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,

&1 ⎤ ⎡0 − 4⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎡1⎤ ⎡x ⎢x ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥u, ⎣ & 2 ⎦ ⎣1 0 ⎦ ⎣ x 2 ⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎦ y = [1 0]X .

Homework No. 8 July 30, 2004

(b) If u = −[K1 K2]x, the poles of the closed-loop system satisfy det(sI−F+GK) = 0. Thus,

⎡ s + K1 det ⎢ ⎣ 4

−1+ K2 ⎤ = 0 ⇒ s 2 + K 1 s + 4 + K 2 = 0. ⎥ s ⎦

The closed-loop characteristic equation is,

( s + 2 − 2 j )(s + 2 + 2 j ) = s 2 + 4s + 8 = 0.

Comparing coefficients, we have K1 = 4 and K2 = 4. The MATLAB command place can also be used to verify this result. 2) Solution: For a second-order system, the specification on peak time can be translated into a value of ωn by the equation ωd =π. Then determine ωn from ω d = ω n 1 − ξ 2 yield ωn = 1.414. Using full state feedback, we would like the a characteristic equation to be,

s 2 + 2ξω n s + ω n 2 = s 2 + 2 s + 2 = 0

**Using state feedback U = − KX = −[k1 k 2 ]X , we get,
**

& = ( F − GK ) X = ⎡ 0 X ⎢− 8 − k 1 ⎣ 1 ⎤ X. − 7 − k2 ⎥ ⎦

Hence the closed-loop characteristic equation is, s 2 + (7 + k 2 ) s + (8 + k1 ) = s 2 + 2 s + 2 = 0 Comparing coefficients, k1 = −6 and k2 = −5. Matlab verification: Using simulink like below

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 8 July 30, 2004

**The step response is shown below
**

Step Response 0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

1

2

3

4

5 Time(s)

6

7

8

9

10

3) Solution: To obtain the state space description we yields

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 8 July 30, 2004

The state feedback gain must satisfy Since K = [k1 k2 k3], above equation can be written as

This leads to

4) Solution: (a) The state space equations of motion are,

We require the closed-loop characteristic equation to be,

From the above state equations,

det( sI − F + GK ) = s 4 + (k 2 − k 4 ) s 3 + (k1 − k 3 − 1) s 2 + k 4 (1 − β ) s + k 3 (1 − β ) = α c ( s )

Comparing coefficients yields:

(b) The symmetric root locus is shown on the next page, where we have chosen H = [ 0 0 1 0]. The following MATLAB commands can be used to generate the symmetric root locus: a=[F, 0*F;-H’*H, -F’];b=[G;0*G]; c=[0*H, G’];d=0; rlocus(a,b,c,d);

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 8 July 30, 2004

The chosen pole locations, shown on the symmetric root locus, result in a feedback gain of (using MATLAB place command), K = [ 13.5 18.36 3.9 13.98 ]. (c) The initial condition response to θ(0) = 10◦ for both control designs in (a) and (b) is shown as following

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 8 July 30, 2004

(d) To compute Nx and Nu for zero steady-state error to a constant command input on cart position, x, we solve the equations,

Choose cart position x as output, y=x, thus H2=[0 0 1 0], This yields Nx = [0 0 1 0]T and Nu = 0. The step responses for each of the closed-loop systems are shown as following

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 8 July 30, 2004

5) Solution: We first obtain the 4-tuple (Ao,Bo,Co,Do) for the choice of state variables specified in the question. This leads to

We next use the MATLAB command place to find K, using the following MATLAB code >>Go=tf(3,[1 6 11 6]); P=[-3 -4 -5]'; >>Ao=[0 1 0;0 1 0;-6 -11 -6];Bo=[0;0;3]; >>K=place(Ao,Bo,P); This yields K = [18 12 2]. 6) Solution: (a) For the overshoot specification,

For the 1% settling time specification, we use,

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 8 July 30, 2004

**(b) This can be implemented in MATLAB with the following code:
**

F = [0,1;0,-10]; G = [0;1]; H = [1,0]; J = 0; zeta = 0.404; % Tweak values slightly so that specs are met. ts = 0.114; wn = 4.6/(ts*zeta); p = roots([1, 2*zeta*wn, wnˆ2]); k = place(F,G,p); sysCL=ss(F-G*k,G,H,J) step(sysCL);

The step response is shown as

Step Response

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