MEEN 651 Summer 2004 1) Solution

:

Homework No. 2 June 18, 2004

3 L sin θ1 4

3 L sin θ 2 4

First, we write the moment equilibrium about the pivot point of the left pendulum from the free body diagram,

3 3 && L(sin θ 1 − sin θ 2 ) cos θ1 L = ML2θ 1 4 4 . 9 2 && 2 ⇒ ML θ 1 + MgL sin θ 1 + KL cos θ 1 (sin θ 1 − sin θ 2 ) = 0 16 M L = − MgL sin θ1 − K
Then for the right pendulum,

3 3 && L(sin θ 1 − sin θ 2 ) cos θ 2 L = ML2θ 2 4 4 && + MgL sin θ − 9 KL2 cos θ (sin θ − sin θ ) = 0 ⇒ ML2θ 2 2 2 1 2 16 M R = − MgL sin θ 2 + K
Assume the angles are small, we have sin θ1 ≈ θ 1 , sin θ 2 ≈ θ 2 , cos θ1 ≈ 1 , and
cos θ 2 ≈ θ 2 . So the linearized equations of motion becomes,

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 2 June 18, 2004

9 KL(θ 1 − θ 2 ) = 0 16 && + Mgθ + 9 KL(θ − θ ) = 0 MLθ 2 2 2 1 16
&& + Mgθ + MLθ 1 1

2) Solution:

The state variables are i1, i2, i3, v1, and v2. Three loop equations and two node equations are written:

v1 = L1

di1 dt

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

v2 = L2

di 2 + v1 dt
di3 dt

v 2 = L3 i 2 = C1

dv1 + i1 dt

i = i3 + C 2

dv 2 + i2 dt

Substituting from equation (1) and (3) into Equation (2) gives
L 2i3 = L 2i 2 + L1i1 + K

(6)

where K is a function of the initial conditions. This equation reveals that one inductor current is dependent upon the other two inductor currents. Thus, this circuit has only four independent physical state variables, two inductor currents and two capacitor voltages. We define the four independent state variables as x1=v1, x2=v2, x3=i1,x4=i2, and the control variable is u=i. Three state equations are obtainable from Equations (1), (2) and

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 2 June 18, 2004

(4). The fourth equation is obtained by eliminating the dependent current i3 form Equation (5) and (6). The result in matrix form is

⎡ ⎢ 0 &1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎡x ⎢x & ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 2⎥ = ⎢ ⎢x &3 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L1 &4 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣x 1 ⎢− ⎣ L2

0 0 0

1 C1 L1 − L3C 2 − 0 0

1 L2 ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ x 2⎥ y = [1 0 0 0]⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ x 4⎦

1 ⎤ C1 ⎥ x ⎡ 0 ⎤ L 2 + L3 ⎥ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ − L3C 2 ⎥ ⎢ x 2 ⎥ + ⎢ C 2 ⎥i ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ x4 ⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎦

(7)

3) Solution:

(a) Input: V(t) States: Energy storage elements in the given electromechanical system are (1) Capacitors, C2 (2) Capacitor, C1 (3) Spring, k1+k2

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 (4) Mass M. Therefore, there are four states: y1 = VC 2 y 2 = VC1 = v y3 = x & = Vm y4 = x (b) For current loop 1, we have (1)

Homework No. 2 June 18, 2004

V (t ) − VC 2 − Ri − VC1 = 0 ⇒ V (t ) − y1 − Ri − y 2 = 0 1 ⇒ i = (V (t ) − y1 − y 2) R
and , (2)

&C 2 q i2 = C2 C2 1 &1 = ⇒y (V (t ) − y1 − y 2) C 2R &1 = y
For current loop 2, we have VC 1 = q C1 C1 & C 1 (i 2 − i ) & =q ⇒V = C1 C1 C1

.

(3)

.

