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)

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

N = 0, P = 0 ⇒ Z = N + P = 0

So the close-loop system is stable for any K>0. (b) The Bode plot shows an initial phase of 00 hence the Nyquist starts on the positive real axis at A’. The Bode ends with a phase of -2700 hence the Nyquist ends the bottom loop by approaching the origin from the positive imaginary axis.

The magnitude of the Nyquist plot as it crosses the negative real axis is 0.00174. It will not encircle the −1/K point until K = 1/0.00174= 576. System is stable when

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 0<K<576. (c)

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

The Bode plot shows an initial phase of 00 hence the Nyquist starts on the positive real axis at A’. The Bode ends with a phase of -1800 hence the Nyquist ends the bottom loop by approaching the origin from the negative real axis.

It will never encircle the -1/K point, hence it is always stable for any K>0. 2) Solution: To obtain the phase margin, first determine the frequency at which the magnitude of the open loop is equal to unity. G ( jω ) = 1 ⇒ 12 0.09ω 2 + 1

**ω 0.49ω 2 + 1 ⇒ 144(0.09ω 2 + 1) = ω 2 (0.49ω 2 + 1)
**

⇒ ω = 5.766 rad / sec Then the PM is given by

=1

**PM = ∠G ( jω ) + 180 ⇒ PM = tan −1 (0.3ω ) − 90 − tan −1 (0.7ω ) + 180 ⇒ PM = 73.883 0
**

Since the phase curve of the transfer function does not cross the –180° line, the gain

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 margin of the system is infinity. 3) Solution: Writing the phase relation of the open system transfer function, we get

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

φ = tan −1

ω

5

− 180

**The phase margin is given by
**

PM = ∠G ( jω ) + 180 ⇒ 50 = tan −1 ⇒ tan −1

ω

5

− 180 + 180

= 50 5 ⇒ ω = 5.959 rad / sec At this frequency,. the magnitude is equal to 1, hence G ( jω ) = 1 ⇒ K ω 2 + 52

ω

ω2

=1

⇒ K = 4.56 Since the Bode plot does not across the -1800 line, the gain margin of the system is ∞ . 4) Solution: Use following commands in MATLAB:

num=30*[1 15]; den=conv([1 7 0],[1 5 65]); sys=tf(num,den); margin(sys);

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

Gain Margin: GM = 14.883 dB (at 7.1963 rad/sec). Phase Margin: PM = 81.274 deg (at 0.9935 rad/sec). Since the Phase Margin Pm is positive, the negative-feedback system with a unity controller gain is stable. 5) Solution: The transfer function of the Lead Compensator is given by

D( s) = K

Ts + 1 , where α < 1. αTs + 1

For the design, consider K always with the plant, such that the plant transfer function reduces to 50 K s (5s + 1) as

G ( s) =

Step 1: For the given error constant, obtain the value of K. The error constant to is given

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

K v = lim sG ( s ) = 15

s →0

⇒ K v = 0 .3

Therefore the plant transfer function reduces to 15 s (5s + 1)

G ( s) =

**Step 2: Plot the Bode plot of the transfer function given by equation (2) and compute the
**

phasemargin of the uncompensated system. The MATLAB code is: num=15; den=[5 1 0]; sys=tf(num,den); margin(sys); The plot is shown bellow. It can be seen that the phase margin of the uncompensated system is 6.61 degrees.

Step 3: The required phase margin is gotten by applying the relationship between PM

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 and the damping ratio:

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

The phase margin should be at least 52.920. Therefore, the phase increase that is to be provided by the lead compensator, plus a margin of safety of 10 degrees, is

φ = 52.92 − 6.61 + 10 = 56.310

Now we define φ max = φ , and obtain the value of α with this equation:

α=

1 − sin(φ max ) 1 − sin(56.310 ) = = 0.092 1 + sin(φ max ) 1 + sin(56.310 )

**Step 4: Using the value of α calculated, compute the frequency where the magnitude is
**

equal to –10log(1/α) dB.

1 20 log G ( jω ) = −10 log( )

α

⇒ G ( jω ) = α ⇒ ω = 3.16 rad / sec

Step 5: Choose the above frequency as the maximum frequency given by the relation

1

ω max =

⇒T =

T α

= 3.16 1

3.16 0.092 ⇒ T = 1.04 Therefore the Lead compensator is given by the transfer function,

D( s) =

1.04 s + 1 0.096 s + 1

(b) Verify the result with MATLAB. num=[1.04 1];den=conv([5 1 0],[0.096 1]); sys=tf(num,den); margin(15*sys);

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

Pm = 54.4° > 52.92°. Crossover frequency ωc= 3.2 rad / sec.Now we plot the step response of the closed loop system along with the compensator.

