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THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
GIFT OF

Lt. Col. George T^ite

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. Mendut and Dr. GRO NEMAN.Jluins of Bui IN -:- Praga^Vul Tyandis Barabudur. I. translated.

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Jluins of Buddhistic Jempfes IN : -:- Prdga=Valle\J. .. ^^^ Diuk Villi H. a n g- S e a r 19 12. ra BENJAMINS. G R N E M A N. H. A. translated from the clutch by J. Mendut and Pawon BY -:- Dr. CO -:- -^ -:- Tyandis Barabudur. 1.

GIFT .

which. and and expounded. and the principal I had to establisch myself in the neighbourhood of Hindu ruins in Java. therefore thought by consulting such writings as I I could dispose of with my limited means. in the plain of Para?nbanan. in I 1895 1 was obliged to retire from practice. insufficiently interpre- but also because I some of these images have been wrongly understood it my duty to have my knowledge of them increased by a continued study of the antiquities themselves. Q.kI L-r 7 Preface. I to see a good English translation this little consequently completed and rewrote the former text (1906-1907. however. I had grown too old under a system which purpose I of Government who even refuse As for the Indian antiquities a professor septuagenarian to follow his profession. not only because many a sculpture and symbolical ornament of building ted. so to say. has not yet been explained or. on account of shortly after took up my residence at Jogyakarta again in order to devote to myself to the antiquarian and ethnological studies dear to me.). there are still many things to be learned. 993 . and O o in the valley of Praga whereas could not rely on being assisted by the Dutch Government or whomsoever. Having succeeded the of at last in finding a person from whose hand both editor and myself express a wish book. Jogyarkarta 1906. in spite of expensive but insuffiicient restoration. that is. and mention the small tyandi Pawon lying also in its neighbourhood. so I And parable gathered all data for an up-to-date of visitors fi/th edition in behalf of the continually increasing number who come to visit these incom- temples. would comply with other people's wishes by giving a simple description of the most interesting ruin in the village of Mendut situated by the way-side to the Barahudur. seem doomed to decay. When sici<ness.

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they consider historically true. non-Buddhists. and on the walls be just (1). all other religions. . The Buddhists or whatever one I in Fraga-valley. it could gain eternal rest as the highest reward therefore And Buddhism taught self-command. All that which the later legends related either of BudI I dha himself or of his former lives. H. and when it we will understand the hero of the myth to be a sun-god. the sons of different castes. And then be perfectly indifferent to us. Inscriptions of rocks. stated a among whom the Dutch ex-professor Dr. believe their community. paj>e 768 and following ones. Kern. and patience too with the followers of (1) See. and sin by following a pure conduct of life. will become quite compre- hensible and possible as soon as taken in a mythical sense.Euins of Buddhistic temples I. their worship. much about those legends that cannot historical point of view. Shdkja muni or wise Shdkja. Buddha or the Englightened. the love man or beast: patience with others. and Dr. to have been founded 24 centuries ago by the wise and humane king's son of Kapilavasfu.s". and found upon columns. Lefma?i's „(resc/iich(e des alien LhIh'h. and from or ani- the curse of being continually reincarnated in either a human mal of being. virtue and that on earth. however that. and the engravings on page 769 and the picture "Dcr A^okafelsen van Girnaroden Jundgadli im Jaltir l^'iH". Rerlin 1880. may be inchned the to call this. all about three centuries before the begin- ning of our era. prove this to This Buddhism taught that mankind might be freed from any sensual passion. among others. that the Buddhist religion must have existed as such saved. in the 3'i number of this work opposite to page 257. 11. page V'/s and following ones. of all beings either self-denial and self-conquest. IT. Buddha Still of the Buddhists it may have for and existed or is an indisputed matter of fact. S. Kern's "Gesckiedenis van het Boeddhisme. called j Gautama. and professed by king partly Ashoka f/ze^reaf. historical foundations really lived whether those le- gends may or may not have and whether the not. their church. Competent be true from Orientalists.

life. Land. didn't believe in a personal immortality. Hindu religions Its place their was taken by turn the shivaistic and other which at again were partly superseded by Islamism. bowrvallen in do Paranibanmi-vlakle" (3) In Surabaya 1907.-6The original Buddiiism can't be called a religion. whilst the Buddhists thought all of them to be the revelations of a same original impersonal deity. my" Boeddhistisclie tenipel- en kloosler Ccylov. the Hinayana swerved less far form the though in its it may be true that it dit not always keep originality. But the Hinayanistic worship India at still exists in Ceylon anti in Further- Burma. besides the Mahdydna acknowledBuddhas and to be the Buddha of this world. However. quite other redeemers of former and future worlds. the so-called southern and northern churches. by no means an abode damned. for it knew no god and again. called these images the representations of Buddha. for hell of Christianity alludes to. and Siam and Kamboja and Mahajanism at Nepal and at Tibet and. especially the last mentioned or the ged. its Since some centuries Buddhism has been repelled from of birth country by the ancient Hinduism. and therein the photo's of many deities represented as Bodhisatthvas and . pagodae. the of a civilisation illustrated lost ever. such as the doctrine. the Buddha pagodae I visited I in at Colombo and its environs. in and highly developed (2) See my work published 1893 by "het Konmkly'A Instilimi entitled: Ti/nndi voor de Taal-. in China and Japan." Paramhnnan na de onigraviny" . This was death after jdecline command of a of senses. Hindus were admitted as the awataras It same Buddha may be easily understood that this to Buddhism also invented hell in for the contradiction eternal heaven. and even the gods or some of the of the first gods of the (2). more or less degenerated.en Volkenkunde van N. and so it came pass separation into that Buddhism in the first year of our era after its two main sections. But the ancient its southern church. But like any other creation of time and of Buddhism to also lost human desire to form and reform again and much of its original character. are also found a few sculptures of honoured there as the representations Buddha himself (3). It flourished for some centuries in the island of Java. /. or saw badly hewn . Adi.Buddha. The monks coloured images of Skiva and of Oanesja. but became entirely exterminated of by the fanatic and absolutely intolerant followers slavery after the for Allah and Mohammed.

Pages XXII. faith in Amitdbha. in a state of self-exercise or self-denial which precedes the Buddhaship. and suffered in order to life. The southern church doesn 't know these Dhyani-Buddhas and Bodhisatthvas. Wadyrapdni. Akshobya. is and even a fifth Buddha. next to him were honoured the Buddhas of ^/zree this former worlds. of the sin of and from the curse and infinite regenerations. redeem the world from the burden of death. D. Proofs of the existence of Hinayanism yet. that period of time Hinayanism must have ruled here in Java It (4). to jugde And when we wish these Buddhists. goes without saying that even the Mahayanists honoured. These Dhydni-Buddhas : Wairotyana. so their images on are the five va. 671-695)" by the Japanese scholar I Takakusu. XXXIX and XLVlll of the ''General Luroduclion. the redeemer of a future world.-7art whose products. by time's tooth changed into ruins. still testify to her lost greatness. built and and in the dying sun-god Baldur. Ratnapdni. who visited India and the wrote Dutch Indonesian countries us that at in the seventh century of our era. their Lord tle and revenge. the Buddha putting of this their world. and if accept the hero of the legend as lived. son. RatnasambhaAmitdbha and Amoghasiddha. the Barabudur and on other tyandis in Java prove to us that the Buddhists of those temples belonged to the northern church. and Thor. They are in the same order of succession: Samantabhadra. provided with a preface of prof Max MulLER and published by the Clarendon press at Oxford in 1896. XXV. in Java." .. Padmapdni and Wishvapdni. there were none as But the Chinese Buddhist / Tsing. our God of Hosts. as his life on as man and ascetic and preacher. just like just as the Israelites do believe the personage of their Jahve. This Mahayanism only acknowledged Buddha the redeemer of world. their god of batGerman ancestors trusted in Odhin. that is. and understand the temples he should have really by we also ought to start from that point of view. (4) See the English translation of his ''Record of the Buddhist Beligion as practised in India and the Malai) Archipelago (A. as earth their Lord and prince's in Redeemer. And with the exception of these five Buddhas they also honoured the five Dhydni-Bodhisatthvas or Buddha's sons or Buddhas in a state of being. among others. which to exist in the darkness of ages after the crack of this doom.

There where the Buddhists founded a community. I willingly is allow number date. took the place of a former so-called Buddha-tooth which has been destroyed by fire. Buddhism to begin with this king in the third century before our era. it a fact proved by many an existing and opened grave. Even teachers. to order to be buried under earthen or stone relics of te great barrows a honour them as the they Master himself there. hill under such hill or stupa also buried an urn of ashes whereas the itself was honoured as the Master's grave. (5). is taken care of. that the Buddhists of that or later and wherever they might have in settled. Those hills however. This tooth. And the holiest pagoda in this island. named Dalada. possesses one of Buddha's clavicles. (6). or princes and noble men. were badly protected from time. of gurus or monks. according to the assertion of its believers certainly with as much right as the Catholic Christians maintain the genui- neness of (6) many a relic of Jezus and the apostles. of priests at this day. King Ashoka said to have seven of these graves re-opened again so as to dis- tribute the holy ashes among some 84000 metal. crystal or stone vases or urns to cause them to be spread throughout his empire and without. the influences of temperature and and not proof against the profaning hand of (5) In a temple at Kancly in Cylon is kept a tooth which. and buried there. though of animal origin. and honoured too.-8- II. 84000 to be very exaggerated-yet. the Thuparama. and in several parts of Hindustan are found still undamaged inscriptions chiselled at his order upon the proper history of We know rocks as this so many unobjectionable evidences of this of fact. and kept under barrows or stupas. . always kept small of their quantities of ashes or bones they considered the remains Buddha's corpse. The Buddhists after is assert the ashes of their Buddha to have been divided his cremation into eight towns. were occasionally put away in such graves upon which arose the glorious mausolea the ruins of which we still admire the ashes of other saints.

by the sagging of the withering stem. generally placed on a pedestal of composed leaves of the lotus. Many among temples' others. the Nelumbium spectosum referring to all this. uprighted and afterwards.. and therefore built of stone. These are facts proving this tomb-stone's having been highly honoured. the /^aofmasana. So these openings must have quite another sense than the one derived from the natural form of the lotus-plant. for they remain closed. the ddgaba or dagob. the leaves and flowers of which are floating on the surface of the water. Not the bell-shaped sides. . The leaves of a lotus (Nelumbium specionsum Willd) fall off before bending downward. the holy padma. ornaments have been copied after these dagobs. (7) It after the won't do maintaining that these dagobs should have been formed lotus. and recognisable by its peduncles and leave stalks rising high above the water. downrighted base has been stung by the seed-holes. Only the red lotus. (7). the shape of the small-sized prayer-bel in which is still rung by the visju Chinese temples even at this day. and that its openings in the transparent dagobs on the round terraces above the Barabudur must represent the empty seed-holes of the nursery of the ripe lotus. and then the pericarp only remains on its stem like a urned cone or cupola whose flat. has been frequently represented on Hindu temples. hardly dispensible to Indian images.-9man. But not the tvhite lotos^ the Nymphae Lotus Linn.

