41

Quantum Mechanics
CHAPTER OUTLINE
41.1 41.2 41.3 41.4 41.5 41.6 41.7 41.8 An Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics A Particle in a Box The Particle Under Boundary Conditions The Schrödinger Equation A Particle in a Well of Finite Height Tunneling Through a Potential Energy Barrier The Scanning Tunneling Microscope The Simple Harmonic Oscillator

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
Q41.1 A particle’s wave function represents its state, containing all the information there is about its location and motion. The squared absolute value of its wave function tells where we would 2 classically think of the particle as a spending most its time. Ψ is the probability distribution function for the position of the particle. The motion of the quantum particle does not consist of moving through successive points. The particle has no definite position. It can sometimes be found on one side of a node and sometimes on the other side, but never at the node itself. There is no contradiction here, for the quantum particle is moving as a wave. It is not a classical particle. In particular, the particle does not speed up to infinite speed to cross the node.

Q41.2

Q41.3

Consider a particle bound to a restricted region of space. If its minimum energy were zero, then the particle could have zero momentum and zero uncertainty in its momentum. At the same time, the uncertainty in its position would not be infinite, but equal to the width of the region. In such a case, the uncertainty product ∆x∆p x would be zero, violating the uncertainty principle. This contradiction proves that the minimum energy of the particle is not zero. The reflected amplitude decreases as U decreases. The amplitude of the reflected wave is proportional to the reflection coefficient, R, which is 1 − T , where T is the transmission coefficient as given in equation 41.20. As U decreases, C decreases as predicted by equation 41.21, T increases, and R decreases. Consider the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. It implies that electrons initially moving at the same speed and accelerated by an electric field through the same distance need not all have the same measured speed after being accelerated. Perhaps the philosopher could have said “it is necessary for the very existence of science that the same conditions always produce the same results within the uncertainty of the measurements.” In quantum mechanics, particles are treated as wave functions, not classical particles. In classical mechanics, the kinetic energy is never negative. That implies that E ≥ U . Treating the particle as a wave, the Schrödinger equation predicts that there is a nonzero probability that a particle can tunnel through a barrier—a region in which E < U .

Q41.4

Q41.5

Q41.6

491

492 Q41.7

Quantum Mechanics

Consider Figure 41.8, (a) and (b) in the text. In the square well with infinitely high walls, the particle’s simplest wave function has strict nodes separated by the length L of the well. The particle’s p2 h h2 = . Now in the well with walls of only , and its energy wavelength is 2L, its momentum 2m 8mL2 2L finite height, the wave function has nonzero amplitude at the walls. The wavelength is longer. The particle’s momentum in its ground state is smaller, and its energy is less. Quantum mechanically, the lowest kinetic energy possible for any bound particle is greater than zero. The following is a proof: If its minimum energy were zero, then the particle could have zero momentum and zero uncertainty in its momentum. At the same time, the uncertainty in its position would not be infinite, but equal to the width of the region in which it is restricted to stay. In such a case, the uncertainty product ∆x∆p x would be zero, violating the uncertainty principle. This contradiction proves that the minimum energy of the particle is not zero. Any harmonic oscillator can be modeled as a particle or collection of particles in motion; thus it cannot have zero energy. As Newton’s laws are the rules which a particle of large mass follows in its motion, so the Schrödinger equation describes the motion of a quantum particle, a particle of small or large mass. In particular, the states of atomic electrons are confined-wave states with wave functions that are solutions to the Schrödinger equation.

Q41.8

Q41.9

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
Section 41.1 P41.1 (a) An Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

ψ x = Ae e

af

i 5.00 ×10 10 x

j = A cose5 × 10 10 xj + Ai sine5 × 1010 xj = A cosa kxf + Ai sinakx f goes through

a full cycle when x changes by λ and when kx changes by 2π . Then kλ = 2π where 2π m 2π = 1.26 × 10 −10 m . k = 5.00 × 10 10 m −1 = . Then λ = 10 λ 5.00 × 10

e

j

(b) (c)

p=

h

λ

=

6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s = 5.27 × 10 −24 kg ⋅ m s 1.26 × 10 −10 m

m e = 9.11 × 10 −31 kg 5.27 × 10 −24 kg ⋅ m s m2v2 p2 = = K= e 2m e 2m 2 × 9.11 × 10 −31 kg

e

e

j j

2

= 1.52 × 10 −17 J =

1.52 × 10 −17 J = 95.5 eV 1.60 × 10 −19 J eV

P41.2

Probability

P=

−a

z
a

ψ x

af

2

P=

1

π

tan −1

z π ex + a j FGH πa IJK FGH 1a IJK tan FGH xa IJK 1 Lπ F π I O 1 1 − tan a−1f = M − G − J P = H K π N4 4 Q 2
=
a

a

−a

2

2

dx =

−1

a −a

−1

Chapter 41

493

Section 41.2 P41.3

A Particle in a Box

E1 = 2.00 eV = 3.20 × 10 −19 J For the ground-state, h 8m e E1 E1 =

h2 . 8m e L2

(a)

L=

= 4.34 × 10 −10 m = 0.434 nm

(b) P41.4

∆E = E2 − E1 = 4

F h I −F h I = GH 8m L JK GH 8m L JK
2 2 e 2 e 2

6.00 eV

For an electron wave to “fit” into an infinitely deep potential well, an integral number of half-wavelengths must equal the width of the well. nλ = 1.00 × 10 −9 m 2 K= so

λ=

2.00 × 10 −9 h = n p = 0.377n 2 eV

(a)

Since For

h 2 λ2 p2 h2 n2 = = 2m e 2m e 2m e 2 × 10 −9

e

j

e

j

2

e

j

FIG. P41.4

K ≈ 6 eV n = 4,

n=4 K = 6.03 eV

(b) P41.5 (a)

With

We can draw a diagram that parallels our treatment of standing mechanical waves. In each state, we measure the distance d from one node to another (N to N), and base our solution upon that: Since d N to N = p=

