Acknowledgements

I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to Dr.R.Jha (Project Guide, Head of Instrumentation and Control Department, National Institute of Technology Jalandhar) for rendering all possible assistances and facilities for the accomplishment of the project on State Space Modeling Of Power Systems. I am also heartily grateful to all my teachers and staff without whose expert guidance my project would not have been a successful one. It was a great learning experience to have undertaken this project under our respected Dr.R.Jha sir and I am fully confident that it will help me in building up a great future.

Supratim Ghosh

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CONTENTS
Name of the topic………………………………………………Page no.
a) Acknowledgements………………………………………………………..………..I b) Contents……………………………………………………………………..……..II Synopsis……………………………………………………………………………….1 1. Introduction……………………….……………………………………………...2-6 1.1 An introduction to modeling…..……………………………………….……2-3 1.2 A brief introduction to state-space modeling…………………….………….4-6 2. Modeling of Power Systems ……………………………………………………7-21 2.1 Single generator connected to infinite-bus system…………………………..7-9 2.2 Power System using speed governor………………………………….…..10-11 2.3 Power System with an Excitation System and AVR…….………………..12-14 2.4 Multi-machine Power Systems……………………………………………15-17 2.5 Analysis of Power Systems……………………………………………….18-21 3. Transient Stability of Power Systems……………………………………….....22-31 3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………….....22-23 3.2 Lyapunov’s Functions…………………………………………………….24-26 3.2.1 Power System without governor……………………………………26-29 3.2.2 Power System with governor…………………………………….....29-31 4.Power System Stabilizers ……………………………………………………...32-35 5. Conclusions…………………………………………………………………….…36 6. Future Scope of Work………………………………………………………….…37 8. References………………………………………………………………………..38

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Synopsis
Any dynamical system requires us to undergo the following three broad stages for system studies: i) Mathematical Modeling ii) System Analysis and iii) System Synthesis Depending on purposes, classical methods for modeling have been found in use for power systems till recently. Modern control system theory, over the past many years has been gaining great importance for being potentially applied to power systems. State variable modeling and control of Power systems has successfully been carried out in variety of problems from the early 1960s. This project will include analysis of Power Systems and developing State Space model of the Power Systems starting from the swing equation and performing the stability domain analysis using: a) Single machine connected to an infinite bus which will include power systems using: i) Exciter ii) Governor b) Multi-machine systems. This project will also include study of the application of the Power System Stabilizers and their position in Power Systems. Furthermore we intend to analyze the models thus developed using unit values of the constants (per-unit analysis) and plot the response of output versus the input using CSMP.

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 An introduction to modeling
Any dynamical system requires us to undergo the following three broad stages for system studies: 1) Mathematical Modelling 2) System Analysis and 3) System Synthesis Depending on purposes, classical methods for modeling have been found in use for power systems till recently. Modern control system theory, over the past many years has been gaining great importance for being potentially applied to power systems. State variable modeling and control of Power systems has successfully been carried out in variety of problems from the early 1960s.An attempt has been made to discuss state variable model as a core of mathematical techniques and its application to Power system modeling for control and analysis of systems. It is hoped that all concerned will appreciate the universality and convenience and advantages of the technique in system studies. System Modeling Modeling of a dynamic system is mathematical representation which determines quantitative features describing operation of the system. Quantitative does not always employ mathematical models. Since mathematical theories are always precise, dynamical systems are conveniently described mathematically. Modeling needs complete knowledge of the dynamical process. Mathematical model describing process dynamics truly is called optimal model. It also provides a clue for design of associated devices viz controllers for the systems

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the modeling procedure is quite expensive. For example ¾ Mechanical System: Newton’s Laws of Motion ¾ Electrical Systems: K. 3 . Laws including Ohm’s law ¾ Thermal & Fluidic: Laws of Thermodynamics & Thermal Phenomenon Mathematical model is preferred as : 1) It is often difficult to experiment to observe how dynamics of process reacts to various inputs 2) Even if process equipment is available for experimentation.Model Classification Classification of system modeling depends on purposes for which it is developed Physical systems can be modeled in the following types ¾ Mathematical Models ¾ Physical Models ¾ Empirical Models ¾ Scaled Models ¾ Analog Models Mathematical Models (a) Classical Model (b) State Variable i) Stochastic Model ii) Deterministic Model Mathematical models are derived from fundamental laws.

then such n variables are a set of state variables. y(t) Intermediary or state variables. 4 . completely determines the behavior of the system for all t.xn are needed to completely describe the behavior of a dynamic system (so that once the input is given for t ≥ t0 and the initial state at t=t0 is specified. State Variables: The state variables of a dynamic system are the variables making up the smallest set of variables that determine the state of the dynamic system. u(t) Output or controlled variables. State Vector: If n state variables are needed to completely describe the behavior of a given system.1. Any state can be represented by a point in the state space. x2-axis.2 A brief introduction to State Space modeling Here three variables are considered i) ii) iii) Input or control variables. State Space: The n-dimensional space whose co-ordinates axes consist of x1-axis. x(t) The following terms are now defined to introduce the concept: System States: The states of above system is a minimal set of variables such that the knowledge of the variables.…. then these n state variables can be considered the n components of a vector x. x at t=t0 together with knowledge of inputs or control signals for t≥t0.. t>t0. the future state of the system is completely determined).xn-axis is called a state space. x2…. If at least n variables x1. Such a vector is called a state vector.