(4)

1 1 &2 = ⇒y (V (t ) − y1 − y 2) − (TVm) C1R C1 1 1 &2 = ⇒y (V (t ) − y1 − y 2) − (Ty 4) C1R C1 (c) For mechanical system, we have
&= ∑F M& x & + (b1 + b 2) x & + (k1 + k 2) x = Fm ⇒ M& x Thus, from (1),(5), we have & 4 + (b1 + b 2) y 4 + (k1 + k 2) y3 = Tv My &4 = ⇒y . 1 {Ty 2 − (k1 + k 2) y3 − (b1 + b2) y 4} M (6) (5)

(d) From equations (1)-(6), we get

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 2 June 18, 2004

1 ⎡ − ⎢ & ⎡ y1 ⎤ C 2R ⎢ ⎥ ⎢y 1 & ⎢ 2⎥ = ⎢ − ⎢y & 3⎥ ⎢ C1R ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 & 4⎦ ⎢ ⎣y 0 ⎢ ⎣

1 C 2R 1 − C1R 0 T M

0 0 0 k1 + k 2 − M

⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎡ y1 ⎤ ⎢ C 2R ⎥ T ⎥ ⎢ y 2⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − ⎥ C1 ⎥ ⎢ y3⎥ + ⎢ C1R ⎥V (t ) (7) 1 ⎥⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ b1 + b 2 ⎥ ⎣ y 4⎦ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ − ⎣ 0 ⎦ M ⎥ ⎦ 0

4) Solution:

Let the position vector of the cart be chosen as ‘x’. The velocity and the acceleration of
& and & & . The position, the center of mass of the slider with mass, ‘M’ be denoted as x x

velocity and acceleration vectors of the center of mass of the pendulum is given by

l X g = x − sin θ 2 l Yg = cos θ 2
& l & − l sin θ & =x & − cos θθ X g 2 2 & & + l cos θ & = − l sin θθ Y g 2 2

(1)

(2)

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 2 June 18, 2004

&& l && − l& cos θθ & + l sin θθ & 2 − l sin θ && = & & − X x cos θ θ g 2 2 2

(3)

&& & && − l cosθθ & 2 + l cosθ − l&sin θθ && = − l sin θθ Y g 2 2 2
Lagrangian approach
Generalized Forces

(4)

The nonconservative forces in this case result from the input force and the system damping, so the generalized forces are
& ∑ x = f (t ) − bx ∑θ = 0 Kinetic and Potential Energy Functions (5) (6)

T=

1 1 &2 & 2 +Y &2) + 1 I θ & 2 + m( X Mx g g g 2 2 2
1 ml 2 yields 12

(7)

Substituting (1), (2) into (7 ) and I g = T=

1 1 l 2 & 2 l&2 1 & − l&x &2 & 2 + m( θ & cos θθ & sin θ ) + + − lx ml 2θ ( M + m) x 2 2 4 4 24

(8)

Choose horizontal plane as potential datum, since the cart moves only in the horizontal direction, the potential energy of the system is determined entirely by the angle of the pendulum, given by

l V = mg cos θ 2
Hence, Lagrangian function is given by L = T −V =

(9)

1 1 l 2 & 2 l&2 1 & − l&x & 2 − mg l cos θ & 2 + m( θ & cos θθ & sin θ ) + + − lx ml 2θ ( M + m) x 24 2 2 2 4 4 (10)

The equations for θ are given by

∂L 1 2 & 1 & = ml θ − ml cos θx & 3 2 ∂θ

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 2 June 18, 2004 (11)

d ∂L 1 1 && + 2 mll&θ & + 1 mlx & − 1 ml cos θ& & sin θθ & − ml&x & cos θ x ( ) = ml 2θ & dt ∂θ 2 2 3 3 2

∂L 1 l & sin θ − 1 ml&x &θ & cos θ + mg sin θ = mlx 2 2 ∂θ 2
The equations for x are given by

∂L 1 & − 1 ml&sin θ & − ml cos θθ = ( M + m) x & 2 ∂x 2
d ∂L & − 1 ml cos θθ && + 1 ml sin θθ & 2 − 1 m sin θ& & − ml& cos θθ ( ) = ( M + m) & x l& & dt ∂x 2 2 2
(12)

∂L =0 ∂x
The Lagrangian equations are

d ∂L ∂L & ( )− = f (t ) − bx & dt ∂x ∂x
d ∂L ∂L ( )− =0 & dt ∂θ ∂θ
&& ⎧ l & 2 − l cos θθ && − l& cos θθ & − l sin θ ) = f (t ) & + bx & + m( sin θθ x ( M + m) & ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 2 ⎨ 4 8 ⎪2ml cos θ& && − mll&θ & + 2mgl sin θ = 0 & − ml 2θ x ⎪ 3 3 ⎩

