICCP (IEC 60870-6 TASE.2) Supported data objects


Indications and alarms Analog values and counter values Archive data Commands Setpoints

Data transmissions mechanisms

One-shot data transmission Periodic data transmission Transmission of event data Transmission of exception data

Security Protocols

Transport Layer Security (TLS) Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
Page 186 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Front End ICCP (IEC 60870-6 TASE.2) Conformance Blocks


Conformance Block 1
Basic Services

Transfer of real-time cyclic data

100%

Conformance Block 2
Extended Data Set Condition Monitoring

Transfer of real-time data by exception Could be a bit matrix transfer for accelerated data transfer. Too risky ? Transfer of messages between control center operators. Can as well be done with tcp/ip based messaging tool. Issues supervisory control operations from the local Control Center to the remote system. Supposed start/stop of a program in control center A from control center B. Too risky ? Block 7 supposed to signal the completion of a Block 5 supervisory command. Use of Block 2 instead is industry standard. Supposed to transfer historian data. Can as well be done via ftp file transfer. Supposed to transfer scheduling data. Can as well be done via ftp file transfer.

100%

Conformance Block 3
Blocked Transfer

---

Conformance Block 4
Operator Stations / Information Message

8%

Conformance Block 5
Device Control

25%

Conformance Block 6
Programs

---

Conformance Block 7
Events

---

Conformance Block 8
Accounts

8%

Conformance Block 9
Time series Page 187 Jan 2008

---

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Use of ICCP Conformance Blocks investigated over 40 projects.

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)

RTU, ICCP, ELCOM 90

Wireless Alarming SCADA SCADA

External External Communication Communication

Applications Applications

Historical Historical Information Information System System

Energy Energy Accounting Accounting

Alarming Telecontrol Monitoring

Page 188

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

SCADA SCADA Functions

Data Processing Event and Alarm Processing Marking and Tagging Limit Monitoring Supervisory Control Switching Procedure Management Real-time Accumulator Processing Real-time Calculations Topology Processing

Page 189

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

SCADA Data Processing

Status Data Processing Alarms, States, Normal / Abnormal States, Sequence of Events Analog Data Processing Limit Check, Threshold Adaptation, Max./Min./Ave. Values Accumulator Processing Completeness Check, Authorization Data Calculation Definition of Formulas, Arithmetical / Comparison / Logical / Functional Operators Dynamic Network Coloring Network Topology, Network Groups, Operational Status
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 190

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

SCADA Event and Alarm Processing

Event / Alarm Administration Operator Alarming, Assignment to Alarm Classes, Technological Area and Responsibility, Consideration of Local/Remote state Event / Alarm Presentation Visual Annunciation in Displays and Summaries, Acoustical Annunciation Event / Alarm Handling and Control Single/ Multiple Acknowledgement, Alarm Suppression Alarm Forwarding Central Control Room Klaxon, Wireless Alarming (SMS, Pager), Escalation Strategy, including Shift Plan and Acknowledgement

Page 191

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

SCADA Supervisory Control Control Device Operations & Execution Monitoring


Single switching devices (ON/OFF, OPEN/CLOSE) Tap changers (one step UP/DOWN) Continuously regulating devices (RAISE/LOWER) e.g. of sliders and valves Generator units (e.g. SETPOINT) Two-step procedure for safety reasons (SELECT, EXECUTE) Monitoring of interlocking conditions Security mechanisms e.g. Telecontrol is monitored for timeout of control execution Supervisory Control can be applied by the operator through Substation one-line diagrams Switching Procedure Management (also from applications) tabular displays (runtime explorer) mainly during commissioning phase
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 192

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

SCADA Switching Procedure Management

Switching Switching Operation Operation Commands Commands Creation Creation Recording in study context Testing in study context Modification of an existing procedure Fault Isolation and Service Restoration (FISR) Outage Management System (OMS) ...

Switching Switching Procedure Procedure Management Management Switching Procedure Switching Switching Operation Operation Commands Commands Switching Switching Operation Operation Commands Commands create create edit edit select select sort sort print print execute execute store store

Usage Usage

Prepare, study and execute clearance operations Alleviate fault conditions

...
Switching Switching Operation Operation Commands Commands

Restore power following a fault

Page 193

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

SCADA Switching Procedure Management

Check Check

Start Start

Create Create

Storage Storage

Approve Approve

Remove Remove Archive Archive

Execute Execute

Suspend Suspend // Resume Resume

Page 194

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

SCADA Switching Procedure Management User Interface

Step-by-Step preparation using schematic displays Full screen editor for general data Simulation of all switching actions with power flow checks Execution with temporary pause/resume Automatic documentation

Page 195

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

SCADA Topology Processing

Network Status Processing Definition of network groups Distinguished statuses for each electrical phase (energized, grounded, undefined, de-energized, energized uncertain, grounded uncertain) Topological Coloring Coloring of network groups (incl. coupled network groups) Distinguished coloring views (normal/abnormal, energization, voltage level, single/multi phase level, network group, loop parallel) Interactive Topological Tracing The topology processor is activated by each change of a switch device and by topological changes of the network model.