λ h and λ = p 2

h h = . λ 2d

Next,

p2 1 h2 = = 2 K= 2 2m e 8m e d d K= 6.02 × 10 −38 J ⋅ m 2 d2

LM e6.626 × 10 MM 8e9.11 × 10 N
K=

−34 −31

J⋅s

j OP . kg j P PQ
2

Evaluating, In state 1, In state 2, In state 3, In state 4, continued on next page

3.77 × 10 −19 eV ⋅ m 2 . d2

d = 1.00 × 10 −10 m d = 5.00 × 10 −11 m d = 3.33 × 10 −11 m d = 2.50 × 10 −11 m

K 1 = 37.7 eV . K 2 = 151 eV . K 3 = 339 eV . K 4 = 603 eV . FIG. P41.5

494

Quantum Mechanics

(b)

When the electron falls from state 2 to state 1, it puts out energy E = 151 eV − 37.7 eV = 113 eV = hf = into emitting a photon of wavelength 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s 3.00 × 10 8 m s hc λ= = = 11.0 nm . E 113 eV 1.60 × 10 −19 J eV hc

λ

e

a

fe

je

j

j

The wavelengths of the other spectral lines we find similarly: Transition E eV λ nm

a f a f

4→3 264 4.71

4→ 2 452 2.75

4→1 565 2.20

3→2 188 6.60

3→1 302 4.12

2→1 113 11.0

P41.6

λ = 2D

for the lowest energy state

6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s p2 h2 h2 K= = = = 2m 2mλ2 8mD 2 8 4 1.66 × 10 −27 kg 1.00 × 10 −14 m

e

j

2

e

je

j

2

= 8.27 × 10 −14 J = 0.517 MeV

p=

h

λ

=

6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s h = = 3.31 × 10 −20 kg ⋅ m s 2D 2 1.00 × 10 −14 m

e

j

P41.7

∆E = L=

hc

λ

=

F h I2 GH 8m L JK
2 e 2

2

− 12 =

3h2 8m e L2

3 hλ = 7.93 × 10 −10 m = 0.793 nm 8m e c hc =

P41.8

∆E = so

λ

F h I2 GH 8m L JK
2 e 2

2

− 12 =

3h2 8m e L2

L=

3 hλ 8m e c

P41.9

The confined proton can be described in the same way as a standing wave on a string. At level 1, the node-to-node distance of the standing wave is 1.00 × 10 −14 m , so the wavelength is twice this distance: h = 2.00 × 10 −14 m . p The proton’s kinetic energy is 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s p2 1 h2 K = mv 2 = = = 2 2m 2mλ2 2 1.67 × 10 −27 kg 2.00 × 10 −14 m

e

j

2

e

je

j

2

3. 29 × 10 −13 J = = 2.05 MeV 1.60 × 10 −19 J eV continued on next page

FIG. P41.9

Chapter 41

495

In the first excited state, level 2, the node-to-node distance is half as long as in state 1. The momentum is two times larger and the energy is four times larger: K = 8.22 MeV . The proton has mass, has charge, moves slowly compared to light in a standing wave state, and stays inside the nucleus. When it falls from level 2 to level 1, its energy change is 2.05 MeV − 8.22 MeV = −6.16 MeV . Therefore, we know that a photon (a traveling wave with no mass and no charge) is emitted at the speed of light, and that it has an energy of +6.16 MeV . Its frequency is And its wavelength is 6.16 × 10 6 eV 1.60 × 10 −19 J eV E = 1. 49 × 10 21 Hz . f= = h 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

e

je

j

λ=

c 3.00 × 10 8 m s = = 2.02 × 10 −13 m . f 1. 49 × 10 21 s −1

This is a gamma ray, according to the electromagnetic spectrum chart in Chapter 34. P41.10 The ground state energy of a particle (mass m) in a 1-dimensional box of width L is E1 = (a) For a proton m = 1.67 × 10 −27 kg in a 0.200-nm wide box:
−34 2

h2 . 8mL2

E1

e j e6.626 × 10 J ⋅ sj = 8e1.67 × 10 kg je 2.00 × 10 mj
−27 −10

2

= 8.22 × 10 −22 J = 5.13 × 10 −3 eV .

(b)

For an electron m = 9.11 × 10 −31 kg in the same size box: E1

e

j

e6.626 × 10 J ⋅ sj = 8e9.11 × 10 kg je 2.00 × 10
−34 2 −31 2

−10

m

j

2

= 1.51 × 10 −18 J = 9.41 eV .

(c) P41.11 En =

The electron has a much higher energy because it is much less massive.

E1

F h In GH 8mL JK e6.626 × 10 J ⋅ sj = 8e1.67 × 10 kg je 2.00 × 10
2 2 −34 2 −27

−14

m

j

2

= 8.21 × 10 −14 J E3 = 9E1 = 4.62 MeV

E1 = 0.513 MeV

E2 = 4E1 = 2.05 MeV

Yes , the energy differences are ~ 1 MeV , which is a typical energy for a γ-ray photon.

496 *P41.12

Quantum Mechanics

(a)

The energies of the confined electron are En = jump from state 1 to state 4 is

h2 4 2 − 1 2 and this is the photon energy: 8m e L2

h2 n 2 . Its energy gain in the quantum 8m e L2

e

j

h 2 15 hc 15 hλ = hf = . Then 8m e cL2 = 15 hλ and L = 2 λ 8m e c 8m e L (b)

FG H

IJ K

12

. 12 h 2 hc h2 h2 2 2 4 2 . = − = λ ′ 8m e L2 8m e L2 8m e L2

Let λ ′ represent the wavelength of the photon emitted: Then
2 2 5 hc λ ′ h 15 8m e L = = and λ ′ = 1. 25λ . λ hc 8m e L2 12 h 2 4

e

j

Section 41.3 Section 41.4 P41.13

The Particle Under Boundary Conditions The Schrödinger Equation

We have

ψ = Ae ib kx −ω t g

and

∂ 2ψ = − k 2ψ . ∂x 2 ∂ 2ψ 2m = − k 2ψ = − 2 E − U ψ . 2 = ∂x

Schrödinger’s equation: Since k
2

a

f

a 2π f = b 2π p g =
2

2

λ2

h2

=

p2 =2

and

E −U =

p2 . 2m

Thus this equation balances. P41.14

ψ x = A cos kx + B sin kx
∂ 2ψ = − k 2 A cos kx − k 2 B sin kx ∂x 2 ∂ 2ψ 2m = − 2 E − U ψ or = ∂x 2

af

∂ψ = − kA sin kx + kB cos kx ∂x − 2m 2mE E − U ψ = − 2 A cos kx + B sin kx = =

a

f

a

f

Therefore the Schrödinger equation is satisfied if

FG H

IJ a K

f

− k 2 A cos kx + B sin kx = −

a

f FGH

2mE =2

IJ a A cos kx + B sin kxf . K

This is true as an identity (functional equality) for all x if E = *P41.15 (a) With ψ x = A sin kx