. And this rather corresponds to the age of the Buddha temples in the plain of Parambanan Does not a stone of one of these fyandis testify to this temple's having been built in the year 701 of the shaka era." (page XXX). and when they worthily. but this circumstance alone does not prove his not having met co-religionists. because of being too large to think of a mausoleum built in honour of even the the Barabu - most powerful prince In flat defiance of of that ernpire. nese Buddhist. according more than eleven centuries (8). began to deposit It their Buddha ashes may be easily imagined however. buried there? in Java. are inclined to give this monument. that also the Barabudur must its have been such a depository. (8) Professor A^er?^ on the outer-walls should date from the year 800. thus our ninth century. of the Shaka era. inscriptions we see wrote on some to me that the alphabetical writing of the demi-relievoes and dedicated teacher. / Tsincf see note says that the inhabitants of Java and of the other islands of the Archipelago principally embraced Htnayanism "Buddhism was chiefbj the fDiiai/dna" (page etc. Such happened our seventh century. to the service of Tdrd in honour of the prince's g^iru or who may have been Ilien. on the other hand. We only know that there formerly must have existed a Hindu empire of all this name because i of a found copper engraving contained in covered with ancient-javanese writing which a oath-formula the words: "Sri mahdrdja Mataram. Rhys Davids's opinion who declared to later data.) XLVJI)." first We understand them to have come from India. dur to be only 7 centuries old. or thereabouts. and so much the more. nor does it produce any evidence of their non-existence in the interior of Java he didn't visit probably. and the ten or tnore islands of the Sontltcni Sen (Sumatra. Not anything do we know about the Buddhists ago of eleven centuries who once populated these regions where afterwards arose the Mohammedan empire of Mataram. but we don't know when this happened. Fa du. when And in the year 415 the Chicame across many a brahmin Hin- He didn't speak about Buddhists. probably from the North.— 10 111. we. Java in generally belong to the Hinayana.

at whose command the Barabudur must have been built. make us suppose that these products of art had been scarcely achieved. in who could have conceived such bij a scheme to be carried out an incalculable number of years hundreds of thousands of labourers. however powerful he might have been. Some valley of unfinished parts of both the Barabudur and the ruins in the Parambanan. there are reasons enough to suppose that the prince of this empire. and the ruins of which Mendiit. the its Barabudur for the is grander of its by far as well for the unity of whole as harmony different parts. And though of it may be true that the grouping of the rock temples granting in India occupies more room. at that period of time most likely already finished.and Hin'du temples on ail the earth. according to com- Alara (vulg. especially the unfinished imageries at the foot (hidden again under the outer-terrace) on the outer-wall of the large temple. and that as a worthy mausoleum to the king who once presented his subjects with the Barabudur. commenced of this or partly achieved. harmony supports the opinion of this building's having been after the scheme of one and the very same architect. still. and Angkor in Kamboja (which wasn't a Buddhist temple) to seem more majestic when seen at a distance. Moreover. and for both the nobleness of the schemer's thought and the exellence This built of the execution. or perhaps his people. a man of intellectual a surprising capacity indeed. Upwards of a thousand years have rolled fell into a state of decay since over these colossal . when the buddhistic empire of Central Java or became ruined at all. should have died before the finishing colossal work. tyandi on the pit in which those ashes had been put away. and the imageries hardly finished and placed on their walls. we shall visit in the dessa (native village) of Or more exactly: that his successor or children or bloodbuilt this relations. and that his ashes were buried in the sump- tuous grave temple. We have cannot possibly believe that so much labour and time would been spent on the building of a prince's mausoleum. Ellora) and Ajiinta petent judges who also visited these ruins.— — 11 That the Buddhists period of time of Central Java were a powerful nation at that may fully appear from the extent and splendour of the all building which surpasses other Buddha.

we shall describe this most interesting grave temple. Earthquakes. not far first from the Magelang route. solar heat and torrents introduced and supported spoilt their decay. in the village after These ruins stand along the road which they have been named. page 83 note 4. when we but the other tyandis in this island tion of the monasteries of which are no Princes. — with the exceptyandis — to be nothing else or of mausolea sons of gurus and monks. parasitic plants dispersed their foundations. leading form Jogyakarta to the Barabudur. and generally visited. Barth called the just Barabudur the only stupa a Java (9). and this may be and when we understand consider all stupa to be only those barrows where relic were buried some ashes or another of the Buddha himself. that Hereabove we already saw reasons enough to make us suppose Tyandi Mendut had been built on the ashes of the prince of the buddhistic empire of which we don't know anything but its having been supreme in Central Java for at least eleven centuries ago. and volcanic eruptions replaced their masses of stone. I. (9) See his essay about Aymomer's: lie "Bulletin i'Ecole fratipaise d' Extreme. mais Indian par la seulement") the French scholar about in matters A.Orient" "Le Cambodge. written II.— 12 — ruins. of ignorance art and narrow-minded slaves and fanaticism damaged or undeniable. in the . and as they are the we reach on our way from one therefore first of the two capitals. many of their produce of — still the ruins stand there as an impressive fact scarcely no less a majestic product of a master-mind of its uncredible than the past. On account of its general form (''par le dessin general. a stone epic immortal even in decline. or belonging perhaps to other noble men and women.

This scaffolding appeared as a witness of in W. 1911. he got the order begin the work of restoration. when Government's service as given to official him by choice. and that in a manner (as bij once Aitap means palm-fronds used for thatch the Javanese (Chamrebuilt The scaffolding has been removed since. to ways and roads. we. within an hour. westward ri- Baradudur. and without heavy and badly menaced pyramidic ago. a a little Roman Catholic mission built for church and parsonage. and he succeeded having the decaying I declining walls erected again. 8 miles south to the Magelang. of Notwithstanding. shall arrive at the real Javais nese village of Mendut. and opened a school children. he continued three years this enterprise title and without of any other reward but the in architect for the diploma years the which he had already got Netherland many he any and (10) bers). and driving through the dessa of Muntilan — of properly farther speaking a Chinese settlement — of turning two or three miles on near the stopping-place into a by-path leading Kalangan. had command. and that for in above Public his own work trusted to as overseer service of the Department of for Works. scaffoldings surrounded these ruins frontside solid roof. . situated on the left bank of the of the On this spot. him. Tyandi Mendut. van de Kamer's clever diligence. accident.. and the stone roof was by the major engineer Van Erp. which ver Elo. eleven centuries old at least. Some eleven years ago. Under his in roof brought downward. Leaving Jogyakarta by steamtram or by carriage. on all si- and on the north-western wooden stairs lead upward the till under the attap (10) temporay (at that This was to protect off Barabudur's pyramidical roof protect also time not yet shut again) and rain the three almost undamaged still gigantic images from and sun-blaze. Living Christianity near the ruins of dead Buddhism! Heavy teak wooden des. as it were under the shadow Buddha Javanese temple. A.

The all first striking thing we see is that.— 14witnessed) unconditionally admired by competent experts. all with suckling at her breast. side-walls. children round about And opposite to them. to the to advienne que pourra". The colossal pyramidic roof. and flanked by heavy holds in the from of the garuda-ndga ornament we are going to know by-and-by. us. 1 among whom know liigii-placed engineer officers. because blamed in 1901 still by means of some non-published the latter. an honest man. Even . to the we see an Indian. 1 already explained and writings. But his work became unjustly objected by the the philological president of a newly appointed Barabu- dur committee pitiable he saw suddenly placed above him (van de Kamer). and many playing right. the two interesting sculptures had remained. had partly disappeared. but both the children and their parents miss everything that might self have spoken of a buddhistic character. This was also the case with the 14 large stone steps leading from without to the same porch. because of loyal my being competent and obliged to do so ancient device: "Fais ce que dots. and the manner in which the former official induced him retire to ask for exemption from the labour dear to him. characterised as a not buddhistic one. the greater part at least. Even me this deed became a source of misunderstanding and grief. All the children wear a crescent of the moon on the hind part of their heads. — not buddhistic — prince with much more children in such another garden. and is therefore Buddhism doesn't know any caste. there are Dutch scholars be Buddha's father. and fortunately. and to from Government's service some years afterwards. in contravention to almost other buddhistic buildings. and above as all. The prince him- wears a three stringed cord of a caste (upavtta). and part of the front wall above and north of the entrance to the inner-room were greaty lost. opposite I Northwest. subordinate at that time. the sun-rise. this who suppose this woman Buddha's mother.trees. the frontage of these ruins have not been placed to opposite the to the East. but strange enough. prince to professor Nevertheless. to the left. When I first visited this temple in 1875 saw that the porch which had been Only its built before this frontage. could not defence himself. The two princess in sculptures a before the entrance show a her. a garden of fruit.