Page 196

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Load Shedding Functions


Load rejection or disconnection (shedding) of parts of the network Analyzes the state of the network Detects significant events Defines load to be rejected Prepares selected items of equipment for actions Individual configuration of emergency strategies such as Manual load reduction Rotating load reduction Load reduction on underfrequency Load reduction on contract violation Load reduction on equipment overload Load reduction for island stabilization

Page 197

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Load Shedding Modes

Manual Planned Load Shedding

Fixed wired under frequency Load Shedding

predetermined under-frequency Load Shedding

Load Shedding in Emergencies

Man Machine Interface


Schedule with Control Sequences

Man Machine Interface


Schedule with Priming Sequences

PLC e.g. Simatic


Disturbance Scenario Dependent Switching Tables

remote commands control centre power system under-frequency relay

priming commands

remote commands

under-frequency relay

latching relay

feeder breaker

feeder breaker

feeder breaker

feeder breaker

Page 198

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

SCADA Intelligent Alarm Processor (IAP) The Diagnosis provided by IAP includes
Date and time of the disturbance Faulty devices/equipments Protection systems which cleared the fault Specifics in the sequence of a disturbance (e.g. breaker failure, automatic re-closer successful / unsuccessful, etc.)

The Input Data for IAP are


The topology of the network The alarms from the automatism Logical working schema of the automatism

Page 199

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

SCADA Intelligent Alarm Processor (IAP)

Outage location Outage type Process data IAP Protection malfunction Intelligent Alarm Processor Earth fault location Multiple outages Affected busbars

Actual topology

Page 200

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

SCADA Intelligent Alarm Processor (IAP) - Overview

Once only

EXCEL Forms

Protection System Models Algorithm Diagnosis

Continuous

SCADA

Events and Alarms

Page 201

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

SCADA Intelligent Alarm Processor (IAP) Models used


Protection Systems all installed types of protection systems e.g. distance, differential, over-current, etc. various types of a protection system (e.g. distance protection systems with different behaviour) Automatisms ARE (automatic recloser equipment), fault detectors, etc. Gathering by an EXCEL form systematic description of the logic behaviour of protections and automatisms alarms produced by the systems and received in the SCADA Models are defined only once; not affected by data modification; integrated in database management system of the SCADA/DMS
Page 202 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Key Requirements (I)


Graphic displays High resolution Multi-window technique Fast display response time Java-based User Interface using Java Webstart Menue-guided operation and interactive dialogs Graphically oriented User Interface with extensive standard functions Open system (i.e. access to office automation and engineering on the same screen) Interactive display construction Definable console access rights

Page 203

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Access Rights

SCADA security is associated with specific user accounts and based on a combination of: User role (e.g. Control Room; Field Crew; Data Maintenance, ) Domain assignment (e.g. Electricity; Gas; Water; District Heating, ) Access rights (e.g. process control; viewing only; partial modification, ) Areas of responsibility (AOR)

Page 204

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Key Requirements (II) Dynamic coloring of Network groups Grounded network parts Network parts with grounded faults De-energized parts of the network Network islands RDBMS Data Access via operational data displays Extensive Web-based Online Help Wireless Alarming (Out of Office Assistant) Improved Alarm Acknowledging
Page 205 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Display Types


Basic Signaling Display Network Diagrams (Worldmaps) Summaries Tables (Data Explorer) Curve Displays (Curvetool) RDBMS Displays Motif Forms

Page 206

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Path Tracing in Distribution Networks

e.g. Trace Up from Distribution Substation

Trace up Trace down Trace between Trace all Trace common point Trace loop Trace parallel
Page 207 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Graphical Queries using RDBMS Displays


Selecting network areas in a one-line diagram and performing pre-canned queries like Switching states Deviation from normal switching status Attribute date for equipments Power flow values Raster image data The queries can be displayed at predefined places in the worldmap Data in the list can be sorted, filtered and printed
Example: Result of Graphical Queries in a worldmap

Page 208

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Basic Signalling Display (Example)

Access to all SCADA/EMS/DMS displays by associated buttons Single signaling by a button on the display Summary signaling (indicated by the color of the respective tab)

Page 209

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Network Operation through Context Menu (Example)

Context Menu By right-clicking the selected element and holding down the right mouse button Shows all operations associated with the selected element

Page 210

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Data Export through Drag & Drop

Simple data export through copy & paste to MS Word MS Excel MS Outlook or other mail programs

Page 211

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Representation of a Worldmap by its Planes

Station C

Station D

plane 1
network level

Station A Station B

zooming

plane 2
Station A

sub network level

zooming

Station B

plane 3
110kV 0A 230A

station level

Station A
zooming
Transformer 1 Transformer 2

plane 4 Transformer 1
feeder level

zooming

Transformer 110kV/20kV Next inspection 06.09.1993

Page 212

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Zooming Example

Layer 1 Network Overview Layer 2 Network Connectivity

Layer 3 Substation Connectivity Layer 4 GIS Information

Page 213

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Large Screen Projection

Visibly yours

Video, RGB signals

EOS Controller NT/2000 Application Client e.g. SINAUT Spectrum

LAN
Terminals

Page 214

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Concept Study: Navigation capabilities

Jump to Google Earth

Jump to Worldmap

Page 215

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Concept Study: Geo-referencing of substations and lines

Localization of substations Support for fault location

Page 216

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Concept Study: Geo-referencing of crews and assets

Crew location Work order Asset tracking


Page 217 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Concept Study: Integration of external data

Trouble tickets SLA time ranges Routes, borders, etc.


Page 218 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Concept Study: Integration of weather data

Rain radar Cloud development Forecast Storm warning


Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 219

User Interface Concept Study: Geographic reporting

Power Quality Quality of Service


Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 220

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

User Interface GIS Integration

GIS

SCADA/DMS
Sub 3
rot

rot

Layer 1 Network Overview


Sub3 2

G G EE O O TAG TAG A A T T T T R R I I B B U U T T E E

Rules Rules
120A 50%

22 kV 22 kV 180A 60%

Layer 2 Network Connectivity

21 kV

GIS GIS Import Import Tools Tools TAG/TA TAG/TA Table Table

Layer 3 Substation Connectivity


Av ill H V st k re .10 Fo Y.. N

N V 0k ..1 Y.
e.