x(1).t] where superscript (n) and (m) etc.x(n-1). output variables and state variables. u(1)…u(m-1). indicate order of differentiation with respect to ‘t’ We define state variables as x1 = x x2 = x(1) xn = x(n-1) 5 . of state variables is the same for any of the state space representations of the same system.State Trajectory: The locus of point P(x) in state space for time interval t0≤t≤tf is called state trajectory. An nth order system with three classes of variables is schematically shown: u1 um x1 Linear Plant OBSERVER (Output Element) y1 yp xn The above system may be described by x(n) = F[x. The state space representation for a given system is not unique. except that the no. x(2)…. State Space Equations: In state space analysis we are concerned with three types of variables that are involved in the modeling of dynamic systems: input variables. u.

smoothing and forecasting problems. an attempt has been made to introduce the concept of S. 6 .. x2… xn u1. and system equations can be combined to give x(1) = x2 x(2) = x3 x(n-1) = xn x(n) = F(x1. 4. it enables researchers to comprehend various research findings. 2.V model enables us to split an nth order differential equation. S. LTIV & LTV (L-systems) & NL systems and continuous and discrete time systems.V. 3. The SV modeling is valid for nonzero initial conditions and is applicable to both MIMO & SISO. It is powerful technique for state estimation and can be used for filtering. 5.V..V. It incorporates the information regarding internal behavior of the system in addition to accepting input-output relationship. into n-first order differential equations which is easily amenable to solution through digital computers. Therefore. the above eqn can be rewritten as o x ( t ) = Ax ( t ) + Bu ( t ) y (t ) = c T x (t ) + d T u (t ) Advantages of State Variable Modeling 1. It offers a general framework of modeling & system optimization. u2.Above defined S. modeling as a core of mathematical technique.um.t) For Linear Lumped time invariant (LLTIV)-SISO system. modeling covering all necessary topics. In view of advantages & flexibility associated with S.

is assumed constant during the transient period. For simplicity the effect of saliency is not considered and the nonsalient (round) rotor machine is considered. swing equation can be derived. 3. 7. Modeling of Power Systems 2. 6. 5. 4. The following assumptions are normally made to start with: 1. The voltage behind the transient reactance is assumed constant. 2. The angular momentum of machine is taken to be constant. Subject to simplifying assumptions. Pm. The voltage regulator action is not fast enough to be effective during transient period. Resistances of stator winding of machine and transmission lines are neglected. The effect of saturation is ignored.1 Single-generator connected to ∞-bus system We study dynamics of rotor of Generator under post-fault condition. Damping power is assumed to be directly proportional to the slip velocity and this is primarily due to mechanical friction and asynchronous torque. The Mechanical power input to the machine.2. 8. Power balance relation gives d ( KE ) + P = P − P m e d dt 7 (1) .

W o d KE ( KE ) = 2 fo dt d Δf dt (2) where W ° = KE of Generator at synchronous speed f 0 = frequency at synchronous KE speed. We define state variables as ⎧ ⎪ x = δ (t ) − δ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ o ⎪x = (t ) δ ⎪ ⎩ 2 o 8 . d P = d δ (t ) d dt where δ (t ) = θ − w t is rotor angle o = d (θ − ω ) = d (ω − ω ) = d (2ΠΔ f ) o o Pm = mechanical input to the machine Pe = electrical power output of the machine given by (3) o (4) Pe= EV sin δ (t ) ΣX Substituting in equation (1) we have (5) 2W o KE d EV ( Δ f ) + d ( 2ΠΔ f ) = Pm − sin δ ΣX fo dt Dividing (6) by base MVA one gets o EV H oo δ (t ) + D δ (t ) = [sin δ o − sin δ ( t )] Π fo ΣX where M = H (moment of inertia). Π fo (6) (7) Equation (7) is swing equation for the Generator under post fault condition. D= damping factor.

1. B = ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − D /M ⎦ Π fo ⎣0 ⎦ ⎣ − 1⎦ The n.l. 1 Plot OF f(y) Vs y for δo given EV cosδ ° . M = ⎥. ΣXM 9 . equation (7) can be cast into o x ( t ) = Ax ( t ) + bf ( y ) : SE (9) (10) y (t ) = cT x (t ) ⎡ with A = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣0 : OE ⎡1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎤ 1 H ⎥. function.Using states defined in (8). C = ⎢ ⎥. f(y) is given by f ( y) = EV [sin(y + δ o) − sinδ o ] ΣXM (11) The linear sub-system of Lure’ problem (9-10) is given by G(s) = −cT (sI − A)−1b = 1 s( s + D / M ) (12) The plot of f(y) can be obtained as shown in Fig. with slope at y=0 given by FIG. over − Π − 2 δ ° < y < Π − 2 δ ° .

Pm. is assumed constant during the transient period.2.2 Power System Using Speed Governor Governor Action Speed governors vary prime mover output(torque) automatically for changes in system speed (frequency). The rate and magnitude of the governor response to a speed change can be tuned for the characteristics of the generator that the governor controls and the power system to which it is connected. P0m= initial value of Pm 10 . The governor action arrests the drop in frequency. Returning the frequency to 50 Hz is the job of the AGC (Automatic Generation Control) system. The speed sensing device is usually a flyball assembly for mechanical-hydraulic governors and a frequency transducer for electro-hydraulic governors. Here speed governor is considered to have time constant (Te) comparable with transient period. and/or software) and operates a control mechanism to adjust the prime mover output (torque) until the system frequency change is arrested. “The Mechanical power input to the machine. System description is given by oo o EV sin δ (t ) M δ (t ) + D δ (t ) = Pm (t ) − ΣX (13) (14) o δ (t ) T e P m ( t ) + Pm ( t ) = P o m − G dt where G and Te are gain constant and time constant of the governor.” Here mechanical power is varying during the transient period. electronic circuits. Single generator connected to infinite bus with governor dynamics included Including Speed Governor enables us to relax one of the assumptions above i. but does not return the frequency to the pre-upset value (approximately 50 Hz) on large interconnected systems.e. The output of the speed sensor passes through signal conditioning and amplification (provided by a combination of mechanical-hydraulic elements.