occu- south-easterly back-wall is pied by a heavy altar-shaped throne not yet long ago newly built in And on however. The space before the unadorned an exceedingly simple style. this there posture simply means "blessing. but only the three-stringed upavita which characterises him as not buddhistic. And though this prince also has his seat on an equally richly ornamented throne. which goes under the princely garb over and the small Buddha image in his crown in characterise him as a Buddhist. and which come back again having first given a superficial description of the gigantic images we for see in this temple. Chula Long/corn." To prince the right of this Buddha nearly 4 yards high. or disk of on the back part k . standard a this throne a colossal as Buddha image. the followers of the northern church. which was used perhaps. as fire-wood. The two kings wear the prabha. church where Hinaydnism of the southern which doesn't know any Dhyani-Buddha. and elephants. light. by no means Veth wrongly wrote in his nude one. and that contradistinction to the other prince we see opposite him. to the left of the Buddha. : so professor work ''Java. and then he doesn't wear a monk's hood. The monk's hood. sits more than some 70 years ago. exists. remained inexplicable.— 15 — Kern wrote to nobody else but me that this woman Maya with her son in king of with her suckhiig should be Liimbini garden. the bottom his left shoulder and breast. lions. two dangling and resting on a small cushion with his two hands before his breast in such a posture {mudrd)a. yet I we don't see any image in his crown. Let us therefore enter through the opened iron railing now replacing the wooden inner door.s the Mahayanists. and ornamented with lotus-cushions and of feet cushions. The hidian prince however." but this is dressed in the cowl of the his soulegs thern Buddhists uncovering his right shoulder and arm . we see a buddhistic seated on a throne abundantly decorated with nagas. In Ceylon and in Farther however. generally (not always) their five of the "Big Carriage" the first India still give to of Dhydni-Buddhas. gave all me in 1896 and I'll far better explanation which solved after difficulties. On this groud professor Kern thought this Indian prince as inex- plicable as the other one we saw in the porch before the entrance. The another to buddhistic Siam.

like he does in Buddha image he his crown.— 16 — of their heads. whilst the one on the north-easterly said to be the fourth Dhyani-Bodhisatthva. and therefore we can't accept these images to be Bodhisatthvas. and the flower with the symbol above one or mentioned scholars doesn't explain these 3 his visiting this temple in 1896. some Bodhisatthvas. and afterwards its may have been down after that having been the image itself had slidden from seat. see in that other image Which Bodhisatthva we then must tell nobody because is it misses all attributes. wearing. Further supposed other image to be the latter's not-budlatter dhistic father and predecessor whilst both father and son (the brought together the afterwards became a buddhist). or more especially Padafter all. So the meaning factorily of the images whereas Siam's king. But these two images also miss flower and the stem of the lotus which the Bodhisatthvas generally keep in their left hands. Padmapdni be- cause of his being provided with a small image of the fourth Dhyani- Buddha. could us. On account of the posture of his hands before his breast there are first some Dutch scholars who suppose this Buddha to be the Buddha Vairotyana. padma this or lotus placed near his face. iMoreover. for this fallen fixed to the wall of the temple. Buddha does not. 1911. . Amitdbha. under whose the was built. satis- two leaves. to be perhaps the king of the reign the Barabudur buddhistic empire. Sometimes however. or no more. and though may be provided occasionally given to with a Buddha image in its crown. on interpreted himself. I more than once demonstrated that all the crowns are in provided with no other image but the one of the Buddha himself his posture of meditation (or rest after death). mapdni. and the two other princes they wall is Dhydni- think to be Bodhisatthvas or future Buddhas. the should have been characterised by this Bodhisatthva's usual attribute. might have been honoured by their descendants (11) who two images in this sanctuary This prabJia has been also restored. a the north-westerly image. or before its placed there (11). it also the case with the buddhistic king's image. This however. in his crown. in we see them their right hand. yet it doesn't characterise every wearer as such. the Bodhisattva of the fourth Dhyani-Buddha who.

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pits occupied the whole depth of the foundation of these under the floor of the inner-rooms which may have been of the earth. Buddha image has nothing to do with any Dhydni. in we always king I see them hewn floating the air. all writings known me. yet I could not maintain this when was by Foucher. This. Didn't Maya. and by no means with the first of them. like any other mother of Buddha. Buddha image replaced upon it. the great knower of the ancient Indian Buddhism.-17 — under the blessing of the only Buddha. because of all difficulties' being solved then. above the groups in the porch. don't mention anything about Siddliarta's all brothers or sisters. that in to this idea of the hinaytstic may have told me. sculptured in the mudra of preaching. That Siam's king declared the two images before the entrance be the to representations of the buddhistic king's parents with their children seemed more than reasonable after his birth? to me. because the smaller panels. Old Gandhara he often saw the Buddha. and (but so came hypothesis that the ashes of the two ashes) must have been buried in this kings certainly the son's tyandi.Buddha. and generally adorned with some figures of precious metal and provided with some coloured precious treasures. These temples. ruins the Resident of this affair more closely before the throne But this didn't happen. in square under the pedestals of the images. . However reasonable seemed Mr. Had Van de Kamer remained charged with to work of restoration these examine and the Kedu would then have granted us to was rebuilt again. just pits. a. among others. This. is also the reason of the heavy substructure the Mendut. we had found other tyandis. the sapta ratna stones. And in these children can't possibly be angels or celestials. just as is the case here. Avalokitesvara and Manjugri. or under the seats of the other images. So this This explanation of the king-Buddhist I became so comprehensible it and logical to me 1 that could not but accept and defend to the against others. perof tyandi intentionally built so high above the surface haps. the redeemer of this world. die seven days to And then. the emblems of the seven which were given to the dead. standing between the two Bodhisatthvas. especially. Their urns may be found back such urns of ashes in again in a deep pit under the throne as of the Buddha.

who is said to have been the former personification of small-pox (variolae). many a cloister Gandhara he saw her breast. But they are doomed to destruction because this stream must vivify the rainless country. Vogel. (12) The heavy colonnades of which will be sacrificed to the swelling waters of the river Nile. I don't know any therefore other example of deviation from the rectangular form. things to be seen in the sanctuarium of tyandi The space within Its the four heavy walls is not a square or rectan- gular one.and back-walls.-18is to be seen for at Sarnath very in the northern environs of Benares which passes the place where the is Budda should have preached means at for the first time. He had taken away one in of her 500 children. of Memphis and Thebae. and consequently hewn the foot of Mr. had been converted by the Buddha. and remonstrated with her on the sorrow she gave the mothers of the children killed by her. but rather a trapezoid with parallel front. Carnak and Philae (12). Foucher also taught me that my fellow- country-man. Ph. This ordinarily indicated by of the tyakra between Budda's two throne. . after of their children. and in much better hewn than those Egyptians of the time of the hieroglyphics. gazelles. I am not going to expatiate about the in artistic value of this pro- duce of the ancient plastic arts out Old India. the goddess and the In god in of the Yakshas with some and that. and try find its meaning in the sculptor's effort to increase visitor. leader of the archaeological service British India. rightly declared the two demi relievoes in the porch (volume 4th of the ''Bulletins de I'ecole frangaise d' Extreme-Orient") to be the representations of Hariti and Kuvera. became truly converted and afterwards honoured as a patroness of children. the impression its the large images make upon the by slightly supporting perspective. in Dr. side-walls somewhat to join each other from front to back. oneself and then judge whether the Indian living of One should see them sculptor knew how to chisel and beautiful than thoughts the of which are not in less striking those Greeks the the age of Pericles. consequence of which she totally changed her character. /. But there are more Mendut. the Yakshi Hariti represented with one child at she herself. A.

s a* 2 .

.

Even there the temples in who spoke frangaise to the of analogical cases in Farther India [Bulletins d' Extreme closely related Hindu ruins Java had no windows or ope- nings outside the entrance which opened into an equally dark porch. never doubted the four walls to have had any other opening than the door which opened • through the front wall into the almost equally dark porch. no images were found What was the meaning of them ? to us They were explained Parmentier de I'ecole by the Frencch Indian architect Henry Orient] (13). by the large fact that the four still undamaged walls in the comparatively inner-rooms of tyandi Sevu the plain Parambanan. perhaps because there in was room enough or In the these two sanctuaries of the to place one or more lights before on the altars which carried the Buddha or Tara image. two is. Half way between similar entrance and two corners however. However.or outside these niches. In there lies a small lotus image. of of among others. number 3. main temples of tyandi Shiva. The altar-shaped (13) I. and whose outward turned cushion but without any heads are provided with a proboscis. 249 and II. and may be why them were so that affixed in front I and opposite (not behind) the three images. This conviction of mine has been confirmed by some corresponding cases. an overgrown mound. with the exception was no place for these lights.— 19 — Two group. have no other opening but the door which gives ento trance the the (eastern) porch. niches adorn the front wall. the lamps images throning I After mature the consideration came of to conclusion this that the niches of tyandi this Mendut must reason also all have had destination. Even then 1834 during the digging up of the ruin buried under in. p 20 and 30. number 1. that with two composed serpent's bodies whose see tails disappear into the mule of a monstous gariida head of we above the vault each niche in these niches. we don't see any niche in inner-room of tyandi Kalasan. and as for it was very dark to light the inside the walls in were povided with niches these sanctuaries. there Parambanan group. . the niches have been spared like in each of these side walls. All these six niches have been framed with the ganida-riaga ornament. but not before the impressive image- symmetrically we the see them it hewn and not behind or on the back wall. p.