=2k2 . 2m

af

a f
and d2 ψ = − Ak 2 sin kx . 2 dx

d A sin kx = Ak cos kx dx Then

h 2 4π 2 p2 = 2 d 2ψ =2k2 m2v2 1 ψ ψ ψ = mv 2ψ = Kψ . − =+ = = A sin kx = 2 2 2 2m dx 2m 2 m 2 m 2 4π λ 2m

e j e ja f

(b)

With ψ x = A sin

af

FG 2π x IJ = A sin kx , the proof given in part (a) applies again. H λK

Chapter 41

497

P41.16

(a)

x = x
0

z

L

L 2π x 4π x 2 2 1 1 sin 2 dx = x − cos dx L L L0 2 2 L L

FG H

IJ K

1 x2 x = L 2


0

1 L2 L 16π 2

IJ K LM 4π x sin 4π x + cos 4π x OP L Q NL L

z FGH
IJ K

L

=
0

L 2

(b)

Probability =

2π x 4π x 2 1 1 L sin 2 sin dx = x− L L L L 4π L 0. 490 L

0.510 L

z

FG H

LM N

OP Q

0.510 L 0. 490 L

Probability = 0.020 −

1 sin 2.04π − sin 1.96π = 5.26 × 10 −5 4π
0 . 260 L 0 . 240 L

a

f

(c)

Probability

LM x − 1 sin 4π x OP N L 4π L Q

= 3.99 × 10 −2 L 4

(d)

In the n = 2 graph in Figure 41.4 (b), it is more probable to find the particle either near x = or x = 3L than at the center, where the probability density is zero. 4 L . 2

Nevertheless, the symmetry of the distribution means that the average position is P41.17 Normalization requires

all space

z

ψ dx = 1

2

or
2

z
0

L

A 2 sin 2

FG nπ x IJ dx = 1 H LK

z
0

L

A 2 sin 2

FG nπ x IJ dx = A FG L IJ = 1 H 2K H LK
L4

or

A=
L4 0

2 . L

P41.18

The desired probability is where Thus,

P=

z
0

ψ dx =

2

2 L

z

sin 2

FG 2π x IJ dx H LK
=

sin 2 θ = P=

1 − cos 2θ . 2
L4 0

FG x − 1 sin 4π x IJ H L 4π L K

FG 1 − 0 − 0 + 0IJ = H4 K

0.250 .

P41.19

In 0 ≤ x ≤ L , the argument
2

FG 2 IJ sin FG 2π x IJ reaches maxima at sinθ = 1 and sinθ = −1 at H LK H L K
2π x π 2π x 3π = and = . 2 L 2 L

2π x of the sine function ranges from 0 to 2π . The probability density L

The most probable positions of the particle are at at x =

L 3L . and x = 4 4

498 *P41.20

Quantum Mechanics

(a)

Probability

z z FGH IJK 1L L F 2π x IJ OP = = Mx − sinG H L KQ 2π LN
= ψ 1 dx =
0 A 2 A 0

A πx 2 1 dx = sin 2 L0 L L

FG 2π x IJ OPdx H L KQ A 1 F 2π A IJ − sinG HLK L 2π
A

z LMN
0

1 − cos

(b) 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0

Probability Curve for an Infinite Potential Well

0.5

A L

1

1.5

FIG. P41.20(b) (c) The probability of finding the particle between x = 0 and x = A is x = L is 1 . 3
2

2 , and between x = A and 3

Thus, ψ 1 dx =
0

z
A

2 3

2π A A 1 2 sin − = , L 2π L 3

FG H

IJ K

or

u−

1 2 sin 2π u = . 2π 3

This equation for being

A = 0.585 , or A = 0.585L to three digits. L

A can be solved by homing in on the solution with a calculator, the result L

Chapter 41

499

P41.21

(a)

The probability is

z z FGH IJK z FGH 12 − 12 cos 2πL x IJK dx F x 1 sin 2π x IJ = FG 1 − 1 sin 2π IJ = FG 1 − 3 IJ = 0.196 P=G − H L 2π L K H 3 2π 3 K H 3 4π K
L3 0

P=

ψ dx =

2

L3 0

πx 2 2 dx = sin 2 L L L
L3 0

L3 0

.

(b)

The probability density is symmetric about x =

L . 2 Thus, the probability of finding the particle between 2L x= and x = L is the same 0.196. Therefore, the 3 L 2L is probability of finding it in the range ≤ x ≤ 3 3 P = 1.00 − 2 0.196 = 0.609 .

a

f

FIG. P41.21(b)

(c)

Classically, the electron moves back and forth with constant speed between the walls, and the probability of finding the electron is the same for all points between the walls. Thus, the classical probability of finding the electron in any range equal to one-third of the available 1 . space is Pclassical = 3

P41.22

(a)

ψ1 x = ψ2 ψ3

af

FG IJ H K 2 F 2π x IJ ; sinG axf = L H LK 2 F 3π x IJ ; cosG axf = L H LK
πx 2 cos ; L L

P1 x = ψ 1 x P2 x = ψ 2 P3 x = ψ 3

af

af

af

af

FG IJ H K 2 F 2π x IJ sin G a xf = L H LK 2 F 3π x IJ cos G axf = L H LK
2

=

πx 2 cos 2 L L
2

2

2

2

(b)
∞ ∞

n=3

ψ

ψ

2

n=2

n=1 − L 2 0 x L 2 − L 2 0 x L 2

FIG. P41.22(b)