V.F. S. being parameters of speed governor. G ( s ) = − cT ( sI − A) − 1b = s+h D 1 s[ s 2 + ( h + )s + ( hd + g )] M M (17) with g=G/Te and h=1/Te.Defining system sates Δ x (t ) = δ (t ) − δ ° 1 Δ o x (t ) = x = o (t ) δ 2 1 Δ o x ( t ) = Pm − Pm ( t ) 3 Using states defined by (15) in system equations (13-14). 11 . model takes the form o x ( t ) = Ax ( t ) + bf ( y ) : SE (15) y (t ) = cT x (t ) with A= ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ :OE (16) ⎡ 0⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢−1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 ⎤ ⎢⎥ ⎢⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎣⎦ 1 − D/ M G/Te ⎤ ⎥ −1/ M ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1/Te ⎥ ⎦ 0 B= C= The linear sub system is described by T.

e.This block compares the voltage Vdc against a fixed reference and supplies an output voltage Ve called the error voltage which is proportional to the difference i.3 Power System with an Excitation System and Automatic Voltage Regulator An Excitation System is required to provide d. A simplified block diagram of an Excitation System is given below: Vref + ∑ Amplifier And Saturation Exciter Generator Vt Vdc Rectifier Block Parts 1.2. This procedure can be accomplished using an electronic difference amplifier. it can be neglected and the transfer function can be simplied to Vdc= KRVt where KR is the gain of the rectifier block.The rectifier block consists of a potential transformer and rectifier which converts the three phase ac voltage (transmission voltage Vt) to a corresponding d. Voltage regulator and reference(comparator). The transfer fuction of the block is given by Vdc = K RVt where τR is 1+τ Rs the time constant due to filtering or first order smoothing in the transformer-rectifier assembly and Vt is the sum of the rms values of the three phase voltages. 12 . power to the synchronous machine field of the power system. Since τR is very small of the order of 0.c.c. Rectifier Block.] 2. voltage Vdc. Ve = k (V REF − Vdc ) where VREF is the reference voltage applied.06s.

It can also be approximated as a first order system as Vt = K GVex 1+τGs where KG and τG are the gain and time constant of the generator respectively. In any case we will assume linear voltage amplification KA with time constant τA. Block diagram representation showing all the trasfer functions VREF + ∑ Vdc KA 1 +τ As VR 1 KE +τ Es Vex KG 1+τGs Vt KR 13 . 4. magnetic amplifier. The amplifier. τE= Exciter gain and time constant respectively.It produces an output three phase voltage in response to the excitation system response.3. The generator. 5.The output of the boost-buck exciter can be given as Vex = where Vex= Exciter output voltage VR − Vex S E KE +τ Es KE.The amplifier portion of the excitation system may be a rotating amplifier. The exciter. VR = K AVe 1+τ As As with any amplifier a saturation value must be specified such as Vmin< VR< Vmax. SE= Saturation function of the exciter We can neglect the effect of saturation to get a simplified model and a first order system results. or conceivably an electronic amplifier.

.. putting all intial conditions equal to zero and making the differential equation model we get. . Let the state variables be x1 = Vt . K A KG τ Aτ Eτ G VREF − K Eτ Aτ G + τ Aτ E + τ Eτ G τ Aτ Eτ G x3 − K Eτ A + K Eτ G + τ E τ Aτ Eτ G x2 − KE + KR τ Aτ Eτ G x1 Giving us the state equation ⎡ .1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢x ⎥ = 0 ⎢ . x 2 = V t and x3 = V t such that x1 = x 2 and x 2 = x3 and output y=Vt Now. . .. x3 = .2 ⎥ ⎢ K + K E R ⎢ x .. . ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ x.3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎣ τ Aτ Eτ G 1 0 K Eτ A + K E τ G + τ E ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎥ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎥⎢x ⎥ + ⎢ 0 ⎥ V REF 2 K Eτ Aτ G + τ Aτ E + τ Eτ G ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ K A K G ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎣ x3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ τ Aτ Eτ G τ τ τ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ A E G⎥ ⎦ 0 1 [ ] τ Aτ Eτ G and the output equation [ y ] = [1 0 ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ]⎢ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ x3 ⎥ 14 . . . τ Aτ Eτ G V t + (K Eτ Aτ G + τ Aτ E + τ Eτ G )Vt + (K Eτ A + K Eτ G + τ E )Vt + (K E + K R )Vt = K A K GV REF .Overall transfer function of the system is given as Vt K AK G = VREF (1 + τ A s )(1 + τ G s )(K E + τ E s ) + K R Vt K AKG = VREF ( K E + K R ) + (K Eτ A + K Eτ G + τ E )s + (K Eτ Aτ G + τ Aτ E + τ Eτ G )s 2 + (τ Aτ Eτ G )s 3 Inverting Laplace transforms.