Layer 4 Mapping Information

Page 221

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface GIS Integration - Import of Attribute Data (1st Step)

GIS

SCADA/DMS Database

Attribute Data

Import 3)

Export

IDDUG files

Attribute Data

3)

Bulk or incremental Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 222

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

User Interface GIS Integration - Import of Geographical Data (2nd Step)

GIS
Geographical Data
Import 2,3)

SCADA/DMS Database
dxf files 1) Geographical Data Schematic Data

Use geographical displays only

UI Software

Attribute Data

Import 3)

Export

IDDUG files

Attribute Data Real-time Data

1) 2)

More formats available Autograph format 3) Bulk or incremental Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 223

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

User Interface GIS Integration - Use of imported geographical data (1/3)

Sub 3
rot

rot

Layer 1 Network Overview


Sub3 2

SCADA/DMS Database
Import

120A 50%

22 kV 22 kV 180A 60%

Layer 2 Network Connectivity

Geographical Data Schematic Data

21 kV

Layer 3 Substation Connectivity


Av ill H V st k re .10 Fo Y.. N

V 0k ..1 Y. N

Import

Attribute Data

Layer 4 Mapping Information

e.

Page 224

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface GIS Integration - Use of imported geographical data (2/3)

Display Level 1 "Overview" (Primary Feeder, HV/MV Substations, Network Groups)

Sub 3

red

red

blu e

green

Sub 1

Sub 2

Display Level 2 "Network Connectivity" (Primary and Secondary Feeder, all Distribution Substations)

120A 50%

22 kV 22 kV 180A 60%

Sub3

Display Level 3 "Substation Connectivity" (all Buses, Switches)

21 kV

Page 225

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface GIS Integration - Use of imported geographical data (3/3)

120A 50%

22 kV 22 kV 180A 60%

Sub3

21 kV

Display Level 3 "Substation Connectivity" (all Buses, Switches)

Transformator....... Leistungsschalter.... .. FWG ......

Window with Display Level 4 "One-Line Diagram" Window with "Facility Data"

Page 226

Jan 2008

V 0k ..1 Y. N e. Av ill V H 0k st . 1 re Y.. Fo N

Display Level 5 "Mapping Information"

Geographical Display

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Case Study Iberdrola/Spain: Example for incremental download of data and graphics from GIS
GIS
All data is maintained solely in the GIS Use powerful tools there and save money Both schematics and geographics live available in SCADA&DMS

SCADA/EMS/DMS

Page 227

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Case Study Iberdrola/Spain: Example for incremental download of data and graphics from GIS

GIS

SCADA/EMS/DMS

Page 228

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

User Interface Case Study EPM/Columbia: Example for living geographical SCADA&DMS displays

Page 229

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Storage & Retrieval (IS&R) Key Requirements


Easy operability (graphic user interface) High data availability Easy reconstruction of historical data Consistency of stored data (primary and derived data) Open interfaces to other systems (e.g. SQL, ODBC, etc.) The system provides services to transfer historical and future data to an ORACLE database

Page 230

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Storage & Retrieval (IS&R) Components of IS&R Data storage (periodic or spontaneous) Data retrieval
By means of predefined queries (archive filters) it is possible to retrieve values of different time ranges and storage cycles from archives.

Modification of stored data


Defined dependencies of individual values (formulas) are automatically updated when any of the involved values changes.

Interface for long-term archiving SQL interface for external data exchange Export interface to a RDBMS (ORACLE)
Page 231 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Storage & Retrieval (IS&R) Data to be archived Analoge values or accumulator values with time stamp Calculated values Switching state changes and alarms Data of the network topology Forecast values Trend data Disturbance data (including switching states) Schedules

Page 232

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Storage & Retrieval (IS&R) Archiving Functions


Data reduction via technological filtering Cyclical archiving Spontaneous storage of status data changes (e.g. for network reconstruction) Visualization of stored values as curves, logs, or single values in one-line diagrams (network displays) Correction of archived data including recalculation of derived data Online initialization, modification and deletion of archives Trend data archives Post mortem review No loss of data during failover of archive server

Page 233

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Storage & Retrieval (IS&R) Embedded Reporting Functions


Report layout definition via editor Periodic output and output on demand Reports may include worldmap display segments (worldmap segments are automatically scaled) Report management tool Output of reports to printers, file or operator consoles

Page 234

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Storage & Retrieval (IS&R) SQL Interface


Provides the capability to access various types of data of the SCADA/EMS/DMS The SQL interface can be used for operational, planning and administrative purposes Access to the data can be performed using standard Structured Query Language (SQL) statements (data import / export) For further data analysis also 3rd party products (e.g. Microsoft EXCEL) can be used The type and precise scope of the exchange can be configured freely by the user

Page 235

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Storage & Retrieval Archive System for Disturbance Data

Disturbance Data Collection


Disturbance Disturbance Data Data

Continuous Continuous Data Data Collection Collection

Archive Archive System System

Trigger Event

Trigger configuration Use any field device (i.e. any alarming condition) as trigger Assign to a trigger which data will be collected Define the collection time interval of the assigned data (pre-trigger, post-trigger)

Page 236

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Storage & Retrieval Overview

Sources Front-end SCADA

Remote Console

Local Console

Incoming Incoming Data Data Analogs Analogs Digitals Digitals Calculations Calculations Accumulators Accumulators Events/Alarms Events/Alarms Disturbance Disturbance Data Data Data Data Collection Collection Buffered Buffered for for Redundancy Redundancy

HTTP Server Offline Offline Archive Archive

Online Online Archive Archive

Long Long Term Term Archive Archive

Oracle Oracle DB DB

External External Reporting Reporting


Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 237

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Information Storage & Retrieval Connecting External Report Tools