and round about Httle them there was but This temple's room. a vio- lation of the original architecture. this Those who contemplate more regret than I pseudo-vault unprejudicedly will no do. And my not- but well argued warning. for. a desecration of a primevally pure style And this becomes much this clearer to us when we raise our eyes. formed stones. and could not have had them unless one would have partly sacrificed its panels. and which I mean have once known as a closed whole. and against Van de Kamer. It is would cost and much and money too. it having been labour redressed again. dropping Brandes may have been deceived by the form of the hole the stones had made outside in the front wall above the entrance. but this labour money would undoubtedly be uselessly spent to far better accounted for than that which was commit such an unpardonable mistake. and which he knew from engravings only. less spacious temples whose walls were unadorned. On ruins account analogical I pictured in FOURNERAU'S and stated elsewhere how the falling asunder of such Porcher'S works. and without Indian any other opening but the door. up to this date.! -20pedestals of the images were much smaller there. that such a thing could have happened without true. consequently just as the in 6 niches tyandi Mendut and equally fit to the same purpose. when he first visited this temple Van de Kamer had this wall erected again just Dr. through the front wall scarcely rebuilt by contrary official to this architect's official objections. exquisitely modelled festoons walls hewn with But are had also no niches. as it once of was. and on every of the entrance through the front wall. in still all other. An irresponsible deforming. before nor sanctuary of tyandi Mendut ever had them " Oudheidkundige some years of when the president of the science) Commissie" (board to antiquarian ordered these openings be pierced that. walls which had been run up with hewn stones without mortar. Had not the front walls of these sanctuaries partly fallen down I am sure we ces. 2 side of to be found simple and square 1 which we see in each side-wall. and to fully see how polygonal hole spoils the harmony of the character of the pyramidical vault so beautifully thought. then could see that they also had no windows above till the entran- and that neither the inner-rooms the of tyandis Sevu and Kalasan. are .

On the side-panels of this wall he recognised the Bodhisattva Manjusri. All the small series sculptured on the outsides of these heavy stairs refer to ancient legends. posed naga and garuda heads we are going to know somewhere However. which reached in. among the sculptures we see on the outer-wall. Mr. Siam told us that in the whole of his buddhistic empire there was only one image which. on the south-east side Vajrapani. though much more damaged. but makes us this think. the former with his book on a blue lotus. four-armed. likely have ever done duty as "light-case" Had Dr. M. Avalokitesvara himself. from inside at least. standing between the Bodhisattvas Avalokitesvara and Manjusri. much farther. p. on the wall to the south-east (the hind-part thus)he thought he saw . It is true that wall of the inner-room of tyandi Sevu of such a relievo vault. objections and my warning unprejudiced consideration. 59 The king and 60.— 21 — to farm the very ly same angular the front its lines of breach Dr. The north-western forebuilding. a and consequently not (14). this meaning of his would not have been Tyandi Mendut has the outward appearance of a quadrangle with a somewhat rectangular wing in the centre of each of its four sides. This staircase is flanked by heavy banisters formed of comelse. . but now four-handed and standing between the very same two Bodhisattvas we see the on north-easterly outer-wall. Consequently an icosahedral resting on an equally polygonal foundation of larger extent. had to been entirely shut off to its outside. Brandes unright- ascribed to the architect's intention to build them so. the Bodhisattva to of the second Dhyani-Buddha he . into Brandes taken van de Kamer's possible. and on the outer-wall the south-west latter with his sword and the saw Manjusri again. FouCHER recognised not without some reserve the main image on the north east side as the eight-armed mahayanistic deity Tyundd or Tsyun- da. and between two Taras the south-western side he and on saw Tsyunda once more. and formerly had been separately roofed contained the porch to which a broad and fourteen-tread staircase will lead us even now. could be compared to the colossal Buddha image we see of (14) "Ou(ifmdku)i(iigc AanteeJreningen" IV.

1901. prince Damrong. rendered due homage to sembah (salaam)and by strewing s7mboja-i\owers (Plumeria the Queen. called the Mendut Buddha priceless. In 1'896. and so did . M. whilst his brother.— 22here. acutifolia PoiR) in its lap . and afterwards a in the Buddha image by devout H.

And even undergone to be to him the mutilation against-\xsi this majestic tree bij had already in its frame of roots beautifully formed as nature. so strikingly beautiful that little charmed the eyes of of all who understood a the language of lines and forms (and life colours). A of whole. the most beautiful randii alas or "wild cotton-tree" {Bombax malabariciis D. "An image In which kills. Why again ? It then was this small ruin pulled down and afterwards rebuilt once stood there under the shadow. very latter long ago the destruction of ancient Nature. Some us tyandi had been pulled down and is afterwards rebuilt again. when on our journey home from and devoted himself for the ruins of the Barabudur. two or three hours to the contemplation of this combined creation of art and nature. lan) ferried over the at Praga. . But the of worked quite unconsciously whereas the profaning hand man did not. seemed a sacrilege art-ftj. it C. little when dukuh drive farther west- we arrive the Brajanala (or Brajanaleads where we see the very small tyandi Pawon before our having through the native years ago this Its turned into the broad /re/zan-avenue which village of Bara to the hill of the Barabudur. partly upon and among the of roots a gigantic tree.Tyandi Pawon. and rises again from death. and harmony to this and contrast." 1901 conducting the Jena professor Ernst Haeckel spot. crossing shortly after the small iron bridge built over the river Elo.) I ever saw. Leaving the native village of Mendut behind a mile's of us. and after having been ward. to name which means "kitchen" the Javanese clear enough make understand how this would have shown the striking contrast if it between small temple and the other more extensive one. as were a kitchen compared with a mansion or temple. in his this scholar so sensible of nature's beauty drew this rare scene sketch-book.

Other ones now adorn the premises of the residences of leaseholders living in these environs. also to those surrounin three ding the terrace of the larger ruins of the Para/n^a/zan group still. "That which had been hidden under the I on the north side was crushed long ago. these are no truisms. would have been by no means in necessary to fell gigantic tree order to preserve this small produce ture's of though others with a less developed sense for na- may be inclined to think otherwise. did not. Probably. for instance. in four rectangles. in temples. but because it might rebuilt have been pulled down stone by stone. know to . The following year accompanied the Padang photo- grapher C. a very small porch A of small square room with treads we enter by means but some narrow flanked by the Garuda-Naga ornament. at the tyandi Sevu sugar-factory. Next day he successfully sucspeaks of the in photographing the glorious group which asserted. so that these pedestals are likely to have carried Buddha images) such as are to be seen in the small temples of tyandi Sevu. The architect van de Kamer. opinion this however. But this conformity is not a perfect one. NiEUWENHUiS to tyandi Pawon spending one still night in the Barabudur ceeded truth I pasanggrahan (resthouse). almost as large of tyandi Sevu. and therefore thought the felling down in of this tree a useless deed and consequently a mistake. which surround the main temple Parambanan quadrangles. we dug up we found nothing else but their foundations and a few altar-shaped pedestals (without any escape-pipe for the holy-water the different sculptures were aspersed with. The grave small ruin has some conformity to the many. full well the most insignificant to Art be of in great value Science it well as the creations of Nature my art. and then beauty again without killing the tree tree itself. Attending 1900 the Dutch Governor-general this tree Roozeboom adjutant to these ruins we were photographed under I by his the naval officer de J^ooy. . He also thought it wrong to sacrifice this tree "not because the ruin doesn't show us anything else we don't know better preserved elsewhere.I 24 — remainders of this ancient as . though the tree itself has been lost for ever. but the photographic productions soon faded. valley. because out of the 157 small tyandis only. one of the two members of the former Barabudur Committee however.

The outer-walls It of this small temple have been also hewn with demi-relievoes of Bodhisattvas and bodhi-hees with gandharvas. and all this in spite the very small and narrow air-openings. in suppose in that. in a small square pit. separately roofed in. destination. has been rebuilt and co- vered again even I when just the as two small doors remained open. urn containing the finally ashes I a guru or may have been buried an of some monk of high mausoleum to standing. There a for more than 30 wall in front of the place where once may have stood a pedestal tliis I and image. even those in the back wall which. to there must have stood this dark inner-room opposite the (westerly) entrance a small cubic pedestal without any sidelong escape-pipe. as in tyandi to light consequently used or earthenware of before knew their Mendut these niches may have been the inner-part by means of little bronze and I lamps we also found elsewhere. other such tyandis. Buddha of or of another buddhistic great- Beneath there. is an extraordinary thing that even the entrance of this inconbuddhistic temple had not been testably true made on the east side but to the west. and niche in each sideis only shallow years. and thereof the upon a small image ness. built and their suppose this small have been by surviving relations of who generally but not slavishly kept within the provision the existing examples of such a style of building.— 25haven't known it otherwise room is empty and unadorned. though newly covered. But as for the small tyandis Sevu and Parambanan they also did not follow this rule. . a long time ago. On account shallow for of their height and breadth I estimated these niches too an Just image. only admit a very dim light that now the small porch.

succession of stone gradually developing itself in all the terraces. This cone's top has been removed again because of Mr. place their to render these ashes to the (15) having been unable to prove his brellas to be incontestably true. we only perceive the outer-walls of south-easterly angle. following each other in a regular range of till we see rise in their centre the high cupola now If covered again by a cone with three sun-shades (15). By carriage in less than a quarter of an hour. we want first all. suppose likely when of their predecessors left India for Java. but which has been built as high as its foot. But top this of becomes quite otherwise as soon as we have reached the the hill. van Erp's reproduction of this cone with its um- . and got out of our carriages in front of the menlying tioned pasanggrahan opposite the north-west corner of the ruin. when standing end of the avenue. VI. sight of this The ting first wonder its of architecture at the is a rather disappoin- one because. After having of the village the hill walked through the umbrageous kenari-avenue and Bara which we meet on our way when starting from dukuh of Brajanala. and examine what purpose of this work had been produced by the Buddhists Central Java who are said to have existed there I more than eleven centuries ago. we shall arrive within half an hour at the upon which we see stand the pasanggrahan. and the colossal ruin. We then overlook in majestic the lines enormous mass and forms.Tvandi Bnrabiidur. that. to try understand the overwhelming beauty to of this ruin we must best of know to the whole in its different of art parts. they are or to have ashes hill brought the in a vase or urn containing some real pretended under a reached simple the or of an Buddha himself in order to bury them artless dagob as soon as they had settling.