2..4 Multi-machine Power Systems ¾ The use of single-machine connected to ∞-bus involves a gross simplification of actual system dynamics.. n Since B c Π where c= 1... n n E i E j B ij sin( δ i − δ j ) Σ j = 1. i ≠ j ∑ E E Y cos( θ − δ + δ ) i j j ij i j i = 1.. 2 .. as ij = Y ij sin θ ij B ij ≅ Y ij θ ij ≅ 2 Pei leads to give P ei = E i2 G ii + i = 1 . 3…n Electrical output power Pei is given by Pei = E i2 G ii + n j = 1.........δ n ⎟ 1 ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ T o. ¾ In fact.... most power systems consist of a number of synchronous generators interconnected together through the transmission networks ¾ We now present n-machine system using Willem’s approach (1970) Mathematical model Differential model of ith interconnected machine is oo o M i δ i ( t ) + D i δ ( t ) = Pmi − Pei ( t ) i= 1.. 2 . 5… .... o⎞ ⎜ ⎟ x =⎛ δ − δ δ − δ n n⎟ 2 ⎜ 2 ⎝ 1 1 2 ⎠ 15 ..2.δ −δ o. i ≠ j State variable model can be represented as Let x = ⎡ x M x ⎤T be a 2n-column state vector.. ⎢ 2⎥ ⎣ 1 ⎦ T o ⎞ ⎛ o o ⎟ ⎜ x = ⎜δ δ ..

nonlinearity is T ⎤ f ( y) = ⎡ ⎢ f ( y ) f ( y ).. Such that ⎤ B = ⎡ ⎢B MB ⎥ 2⎦ ⎣ 1 T . -1 × n matrix... n C = [C1:C2].…….. .…….2..δ i° i.2..e.. C1 = Omxn.n. y m ×1 =C x 2m × n 2 m= n(n − 1) given by 2 n ×1 Considering interaction free case. i = 1. f m ( y m )⎥ 2 ⎣ 1 1 2 ⎦ where ith component of f(y) is written as o o⎤ f i ( yi ) = E p E q B pq ⎡ ⎢sin( y + y ) − sin y ⎥ i i i ⎣ ⎦ with p and q being internal nodes of generator on which ith non-linear element depends. A2=A4=Onxn.. B = M − 1C T . B = O n× m 2 1 2 16 . A4=Inxn with D = diag {-di}. Now defining ⎡A 1 A= ⎢ ⎢ ⎢A ⎣ 2 where A1= M D: n A ⎤ 3⎥ ⎥ A ⎥ 4⎦ M =diag (Mi) C2=an mxn mat. i = 1. can be computed from power equilibrium relation Pei = Pmi n i=1 ∑ P mi = n i=1 ∑ E 2G i ii Output variables Output is an m-vector.

B = M − 1C T = 1 2 0 . 0 . 0. ⎢ ⎢ .. . .. i i i i i in finite intervals o − ( Π + 2δ o pq ) ≤ y i ≤ ( Π − 2 δ pq ) . the n-m/c P.. 0 . 0 . . .) Linear s/s is described by TF G ( s ) = − C ( sI − A ) − 1 B = C [ s 2 M − sD ]− 1C T 2 2 NL functions f(y) is taken to satisfy sector conditions (i) f ( o ) = 0 i (ii) 0 ≤ y f ( y ) ≤ k y 2 . 0 0 . 2 . 0 0 . 1 M 1 1 M 2 1 −M 3 .. 0 . . . ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 1 M 1 0 −1 M 3 ... i = 1 . 1 −Mn 0 1 M 2 0 .n 17 . .System can be expressed by o x ( t ) = Ax ( t ) − Bf ( y ) y(t ) = Cx(t ) Schematic representation of above system is as shown r=0 + ∑ -u Y G(s) u=f(y) f(. 0 .and structure of B1 is ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎢M ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎢M 2 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ .. . . . . . .. . . . 1 −Mn ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ With above definitions. . . .. . .

e. M=0.5 Analysis of Power Systems a) Per-unit analysis of power system having a single generator with a governor connected to an infinite bus A power system having governor is represented by the equations: oo o EV sin δ (t ) M δ (t ) + D δ (t ) = Pm (t ) − ΣX o δ (t ) T e P m ( t ) + Pm ( t ) = P o m − G dt where M=moment of inertia of the generator. ¾ Simulation time interval is taken to be 0. INPUT) 18 . Pm0=0.2sec and the system is sampled for a period of 10 secs. V=1. ¾ We neglect the initial value of Pm i. X=1.1*t D2DOT= -(D/M) D1DOT – (E*V/XM) D + (1/M) INPUT INPUT1DOT= -G*D1DOT – (1/Te) INPUT INPUT= INTGRL (0.0. ¾ We consider that the synchronous frequency of the rotor is 100Hz. With these assumptions we construct the CSMP program as follows.0031. Ge=1. E=1.1 /sec. D= damping constant. ¾ We consider Pm to be a ramp input of magnitude 0. ¾ We have M= H/πf0=0. CONST D=1. INPUT= 0. Te= gain and time constant of the governor respectively Assumptions for the above system ¾ We consider the constants D= Te= Ge= 1 (for per unit analysis) ¾ We also consider the voltages behing the trasient reactance of both the motor and source to be 1 and the impedence of the load be 1. Te=1. Pm= mechanical power input.2.0031. ¾ We consider that the rotor angle variation is small so sinδ=δ thereby linearizing the model at the start of the generator. δ= rotor angle Ge.