Sonstige projekt-/ External Data kundenspezifische Access Systeme ASCII, z. B. CSV

Excel RepGen Report Generator

WOP Direct Data Interface via SQL Internet/Intranet (ADO, ODBC, JDBC) Access

External Applications

FDWH Data Warehouse & Report Generator


Analogs Digitals Administrator Tool based on ORACLE

SCADA

Direct Data Interfaces via SQL (ADO, ODBC, JDBC)

Other customer specific systems

Remote Metering Systems

External Data Access ASCII, z. B. CSV

External tools for reporting or web access may also connect directly to the Oracle archive of the SCADA system.
Page 238 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Storage & Retrieval Connecting External Report Tools

SCADA Archiving Servers

LAN Firewall

Web-Server with WebAccess/ WOP and ReportGenerator for automatic reporting

Firewall

FDWH-Server with ORACLE database

Office LAN

Office PC with ReportGenerator an/or Webbrowser

Office PC with ReportGenerator an/or Webbrowser

Page 239

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Storage & Retrieval Sample External Report Tool

based on MS Excel simple report definition w/o database knowledge processing of data (e.g. graphics) with all available Excel features complex queries with SQL and macros possible capabilities for automated reporting

Page 240

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Storage & Retrieval Sample Web Access Tool

online access via browser filter capabilities graphical and tabular display capabilities export to csv-files simple formula editor

Page 241

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Seminar Contents (II)

Wednesday, Jan 30, 2008 Section 7: SCADA functionalities Section 8: DMS functionalities Section 9: Case study presentation Section 10: Distribution system automation personnel skills Section 11: Maintenance and support procedures

Page 242

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Functionality Overview

Enterprise Integration Bus


Distribution Network Applications

GIS
Operation Applications

Optimal Feeder Reconfiguration Volt/Var Volt/Var Dispatch Distribution Power Flow

Geographical Displays

Fault Isolation/ System Restoration Outage Management System Switching Procedure Management SCADA

Dynamic Network Tracing Dynamic Network Coloring Large Network Displays

Open Archiving & Reporting

Page 243

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Operation Applications


Operations Applications (OA) is a suite of modules that enable the operator to view outages and to effectively manage resources to restore the electrical network. The OA component provides the following functions: Outage Management System (OMS) Trouble Call System (TCS) Crew Management System (CMS)

Page 244

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Outage Management System (OMS) OMS Characteristics


Collection of functions, tools and procedures for outage management Supports the detection, location, isolation of faults, and restoration of service Manages unplanned outages or faults as well as planned outages

OMS Requirements
Quick and safe localization, isolation of faults and restoration of service within the power system Handling of planned outages, e.g. for preventive maintenance, to increase the supply reliability and to reduce the system operation risks and costs
Page 245 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Unplanned Outage Life Cycle

Fault Fault Detection Detection & & Outage Outage Record Record Creation Creation

Fault Fault Location Location

Crew Crew Assignment Assignment

Reports Reports & & Statistics Statistics Generation Generation

OMS OMS Database Database

Fault Fault Isolation Isolation

Outage Outage Record Record Archiving Archiving

Fault Fault Repair Repair

Outage Outage Record Record Closing Closing

Restoration Restoration of of Service Service

Page 246

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Planned Outage Life Cycle

Outage Outage Schedules Schedules Creation Creation

Switching Switching Procedures Procedures Generation Generation

Crew Crew Assignment Assignment

OMS OMS Database Database

Execute Execute Planned Planned Work Work

Outage Outage Record Record Closing Closing

Generation Generation of of Reports & Statistics Reports & Statistics

Outage Outage Record Record Archiving Archiving

Page 247

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Outage Management System - Interfaces

Fault Fault Location Location Application Application (FLOC) (FLOC) Fault Fault Isolation Isolation & & Service Restoration Service Restoration (FISR) (FISR)

Outage Outage Management Management System System

Switching Switching Procedure Procedure Management Management (SPM) (SPM) Trouble Trouble Call Call System System (TCS) (TCS)

Crew Crew Management Management

Page 248

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Unplanned Outage Life Cycle


FLOC OMS Fault Fault Detection Detection & &
Outage Outage Record Record Creation Creation Fault Fault Location Location
Operation Application

CMS
Crew Crew Assignment Assignment Reports Reports & & Statistics Statistics Generation Generation

OMS OMS OMS Database Database


Outage Outage Record Record Archiving Archiving Fault Fault Isolation Isolation

FISR SPM

OMS

Fault Fault Repair Repair


Field crew activity

Outage Outage Record Record Closing Closing

Service Service Restoration Restoration

OMS

FISR

SPM

Page 249

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Planned Outage Life Cycle


Operation Application

Outage Outage Schedules Schedules Creation Creation

Switching Switching Procedures Procedures Creation Creation

OMS

SPM
Crew Crew Assignment Assignment

CMS

OMS OMS Database Database

Execute Execute Planned Planned Work Work

Field crew activity

Outage Outage Record Record Closing Closing

OMS

Reports Reports & & Statistics Statistics Generation Generation

Outage Outage Record Record Archiving Archiving

OMS

OMS

Page 250

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Outage Management System - Requirements

Scheduled and unscheduled outages Outaged equipment, energy, customer An Outage Record can be initiated by
Trouble Call System Switch Trip Operator

Reports and statistics by ORACLE reports


Documentations of all Switching (Date, Status, Operator, affected Network Area, List of all Switching) Creation of an Outage Data Set for every Disconnected Equipment
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 251

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Distribution Management Applications Outage Management System - Requirements