500 P41.23

Quantum Mechanics

Problem 43 in Chapter 16 helps students to understand how to draw conclusions from an identity 2 Ax dψ d 2ψ 2A x2 ψ x = A 1− 2 =− 2 =− (a) 2 L dx L dx L

a f FGH

I JK

Schrödinger’s equation becomes

d 2ψ 2m = − 2 E −U ψ 2 = dx

a

f

2 2 2 2 x2 2A 2m 2m − = x A 1 − x L − 2 = − 2 EA 1 − 2 + 2 = = L L mL2 L2 − x 2

F GH

I JK

e

je e

j

j

1 mE mEx 2 x 2 − 2 =− 2 + 2 2 − 4 . L = = L L This will be true for all x if both and 1 mE = L2 = 2 mE 1 − 4 =0 2 2 = L L E= dx = A 2
L

both these conditions are satisfied for a particle of energy (b) For normalization, 1=
L

=2 . L2 m 2x 2 x 4 + 4 dx L2 L

−L

z

L

A2 1 −

F GH

x2 L2

I JK

2

−L 2

z FGH

1−

I JK

1 = A2 x −

LM N

L3

(c)

P= P=

−L 3

z

ψ

2

OP = A LL − 2 L + L + L − 2 L + L O = A FG 16L IJ 15 A= . MN 3 5 3 5 PQ H 15 K 16L 3L 5L Q F 1 − 2 x + x I dx = 15 LMx − 2 x + x OP = 30 LM L − 2L + L OP 15 dx = GH L L JK 16L N 3L 5L Q 16L N 3 81 1 215 Q z 16L
2x 3
2

+

x5

4

2

−L

L3

2

4

3

5

L3

−L 3

2

4

2

5

−L 3

47 = 0.580 81

P41.24

(a)

Setting the total energy E equal to zero and rearranging the Schrödinger equation to isolate the potential energy function gives 1 d ψ . a f FGH 2=m IJK ψ dx ψ a xf = Axe . d ψ e = e 4 Ax − 6 AxL j dx L d ψ e 4x − 6L j ψ a xf = U x =
2 2 2 − x 2 L2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2

If Then or and (b)

− x 2 L2 4

dx 2

L4

U x =

af

=2 4x 2 −6 2mL2 L2

F GH

I JK

.

See the figure to the right. FIG. P41.24(b)

Chapter 41

501

Section 41.5 P41.25 (a) (b)

A Particle in a Well of Finite Height See figure to the right. The wavelength of the transmitted wave traveling to the left is the same as the original wavelength, which equals 2L . FIG. P41.25(a)

P41.26

FIG. P41.26

Section 41.6 P41.27

Tunneling Through a Potential Energy Barrier 2m U − E =

T = e −2CL where C =

a

f j e2.00 × 10 j = 4.58
−10

2CL = (a) (b)

2 2 9.11 × 10 −31 8.00 × 10 −19 1.055 × 10
−34

e

je

T = e −4.58 = 0.010 3 , a 1% chance of transmission. R = 1 − T = 0.990 , a 99% chance of reflection. 2 9.11 × 10 −31 5.00 − 4.50 1.60 × 10 −19 kg ⋅ m s 1.055 × 10
−34

FIG. P41.27

P41.28

C=

e

ja

fe

j

J⋅s

= 3.62 × 10 9 m −1

T = e −2CL = exp −2 3.62 × 10 9 m −1 950 × 10 −12 m = exp −6.88 T = 1.03 × 10 −3 P41.29 From problem 28, C = 3.62 × 10 9 m −1 10 −6 = exp −2 3.62 × 10 9 m −1 L . Taking logarithms, New L = 1.91 nm ∆L = 1.91 nm − 0.950 nm = 0.959 nm .

e

je

j

a

f
FIG. P41.28

e

j

−13.816 = −2 3.62 × 10 9 m −1 L .

e

j

502 *P41.30

Quantum Mechanics

The original tunneling probability is T = e −2CL where

c2maU − Efh C=
=

12

=

2π 2 × 9.11 × 10 −31 kg 20 − 12 1.6 × 10 −19 J 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s hc

e

a

f

j

12

= 1.448 1 × 10 10 m −1 .

The photon energy is hf =

1 240 eV ⋅ nm = = 2.27 eV , to make the electron’s new kinetic energy λ 546 nm 12 + 2.27 = 14.27 eV and its decay coefficient inside the barrier C′ = 2π 2 × 9.11 × 10 −31 kg 20 − 14.27 1.6 × 10 −19 J 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

e

a

f

j

12

= 1.225 5 × 10 10 m −1 .

Now the factor of increase in transmission probability is −9 −1 10 e −2C ′L = e 2 LaC −C ′ f = e 2 ×10 m× 0. 223 ×10 m = e 4.45 = 85.9 . −2CL e

Section 41.7 P41.31

The Scanning Tunneling Microscope

With the wave function proportional to e −CL , the transmission coefficient and the tunneling current 2 are proportional to ψ , to e −2CL . Then,
−2 10.0 nm ga 0.500 nm f I 0.500 nm e b = = e 20 .0 a0 .015 f = 1.35 . −2 b10.0 nm ga 0.515 nm f I 0.515 nm e

a a

f f

P41.32

With transmission coefficient e −2CL , the fractional change in transmission is e
−2 10.0 nm L

b

g

−e e

−2 10 .0 nm L + 0.002 00 nm

b

gb

g

−2 10.0 nm L

b

g

=1−e

−20.0 0.002 00

b

g = 0.0392 =

3.92% .

Section 41.8 P41.33

The Simple Harmonic Oscillator
2= x2

ψ = Be − bmω

FG IJ x ψ + FG − mω IJψ . H K H =K F mω IJ x ψ + FG − mω IJψ = −FG 2mE IJψ + FG mω IJ Substituting into Equation 41.13 gives G H=K H =K H= K H=K
g
so dψ mω d 2ψ mω =− = xψ and 2 = = dx dx
2 2 2 2 2

FG IJ H K

2

x 2ψ

which is satisfied provided that E =

=ω . 2

Chapter 41

503

P41.34

Problem 43 in Chapter 16 helps students to understand how to draw conclusions from an identity.