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

It can be seen that the peak overshoot is approximately equal to 16%. The corresponding value of damping ratio is more than 0.45, so it verifies(ii). 6) Solution: Let.s design the lag compensator :

D( s) = α

Ts + 1 , where α > 1. αTs + 1

For the case of design, the gain α is always considered with the plant transfer function so that the plant transfer function reduces to

G(s) =

Kα s s s ( + 1)( + 1) 5 50

.

**Step 1: For the given steady state error constant, obtain the value of Kα.
**

k v = lim sG ( s ) = lim

s →0 s →0

Kα = Kα > 100 s s ( + 1)( + 1) 5 50

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 We choose Kα = 101

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

**Step 2: Since the specified phase margin should be greater than 40 degrees, let us design
**

the compensator such that the final phase margin of the system is 52 degrees, assuming a margin of safety of 12 degrees. Compute the frequency at which the Bode plot of the system gives a phase margin of 50 degrees. The Bode plot is given below.

From the Bode plot, the frequency ωc2 at which the phase margin is 52 degrees is 3.4 rad/sec, i.e., ω c 2 = 3.4 rad/sec.

**Step 3: Using the frequency computed, compute the magnitude of the system at that
**

frequency and equate it to 20log(α). Therefore G ( jω ) ω =3.4 = 20 log(α ), ⇒ α = 24.54

Step 4: Choose,

1 ω c 2 3 .4 = = = 0.34, T 10 10 ⇒ T = 2.94.

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 Therefore the transfer function of the Lag compensator is given by D( s) = (2.94 s + 1) (72.18s + 1)

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

**The Bode plot of the compensated system is given below, by following the MATLAB sequence
**

s=tf(‘s’); plant2 = 101/(s*((s/5)+1)*((s/50)+1)); comp2 = (2.94*s + 1)/(72.18*s+1); sys2 = plant2*comp2; margin(sys2)

It can be seen that the PM is 47.12 degrees. Hence the design specifications have been met. 7) Solution:

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 The general transfer function of a Lag- Lead compensator is

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

(T1 s + 1) (T2 s + 1) 1 , α = < 1. β ( β T1 s + 1) (αT2 s + 1)

Step 1: To satisfy the velocity error constant, we have

k v = lim sG ( s ) = K = 40.

s →0

**Hence the open loop transfer function is given by
**

40 s s s ( + 1)( + 1) 5 10

G ( s) =

.

Step 2: Obtain the phase margin and the bandwidth of the closed loop. From the Bode

plot of the open loop transfer function it can be seen that the phase margin is approximately –24 degrees and the bandwidth of the closed loop is given by 14 rad/sec. The Bode plot of the open-loop transfer function is given below.

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

**Step 3: Design of Lag Compensator
**

The general transfer function of a lag compensator is given by Dlag ( s ) = T1 s + 1 , where β > 1. βT1 s + 1

Let us design the Lag compensator, so that the phase margin of the lag compensated system is 35 degrees. Obtain the frequency at which the phase margin is 35 degrees. From the Bode plot given above, that frequency is equal to 3.58 rad/sec. Find the magnitude of the transfer function at 3.58 rad/sec. From the Bode plot, the magnitude at 3.58 rad/sec is approximately equal to 18 dB. Equate this magnitude to 20 log (β), i.e.,

20 log(β ) = 18, ⇒ β = 7.9

Let us choose β to be equal to 10. Choose the corner frequency

1 ω 3.58 = = = 0.59 T1 6 6 ⇒ T1 = 1.68

Hence the lag compensator is given by Dlag ( s ) = (1.68s + 1) (16.8s + 1)

**Step 4: Design of the Lead Compensator
**

The general transfer function of the lead compensator is given by Dlead ( s ) = T2 s + 1 , where α < 1. αT2 s + 1

In this case, the compensator is designed using the new open-loop transfer function given by G ' ( s ) = G ( s ) × Dlag ( s ) = (1.68s + 1) 40 (16.8s + 1) s (0.1s + 1)(0.2 s + 1)

The Bode plot of the new open-loop transfer function is given by

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

From the Bode plot, it can be seen that the phase margin is now equal to 29.7 degrees. Choose α = 1

β

. Therefore α = 0.1.

Obtain the frequency at which the magnitude of the new open-loop transfer function is equal to –10 log (1/α). From the Bode plot it is equal to approximately 6.55 rad/sec. This frequency is the maximum frequency of the lead compensator. Hence 1 T2 α 1

ω max =

T2 =

, ,

ω max α

⇒ T2 = 0.48. Hence the Lead compensator is given by Dlead ( s ) = (0.48s + 1) (0.048s + 1)

The Bode plot of the forward compensated transfer function given by

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

Hence it can be seen that, the phase margin of the compensated system is equal to 62.234 degrees, thus satisfying the specification. The Bode plot of the closed loop is given by

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 5 July 9, 2004

The bandwidth of the closed loop is approximately equal to 11.7 rad/sec, thus satisfying the specification of the bandwidth.

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