.

.

homage of in a prayer (17) these was obliged his to mount all these terraces. in consequence of which they surrounded dagob des- and solemn style. in dagob to sacrifice his flowers to the to utter his to meditate his life there. like St. According to Rhys Davids's work. The lijjht their pipes on the flames of the Chinese very degenerated Buddhists (17) later — — altar. a revival Buddha and nirvana. alto-relievoes of these we can not know until we have compared and other Javanese Hindu-temples with the wall-paintings I saw in the Ceylon pagodae. their and wanted something in something more built a worthy and large beautiful. But after lapse of an uncountable this some and centuries. and to real make them suppose as if this hill were the a grave of the Master himself. However the artless great the consequences were. the all doctrine which taught him the dissolving infinite the approaching of the not^to-be as the end purpose of life. But the signification of nirvana itself differs in proportion to time and caste. in — just as the Christians built assembled rich grottoes or catacombs. walled to and covered with sculptures abundantly with the hewn. singleness and purity love for all veracity and meekness. self-comof heart. nirvana means the state of holiness which ripes man for death without regeneration.— 27 — worship or cairn of the beUevers. and perhaps. in by many of gradually cending terraces. colony became first a number of years or. of the Master and his doctrine. and consider this no sacrilege. and the deliverance of all the miseries of a sensual existence (18). either man or beast. perhaps large and powerful empire. as were. but didn't worship the images themselves. consecrated waxcandles burning on the (18) . — the Buddhists also disregarded better. of life's of the Redeemer and redemption. which was speak. mand. He who would approach Buddha. this insufficiency and of victory after death. and to lead beings. and the Cologne cathedral simple cairn. Buddha himself thought it useless to pray. (16). and walk it along the sculptures which became. (16) is This idea of mine about the graduation of the Barabudur's origin given as a questionable hypothesis. Peter's and afterwards at churches and magnificent Rome. were him to that final purpose. the so-called parinirvdna. but the Buddhists of times prayed however. clearness plastic art or in the poetic language of symbolism. Many the a sculpture reminded him there that self-conquest.

remained as insensible of these impressions as the was majestic vista the terraces displayed deep down and far off on the surrounding mountains. front of pasanggrahan where we now find comparatively nice accommodation. a view most astonishing. we now to the can't possibly bounds. and encircling the equally polygonal temple. and not to every one. mounhill Let us now follow the way plain the pilgrim took. a chaos of dome-shaped roofs and cones. we overlook the whole scene: a polygonal mass of dark-grey stone. For even the impressions received there were of a transient kind. witli the original lies This terrace has nothing to do style of building. formerly extenbut yards farther outside. For about two yards ding three deeper to there another one. a tridodecahedral or rather a quandrangle. so serious and itself well-meant that the pilgrimage became a step on the right path. Supposing now this at lower terrace to be some two yards deeper on. valleys and plains. The 1 This superstatum on the is about 2. We approach and ascend the outer-terrace. and of stone. he reached at last the in Mas- grave a frame of mind so pure and noble. but as its we then arrive the uncovered ascertain outer its part has been lost since. but which was afterwards removed again. and he it may of be that many a one who went highest there for form's or ap- pearances' sake only. yard high and 7 yards wide. according ment by the board (19) my schematism offered Dutch Govern- of directors of the "Oudheidkundige Vereeniging". now for the greater part hidden under a burden of 5500 cubic metres of stone (19). of re-entering walls and projecting frame work. (probably) original outer terrace. to When. and where once may have stood the cloister or dwelling of the monks who took care of the stupa. 3 yards wider. and and sufficient enough to my purpose was about . But not always. at its mount the in which the carries this heavy mass small Standing on the north-west corner. each side projecting twice outside in the shape of a rectangle. crowned by a higher situated middle-cupola the lost cone of which VAN Erp renewed after the copy of found fragments.5 lower terrace outside just These numbers are nearly yard high.-28 — And ter's if not blind with his eyes open. and culminating in the satisfaction of ting the ruin even at this day.

that its before the last planned imageries had been entirely finished at foot or hardly sketched. and granted the necessary sum for the budget of lb90. In the centre of by the upper of of a staircase on two sides closed such in by means heavy banisters. The architect VAN DE Kamer thought it afterwards possible. whilst the cost was estimated at L 768. nes-into (21) Above the first discovered imageries of the foot tions in ancient Javanese characters scratched in stone. The Government put up with it. of the ruin's outer wall had we found there heavy frames and bands. The Out ves banisters of stairs ended into naga heads with turned elephant's trunks and gave entrance to the lower heightening. and this earth would then be carried away more rapidly than is the case now. In former must have been surrounded by a heavy breast-work which each side this parapet was replaced now step has disappeared altogether. and its original foot permanently uncovered. Society. It therefore appears its the first outer-terrace is. I Some years ago we had not the slighest idea of their existence. let it now return to the outer-tevrace we mounted. Otherwise the time-worn joints becoming more and more wide would admit much more rain-water between the stothe earh of the hill under the ruin. proposed the Dutch Government to have the whole temple's foot uncovered (in the only way possible) without endangering the foot itself. and underneath a series of 160 images demi-relievoes. perhaps. and too much disfiguring the temple itself. (20) because the preservation of the whole ruin would have required retain-walls too expensive. to as- And But times this must have been done by the Buddhists themselves us sure. would do much to its decay unless the ruin itself became wholly covered. of all still existing stairs. but expensive. firm much better hewn than the and for the greater part well preserved under their covering. . must have been twice heightened at original foot. and have the ruin spoilt and decayed. and upon those we now all find oursel- there are other ones leading over the higher terraces to the At that time I could not have thought of a permanent uncovering. to have the ruin restored again. proposed the Dutch Government to have them photogra- phed so that they now have come that within the range of the study of archaelogists (20). we found inscripOn this ground the presided by myself. Sunlight. firmer foundations to the whole building (21). heat and rain-water however.-29the upper series were dug up (1890) and the lower-part been uncovered.

and it is on this side that we find shall mount the in which will bring us to the very first gallery (also walled there on outside) on the second terrace. each of them containing a deep niche. above the outer don't only. and without passing the 'mageries standing there. stand — or formerly stood — from distance to distance. And yet. And on the top of the heavy cornice covering these imageries. And we shall the starting-point of four in different series of alto-relievoes of which some prepare each other Yet. re- . terrace. crowned each small temple which had been flanked by two wings with similar but lower spires. I don't see any reason for so many Bodhisattvis. may refer to female /iocf/z/- otherwise I should be inclined to think of apsarasas or ce- because not. wherein a Buddha image on a lotus-throne provided with the prabha or disc behind his head. This lotus sattvos. but allude to symbolical ornaments Notwithstanding. a Raphael or a Michael. these imageries. A square spire with of screen-shaped stories reminding us of the Siam pagodae or some tyaityas also represented on the imageries of our temple. nymphs or servants. And between every two As well as so many angels painted by our artists -don't always (22) present a Gabriel. Don't we also find them in other xmns{tyandi Parambanan. they can't be said to be without sense. They represent numberless. small temples of a completely similar form. On our first way we stair its therefore only walk about part of the outer- terrace. and in the Sari and Pelahosan cloisters? (22). both scenes every time seperated by a single woman's image provided with a lotus or another symbol.-30large middle-dagob v/e can still reach along this path without being obliged to walk all round these galleries. why provided that they are not taken as personal. though we may not readily understand them. regular succession. lestials. along the north- and half east-side. but continually modified repetitions of some motives. a man seated near an incense-offering or a flowervase. and tyafidi Sevu). just above the sacrificers. above the lower tell series more or less reviving the heavy outer-wall and consequently standing comparatively high we uncovered in 1890 (now covered again) us any story or legend. legendary or historical Bodhisattvis. and a man standing between two women.

following all the re-enterings of the tridodecahedral. especially in those of plain of Parambanan. now have for the greater part disappeared. were less in proportioned to the whole. These stairs were and are as still the weak points of the architecture. at first sight remind us of elephants rather than of snake-like animals. or with both of them. Dissimilar they are in height and depth of the steps. the surrounding gal- but which Even the doorways once covering them from terrace to terrace. The back partly still parts of these niche- and dagob-temples formed — and they was form — an (formerly) uninterrupted cornice which carried the small spires and the dagobs. only interrupted by the four doorways which showed us a repetition (on a larger scale) of the small niche-temples. these heads and the monster-head above the doorways and . refore Wilhelm von Humboldt and among whom the Dutch scholar that of him all Leem.ans. We already niches. above the groups a conical of the three small images. becau- se their upner lips generally (not always) change into a trunk curled after up on their foreheads. The front with a part of each of these dagob-pedestals has been adorned sitting image with a flower-vase or an incense-offering. of tyandi Mendiit and tyandi Pawon. they soof the floor of metimes occupy the greater part leries. the- took these monstrous figures for elephant's they the heads without perceiving however. It still appears from that which has remained that the side-posts of these doorways —just as those of each niche— had tails been formed by the serpent's bodies of two ndgas whose into ended the mule of a monster-head this we saw above the doorway. European examiners. and therefore not always equally rich style. find it came across back in all very same motif on our walk round the the this ged. covered by a bell-sha- ped dagob which has or had been crowned with man's or woman's column. a single wall-opening which.-31 small niche-temples stood — just — or stands—. and beneath. changed into serpent's bodies when seen on the side-posts doorways. an altar-shaped stone-block. and Buddha temples in Java. and in the ruins of the temple group of name whose buddhistic character will not be easily acknowledAt the foot of the doorway (or of the niche) these «fl^a-heads and on the banisters the ended into outward turned mythical monster-heads which. they also didn't see the relation there was between niches. and beauty.