Calculation of Quality of Service Indices


System Average Interruption Frequency Index SAIFI System Average Interruption Duration Index SAIDI Customer Average Interruption Duration Index CAIDI Average Service Availability Index ASAI

Calculation of Outaged Energy Export to Excel

Page 252

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Fault Location (FLOC)

Handles outage faults (i.e. short-circuit faults) and non-outage faults (i.e. earth faults) Responds to state change of fault indications and on feeder CBs unexpected tripping For fast localization of faulty section Designed to determine the smallest possible faulted section based on available real-time information Paramount to restore supply fast and to as many customers as possible

Page 253

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications FLOC Processing

Uses remote metered and manually updated information such as: Protective devices tripping (CBs, re-closers, etc.) Status of fault passing indicators Status of earth fault relays Trouble calls

Page 254

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications FLOC Methods

Immediate Search

Combine available status info Determine the smallest faulted segment Determine boundary switches
t1a-5 t1a-4 t1a-3 Protective Device1a t1a-1 t1-2
t1-5

Substation

Protective Device1 t1-1 t1a-2

t1-4 t1-3
t1c-4

Protective Device1c t1c-1 t1-6

t1c-3 t1c-2

t1-7 t1d-1 t1d-2 t1d-3 t1d-4 t1d-5 Protective Device1d

t1-8

t1-9

Procedural Search

Extends the immediate search by trial switching operations Narrows down the faulty segment; e.g.: bisection search
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 255

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Distribution Management Applications FLOC Results

Fault Records

Record automatically created Includes all equipment in faulty segment Includes boundary devices Highlighted in one-line diagram: Fault Passing Indicators status Faulty feeder segment Related non-faulty segments Suggested trial switch actions to locate the fault more accurately Procedural search history Summary of fault records

Graphical Rendering

Additional Information

Page 256

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications FLOC Event Record

Page 257

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Crew Management System (CMS)

Provides tools to view, create and modify crew information and to assign field crews to work tasks Provides timing statistics about multiple field crews CMS works in close relationship to the Outage Management System (OMS)

Page 258

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Crew Management System (CMS)

Crew Composition Assigning of people and equipment to the crew Crew Tracking Support of crew and truck locations Crew Statistic Report Processing OMS Interface Association with outage records

Page 259

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Distribution Network Applications


Distribution Network Applications (DNA) comprise the following functions: Fault Isolation/System Restoration Distribution Power Flow Feeder Reconfiguration Volt/Var Control

Page 260

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Fault Isolation/System Restoration (FISR)


Once the faulty segment has been identified (e.g. by FLOC): Finds out how to isolate the faulty segment Finds out how to restore power to all related non-faulty segments Minimizes the outage time for the affected customers Establishes the series of required switching operations Useful also when network is not in faulty condition (e.g. equipment isolation for planned maintenance) Uses the topological model of the network to generate the required switching procedures

Page 261

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications FISR Requirements

Fault Isolation

Equipment to isolate selected by operator or from FLOC results Minimize the number of switching steps Provides the possible ways to restore service and the corresponding steps Feasibility validation and solutions ranking based on performance indexes Combines the two above features Generates a single switching procedure Generates a switching procedure that restores the given network part to its normal configuration

Service Restoration

Isolation & Immediate Restoration Restore to Normal

Page 262

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications FISR Output

Tabular Output

Switching steps of the procedure Total kW load restored (incl. the number of transformers/customers) Total kW load not restored (incl. the number of transformers/customers) Violations (voltages & overloads) Total power losses Index for difficulty to access or operate Follow-up of switching actions involved in procedure can be done within the one-line diagrams

Graphical Output

Page 263

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications FISR User Interface

Page 264

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Distribution System Power Flow (DSPF)

Purpose: Continuously checks the distribution network for voltage problems / overloads Allows to detect overloads or voltage problems before they occur in the course of Switching Procedure Management in Study Mode Provides the basis for further applications that reduce distribution network losses

Page 265

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Distribution System Power Flow (DSPF)

For 3 phase unbalanced and balanced power systems Real time and study mode Execution Periodically Upon change in the network and On Demand Robust current injection algorithm Calculation of Feeder Profiles: V, A, MW, MVAR and Losses Total Losses Detection of Limit Violations
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 266

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Distribution Management Applications DSPF Load Estimation

In distribution networks (sparsely measured) the accuracy of the power flow results relies much upon the quality of the load estimates
Loads derived for time and date of the study Generic load curves for different consumers types (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) Loads with constant P or I or Z Hourly load profile over several seasons and day types Conforming loads calculated based on peak value and load curve Loads calibration with available RT measurements at injection source, feeder-head or along the feeder Reactive load based on cos
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Load Curve Data

Load Modeling

Page 267

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Distribution Management Applications DSPF - Results

Tabular Output

Busbar kV, voltage imbalances Slack bus P & Q & V Line & transformer P & Q (from & to nodes) Line losses (kW/kVAr), voltage drop Resulting P & Q Loads Small Gen unit P & Q & V Violations (voltages & overloads) Total power losses Network coloring in one-line diagrams for voltage violations and branch overloads

Graphical Output

Page 268

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Volt/Var Control (VVC)

Important function for dealing with the complexity of voltages and reactive powers control in a modern distribution system Used to support the control of transformer tap (LTC, voltage regulators) and switchable shunt reactive (typically capacitors) Optimize the objective functions for the whole system Improves results against local control only solutions (where coordination problems exist and Volt/VAr optimization opportunities are missed by not taking into account the whole power system) Eliminates local trade-off (e.g. no need for controllers dead-band and time delays to avoid oscillation) that reduce efficiency of the Volt/VAr Control