0 -4.0 PRTPLT Pe END LABEL (“ Variation of generator power wrt time”) STOP Output: Watts 8.05.0.4 2. FINTIM=10.6 2.2 3.0 -2.0 6.0 0.D1DOT= INTGRL (0.4 3.0 2.0 2. D2DOT) D= INTGRL (0.8 2.8 3. OUTDEL=0.2.0 -6.0 4.0 3. D1DOT) Pe= (E*V/X) SinD TIMER DEL=0.0 1.6 Time (in secs) Variation of generator power wrt time 19 .0.0 -8.2 2.

¾ We assume the rectifier assembly to behave linearly overa period of time. With these assumptions we proceed to construct the model in CSMP as follows: CONST KE=1.0.0) VT3DOT=(1/(TOUA*TOUG*TOUE))*(KA*KG)*INPUT .0.2. 5. KG=1. . . OUTDEL =0..e. ¾ We assume that the amplifier is not driven into saturation.b) Power Systems having single generator connected to infinite bus having speed exciter: A power system having an exciter is given by the equation: τ Aτ Eτ G V t + (K Eτ Aτ G + τ Aτ E + τ Eτ G )Vt + (K Eτ A + K Eτ G + τ E )Vt + (K E + K R )Vt = K A K GVREF In per-unit analysis of this system e make the following assumptions: ¾ We assume all the constants to be unit i. ¾ We assume all initial conditions to be equal to zero.05. KR=1 TOUA=1. VT3DOT) VT1DOT = INTGRL (0.(KE*TOUA+ KE*TOUG + TOUE) VT1DOT .((KE+KR)/ (TOUA*TOUG*TOUE)) VT VT2DOT = INTGRL (0. TOUG=1. INPUT= 5. KA=1. a step input of magnitude .0*STEP(0. TOUE=1.. FINTIME = 10.0.. VT2DOT) VT = INTGRL (0.(KE*TOUA8TOUG+TOUA*TOUE+TOUE*TOUG) VT2DOT .e. τA= τE= τG= KA= KE= KG= KR= 1.0 PRTPLT VT END LABEL (“ Variation of Generator output with time”) STOP 20 .0. ¾ We assume our reference voltage to be a dc of 5 V i. VT) TIMER DEL= 0.

0 -0.6 2.4 2.0 -2.2 3.8 Time (in secs) Variation of Generator output with time 21 .8 2.5 -2.6 3.5 1.0 3.0 -1.5 -1.4 3.5 0.5 1.Output: Volts 2.5 2.2 2.0 0.0 2.8 3.0 1.

i. Most stability studies are based on direct simulation: the post fault system behavior is simulated and the stability properties of the solutions are considered for the various values of the switching time. The largest acceptable value of the switching time. For a system consisting of a single machine connected to an infinite bus. has been used in studies concerning the single-machine and multi-machine power systems.e.1 Introduction: With the advent of large power systems came a renewed interest in the stability properties of such systems. which can be applied to any dynamic system. The difficulty in the application of Lyapunov’s direct method is that in general there is no obvious choice for a function suitable for use as a Lyapunov’s function. This system however has no obvious analog for larger systems a direct method for estimating the domain of attraction of a given equilibrium point (i. when normal operating conditions are restored. Indeed. This method. 22 . For low value of this switching time the system regains synchronism. a direct method called the equal-area or the energy. for which stability prevails. Transient Stability of Power Systems 3. the set of initial conditions for which the resulting motion approaches this equilibrium) is given by the direct method of Lyapunov.e. that is. the tendency of a system to lose synchronism and the possibility of the existence of oscillations in the power transfer between interconnected systems appear to be much more prevalent for large systems than for relatively isolated groups. the energy stored in the system appears to be a natural candidate. is generally called the critical switching time. the largest value.integral criterion has been known for a long time.3. In most systems describing a physical system.

23 .

. B and C exist. (2n × m). It is furthermore assumed that ƒ(0) = 0 and that all the Eigen values of the matrix A have non-positive real parts. . i. . . and (m × 2n) matrices. and C are. B. It concerns the asymptotic stability in the large of the solution x(t) ≡ 0 of (1) and this ensures that for any initial condition x(t = 0) = x0. and ƒ(σ) maps the m-dimensional vector δ = col (σ1. A. and of the diagonal type. Above theorem can be proved by constructing Lyapunov function that involves solving certain algebraic matrix equations involving the matrices A. such that Z(s) = (Im + Qs) C(sI2n – A)-1 B is a positive real matrix. the motion of the state of a multi-machine power system around an equilibrium state is described by an equation such as (1). .(1) where A. 2. memory less. ƒ(σm)]. can in general be resolved quite readily using graphical techniques or directly using analytical means. . .3. . t →α Theorem 1: The null-solution of differential equation (1) is asymptotically stable in the large if: 1) 0 < σi ƒi(σi) for all i = 1. Z(jω) + Z τ(-jω) is a nonnegative definite Hermitian matrix for all real ω ≥ 0. respectively. the ensuring solution x(t) satisfies lim x(t) = 0. and 2) there exist a diagonal (m × n) matrix Q = diag (q1). m and σi ≠ 0. . B. and hence the inequality σi ƒi(σi) ≥ 0 is only satisfied for a 24 .2 Lyapunov’s Functions: Consider the dynamic system described by the differential equation: d(x)/dt = Ax(t) – Bƒ[Cx(t)] ------. σ2. The stability of such kind of systems can be described by Popov’s stability theorem to systems with multiple nonlinearities. Note that the nonlinearity ƒ(δ) is time invariant. The question of whether or not. . (2n × 2n). and Q. As shown above. ƒ2(σ2). . . The nonlinearities appearing in the mathematical description of the multimachine power system do not satisfy the conditions 1) of the above theorem since they are of the type ƒi(σi) = sin (σi + σio ) – sin σio . for particular matrices. σm) into the m-dimensional vector ƒ(δ) = col [ƒ1(σ1).e. qi ≥ 0. . C.

