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The closed loop characteristic polynomial is given by the numerator of 1 + G ( s )C ( s ) , i.e. p ( s ) = s 3 + (3 + K ) s 2 ( K + 4) s 2 K On applying the Routh criterion we obtain

From the array above we observe that p(s) has all its roots in the open LHP if and only if the following three conditions are simultaneously satisfied 3+ K > 0 K 2 + 5 K + 12 < 0 2K > 0 The first and third conditions require that -3 < K < 0. On the other hand, the second condition can be re-written as ( K + 2.5) 2 + 5.75 < 0 . This form allows us to see that the condition cannot be met by any real value of K. In summary, there is no real value for K which stabilizes the closed loop. 2) Solution: The sensitivity is given by

S ( s) = 1 T ( s) =

The error is given by

2

E ( s) = S ( s) R( s)

Therefore, in steady state, the error is a sinusoidal signal of the same frequency as the reference, but with different amplitude and phase. Using frequency response analysis we conclude that, in steady state e(t ) = S ( j 4) R0 cos(4t + S( j 4)

where S ( j 4) = 0.31.4. Therefore e(t ) = 0.3R0 cos(4t + 1.4) The error is non zero since the sensitivity is not zero at = 4 .

3) Solution: (a)

(d)

(h)

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 4) Solution: We consider the general form of a PI controller as

C ( s) =

as + b s

Acl ( s ) = s 3 2s 2 + (1 + a) s + b

Hence, there are no values for a and b such that Acl(s) is strictly Hurwitz. One of the coefficients of the Acl(s) is negative (-2) no matter what values we choose for a and b. 5) Solution: (a)The real axis segment are (-1,0) and (-5, ); (b) =

6 = 2; i = 60 0 ,180 ; 3

(c) K=30.

(b) For roots at 60 j 60 , comparing to the standard form:

s 2 + 2 n s + n = 0 s = n j n 1 2

2

n = 60 2,

= 0.707

C (s) =

where a = K p ; b =

as + b ; s

Kp

Acl ( s ) = numerator of { 1 + G ( s )C ( s )} = s 2 + (2 + a ) s + b

We choose the controller to obtain a pair of complex conjugate poles. To achieve a closed loop transient as fast as e 5t , those poles must have real parts equal to-5. This requires a = 8 and b = 49. Hence

C ( s) =

8s + 49 s

The closed loop response to a unit step reference is shown in following figure.

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