ψ = Axe − bx so
and Substituting into Equation 41.13,

2

2 2 dψ = Ae − bx − 2bx 2 Ae − bx dx 2 2 2 d 2ψ = −2bxAe − bx − 4bxAe − bx + 4b 2 x 3 e − bx = −6bψ + 4b 2 x 2ψ . 2 dx

−6bψ + 4b 2 x 2ψ = −

FG 2mE IJψ + FG mω IJ H = K H=K FG IJ H K
2

2

x 2ψ .

For this to be true as an identity, it must be true for all values of x. So we must have both −6b = − 2mE mω and 4b 2 = = =2 .

(a)

Therefore

b=

mω 2=

(b) (c) P41.35

and

E=

3b= 2 3 =ω . = m 2

The wave function is that of the first excited state .

The longest wavelength corresponds to minimum photon energy, which must be equal to the spacing between energy levels of the oscillator: hc 9.11 × 10 −31 kg k m = =ω = = so λ = 2π c = 2π 3.00 × 10 8 m s m λ k 8.99 N m

e

F jGH

I JK

12

= 600 nm .

P41.36

(a)

With ψ = Be

− mω 2 = x 2

b

g

, the normalization condition

all x

z

ψ dx = 1
1 2

2

becomes 1 =

−∞

z

B2 e

−2 mω 2 = x 2

b

g

dx = 2B 2 e
0

z

− mω = x 2

b

g

dx = 2B 2

π
mω =

where Table B.6 in Appendix B was used to evaluate the integral. Thus, 1 = B
2

π= mω and B = π= mω

F I GH JK

14

.

(b)

For small δ, the probability of finding the particle in the range −
δ 2

δ δ < x < is 2 2

−δ 2

z

ψ dx = δ ψ 0

2

af

2

= δ B 2 e −0 = δ

F mω I GH π = JK

12

.

504 *P41.37

Quantum Mechanics

(a)

For the center of mass to be fixed, m1 v1 + m 2 v 2 = 0 . Then m m + m1 m2 v m . Similarly, v = 2 v 2 + v 2 and v = v1 + v 2 = v1 + 1 v1 = 2 v1 and v1 = m2 m2 m1 + m 2 m1 m1 v . Then v2 = m1 + m 2
2 2 2 2 v v 1 1 1 1 m1 m 2 1 m 2 m1 1 2 2 m 1 v1 + m2 v2 + kx 2 = + + kx 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 m1 + m 2 2 m1 + m 2 2

b 1 m m bm + m g = v 2 bm + m g
1 2 1 2 1 2 2

b

g

g

2

+

1 2 1 2 1 2 kx = µv + kx 2 2 2

(b)

d 1 1 µ v 2 + kx 2 = 0 because energy is constant dx 2 2 0= 1 dv 1 dx dv dv µ 2v + k2x = µ + kx = µ + kx . 2 dx 2 dt dx dt kx

FG H

IJ K

. This is the condition for simple harmonic motion, that the µ acceleration of the equivalent particle be a negative constant times the excursion from k 1 k = 2π f and f = equilibrium. By identification with a = −ω 2 x , ω = . µ 2π µ P41.38 (a) With x = 0 and p x = 0, the average value of x 2 is ∆x = 2 ∆p x . Then ∆x ≥ requires 2 ∆p x

Then µ a = − kx , a = −

b g
E≥

a f

2

2 and the average value of p x is

2 2 px px k =2 k= 2 . + = + 2 2 2m 2 4p x 2m 8 p x

(b)

2 To minimize this as a function of p x , we require

1 1 dE k= 2 = 0 = + −1 4 . 2 2m 8 dp x px

a f

Then

1 k= 2 = 4 2m 8px E≥ = 2

so k m

2 = px

F 2mk= I GH 8 JK
2

12

=

= mk 2

and Emin =

= mk = k = k= 2 2 + = + 2 2m 8= mk 4 m 4

a f

=ω k = . m 2

Chapter 41

505

Additional Problems P41.39 Suppose the marble has mass 20 g. Suppose the wall of the box is 12 cm high and 2 mm thick. While it is inside the wall, U = mgy = 0.02 kg 9.8 m s 2 0.12 m = 0.023 5 J and Then
2 2

ge ja f 1 1 E = K = mv = b0.02 kg gb0.8 m sg = 0.006 4 J . 2 2 2b0.02 kg gb0.017 1 Jg 2maU − Ef C= = = 2.5 × 10 b
= 1.055 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

32

m −1

and the transmission coefficient is e −2CL = e P41.40 (a) (b)
−2 2 .5 × 10 32 2 × 10 −3

e

je

j = e −10 ×10

29

=e

−2 .30 4.3 × 10 29

e

j = 10 −4.3 ×10

29

= ~ 10 −10

30

.

λ = 2L = 2.00 × 10 −10 m
p= h = 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s = 3.31 × 10 −24 kg ⋅ m s 2.00 × 10 −10 m

λ

(c) P41.41 (a)

E=

p2 = 0.172 eV 2m (b) See the figure.

See the figure.

FIG. P41.41(a) (c) (d)

FIG. P41.41(b)

ψ is continuous and ψ → 0 as x → ±∞ . The function can be normalized. It describes a particle bound near x = 0 .
Since ψ is symmetric,

−∞ ∞ 0

z

ψ dx = 2 ψ dx = 1
0

2

z

2

or

2 A 2 e −2α x dx =

z

F 2 A I ee GH −2α JK
2 2 1 2α x=0

−∞

− e0 = 1 .

j

This gives A = α . (e) Pb −1 2α g→b1 2α g = 2

e aj

z

e −2α x dx =

FG 2α IJ ee H −2α K

− 2α 2α

− 1 = 1 − e −1 = 0.632

j e

j

506 P41.42

Quantum Mechanics

(a)

Use Schrödinger’s equation ∂ 2ψ 2m = − 2 E −U ψ 2 = ∂x

a

f

with solutions

ψ 1 = Aeik1 x + Be −ik1 x ψ 2 = Ce ik 2 x
Where and

[region I] [region II]. k1 = k2 = 2mE = 2m E − U = FIG. P41.42(a)

a

f.