range of values σ. . and many possible functions V(x) can thus be constructed. The above theorem follows rather easily from the fact that V(x) ≤ 0. However with the aid of the function V(x) which is to be found as explained above. For the three machine system it is hence required to find a diagonal matrix Q = diag (qi). i = 1. It is possible to obtain a larger domain of attraction by taking into consideration the particular structure of the nonlinear differential equation containing a single nonlinear element. then qi → α is the only possible choice. qi ≥ 0. 2. but also for finite values of the constant qi. If a1. Hence asymptotic stability in the large can not be concluded. a3 >0. . and let Li be the intersection of Si and the set of all x for which ciΤ[Ax – Bƒ(Cx)] = 0. one can obtain an estimate (through consideration of V(x)) of domain of attraction. . for all x in Γ and the usual estimates of the domain of attraction based on Lyapunov functions. then Z(s) can be made positive real not only with qi → α. (clearly V2 ≥ V1 and equality holds exceptionally). The equation V(x) = V1 defines a bounded surface inside Γ and contains 0. Theorem 2: Let δΓ denote the boundary of Γ and let V1 denote the minimum of V(x) over all x in δΓ. The region R1 enclosed by this surface belongs to the domain of attraction of 0. a2. Theorem 3: Let V2 denote the minimum of V(x) over all x in Li. m. This estimate will be large if the Lyapunov function V(x) “fits” well in the system. . The equation V(x) = V2 defines a bounded surface inside Γ 25 . Let Si be the part of δΓ whether either cix = σim or cix = σiM. such that Z(s) = (I + Qs)G(s) is a positive real matrix where ⎤ ⎡ 1 1 1 1 + − ⎥ ⎢ M1s + a1 M2s + a2 0 0 ⎤ ⎥⎡E1E2B12 ⎢M1s + a1 M2s + a2 1⎢ 1 1 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ G(s) = 0 E1E3B13 0 ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ s M1s + a1 M1s + a1 M3s + a3 M3s + a3 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 E E B ⎥ ⎢ 2 3 23⎦ 1 1 1 ⎥⎣ ⎢ − 1 + M2s + a2 M3s + a3 M2s + a2 M3s + a3 ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ If all the damping coefficients ai is zero.

The equilibrium state δ0 = sin-1Pi. ------. The application of Theorem 3 generally leads to the considerable enlargement of the domain of attraction compared to what can be obtained from Theorem 2. 3.(5) .(4) 26 . . .(3) So that (2) becomes . and D the constant damping coefficient.1 Lyapunov’s Function for Power System without Governor: The normalized equations of a synchronous generator – infinite bus system is the post fault state can be written as δ + D δ = Pi − sin δ . The region R2 enclosed by this surface belongs to the domain of attraction of 0..δ0 .(2) Where δ is power angle. Clearly this theorem gives the larger domain of attraction than what is predicted by Theorem 2.. δ 0 = 0 can be transferred to the origin by defining a new variable x = δ . ------------. Pi the mechanical power input. ---------. x = − D x + Pi − sin ( x + δ 0 ) = − D x + Pi (1 − cos x) − 1 − Pi 2 sin x By defining x1 = x x2 = x ƒ(x1) = − Pi (1 − cos xi ) + 1 − Pi 2 sin xi ------------. .and contains 0.2.

(7) So that the system can be represented by block diagram as given above.2δ0). The nonlinear function defined in equ.. L ƒ(σ) 1 S+D -x2 1 S -x1 Block diagram representation of single machine system without governor The transfer function of the linear part is G ( s) = 1 s ( s + 1) -------. the value of M can be determined as M = min {M 1. M 2 } = M 2 27 . if q is determined from the application of Popov’s method. Therefore.1 ⎢x ⎣ 2 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣0 ⎦ 1 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ + ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ƒ(σ) ⎥ − D ⎦⎣x2 ⎦ ⎣ − 1⎦ ⎡ x1 ⎤ σ = [1 0]⎢ ⎥ ⎣ x2 ⎦ -----------. (5) Satisfies the “sector condition” for – (π + 2δ0) < σ < (π ..We obtain the system equations in state variable form.(6) r=0 + - σ N. ⎢ x. as ⎡ .

(n − 1) 2 1 2 n σ x + ξ + ∫ ƒ(σ )dσ -------. so that the expression is. -------. let us choose q = W(ω) = (qD – 1) = ( n – 1) ∴θ ( z ) = − n − 1 v ( z ) = n − 1 as r = 0. we can reduce equation (6) to the form below:x = − Dx − ƒ(σ ) . The vector u reduces to a scalar u for this system.(n – 1) so that b = (n – 1)/2D. σ ) = n − 1 .(8) An easy way to arrive at this form is to use the partial-fraction expansion of G(s) of equation (7) for this system.Because the system characteristic equation has a zero eigen value.(9) Application of the Popov condition to this system results in Re (1 + qjω) Or 1 jω ( jω + D ) ≥0 qD − 1 ≥ 0 for all real ω > 0 D2 + ω 2 n where n ≥ 1. D For this system. ψ(s) = (s + D).(10) 2D 2D D 0 28 . and u = Then V ( x. ξ . This is satisfied if qD ≥ 1. ξ = −ƒ(σ ) σ =− 1 1 x+ ξ D d . The Lyapunov matrix equation reduces to the scalar equation (-D)b + b(-D) = . ρ = 1/D r = q(ρ + hTg) = 0 ------.