Page 269

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Volt/Var Control (VVC)

The objectives of the VVC function are to minimize power loss, or to minimize power demand, or to maximize generated reactive power while satisfying voltage and loading constraints VVC uses the same power flow model as DSPF Allows working with a subset of the network Operates in either realtime or study mode Output: Summary of power flow before and after optimization Recommended Control Actions on transformer tap position changers, line voltage regulators and switchable shunts (in the form of a SPM procedure)
Page 270 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications VVC Sample Output Display

Page 271

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Optimal Feeder Reconfiguration (OFR)

The objectives of the OFR function are minimization of power losses, or balancing of substation transformers, or a weighted combination of the above while satisfying voltage and loading constraints OFR uses the same power flow model as DSPF Allows working with a subset of the network Operates in either realtime or study mode Output: Summary of power flow before and after optimization Reconfiguration switching procedure (SPM)

Page 272

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications DSPF/VVC/OFR Execution Control Display

Page 273

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Non-Technical Losses (NTLO)

The NTLO application is based on: Read Meters (billed energy)


Taken over from SAP and fed into the SCADA&DMS Oracle database via middleware

Distribution Transformer Loads


Calculated online by DSPF power flow

Page 274

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications NTLO Typical Results

Non-Technical feeder level


Feeder Name

losses

in

EBI
10.09.02 16.10.02
Eval. Days (EBI days) Transformer list

Non-Technical losses [kWh] [%]


23

Alparos Tereal

5487

36 (36)

5300

25

35 (36)

Helui

4900

21

36 (36)

Percentage of Total Feeder Energy

NTLO points the operator to the most prominent spots of revenue losses.
Page 275 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications NTLO Typical Results


Distribution transformers with highest non-technical losses. Feeder: Alparos EBI 10.09.0216.10.02

Distribution transformer name (TA)

Non-technical losses [kWh] 759 617 601 [%] 3.2 2.6 2.5

alpa/24ds/traf1 alpa/24ds/traf2 alpa/24ds/traf3

Percentage of Total Feeder Energy

NTLO points the operator to the most prominent spots of revenue losses.
Page 276 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Expert System - Advanced Network Operation (ANOP)

Advanced Network Operation (ANOP) uses a specially developed algorithm in order to generate the optimal solution for the following tasks typical in a Distribution Network
Unplanned outages / disturbances Fault Isolation and Network Restoration

Planned outages

Reconfiguration of the network without interruption of customer supply In emergency cases the removal of overloads and under voltages, in planned cases the relief of equipment loads Reconfiguration of the network to come back to normal switching status Analysis of the case of a failing equipment including the appropriate counteractions
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Corrective measures

Normal switching status

Contingency evaluation

Page 277

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Distribution Management Applications Expert System - Advanced Network Operation (ANOP) Required Features
Availability of a fully prepared switching sequence together with additional comments The switching sequence totally fulfils the given task (e.g. no further checks, etc. by the operator) Enables immediate and automatic execution of the switching sequence Provision of such a solution which has passed all checks and does not violate any operational or electrical restriction Presentation of a balance of typical values of interest such as transformer loading, voltage, transferred load, etc. The shown values are the values which will be obtained after the execution of the switching sequence
Page 278 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications ANOP Application Example How to use Operator describes task Select equipment on MMI Select task ANOP evaluates solution for task Switching job Load Balance Operators executes task Execute switching job

Page 279

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications Trend towards Distributed Energy Generation

New Generation Technologies

Increasing Energy Consumption world wide

Distributed Energy Generation

Political Targets

Increasing Energy Costs


Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 280

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Distribution Management Applications Virtual Power Plants


Decentralized Energy Management System DEMS

Network Control System

Energy Exchange Billing

Biomass Power Plant


G

Meteorological Service Communication Network

Block-type Heating Power Plant Flexible Loads Meter Reading PV Power Plants
Data Concentrator
Mod. Mod. Mod. Z Z Z Mod. Z Mod. Z Z Mod.

Fuel Cells

Distributed Small Fuel Cells

Wind Power Plants

Distributed Loads Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 281

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Distribution Management Applications DEMS Functional Requirements Energy management system for planning, optimization and monitoring of decentralized power units Load forecasting system for very short-term forecasts (1 hour) and short-term forecasts (up to 7 days) Forecasting system for the generation of wind power plants and photovoltaic Generation/Load Scheduling & Control functions covering all flexible units like contracts, generation units, storages and flexible demands, maximizing the difference of revenue minus costs, i.e. the profit. Energy data management for collecting and keeping the required information, e.g. loads, contractual data Powerful front-end for the communication of the energy management system with the decentralized power units.
Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 282

Distribution Management Applications DEMS Functionality

Load Forecast Renewable Energy Forecast Generation scheduling

User interface Basic SCADA Communication Front End

Reporting

Generation Control

Load scheduling

Archiving

DEMS
Page 283 Jan 2008

Communication System
Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution Management Applications DEMS Interfaces


SIMATIC Protocols Profibus, Modbus OPC, DDE

DEMS

SQL Database, ODBC Excel and ASCII Files XML Interface for Time Series COM / DCOM Interface Communication Network TCP / IP
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 284

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Seminar Contents (II)

Wednesday, Jan 30, 2008 Section 7: SCADA functionalities Section 8: DMS functionalities Section 9: Case study presentation Section 10: Distribution system automation personnel skills Section 11: Maintenance and support procedures

Page 285

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Selection of distribution substations for automation Question (A): Automation Rate (IV)
Substation retrofitting and adaptation calculation
45 15 40 Average interruption time [minutes] 35 30 25 20 0 15 10 5 0 0 250 500 750 1000 1500 2000 4000 Number of adapted substations -10 5 10

-5

Interruption dependancy NPV

In this study case the optimum automation rate is about 12%.