He is also the natural defender of this church. director I afterwards to this communicated this explanation of the royal members of the Mission archeologique de I'lndomission's director (who afterwards became the first the Orient). . is As self in for the rest Garuda the deity's faithful servant. French-Indian seated scholar assured me he did know was / Vishnu's representations on such a monster-head only (23). (even according to professor Kern) thought this monster-head ndgas. didn't represent I Rahu I but Garuda. Rahu who to devour the sun during every eclipse. No : 1 page 21-22. and. the lip naga which mostly adorned with proboscis and an elephant's may be in taken as an indisputable proof of the truth of our idea about this naga-symbol. the form of the Javanese keris (creese) found. and the monster which conquers tail power by crushing the enemy's also tries should be. This is comprehensible because this Rahu has always been repre- sented as a head only. Mr. I. had fallen into the sea and perished. their Vishnu must have revealed him- Buddha for the ninth time. according to the Siam opinion. In and the destroyer of its subterranean I enemy. of the Ecole frangaise d'Extreme the great indo-archaelogist. the destroyer this of the And when riding argued or had always seen represented as wdhana. according to the Buddists of the northern church.— 32 — Many ning all 1 years ago I had been misguided myself. But that we are standing front it. for in know. or before which has remained of (23) Bulletin de I' ecole francmse cV Extreme Orient. a bird or as man-bird a provided of with wings and claws or at least with the beak the bird prey. the only one and H. It who afterwards found such garuda-hesids with claws of a bird of prey (with 3 or sometimes 4 front-toes). Louis Finot. When Buddhist Chine. succeeded convincing hi me by logical argumentation. for about seven a years ago. of the eastern staircase. king of Siam who was. and in the begin- I even defended my error against the that disputed this. M. and after that his body severed from his head by Vishnu 's tyakra. god of Vishnu's animal eagle. to this ornament the naga represents a power inimical this buddhism.

. The in tact. with the gate leading from the fourth polygonal and surrounding terrace to the round ones only gate which has remained its and the high m\d6\Q. with the Garuda- Ndga ornament on frontside.-dagob.Northern staircase of the ruin of the Barabudur.

.

-33Even the
mule, and
to

beautiful banisters

rising

from above, out of a monster's

ending
(24),

in a

naga-head with trunk curled up, are no more

be seen

Eight high steps lead us to the first gallery.

The very first thing we see is that the two walls are hewn with two series of imageries richly framed, and placed above each other, whilst it is clear to be seen that this must have been done after that
these walls had been run up from their combination of stone-blocks,

and that an uninterrupted band
Because of
their

of exquisite festoons has

been affixed

above these sculptures under the cornice
having

of the 6acA:-wall.
in relief

been

modelled

style

all

these

sculptures are therefore no basso but alto-relivoes.

The upper

series

of the front wall

covers the somewhat declining

back parts of the mentioned niche- and dagob temples.

On
The
for

the

back wall

we

see similar temple-groups, but all of them,

even the small niche-temples, are crowned with dagobs and cones.
three following and higher walls also carry such temple-groups,
of the outer- walls

and beneath the cornices
rosettes

we

see a band modified

each wall, but always beautifully thought, and formed of elegant

and guirlandes with
five

birds.

On

the

encircling

walls

of

the

Barabudur

we

see

no

less

than 432 niches provided with Buddha-images

we

are going to speak

about afterwards

(25).

We now
This
served,

turn

to the

left

in

order

to

begin our walk along the

sculptures of the upper series of the back-waW.

wall is the only one that has remained almost wholly preshowing us a comparatively well explained row of following

(24)

Both

this

Naga and Garuda
wall

are mythical beings

who

adopt diffe-

rent schapes.
(25)

On

the lower

4 ^ 26

on the on the on the and on

scond
third

...

4

<

26

= 104 = 104
88 72
64

4 x 22 -4 x

fourth
the fifth

18=

4 x 16

=

together

432

-34events which give us an idea about the Hfe of the

Buddha Siddharia
(26).
a.

Gautama, the Shakyamuni, from beginning
Out
of

to

end

these

120
of

sculptures

we

can only give

superficial des-

cription of a

few

them

that

have been explained

best.

Those
galleries

of the

lower series and of the two rows on the front wall of
of the

this gallery,

and the few rows
shall

two walls
Not yet

of the three following of

we

pass

in

silence.

all

them have been

explained, and

many

a sculpture has been so badly
to

damaged

that

it

doesn't

seem possible
Buddha,
relics.

explain

them. Other ones are lost at

all.

That which
of

remained well preserved generally represents a worship
of

the

dagobs or
a

tyaityas, of bodhi-trees, or perhaps of

different

Sometimes
presents,

they

also

show

us

a

distribution

of

viands,

or

other
the

preaching, a fable about animals or a
of

scene
certain

from

former

lives

the

Buddha as man

or beast, or

Bodhisattvas
of this

or divine
(27).

predecessors of the Buddha, the Re-

deemer

world

Some

sculptures

are
to

likely

to

be

mere symbols. Formerly
(28).
in

their

number amounted

more than 2000
left

Let us begin our walk to the

of the eastern staircase

order

to return to our starting-point following the course of the

sun of the

(26)

The

first

effort

to

interpret

this

series

we owe

to

the Austrian

draughtsman
(27)

in

Netherlands-Indian

civil

service F. C. Wiisen.
It

We

shall afterwards

speak about these former lives or/w/a^rts.

was

FouCHER who afterwards expounded many him, VAN Erp also explained another few ones.
Mr.
(28)
If

representations, and after

we

don't

count those on the front sides of the more than 400

small dagobs,

we

see there:

On

the outer-wall,

above

408
160
first

below
gallery

on on

the front-wall of the the back-wall

568

240
in front

on the second gallery
„ „

192

behind

108
165

third gallery, in

front

behind
fourth gallery, in front
„ „

88
142

behind
altogether

70
2141

-35northern hemisphere (29), going through the South,
Fhis order of succession regulated after this sun,

West and North.

we always find back

on these and other Hindu ruins; more or
ern origin of Javanese Buddhism (30).

less a witness of the nor^/7-

The Siamese
to

also followed this direction,

and maintained

that a

walk
left

the right of the
it,

side turned to

Buddha or the dagob, consequently with our would show our ignorance or want of respect.
and
shall
in

For
the

convenience'sake,

order to assist the visitor in finding

few sculptures, we
or

always count them from the preceding
the ninth wall-angle, and begin with

staircase

from the

first

till

the eastern staircase.

The The
Dr.

first

scenes relate that which preceded Buddha's

life.

fourth

sculpture of the series (No. 7 of Wilsen's pictures
1

in

Leemans' work), or
of the

after the first angle,

may

be, according to

FouCHER, some
of a

zelles near Benares, and,

many Pratyeka-Buddhas (31)in the park of gawhen a deity informs them the birth on earth
of

consummate Buddha, one

them

rises

from his lotus-throne

in

order to be burned by his

own

shine and ascetic diligence

elbows higher

in the air.

The former explanation

when seven given by LEEMANS

and myself, according to Wilsen's, was inaccurate.
Further towards
of

the South

we meet more
of for the

than one representation

Buddha's parents, the
his
first

Shdkya king

Kapilavastii, Shudhodana,

and

wife

Maya, honoured

coming event, the next
a symbolical

birth of the divine son.

The

twelfth

(23

W.

L.,

1

after the

fourth angle)

is

indication of Buddha's descent from heaven in a palanquin
in the air

moved on

by

celestials.

W. L., 2 after the fourth angle) shows us Maya quarded by female servants, receiving the Buddha in a dream, in the shape of a white elephant carried by lotus-cushions, descending from heaven into her lap (32).
The
thirteenth (25

asleep,

The relation of this fact with the apparent course of the sun to inhabitants of the northern hemisphere in which Farther India, and Hindostan are situated, was, thus far, shown by nobody before mc (in 1887). Still it is an important fact to those who believe the Buddha a mm-ijod. Of North-India where Buddhism first arose. (30) Pratyeka-Buddhas are believers raised by their own consummating (31) to the dignity of a Buddha; they have however, no right to teach or redeem other people. One of these servants massages her like the Javanese still do (32)
(29)

the

(pidjet)

;

another fans her or chases

away annoying

flies

and gnats.

^enlMeai {Alocasi'i an AroVdee consequently) for a banana-leaf Mnsa L. at in next greatness. most on is his father's knees. quite another sense than the king wishes. (tjemara). match the headkerchief. However. The thirty-first sculpture (61 W. and he should have understood why in former times it was carried as ampilan after the saints and princes. she doesn't come any farther than Lumbini garden. of Leemans thought he saw in this crescent of the moon the tips Had he seen the sculptures himself he would not have been mistaken in such a way. of the five highest (round) Dr. he should not have taken a . angle nine. 1) tells us how she. and (34) a headkerchief. eighth angle. L. According to time-honoured goes there to wait her confinement. A rain of lotus flowers falls upon him. and the placing terraces.. and upon the encircling the walls opposite to the four zones of heaven. while standing there under a tree. macrorhixa Schott but he .^36The twenty-seventh she (53 W. The crescent of the moon on perhaps hind part head must refer to his heavenly or princely origin (34). (33) 1 think it permitted to show to representation. because she (as every Buddha-mother) after the southern staircase) died seven days after his birth.) have seen how even this leaf is still used by the Javanese as a provisional umbrella. honoured by brahmins and laymen. and lotus-plants open themstep selves under his the feet on each of his he takes. and the following sculpture (55 W. opposite relation there is between this Dhyani-Buddhas we see on the the zenith. and that as a sign authority over the five parts of the world (33). 1 perceives his the Buddha-tokens however. neither does the Javanese /cnhiq or Such crescents of the moon are also weared by Hariti's and KuvERA's children on the two sculptures before the entrance of tyandi Mendut. but without head kerchiefs. 1) shows us Maya on usage her journey to he paternal home. just as the cow's hair fly-fan. saw the Buddha born from her side. should then . before he wrote his work.. for L. His mother no more to be seen. of his next and as many steps the zenith. Had the Dutch Government sent Leemans to Java. Kern says that Buddhameans both the awaking of the sun and of the moon and that the two celestial bodies also refer to Buddha on the other sculptures of the Barabudur. may refer to the brahmin who SiDDHARTA's body. On times the following sculptures we see the young king's son. this doesn't ceremonial cap. and predicts L. and how the latter immediately took seven steps to each of the four to zones of heaven. Siddharta wears a crown (makuta).