to illustrates the computational procedure. while g and a are the parameters of the governor.2 Lyapunov’s Function for Power System with Velocity Governor: The introduction of a velocity governor modifies the block diagram. x 2 .(14) s[ s + (a + D ) s + (aD + g ) 2 29 . a choice of n = 1 + D3 is made. The system equations in state variable form are ⎡ . ⎤ ⎢ x. σ ) = D 2 n 2 n σ x1 + x 2 + x1 x 2 + ∫ ƒ(σ )dσ 2 2D D 0 ------.2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ x3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 −D g 0 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ x 2 ⎥ + ⎢ − 1⎥ ƒ( σ ) − a⎥ ⎦⎢ ⎣ x3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣0 ⎥ ⎦ σ = [1 0 ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ]⎢ ⎢ x 2 ⎥ -----------. .1 ⎥ ⎡ 0 ⎢ x ⎥ = ⎢0 ⎢ .The variables x and ξ are related to the variables x1 and x2 by the relations x = x2 ξ = ( Dx1 + x2 ) ~ So that V ( x1 .(13) ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ x3 ⎥ The transfer function of the linear part is G(s) = ( s + a) -----. The additional state variable x3 corresponds to the governor power. σ ) = x1 + x 2 + x1 x 2 + ƒ(σ )dσ 2 2D D ∫0 -----.(11) Different choices of n will lead to different Lyapunov’s functions. which is approximately by one time constant. which gives D 2 (1 + D 3 ) 2 (1 + D 3 ) σ V ( x1 .(12) 3.2. x 2 .

(16) Application of the Popov’s condition to the transfer function given in equation (13) results in Re(1 + qjω ) jω + a ≥0 jω[(a + D ) jω + (aD + g − ω 2 )] Or (qD − 1)ω 2 + qa(aD + g ) + g − a 2 ≥0 (aD + g − ω 2 ) 2 + (a + D) 2 ω 2 For all real ω > 0.(15) ⎥⎢x ⎥ + aD + g ⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎦ aD + g ρ= a aD + g r = q ( ρ + h T g ) = 0 ---------. σ = ⎢− ⎣ aD + g Notice here that ⎡ (a 2 − g ) − a ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ a ξ -----. it is necessary and sufficient that qD – 1 ≥ 0 And qa(aD + g) + g – a2 ≥ 0 If we choose q = 1/D.1 ⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ x ⎥ ⎣ − ( aD + g ) ⎣ 2⎦ 1 ⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ − ⎢ ⎥ ƒ( σ ) − (a + D )⎥ ⎦ ⎣ x 2 ⎦ ⎣1 ⎦ ξ = −ƒ(σ ) . we obtain ⎡ . For this to hold. ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ x. the second of the above inequalities reduces to 30 .Reducing the above equation.

and D are positive numbers. 31 .g (a + D) ≥0 D Which holds always. since g. r = 0. one can obtain 2 × 2 matrix B. after which equality can be deduced. a. For the system under consideration ψ ( s ) = [ s 2 + (a + D) s + (aD + g )] So that W (ω ) = g (a + D ) D And θ ( z ) = g ( a + D) / D And v( z ) = + g (a + D / D . The vector u is given by ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ u1 ⎤ ⎢ g (a + D) ⎥ u=⎢ ⎥= D ⎥ ⎣u 2 ⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦ The next step is to solve the Lyapunov matrix equation which in this case becomes ⎡0 − ( aD + g ) ⎤ ⎡b11 ⎢ 1 − ( a + D ) ⎥ ⎢b ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 12 b12 ⎤ ⎡b11 +⎢ b22 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣b12 ⎡ g (a + D ) b12 ⎤ ⎡ 0 1 ⎤ D ⎢ − ( aD + g ) − ( a + D ) ⎥ = − ⎢ b22 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎦⎣ 0 ⎣ ⎤ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ From this.

Once the oscillations are damped. The main objective of the PSS is to increase damping of generator rotor angle swings. Tuning should be performed when system configurations and operating conditions result in the least damping. but at the same time tend to reduce small signal stability (damping torque). Phase compensation is accomplished by adjusting the PSS to compensate for phase lags through the generator excitation system. 32 .4. The PSS provides supplementary control that improves dynamic stability by increasing damping of power swing oscillations. which can occur in a broad range of frequencies in the power system. Functioning of PSS: The purpose of a PSS is to extend the angular stability limits of a power system by providing supplemental damping to the oscillation of synchronous machine rotors through generator excitation. and power system such that PSS provides torque changes in phase with speed changes. The basic function of PSS is to add damping to the generator rotor oscillations by controlling its excitation by using auxiliary stabilizing signal. The PSS acts to modulate the generator field voltage to damp electrical power-speed oscillations. Power System Stabilizers Introduction: The power system stabilizer (PSS) is an optional control that is part of the excitation system for generator control. This supplementary control is very beneficial during the line outages and large power transfers. This damping is provided by electric torque applied to the rotor that is in phase with the speed variation. It is desirable to ensure that the generator controls are equipped to support transmission system reliability by enhancing the excitation controls. PSS typically utilizes phase compensation and adjusting phase compensation is the main task in tuning PSS parameters. Excitation system with high gain and fast response times greatly aid transient stability (synchronizing torque). the stabilizer must produce a component of electrical torque in phase with the rotor speed deviations. the stability limits improve. To provide damping.