Then, matching functions and derivatives at x = 0

bψ g = bψ g F dψ IJ = FG dψ IJ and G H dx K H dx K
1 0 2 0 1 2 0

gives gives
0

A+B=C

k1 A − B = k 2C .
B= C= 1 − k 2 k1 A 1 + k 2 k1 2 A. 1 + k 2 k1

a

f

Then and

Incident wave Ae

ikx

reflects Be

− ikx

, with probability

1 − k 2 k1 B2 R= 2 = A 1 + k 2 k1 E = 7.00 eV U = 5.00 eV k2 E −U = = k1 E

b b

g g

2 2

=

bk bk

1 1

g +k g
− k2
2

2 2

.

(b)

With and

2.00 = 0.535 . 7.00 = 0.092 0 .

The reflection probability is The probability of transmission is

R=

a1 − 0.535f a1 + 0.535f

2 2

T = 1 − R = 0.908 .

Chapter 41

507

P41.43

bk R= bk

1 1

g = b1 − k k g +k g b1 + k k g
− k2
2 2 2 2 2 1 1

2 2

=2k2 = E − U for constant U 2m
2 = 2 k1 = E since U = 0 2m 2 = 2 k2 = E −U 2m

(1) FIG. P41.43 (2)
2 k2 2 k1

Dividing (2) by (1),

=1−

k U 1 1 1 = 1 − = so 2 = E 2 2 k1 2
2 2

and therefore,

e1 − 1 2 j = e R= e1 + 1 2 j e

j 2 + 1j
2 −1

2 2

= 0.029 4 .

P41.44

(a)

The wave functions and probability densities are the same as those shown in the two lower curves in Figure 41.4 of the textbook.

(b)

(c)

FG π x IJ dx H 1.00 nm K L x 1.00 nm sinFG 2π x IJ OP = b 2.00 nmgM − N 2 4π H 1.00 nmK Q F xI F 1 I In the above result we used z sin axdx = G J − G J sina 2 ax f . H 2 K H 4a K L 1.00 nm sinFG 2π x IJ OP Therefore, P = b1.00 nmgM x − N 2π H 1.00 nm K Q 1.00 nm R U sina0.700π f − sina0.300π f V = 0.200 . P = b1.00 nmgS0.350 nm − 0.150 nm − 2 π T W 2 F 2π x IJ dx = 2.00LM x − 1.00 sinFG 4π x IJ OP P = sin G H 1.00 K 1.00 z N 2 8π H 1.00 K Q L 1.00 sinFG 4π x IJ OP = 1.00R 1.00 U P = 1.00 M x − 0.350 − 0.150 f − sina1.40π f − sina0.600π f V a S H K 4π T W N 4π 1.00 Q
P1 =
0.350 nm 0.150 nm

z

ψ 1 dx =

2

FG 2 IJ H 1.00 nmK

0 .350 0 .150

z

sin 2

0.350 nm

0 .150 nm

2

0.350 nm

1

0.150 nm

1

0.350 0.150

0 .350 0 .150

2

2

0.350 0.150

2

= 0.351 (d) Using En = n 2 h2 , we find that E1 = 0.377 eV and E2 = 1.51 eV . 8mL2

508 P41.45

Quantum Mechanics

(a)

f=

1.80 eV E = h 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

e

a

f

F 1.60 × 10 J I = j GH 1.00 eV JK
−19

4.34 × 10 14 Hz

(b)

λ=

c 3.00 × 10 8 m s = = 6.91 × 10 −7 m = 691 nm 14 f 4.34 × 10 Hz = = 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s h = = = 2.64 × 10 −29 J = 1.65 × 10 −10 eV so ∆E ≥ 2 ∆t 4π ∆t 2 4π 2.00 × 10 −6 s

(c)

∆E∆t ≥

a f

e

j

*P41.46

(a)

Taking L x = L y = L , we see that the expression for E becomes E= h2 2 2 + ny nx . 2 8m e L

e

j

For a normalizable wave function describing a particle, neither n x nor n y can be zero. The ground state, corresponding to n x = n y = 1, has an energy of E1 , 1 = h2 8m e L
2

e1

2

+ 12 =

j

h2 4m e L2

.

The first excited state, corresponding to either n x = 2 , n y = 1 or n x = 1 , n y = 2 , has an energy E2 , 1 = E1 , 2 = h2 8m e L2

e2

2

+ 12 =

j

5h2 8m e L2

.

The second excited state, corresponding to n x = 2 , n y = 2 has an energy of E2 , 2 = h2 8m e L2

e2

2

+ 22 =

j

h2 m e L2

.

Finally, the third excited state, corresponding to either n x = 1 , n y = 3 or n x = 3, n x = 1 , has an energy E1 , 3 = E3 , 1 = (b) 5h2 h2 12 + 3 2 = . 2 8m e L 4m e L2

e

j

The energy difference between the second excited state and the ground state is given by ∆E = E2 , 2 − E1 , 1 = 3h2 . = 4m e L2 h2 m e L2 − h2 4m e L2

E 1, 3 , E 3, 1 E 2, 2 E 1, 2 , E 2, 1 E 1, 1 Energy level diagram FIG. P41.46(b)

energy h2 m e L2

0

Chapter 41

509

P41.47

x2 =

−∞

z

x 2 ψ dx nπ x 2 sin . L L (from integral tables).

2

For a one-dimensional box of width L, ψ n = Thus, x 2 =

FG H

IJ K

L nπ x 2 2 L2 L2 x sin 2 dx = − 2 2 L0 3 2n π L

z

FG H

IJ K

P41.48

(a)

−∞

z

ψ dx = 1 becomes
L4 −L 4

2

A2

z

cos 2

FG 2π x IJ dx = A FG L IJ LM π x + 1 sinFG 4π x IJ OP H 2π K N L 4 H L K Q H LK
2

L4

= A2
−L 4

FG L IJ LM π OP = 1 H 2π K N 2 Q

or A 2 =

2 4 . and A = L L L is 8

(b)

The probability of finding the particle between 0 and
L8 0

z

ψ dx = A

2

2

L8 0

z

cos 2

FG 2π x IJ dx = 1 + 1 = H L K 4 2π
for x > 0 for x < 0 .

