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MEEN 651 Summer 2004 1) Solution:

Homework No. 4 July 2, 2004

The closed loop characteristic polynomial is given by the numerator of 1 + G ( s )C ( s ) , i.e. p ( s ) = s 3 + (3 + K ) s 2 ( K + 4) s 2 K On applying the Routh criterion we obtain

From the array above we observe that p(s) has all its roots in the open LHP if and only if the following three conditions are simultaneously satisfied 3+ K > 0 K 2 + 5 K + 12 < 0 2K > 0 The first and third conditions require that -3 < K < 0. On the other hand, the second condition can be re-written as ( K + 2.5) 2 + 5.75 < 0 . This form allows us to see that the condition cannot be met by any real value of K. In summary, there is no real value for K which stabilizes the closed loop. 2) Solution: The sensitivity is given by

S ( s) = 1 T ( s) =
The error is given by

s ( s + 30) s + 30s + 400


2

E ( s) = S ( s) R( s)

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 4 July 2, 2004

Therefore, in steady state, the error is a sinusoidal signal of the same frequency as the reference, but with different amplitude and phase. Using frequency response analysis we conclude that, in steady state e(t ) = S ( j 4) R0 cos(4t + S( j 4)
where S ( j 4) = 0.31.4. Therefore e(t ) = 0.3R0 cos(4t + 1.4) The error is non zero since the sensitivity is not zero at = 4 .
3) Solution: (a)

(d)

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 4 July 2, 2004

(h)

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 4) Solution: We consider the general form of a PI controller as

Homework No. 4 July 2, 2004

C ( s) =

as + b s

Thus, the closed loop characteristic polynomial is given by

Acl ( s ) = s 3 2s 2 + (1 + a) s + b
Hence, there are no values for a and b such that Acl(s) is strictly Hurwitz. One of the coefficients of the Acl(s) is negative (-2) no matter what values we choose for a and b. 5) Solution: (a)The real axis segment are (-1,0) and (-5, ); (b) =

6 = 2; i = 60 0 ,180 ; 3

(c) K=30.

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 4 July 2, 2004

6) Solution: (a) Transfer function: Set R = 0, then E = Y,

k ( s + 60)Y ( s ) = 600 k p Y ( s ) + I Y ( s ) 1500W ( s ) s 1500 s Y (s) = 2 W ( s ) s + 60(1 + 10k p ) s + 600k I


(b) For roots at 60 j 60 , comparing to the standard form:

s 2 + 2 n s + n = 0 s = n j n 1 2
2

n = 60 2,

= 0.707

600k I = (60 2 ) 2 k I = 12 60(1 + 10k p ) = 2 0.707 60 2 k p = 0.1

7) Solution: A PI controller has transfer function given by

C (s) =
where a = K p ; b =

as + b ; s

Kp

Tr Then the closed loop characteristic polynomial, Acl(s), is given by


Acl ( s ) = numerator of { 1 + G ( s )C ( s )} = s 2 + (2 + a ) s + b

We choose the controller to obtain a pair of complex conjugate poles. To achieve a closed loop transient as fast as e 5t , those poles must have real parts equal to-5. This requires a = 8 and b = 49. Hence

C ( s) =

8s + 49 s

The closed loop response to a unit step reference is shown in following figure.

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 4 July 2, 2004

Closed loop unit step response