Page 286 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Net Present Value, NPV [MUSD]

Selection of distribution substations for automation Study case data


Average outage time: 40 minutes. Around 650 feeders are supplying around 4000 distribution substations. That is an average of 6.2 distribution substations per feeder.

Average cost for retrofitting & adaptation of one (1) distribution substation in:

30,000 US$.

Number of substations that can be retrofitted per year, without serious consumer interruptions and additional costs: 250 Study period considered:
(average from 25 years for automation equipment and 15 years for communication equipment) Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

23 years

Page 287

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

SCADA&DMS reference project: PowerGrid Singapore


SCADA&DMS for the entire 22kV network, with more than 3,000 substation RTUs (commissioned 1988) Extension to the 6.6kV network started 1994 with additional more than1,000 substation RTUs Unique communication solution for 6.6 kV substation RTUs using Distribution Line Carrier over cable sheath

Page 288

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

PowerGrid Singapores benefits from SCADA&DMS

Enhance reliability and service quality

Provide speedy restoration of supply Minimize/eliminate revenue losses (due to forced consumer outages)
Enhance operational efficiency and safety

Reduce operating cost e.g. man power Minimize operational errors


Improve assets utilization

Maximize return on existing investment Make timely new investment

Page 289

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

SCADA&DMS reference project: PowerGrid Singapore Experience

Commissioning SCADA&DMS on 22 kV

Extension to 6.6 kV

Average Interruption Time Experienced by Customers in a Year


Page 290 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Seminar Contents (II)

Wednesday, Jan 30, 2008 Section 7: SCADA functionalities Section 8: DMS functionalities Section 9: Case study presentation Section 10: Distribution system automation personnel skills Section 11: Maintenance and support procedures

Page 291

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Distribution System Automation Personnel Skills


Role Task Supervise and control the distribution network Keep the SCADA / DMS running at required level of performance Collect and continuously update data required in the SCADA/DMS Design, plan, erect, commission & maintain field automation equipment Design, plan, erect, commission & maintain field communication equipment. Design, plan, erect, commission & maintain RTU, Substation Automation and Front-end equipment Medium Medium -Basic Computer HW/SW Electronics Basic Expert Power System Operation Modeling & Algorithms Communication

Control Room SCADA/DMS Maintenance & Administration

Expert Basic

Basic Basic

-Basic

Field Engineer and Technician Communication Engineer and Technician Telecontrol Engineer and Technician

Medium

Basic

--

Expert

Medium

Basic

--

Medium

Power System Analyst

Define models and data needed for the SCADA/DMS, develop new algorithms.

Basic

Medium

Expert

--

Page 292

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Seminar Contents (II)

Wednesday, Jan 30, 2008 Section 7: SCADA functionalities Section 8: DMS functionalities Section 9: Case study presentation Section 10: Distribution system automation personnel skills Section 11: Maintenance and support procedures

Page 293

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Testing Concept

Depending on the purpose of testing different concepts are necessary

9Point to point tests during commissioning and revision work (adding, extending
or modifying of RTU; reconfiguration of communication network) 9RTU tests 9Communication path tests 9Test of data model modifications when expanding or modifying network configuration 9Functional system test when upgrading or modifying functionality (e.g. patch, release upgrade) 9Testing of new operational practices

Page 294

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Testing Concept Object-in-Test Tag


9During commissioning and revision work, the equipment at site must be tested under
operational conditions. This means that the whole way from the device outside till the data processing in the control center must be tested and documented.

9The (test) information sent in this phase to the control center has to be processed in
another way than the real process data. This means usually: No alarming, no archiving.

9For this purpose a flag 'Object In Test' can be used. Before starting the revision the flag is
set by the operator on all devices which shall be tested. After the test the flag will be removed by the operator.

9The data related to objects flagged as in test are displayed in a separate summary. The
information are displayed in the one-line diagrams to ensure that the graphical representation is working properly.

9The tag OBJECT IN TEST has the same impact concerning alarming as the tag ALARM
INHIBIT.

9After finishing the work the separate summary can be saved to document the
commissioning or revision work.
Page 295 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Testing Concept Using Contexts other than Real-Time


A context is a user's specific view on a set of resources (variable information /data) that models the working environment (workspace) and its behavior. Contexts satisfy the operational, planning, testing and other activities of the SCADA/EMS/DMS. A context consists of a set of software packages, data sets and displays that are necessary to run a complete functional subset of the SCADA/EMS/DMS. This set of context components works with a consistent view of power system data and the perceived time. Contexts are differentiated from each other by their sources of data and their use.
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Real- Time
IMM Suite

Study

Planning
IMM Suite

Engineering

DOR

DOR

App Suite

App Suite

App Suite

Run-Time

App ASR

App ASR

App ASR

Save case repository Save Save Save Case Case Case

Saving a save

Initializing from a case

Page 296

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Testing Concept Using Contexts other than Real-Time


9The Realtime Context is used to monitor,
Real- Time
IMM Suite

Study

Planning
IMM Suite

DOR

DOR

App Suite

App Suite

App Suite

App ASR

App ASR

App ASR

Save case repository Save Save Save Case Case Case

Saving a save

Initializing from a case

control and manage the domain process. The real-time context provides direct operator interaction with the external world. This is the only context that allows control commands to the external world. Only one real-time control context can be active in the system. 9A Study Context is used to support the operators during different network analysis and operational activities, independently or in parallel to their realtime activities. An example is running load flow studies. 9A Planning Context comes with its own data model i.e. it allows testing of changes to the data model (without changes to RTU data or communication data) in parallel and independent of the other contexts.
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Run-Time

Engineering

Page 297

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Testing Concept Using a Separate Testing/Development System

OTS

Testing & Development (TDS)


IEC 870-5-101 IEC 870-5-104 non IEC protocols IEC 870-5-101 IEC 870-5-104 non IEC protocols

MAIN

IS&R

OTS-LAN

PDS-LAN

EMS-LAN

DMZ-LAN

MultiportRouter 1

MultiportRouter 2

CC-LAN non trusted

IS&R : Information Storage& Retrieval OTS : Operator Training Simulator

IT-LAN non trusted

....
1 2 7 1

....
2 7

IT WAN

CC WAN

CC WAN trusted

RCC 1

RCC 2

. . . .