Block diagram of a Power system having PSS + Σ δ . 1 s δ Governor & Turbine Exciter & AVR Eq Eex Vref + Σ PSS Δω Tr. Generally the PSS are installed in those machines having higher MVA ratings but as the purpose of PSS is to provide a supplementary signal to the excitation system. The PSS may derive these quantities from generator terminal voltage and current measurements.4 to 0. Lines Location of PSS For oscillations in the range of 0. In general PSS location in a multi machine system is decided using two popular methods 1. accelerating power and integral of accelerating power. which are called as inter area oscillations. mode controllability 33 Generator . multi machine modeling of power systems is used. They include speed. frequency.8 Hz. power. participation factors 2.PSS are designed with various types of inputs.. the excitations systems also play an important role from excitation system point of view. Pm K 1 + sT δ . PSSs are placed on exciters having high gain and fast acting excitation systems (voltage regulator time constant TA is very small).

this design technique is centered on placing the rotor mode eigen value at desired location. the synchronizing torque should not be reduced.. Frequency domain method 2. PSS design using frequency domain technique By measuring the transfer function between the terminal voltage and stabilizer output it is possible to experimentally determine the phase characteristics of the plant. When the damping is negligible. The determination of plant transfer function GEP[s] can be done analytically or experimentally from field test. Eigen value assignment method 3. Once the GEP[s] is determined the PSS time constant are adjusted by trial and error. To set the gain of the PSS root locus analysis is performed PSS Design using Eigen value Assignment Technique As the function of the PSS is to provide a damping torque. from the mathematical point of view once the location of one Eigen value is relocated to shift to the left of the imaginary axis. the next step is to decide the parameters of the transfer function of PSS so as to improve the damping of the system. The frequency at which the transfer function GEP[s] suddenly changes in phase is the oscillation frequency. Using optimal control theory and based on minimization of a quadratic performance index. 34 . 4. Hence while improving the damping torque. Several methods are available in the literature like 1. some other eigenvalue automatically moves to the right of the imaginary axis. This happens because the trace of the closed loop matrix remains the same. the natural frequency of the system is related to synchronizing torque. Also. H-infinity control Out of several methods available first two methods are widely used and are easy to apply. for which the PSS is to be designed. The Eigen value location is decided based on the damping required and the undamped natural frequency of the open loop system.Design of PSS Once the selection of input signal is made.

The point to be emphasized is that. the PSS parameters need not be fixed constant throughout the lifetime of exciter and machine. A simplified model of PSS Single Input Power System Stabilizer The figure shows the generalized form of a power system stabilizer with a single input. Hence for this purpose all Eigen values of closed loop system are to be computed. as set by constants T1 to T4. frequency. at some regular intervals or as and when some operational problems are attributed due to PSS. based on previous tuning experiences. 35 . With the changes in network as well as generation conditions. over the unassigned modes. T5. if required. PSSs are to be tuned periodically. In the next block. and signal washout is set by the time constant. the block can be used to assist in shaping the gain and phase characteristics of the stabilizer. and power.The eigenvalue placement method nearly concentrates on the relocation of the rotor mode. time. Some common stabilizer input signals (VSI) are speed. effort and cost involved. This method does not have any control. T6 may be used to represent a transducer time constant. Stabilizer gain is set by the term KS. once the PSS parameters are tuned and PSS is made functional. When not used for this purpose. The next two blocks allow two stages of lead-lag compensation. The unassigned modes may move towards right of imaginary axis and may make the system unstable. A1 and A2 allow some of the low-frequency effects of high-frequency torsional filters (used in some stabilizers) to be accounted for.

To improve the stability further PSS (Power System Stabilizers) should be used. The Power Systems are inherently non-linear and hence cannot be modeled using classical techniques. An attempt to discuss state variable model as a core of mathematical technique and its applications to various cases of single-machine and multi-machine power systems for control and system analysis was made and presented. 36 . The various dvantages of state variable. Power System were pointed out.V. The governor stabilizes the system against the oscillations in the mechanical input power and the exciter stabilizes it against the variations in the terminal voltage of the generator. modeling of physical systems viz. The fascinating aspect of state variable modeling is that it finds applications to variety of disciplines as it follows a generalized system approach. Conclusions The importance of modeling with its various types was introduced. control and design. For more detailed models Adaptive Cotrol and Fuzzy Logic should be used. Because of universality and convenience of this modeling and its applications to power system problems.5. the technique may be appreciated well. The concept of system states and state variable modeling was indicated. We after modeling the Power Systems arrived at the conclusion that they are potentially unstable due to the various disturbances and oscillations going on in the system. S. So the State-space model gives a near-perfect model for them after certain assumptions. modeling technique is reported to have gained maturity and popularity in engineering disciplines and has been successfully applied to variety of engineering problems both for off-line and on-line analysis.

Robust Controllers etc. The same systems can be modeled using various advances in control system like Fuzzy Logic. Then the model will be more acurate and hence the stability analysis can be done at ease. In this manner this project has still a lot to offer for future work and study. Adative Control. A compensator for the Excitation System can be designed and studied using any of the above control design techniques.6. 37 . Future Scope of Work In future this model can be generalised to multi-machine power systems having: ¾ A common governor ¾ A common exciter ¾ Individual Governors ¾ Individual Exciters There after the various stability criteria of such systems can be studied. design and model of multi-machine PSS can also be studied. The operation.

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