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&1 (t ) = −3 x1 (t ) + x 2 (t ) + u (t ), x & 2 (t ) = −2 x 2 (t ) + 2u (t ), x

Homework No. 3 June 25, 2004

y (t ) = x1 (t ) + x 2 (t ). Taking the Laplace transforms of the above equations we get

[s + 3]X 1 ( s) = X 2 ( s) + U ( s), [s + 2]X 2 ( s) = 2U ( s)

⇒ X 2 ( s) = 2 U ( s ). s+2

Therefore, we have

2 1 U ( s) + U ( s ), ( s + 3)( s + 2) s+3 ( s + 4) ⇒ X 1 ( s) = U ( s ). ( s + 3)( s + 2) X 1 ( s) = Hence Y ( s) = X 1 ( s) + X 2 ( s) = ⇒ 2 s+4 U ( s) + ( s + 3)( s + 2) s+2

(3s + 10) Y ( s) . = U ( s ) ( s + 3)( s + 2)

**Method 2 (State Space approach)
**

The transfer function of the system can also be computed by using the formula given by Y ( s) = C ( sI − A) −1 B + D. U ( s) In this problem, we have

**MEEN 651 Summer 2004 ⎡− 3 1 ⎤ A=⎢ ⎥, ⎣ 0 − 2⎦ ⎡1 ⎤ B = ⎢ ⎥, ⎣2⎦ C = [1 1], D = 0. Therefore, we have ⎛ ⎡ s 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 3 1 ⎤ ⎞ ⎡1 ⎤ Y ( s) ⎟ = [1 1]⎜ ⎜ ⎢0 s ⎥ − ⎢ 0 − 2 ⎥ ⎟ ⎢ 2 ⎥ , U ( s) ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ⎝⎣ ⎛ ⎡ s + 3 − 1 ⎤ ⎞ ⎡1 ⎤ = [1 1]⎜ ⎥⎟ ⎜⎢ 0 ⎟ ⎢ 2⎥ , + 2 s ⎦⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ⎝⎣ = [1 1] = 1 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤ ⎡s + 2 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥, s + 3⎥ ( s + 3)( s + 2) ⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎣ 2⎦
**

−1 −1

Homework No. 3 June 25, 2004

3s + 10 . ( s + 3)( s + 2)

This coincides with the answer from method 1. (b) The poles of the system are at –3 and –2. Since the poles of the system lie in the left half plane, the given system is stable.

**2) Solution: We first notice that
**

L[ y (t )] = Y ( s ) = H ( s ) L[(u (t )] = H ( s ) ⇒ H ( s ) = sY ( s ) Hence 1 s

2 3 ⎤ 4 s + 15 ⎡5 H (s) = s ⎢ − − =6 ⎥ s ( s + 3)( s + 6) ⎣s s + 3 s + 6⎦

Thus the system has three poles at s1=0, s2=-3, and s3=-6, one zero located at s=-15/4.

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 3) Solution:

Homework No. 3 June 25, 2004

A

(a) The transfer function is given by:

TF =

Y (s) k k = = 2 R ( s ) ( s + 4)( s + b) + kK s + ( 4 + b) s + 4b + kK

(1)

**Since R(s) = 1 / s (unit step input), the steady state value of the output is:
**

SS = lim (TF ) =

s →0

k 4b + kK

(2)

From the figure for the step response, SS = 1, so, equation (2) becomes:

k = 1 ⇒ k = 4b + kK 4b + kK

order system gives

(3)

Comparing equation (1) with the standard expression for the transfer function of a second

ω n2 = k = 4b + kK

and

2ξω n = 4 + b

(4)

From the figure for the step response, the peak time is given by: tp = 0.49 s

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 The maximum overshoot is:

Homework No. 3 June 25, 2004

Mp =

1.23 − 1 = 0.23 1

The times for amplitude values of 10% and 90% SS can be obtained from the figure are approximately 0.08s and 0.355 s, respectively, so the rise time is: tr = 0.282 - 0.0687 = 0.2133 s With the maximum overshoot we get the damping factor:

ξ =−

ln M p

π + (ln M p )

2

2

=−

ln 0.23

π + (ln 0.23) 2

2

= 0.4237

The damped frequency is related to the peak time, the damping factor, and the natural frequency by:

ωd =

π

tp

= ωn 1 − ξ 2 → ωn =

π

tp 1−ξ 2

→ ωn =

π

0.49 1 − 0.4237 2

= 7.074 rad/s

**With equations (4) we obtain k and b:
**

2 k = ωn = (7.074) 2 = 50 rad 2

s2

b = 2ξω n − 4 = 2

K = 1−

4b 8 = 1− = 0.84 k 50

(b) On the figure for the step response, point (A) gives the position where the amplitude reachs 99% of SS, therefore the settling time for 1% criterion is: ts=1.23s

4) Solution: We first note that if b > 0, the unit step response is always positive, thus no undershoot occurs. To have undershoot in the unit step response it is sufficient that a linear system have a real zero in the open RHP. To investigate that possibility we add the two fractions in H(s) to yield

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 2+b +1 2 s + 4 + bs + b H (s) = = (4 + b) 4 + b . ( s + 1)( s + 2) ( s + 1)( s + 2) Then we have a Non-Minimum Phase (NMP) zero if and only if -4<b<-2.

Homework No. 3 June 25, 2004

5) Solution:

By block diagram algebra:

Q = R − YH 3 − YH 4 = R − Y (H 3 + H 4 ) Y = G1 NG 6 ⇒ And N is determined by G1 NG6 Y = R 1 + ( H 3 + H 4 )G1 NG6

MEEN 651 Summer 2004

Homework No. 3 June 25, 2004

Move G4 and G5

Combine symmetric loops as in the first step:

Finally, we have

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 By Masons Rule: Signal flow graph is shown in below

Homework No. 3 June 25, 2004

and the determinants are

Applying the rule, the transfer function is

MEEN 651 Summer 2004 6) Solution:

Homework No. 3 June 25, 2004

The system d.c. gain is given by H(0) where H(s) is the system transfer function, which is equal the Laplace transformation of h(t), i.e. the Laplace transform of the system response to a unit impulse. Therefore H (0) = ∫ h(t )dt = ∫ 2e −3 dt =

0 0

∞

∞

2 3

7) Solution: The system has relative degree 3 with 3 poles - hence it has no finite zeros. It has 3 poles, hence it takes the form G ( s) = K A( s )( s + 2)( s + 4)

Since the impulse response resembles a step response with steady state value we conclude the system must contain a pole at zero. Therefore the transfer function is of the form G ( s) = K s ( s + 2)( s + 4)

Then we use the final value theorem to determine K.

lim G ( s ) = lim

s →0 s →0

sK K = s ( s + 2)( s + 4) 8

s →0

Given the steady state value of 0.25, i.e. lim sG ( s ) = 0.25 we have K=2 Therefore G ( s) = 2 s ( s + 2)( s + 4)

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