RCC 7

Page 298

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Testing Concept Using a Separate Testing/Development System


9TDS is a separate system, that runs a test context on separate hardware, allowing tests
completely decoupled from the real-time context. An exception is the front-end which might be shared between MAIN and TDS in some cases

9TDS runs either the complete or a subset of the functionality of the MAIN. The
deployment of the test system may differ from the deployment of the MAIN (e.g. no redundancy, configuration with less servers).

9TDS can interface data via listen mode from the MAIN or get directly information via its own Front-End.
In each case the control direction is usually locked i.e. supervisory control actions need to be simulated without interfering with the real process (e.g. bypass process interface). Successful and not successful reply as result of remote control needs to be simulated.

9TDS can be used for testing of new RTUs new data models new/upgraded software
Page 299 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Model Management

SDM (Source Data Management) manages the input of the data of the electric power system into the database of the power control system. SDM is used both during commissioning of the system and afterwards for subsequent modifications and extensions of the network (new substations, changes to the network, etc.). It is important that a single tool provides the functionality to enter and maintain all power system-related as well as computer system-related data.

Page 300

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Model Management Object Data Model

Standard Object Types


Standard Object Types Customer-defined Objects Types Customer-entered Objects (Instances)

Standard delivery with the product

Examples: Generator, Transformer, Tariff contract, Server

Customer-defined Object Types


Examples: Customer generator, Created while the project is being carried out Customer Provides all the required additional object types transformer, adapted contract pattern A, (templates) configured server

Dependent on industry sector and division

Customer-entered Objects (Instances) Are entered by the user during the data input phase and describe the user process (networks, power stations, etc.) Based on prepared object types (templates) All the data points build on it (instances) Are further maintained by the user
Examples: Customer generator West-A, Customer transformer XY, Contract 23 according to contract pattern A

Page 301

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Model Management Engineering Process


Engineering Phases
System Configuration
Hardware
Network Servers

Customization
Definition of new
Instances Attributes Associations Graphic Objects

Data Entry
Import/Export
XDF/RDF File SVG File

Software
3rd PP (Oracle...) SCADA/EMS/DMS SW Mapping to HW

Editing
Instances Links Network Diagrams

System
System-Wide Settings User Administration

Adding Project Specials via API

Tailoring System Delivery

Adapting Data, adding Project Specials

Day to Day Activities

repetitive use
Page 302 Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Model Management Functional Overview

Common Information Model CIM Job Management Fully graphicoriented data editing Workflow oriented and Wizard-based technologies Syntactic and generic data validations Import/Export On-line Activation Reports

Page 303

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Model Management Advantages from RDBMS Use


Standard query language SQL Easy modification and extension of the data base scheme Comfortable tools available - graphical user interface - report generator The data model is independent from the physical data storage Available functions for - Transaction management - Data integrity - Security and access rights - Backup and recovery - Distributed data bases
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 304

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Information Model Management Requirements on Job Management

Job Management allows multiple and simultaneous data modifications without any impact on the runtime system
Job Interlocks prevent multiple users from editing the same data Automatic change detection generates Change Log files describing all changes Activation of a job transfers the changed data to the run-time system and notifies those applications affected by the change A clearly laid out Job History bookkeeping (e.g. job creation, job activation, undo) is available
Quick, No

easy and secure data maintenance

interrupt of process control during on-line activation and undo function


Jan 2008 Dr. Roland Eichler Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 305

Information Model Management Job Management & Data Validation

Extensive Data Validation before start of activation in on-line system


Syntactic and generic data validations, which can be extended by user-defined constraints
Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Page 306

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Information Model Management Principle of Online Database Changes


Input and checking of the data is performed in the source database, so that current online data and online system operations remain unaffected. Once entered, prepared and checked, the set of data within a job can then be activated at a time convenient to the operator. Activation means the takeover of modified data from the source database to the operational database, without interruption of system operation and without losing any manually entered data. Data activation is coordinated automatically with all subsystems or activities of the SCADA/EMS/DMS. As an example, it is impossible for an IMM engineer to activate a data modification for a breaker while a supervisory control action is active for this device. Activation includes updating of all servers of the SCADA/EMS/DMS, precisely coordinated with online system operation. After activation newly entered data (e.g. status information, analogue values, station feeders, or entire substations) can immediately be called up and displayed by the operator.

Page 307

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Information Model Management Integration with Enterprise Data Model Management Aggregation of enterprise data sources and software applications through common industry standards.
Assets/ Work Order Systems

Distribution Apps

GIS

SCADA

Protection Coordination

Front/Back Office

Integration Bus

Enterprise Data Model Management

On-Line Ratings

Transmission Reliability

Power Flow

Stability PSS/E
Model Data High-Speed Data

Files

Files

Page 308

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution

Bibliography on Distribution Automation

Page 309

Jan 2008

Dr. Roland Eichler

Siemens AG 2008 Power Transmission and Distribution