L. outside the northern gate. angle nine. L. bow no On other can bend. 1). The forty-ninth In (97 W. find peace carnal desires (117 W. and 2).. 4) on the westside scetches us SiDDHARTA's authority over others. in giving up wordly greatfamily. 5 after all. angle 8. Some people say these are tlie names of two women.ssm try to his mastershot. L.1). and finally. and PenelOPE's lovers vainly bow upon which all were convinced by to Rama . L. ness and domestic happiness life in leaving his father and and of gaining strength in a self-denial of retirement. paternal precautions. What then would be the use of these precautions who only revealed themselves to him. and that the blow of its string was heard at a distance of 7000 miles.. angle two. spite of encounters outside the palace. and also as for manly strength. L. In Huiucros' U(///. Ceylon writers know to tell us that 1000 men could not bend this bow. a mendicant friar or bhikshu teaches to gain the victory over life him as how by ruling all and death. and 6) we perceive similar scenes.. do the same with Odijstiniy' and killed. L. angle five. this ground he the hand cousin Rashodara. and to his in to celestial beings equerry and guide all order to persuade the next Buddha . The to the night sleeping watchmen or servants refer which passes on discussing the subject. 6 after the seventh angle). and as the 45th sculpture (107 W. in the Uavaujdiui.. refer to the four Four other sculptures which. This bowthe (35) Occasionally called On shot which enabled him to gain his bride's hand has been also mentioned in other legends — it u-ua unce awarded to Arjuiui in the MahdblulnUa.) represents liim enjoying his domestic happiness the schemer should then have thougt of two women. two following sculptures (123 and 125 W. angle nine. the most beautiful girl Shakya in virgins (35). he meets a sick one in death-struggle (113 W. and self-command order to finish his heavenly task: tho redemption of suffering mankind! Outside the eastern gate he first comes across a decrepit grey-head on his (HI W.— 37 — On 77 and 79 (W. of privation in and expiation. a and when he finds himself of life outside the western entrance corpse shows him the end (115 W. L. a wedding match (svayamvara) he bends a his and sends gains of all arrow through of his seven cocoa trees. showed him life's misery.. afterwards. drive from the southern gate.. L. his after the western stair- he discusses resolution with his disappointed father. but this happens more L. 2 and 3 Qopa. 1 On case) the sixty-first sculpture (121 \V.

. but also the larger disc of light crowning the higher seat upon which. The following scene (127 W. 3).. he succeeds leaving house and home to begin abroad the life of a poor wan- derer seated on the noble sun-horse Kanthaka. all this for ever speak of the holy task which raises him above 1 his family. 1 to earth. how. South. ascetic. The Shaki/a's superiority appears from his Buddha posture and his lotus-throne.. nthe knot of hair on his crest. the leave-takings from his servant 2). hair-dress and weapons (135 in W. spite of closed doors and sleeping gate-keepers. after the first angle) tells us. and shabbily clothed a hunter's skirt life — his the first cowl turned yellow by long usage ascetic — he begins the of thinking whose spirit of sanctifying power we see continnually indicated by the lotus-cushion and the disc of light. Mara.^ native town SiDDHARTA already began gave him sculptures his new life which henceforth claim to the name of the wise Shakya (SHAKYA-muni) the (37).-38after the staircasse) his he communicates his resolution to his wife (or wives). West. According to other people muni means an achoret or Leemans calls hitn Arala Kalama. speaks once more of heavenly sending. The following ith show us the penitent clothed as Buddha urna and the tiara.. just as happened when he descended L. corner) also carries his after the second Kanthaka through the air. bey priests and laymen. Far from his and North) (36). angle three. second angle 4 and following ones). . (36) The the fienith. with the lotus-cushion and disc of th wsuhomaged. 1) him ask for being instructed his by the wise brahmin Alara we who unable to teach wiser superior (38). women and celestials. garb (133 L. and which. Then come second angle. L. inferior people. and the taking his off his princely W. L. vainly tries to check him by the four him the dominion over parts of the world (the East. On see is the seventy-second sculpture (141 W. on the next sculptures (129 W. he of life women and is watching the last night. by princes and men. Tyhanda(131 W. L. among sleeping servants. and. second angle. offering the wicked darkness. and meditating posture. (37) (38) evil spirit had no authority over the fifth part of the world. the ring of hair on his forehead. The lotus-cushion it carrying him again. in in L.

The eighty-first sculpture [161 W. Such repetitions are more to be seen. and redeem mankind from (39) In sin. the awaking luminary celestial. come 2 after the fourth angle] he approaches Rajargriha (40).-39after the fourth angle] On the now following one [143 W. and almost dying from how she refreshes him with nutritive milk. penitent the daughter of a village headman. He got all became his power. L. angle seven. to teach the true doctrine. takes care of the exhaustion. which be seen in spokesman's posture. his disciples.. the capital of the empire of to visit him. though they are rare ones. Nothing however. The dislike their sculptor in of these scenes incorrigibly hewed is the disciples' to their Master's changed opinion. The hands It of this man are a masterpiece would be a loss never to be remedied if these hands were taken away. and as 1 this one also turns out the to be his inferior he leaves him accompanied by five of his [Udraka's] disciples. royal house. He therefore breaks with that and with of who wrongly suppose him an apostate and leave him Six years alone to continue elsewhere their lives of penitence. We ture see an almost similar representation on the eighty-fourth sculp[167 W. after all. safe from the rapaciousness of foolish tourists-compilers. him half king BiMBiSARA and the queen and offer their empire. the Enlightened. The two angle. misery convinced the wise Shakya that a sound spirit can live in a sound body only. 1] teaches us how SujATA. 4]. vainly strength [for wisdom] in life a life of abstinence and penitence. knowledge. the dharma. which. that is. . would be of no value to the of expression. we see him near another wise person. On Its following one [145 W. L. and truth The Shakya Muni accomplished his purpose at last. fifth on the banks of a brook. The Javanese would now say ynya raja. called Udraka (39). (40) Lehman's work Rudra. L. 't Magadha. L. angle seven. but the Bodhisattva doesn seek for worldly greatness. robber because they can 't give back is the proportion to their arms and bodies. to come in the world wrapped in darkness. L. He has ripened to appear as Buddha. 1 first scenes on the north side [151 place trying and 2] him to and seek his five followers and 153 W.

Siddharta's all son). (42) On one Ufiiyaratha. buddhistic nuns.-40Seated on a heap of bulrush. L. he henceforth lives a life love highly beneficial to beings. L. l)he proclaims truth to the five disciples found back. Amitabha. after the second angle) tells us his daughters. The again dha's three last sculptures of the whole to his series which bring us back speak of Budto the native-town to our starting-point near the eastern staircase. RAHVLA-mata (the of mother Rahula. to On the one hundred and seventeenth (233 W. The last sculpture but one (237 W. for the washing of his corpse hewn there. we see how [187 the the first after the first of weapons demons and upon him as harmless flowers. opposite the of setting life. L.. On the ninety-fourth sculpture angle after the western staircase] or false deities larger disc fall W. but don't refer journey and the after to the reclaiming of father first and son. of his wife and step-mother. the bodhidruma. Rama's father. and his faithful followers now for ever and apostles (41)... his A second speaks of in full glory. he fights his last fight against the Evil Spirit which he knows to conquer once more. greatness. the magnificence of the sun rising The following tries sculpture (189 W of L. Teaching and honoured he goes last sculptures on the north side Banaras (Benares) such as the will show us. But though one of nymphs adopts of the shape Yashodara. increasing power. eighth first angle. represented in almost the Parambanan we see the death sams manner. how Mara these to conquer him by the charmingness of the apsarasas (the rosy morning-mists) (Kern). the posture of meditation or perfect rest suiting the nirvana which also the posture of is Dhydni-buddha. though the in flat sitting posture of the dead one may seem defiance of in this. sun speaking in a symbolical sense of the finished task (41) Who these 5 apostles were of the sculptures at in former lives another series of sculpof king tures on the frontwall of this gallery will teach us. (42) But is this posture on the lotus-throne. under a as tiie fig-tree. 2 the ninth and last angle) speaks of his death. afterwards sanctified of knowledge. hewn to on the four lower-walls and dominating there the West. with the fourth his two hands his lap. . and the tree latter budges from his side for ever. may only apply to his death.