0.409 .

P41.49

For a particle with wave function

ψ x =
and (a) 0

af

2 −x a e a

ψ x

af

2

= 0, x < 0

and

ψ2 x =

af

2 −2 x a e , x>0 a

FIG. P41.49

(b)

Prob x < 0 =

a

f

−∞ ∞

z
0

ψ x

af

2

dx =

−∞

za f
0

0 dx = 0
0 ∞ 0

(c)

Normalization

−∞ 0

−∞

z z z z FGH IJK
ψ x

af

2

dx =

ψ dx + ψ dx = 1
∞ 0

2

−∞

z

2

0dx +

∞ 0

2 −2 x a e dx = 0 − e −2 x a a

= − e −∞ − 1 = 1
a 0

e

j

Prob 0 < x < a = ψ dx =
0

a

f

z
a

2

z FGH IJK
a 0

2 −2 x a e dx = − e −2 x a a

= 1 − e −2 = 0.865

510 P41.50

Quantum Mechanics

(a)

The requirement that E=

nλ h nh = L so p = = is still valid. λ 2L 2

bpcg + emc j
2

2 2

⇒ En =
2

FG nhc IJ + emc j H 2L K
2 2 2

2 2

K n = En − mc 2 =

FG nhc IJ + emc j H 2L K

− mc 2

(b)

Taking L = 1.00 × 10 −12 m, m = 9.11 × 10 −31 kg , and n = 1, we find K 1 = 4.69 × 10 −14 J . 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s h2 = Nonrelativistic, E1 = 8mL2 8 9.11 × 10 −31 kg 1.00 × 10 −12 m

e

j

2

e

je

j

2

= 6.02 × 10 −14 J .

Comparing this to K 1 , we see that this value is too large by 28.6% . P41.51 (a) U= − 7 3 e2 7k e 2 e2 1 1 1 −1 + − + −1 + + −1 = = − e 4π ∈0 d 2 3 2 4π ∈0 d 3d K = 2E1 = 7kee2 3d 2 2h2 = h2 . 36m e d 2

LM N

FG H

IJ a fOP b K Q

g

(b)

From Equation 41.12,

8m e 9d 2

e j

(c)

E = U + K and 3h2
e

dE = 0 for a minimum: dd

h2 =0 18m e d 3

d=

a7fe18k e m j
2 e

6.626 × 10 −34 h2 = = 42m e k e e 2 42 9.11 × 10 −31 8.99 × 10 9 1.60 × 10 −19 C

a fe

e

je

j je

2

j

2

= 0.049 9 nm .

(d)

Since the lithium spacing is a, where Na 3 = V , and the density is of one atom, we get:

Nm , where m is the mass V

F Vm IJ a=G H Nm K

13

F m I =G H density JK

13

F 1.66 × 10 kg × 7 I =G H 530 kg JK
−27

13

m = 2.80 × 10 −10 m = 0. 280 nm

(5.62 times larger than c).

Chapter 41

511

P41.52

(a)

ψ = Bxe − bmω
dψ − mω = Be b dx

2= x2

g

2= x 2

g

+ Bx −

IJ K d ψ F mω IJ xe b = −3BG H=K dx
2 2

d 2ψ mω − mω = Bx − xe b = dx 2

FG H

FG H

mω − mω 2 xe b 2=

2= x 2

g

− mω 2 = x 2

g

FG mω IJ 2 xe b H=K F mω IJ x e b + BG H=K
−B
2 2

IJ K

2= x2

g

= Be

− mω 2 = x 2

b

− mω 2 = x 2

g

FG mω IJ x e b g H=K F mω IJ x FG − mω IJ xe b − BG H=K H =K
g
−B
2

2 2 − mω 2 = x

− mω 2 = x 2

g

2 3 − mω 2 = x

g

Substituting into the Schrödinger Equation (41.13), we have −3B

FG mω IJ xe b H=K

− mω 2 = x 2

g

+B

FG mω IJ H=K

x3 e

− mω 2 = x 2

b

g

=−

2mE =
2

Bxe

− mω 2 = x 2

b

g

+

FG mω IJ H=K

2

x 2 Bxe

− mω 2 = x 2

b

g

.

This is true if −3ω = − (b)

2E 3 =ω ; it is true if E = . = 2

We never find the particle at x = 0 because ψ = 0 there. = dψ mω = 0 = 1 − x2 , which is true at x = ± . = dx mω

(c)

ψ is maximized if

FG IJ H K

(d)

We require

−∞

z

ψ dx = 1 :

2

1=

−∞

z

B2 x2 e

− mω = x 2

b

g

dx = 2B 2 x 2 e
3 4 3

z

− mω = x 2

b

g

dx = 2B 2

1 4

b mω = g

π

3

=

B2 π 1 2=3 2 . 2 mω 3 2

a f

2 1 2 mω Then B = 1 4 = π At x = 2

FG IJ H K

=

F 4m ω I GH π = JK
3 3

14

.