(13) (14)

Substituting (11), (12) into (13), (14) gives the governing equations of motion of system

(15)

5) Solution:
(a) To determine the equilibrium values, the derivative terms are equated to zero. Hence we get,

y (1 − x 2 ) = 0, ⇒ y = 0, or x 2 = 1
and x(1 + y 3 ) = 0, ⇒ x = 0, or y 3 = −1. Therefore, there is no unique equilibrium value for the system. (b)

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 Define new variables, ∆x(t ) = x(t ) − x0 , ∆y (t ) = y (t ) − y 0. Applying Taylor series expansion to the first non-linear equation, we get

Homework No. 2 June 18, 2004

& (t ) = y (1 − x 2 ) x = −1 + ∆x
y = −1

∂ ∂ ( y (1 − x 2 )) ⋅ ( x(t ) − x0 ) + ( y (1 − x 2 ) ⋅ ( y (t ) − y 0 ), x = −1 x = −1 ∂x ∂ y y = −1
y = −1

& (t ) = −2∆x(t ), ⇒ ∆x & (t ) + 2∆x(t ) = 0. ⇒ ∆x

(1)

Similarly applying the Taylor series expansion to the second nonlinear equation, we get & (t ) = x(1 + y 3 ) x = −1 + ∆y
y = −1

∂ ∂ ( x(1 + y 3 )) ⋅ ( x(t ) − x0 ) + ( x(1 + y 3 )) ⋅ ( y (t ) − y 0 ), 1 x = − x = −1 ∂x ∂y (2) y = −1
y = −1

& (t ) + 3∆y (t ) = 0 ⇒ ∆y Equations (1) and (2) represents the linearized differential equations of the system.

6) Solution:
& θ T. (a) This is a second order non-linear differential equation in θ. Let x = θ Thus we have

[

]

(b) For small values of θ.

Therefore, we get

7) Solution:

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 2 June 18, 2004

(a) To obtain the operating point, equation all the derivative terms to zero. From the first equation, we get
sin α = 0, ⇒ α = nπ . We choose the first equilibrium point, α 0 = 0. From the second equation, we get x0 = 0 . Define three new variables ∆α (t ) = α (t ) − α 0 ∆x(t ) = x(t ) − x0 ∆F (t ) = F (t ) − F0 . Applying Taylor series expansion for the first equation, we get

&&(t ) + mgl sin α (t ) x =0 + ( I + ml 2 )∆α
α =0

∂ &(t ) cos α (t ) x =0 (mgl sin α (t )) ⋅ ∆α (t ) + ml& x α =0 x =0 ∂α α =0

+

∂ ∂ &(t ) cos α (t )) &(t ) cos α (t )) ∆& &(t ) = 0, (ml& x ⋅ ∆α (t ) + (ml& x x x =0 x =0 & & ∂α ∂ x α =0 α =0
(1)

&&(t ) + mgl∆α (t ) + ml∆& &(t ) = 0. ⇒ ( I + ml 2 )∆α x
Similarly applying the Taylor series expansion to the second equation, we get

&&(t ) cos α (t ) x =0 + &(t ) + b∆x & (t ) + k∆x(t ) + mlα (m + M )∆& x
α =0

∂ &&(t ) cos α (t )) (mlα ⋅ ∆α (t ) + x =0 ∂α α =0

∂ ∂ &&(t ) cos α (t )) &&(t ) − mlα & (t ) 2 sin α (t ) x =0 − & (t ) 2 sin α (t )) (mlα (mlα ⋅ ∆α ⋅ ∆α (t ) − x =0 x =0 α =0 && ∂α ∂α α =0 α =0 ∂ & (t ) 2 sin α (t )) & (t ) = ∆F (t ) + F0 (mlα ⋅ ∆α x =0 & ∂α
α =0

&&(t ) = ∆F (t ). &(t ) + b∆x & (t ) + k∆x(t ) + ml∆α ⇒ (m + M )∆& x
(2) Therefore, equations (1) and (2) together represent the linearized differential equations of motion of system in Fig.7.