(e)

= 1 1 4= = 2 =ω . This is larger than the , the potential energy is mω 2 x 2 = mω 2 mω 2 2 mω 3 =ω , so there is zero classical probability of finding the particle here. total energy 2
2

FG IJ H K

(f)

Probability = ψ dx = Bxe Probability = δ 2

FH

− mω 2 = x 2

b

g

IK

2

δ = δB 2 x 2 e −b mω

= x2

g

π1 2

FG mω IJ FG 4= IJ e b H = K H mω K
32

− mω = 4 = mω

gb

g=

FG mω IJ H =π K

12

e −4

512 P41.53

Quantum Mechanics

(a)

z
0

L

ψ dx = 1 :

A2 A2

FG π x IJ + 16 sin FG 2π x IJ + 8 sinFG π x IJ sinFG 2π x IJ OPdx = 1 HLK H L K H L K H L KQ LMFG L IJ + 16FG L IJ + 8 sinFG π x IJ sinFG 2π x IJ dxOP = 1 MNH 2 K H 2 K z H L K H L K PQ LM 17L + 16 sin FG π x IJ cosFG π x IJ dxOP = A LM 17L + 16L sin FG π x IJ OP = 1 MN 2 z H L K H L K PQ MN 2 3π H L K PQ
2

A2

z LMN
L 0

sin 2

2

L 0

L 0

x=L x=0

2

2

3

A2 =

2 2 , so the normalization constant is A = . 17L 17L

(b)

−a

z
a

ψ dx = 1 :

2

−a

z LMN
a

A cos 2
2

2

FG π x IJ + B H 2a K
2

2

sin 2

FG π x IJ + 2 A B cosFG π x IJ sinFG π x IJ OPdx = 1 HaK H 2a K H a K Q
2

The first two terms are A a and B a . The third term is: 2 A B cos
−a

z
a

FG π x IJ LM2 sinFG π x IJ cosFG π x IJ OPdx = 4 A B z cos FG π x IJ sinFG π x IJ dx H 2a K N H 2a K H 2a K Q H 2a K H 2a K 8a A B F π x IJ = 0 = cos G H 2a K 3π
a −a a 3 −a 2 2

so that a A + B

e

j = 1 , giving
2

A +B =

2

2

1 . a

*P41.54

(a)

x

0

=

−∞ ∞

z

x

FG a IJ HπK

12

e − ax dx = 0 , since the integrand is an odd function of x.

(b)

x

1

F 4a I = z xG H π JK
3 −∞

12

x 2 e − ax dx = 0 , since the integrand is an odd function of x.

2

(c)

x

01

=

−∞

z

x

1 ψ 0 +ψ 1 2

b

g

2

dx =

1 x 2

0

+

1 x 2

+ 1

−∞

z

xψ 0 x ψ 1 x dx

af af
1 2∞

The first two terms are zero, from (a) and (b). Thus: x

01

F aI = z xG J HπK F 2a I = 2G H π JK
∞ −∞ 2

14

12

F 4a I xe dx = 2F 2a I e GH π JK GH π JK 1F π I G J , from Table B.6 4Ha K
− ax 2 2 3 14 − ax 2 2 2 12 3

z
0

x 2 e − ax dx

2

=

1 2a

Chapter 41

513

P41.55

With one slit open With both slits open, At a maximum, the wave functions are in phase At a minimum, the wave functions are out of phase

P1 = ψ 1

2

or P2 = ψ 2 .
2

2

P = ψ 1 +ψ 2 .
Pmax = ψ 1 + ψ 2 Pmin = ψ 1 − ψ 2

c

h.
2

c

h.
2

ψ1 P Now 1 = P2 ψ 2

2 2

= 25.0 , so

ψ1 = 5.00 ψ2
2 2

ψ1 + ψ2 P and max = Pmin ψ1 − ψ2

c c

h = c5.00 ψ h c5.00 ψ
2 2

+ψ2 −ψ2

h = a6.00f h a4.00f
2 2

2 2

=

36.0 = 2.25 . 16.0

ANSWERS TO EVEN PROBLEMS
P41.2 P41.4 P41.6 P41.8 P41.10 1 2 (a) 4; (b) 6.03 eV 0.517 MeV , 3.31 × 10 −20 kg ⋅ m s P41.22

FG 3hλ IJ H 8m c K
e

12

(a) 5.13 meV ; (b) 9.41 eV ; (c) The much smaller mass of the electron requires it to have much more energy to have the same momentum. (a)

πx 2 cos ; L L πx 2 P1 x = cos 2 ; L L 2π x 2 ψ2 x = sin ; L L 2π x 2 ; P2 x = sin 2 L L 3π x 2 ψ3 x = cos ; L L 3π x 2 P3 x = cos 2 ; L L (b) see the solution
(a) ψ 1 x =

af

af af af af af

FG IJ H K FG IJ H K FG IJ H K FG IJ H K FG IJ H K FG IJ H K
I JK

P41.12

FG 15hλ IJ H 8m c K
e

12

; (b) 1.25λ =2k2 2m

P41.24 P41.26 P41.28 P41.30 P41.32 P41.34

(a)

=2 4x 2 − 6 ; (b) see the solution 2mL2 L2

F GH

P41.14 P41.16

see the solution; (a)

see the solution 1.03 × 10 −3 85.9

L ; (b) 5.26 × 10 −5 ; (c) 3.99 × 10 −2 ; 2 (d) see the solution 0.250 (a) 2π A A 1 sin ; (b) see the solution; − L 2π L (c) 0.585L

3.92%
(a) see the solution; b = (c) first excited state mω 3 ; (b) E = =ω ; 2 2=

P41.18 P41.20

FG H

IJ K

514 P41.36 P41.38 P41.40

Quantum Mechanics

F mω I (a) B = G H π = JK

14

F mω I ; (b) δ G H π = JK

12

P41.48

(a)

2 L

; (b) 0.409
2

see the solution (a) 2.00 × 10 −10 m; (b) 3.31 × 10 −24 kg ⋅ m s ; (c) 0.172 eV (a) see the solution; (b) 0.092 0 , 0.908 (a) see the solution; (b) 0.200 ; (c) 0.351 ; (d) 0.377 eV , 1.51 eV (a) h2 5h2 h2 5h2 , , , ; 4m e L2 8m e L2 m e L2 4m e L2 3h2 (b) see the solution, 4m e L2

P41.50

(a)

FG nhc IJ H 2L K

+ m 2 c 4 − mc 2 ;

(b) 46.9 fJ ; 28.6% P41.52 (a) = 3 =ω ; (b) x = 0 ; (c) ± ; mω 2
3 3 14 3

P41.42 P41.44

F 4m ω I (d) G H π = JK
P41.54

; (e) 0; (f) 8δ

FG mω IJ H =π K

12

e −4

P41.46

(a) 0; (b) 0; (c) 2 a

a f

−1 2