. in L. con- his holy doctrine. 3 after the last angle) the same as the immortal Talhdgata who. the very tinues to live in Buddha thrones posture. spite of his mateiial death. also assist That the study the of Foucher's work could after me in finding sense the of 5^^ some other not comprehended sculptures may appear panel the 7"^ from angle past the eastern staircase.-41Behind the dead one to we see stand two monks pouring their vases purify the corpse before the cremation will make an end to his material existence. . and who can never die as such. On the last sculpture in (239 W. which shows us the killing of SiDDHARTA's elephant by his angry nephew Dervadatta. as the glorification of death.

the also write for laymen who don't know Because >. Speyer published in the "Bydragen van Koninklijk Instituut" an english translation of 34 of these legends a Sanscrit manuscript. When in July 1896 I attended the king of Siam for three days on his journey to the ruins. I began to study the majestic in thought (hke afterwards wrote (43) my first essay about the Barabudur) series of the many other imageries. instead of the Dutch dj. we write . especially with regard to the lower series on the of this first gallery. to me.or pdli text (44) in one of the languages known J. that as the Redeemer of not yet existing beings. to be the representations of of the jatakas of the man honoured by all the Buddhists of the northof this world. Speyer and other Sanscrit scholars write: Jdtaka according to an (45) acknowledged manner of writing which replaces the Dutch dj by the /. for the last time reincarnated for about 25 centuries ago. this royal Buddhist expressed the position. same supback wall But I could not possibly study these jatakas as long as I didn't know any In 't translation of the original Sanscrit. by the y. those of the Hinayanists generally in the pdli language. of this first gallery. 1893 professor S. and his who is. the ern and the southern church as the Redeemer Dhyani- Buddha finished of the Mahayanists. at least those of the undermost back wail. derived from the so-called Jatakamala or the wreath of (43) birth stories (45). ruin. the tj by c this writing 1 try to do my best to replace these consonants by our own. (44) The writings of the Mahayanists have been written in sanserif. In English of course. I . and therefore write lyakra and lyaitya instead of cakra and caitya what would seduce many a one to say kakra and kaitya. In "de Indische Gids" of 1887. I for more than I thirty years ago. but order to reveal himself once more to a future world. enjoyed the in rest of the nirvana after having heavenly task. and those of the uppermost row on the front wall Buddha's former lives.-42- When.

few jdtakas on therefore monuments whereas them by letter. five of Oldenburg all however. and hewn tioned series on six sculptures of the lower series on the back wall. 17. (46). Kern had been so kind as to inform It me of became possible for me to recognise in the two mensome of the legends treated in Speyer's Jdtakamdld. 4 and 5 (W. and moreover. Let us with the upper series on the front wall after the eastern staircase. but we shall afterwards speak about them. had only mentioned In them. in the when counted from first till staircase. or no more these be recognized since the in engravings studied by It Oldenburg had been drewn Leemans' work. (46) Lord steps through this precipice. the mentioning again their numbers they refer to preceding entering staircase. . Doing have to count disappeared and consequently missing sculptures lost — and many of them have been after on the front wall-. and did 18. opened a precipice before But the much good. show some other ones elsewhere. treat As short as possible I shall successively these sculptures. Oldenburg '' . lar each are new those would divided become in quite worthless. professor Kern gave a translation of an essay which had appeared from the as far as it hand of the Russian Orientalist Sergius E. and begin again from the eastern this I'll and walk towards the South. Engraving CXXXVlll and following ones. 3. of a wall Cor/2er-sculptures in which occupy the two sides Leemans' engravings begin two by a perpendicu- line. The Lord once rising Spirit. lived as a rich fill man who his feet from table to the beggar's bag of a monk. 16. Second corner. and afterwards from the the ninth re- or projecting wall angle. is a pity that drawings are not exactly true ones. that in as much to as they existed and had not been damaged. the Evil wherein he saw hell flaremains uninjured. order to examine still these sculptures one by one. L. because otherwise the loss numbers angle. One day Mara.^43And in the same Bijdragen" but in those of 1897. — concerned the Barabudur different — who discussed the representations of a Dr.. and not to be relied upon. in November 1899 lost or I visited the Barabudur is. And five years ago Speyer gave at length a full account of the Maitrakanyaka legend superficially treated by Oldenburg. ming.

but only which good (also. 32. the subterranean god of riches. The demons ness. reclaim themselves and acknowledge the king's holi- he that then admonishes them not is to do wrong in future. explained by Van Erp. order to put her to the INDRA. represented here by Hell condemned persons L. corner (W. a as a hare all authority over In other The Bodhisattva once wilderness frequented by many hermits. 1 and 2 after the third 31. 11 is and also the moon. in a cauldron with boiling contents. and demand not human blood and human flesh. safes the and carries her to heaven in order to adorn his own palace. with the hare's picture carry their On the animals presents to Indra. look at the bottom of this page. Her animals was honoured even in heaven. (47) By the Dutch called: "the little man in the moon. L. from Kuvera's in kingdom. . descends to her in the shape of an exhausted traveller. They ask him offers for a good meal. a jackal presents him wih a traveller). The Lord doesn't wish to inclined his let them go subjects. of his unsatisfied. a heavenly in saint. with a gift in reality a Pratyeka-Buddha. 18. 3 we is see the benefactor with his on 4 he steps through and on 5 the monk ascends to heaven. and the latter afterwards disappears gifts. Second corner. his divine shape. On hell. 24 and 25). but he is to sacrifice one flesh of in his and therefore ministers' offers them own blood and spite and courtiers' resistance. lizard and a cup of sour milk (left behind by another fresh the and a monkey favors him with juicy fruit to re- man. and hare that of the devas. to leave off drinking intoxicants). and on 12 the going to fling herself into the fire. An otter brings him fish. but refuse the best things the king them. the corner-sculpture and 34). will) order be taken by the poor man in roasted But hare now iNDRA out of the shows himself again flames. among others. 33 and The Lord expelled as a king of a happy people. Five yakshas (demons). (47)." About such another jataka. But the hare herself into who fire could give nothing else but in bitter grass to flung a (burned as by iNDRA's food. come to tempt hem order to ruin him. the god. test. a brilliant cloud.— 44 — and favors the monk. Second corner lived 11 in and 12 (W..

lotus-ponds their refresh. five yakshas were afterwards reincarnated men. the sculptures 73. An earth-quake father. One day. to praise the Lord and to close his On 18 and on the corner-sculpture the j/aArs/zas come who praises the king's virtues. also inclined to comply with all this demand of Indra reveals himself and gives him back his place at his father's court. fruit for their when MadrT found meal. Once more some brahmins come to The prince gives his consent. the children get out. for the elephant. and overshadow them. He dis- mounts and gives them the noble animal On account of father who acted He mounts his two ask puts children.-45Indra descends from heaven wounds. and 4 and 5 (W. riding his white elephant. 37. and the children have been hewn on On the yakshas conduct the princely carriage after having put out the horses. 38 and Now the Bud- dha of after life was king Samjaya's son and hereditary prince. and the their little takes his little son and the mother take daughter on her arm to continue their journey afoot. order to join the Buddha once more. and demands prince this carriage. and when the deity hears the cause of this he also comes. to the now childless and claims the the prince latter's wife. and then his fine him for horses. and Another brahmin appears himself before the carriage. But as his. On 1 and 2 we see them These the first across a herd near the king. carriage accompanied by MadrT. followed and left again the Shakya-miini in his first apostles (48). he met with some brahmins who asked him. is the disconsolate mother. that which he lost. in the name of their king. One the day. 78 and 117. and so they reach find a tabernacle built for place of exile where they them by Indra. 39). as a brahmin. and became disciples who 3. this foolish deed he saw himself driven away by his at the Instigation of his (the father's) courtiers. Trees clouds bend their branches in homage. his wife. see him cede 5 his elephant. Even On 3 we 4. Maori and on his. L. there came calls herself in the wood to seek for roots and a brahmin demanding from her husband two little one's in order to lead them away as bound slaves. . (48) See above. 77. and their sets off. now. Indra's attention. to become Fourth corner.

56 and 57]. he declines the offer after officials. because he places his feelings of justice above his personal happiness. Time was when subjects offered the Lord himself was a king to whom one of his his most beautiful daughter. L. Return again was impossible and sake of the Lord's their ruin seemed prayed to be inevitable. and on 4 the king meets her himself. way On their arrival into the harbour appeared to be pre- cious stones and jewels. One day taking a drive the to her. and through unknown near the end of the world. L.Fifth corner. on 3 they give the prince a account of the state of things. 3 and 4 [W. seeing spotless virtue and love of truth.. At the advice of his courtiers sent to her. and from the hands of her own husband. A seas heavy storm till flung the ship far away. and they could return to the harbour. 2. 48. and they the deities for the And this succeeded. fearing that the l<ing for such an strikingly beautiful of his which she marries one king would become crazy of love woman. 5 [W. On visit 1 the offer is being delivered to the king. allowed himin to be gained into embarking for a commercial journey order to assure the ship a safe voyage. told them this to pull up sand and stones from the bottom of the sea. Fifth corner. The storm abated. little here see the Lord as a fish obeyed by all other fishes of the Because pool birds in of want of rain this lake fish once dried up. and the deity himself came to him. and took a passionate love even refuses to On his being in- formed that she had already entered upon marriage he controls get her his passions. though almost bhnd. We lake. 52]. 9 and 10 [W. didn't know any means escape from the of reward for his true The Bodhisattva prayed INDRA for rain as a virtue. The only remained ship on the open sea. On their journey home through an emerald-green sea. One means help for only could save them. and became a to which the prey.. the blind sailor. and take them on board by of ballast. 1. L. sculpture shows us the merchants with their Fifth corner. As a self retired old sailor the Lord. on 2 his messengers full the virgin. saw her. and . with the eyes of other passengers. 50 and 51]. 49.

after the rain. Every day their two servants lotus. In the 3. and the other one. in the shape of Indra who daily drank too offers much the strong liquor with his courtiers. L. As a brahmin Indra a bottle now king of sura praising the pernicious properties of this drink in so eloquent a manner that the prince renders homage him in to the preacher as a guru (teacher). L. first Indra. Only every fifth day they came together trine. and saw how it their brother had (49) grown thin. own hut. L. Sarvamitra. Being informed of the cause of everyone This happens more amongst the jdiakas. It once happened that the Lord descended from heaven (49) in order to convert a king. a with six in of severe penitence brothers and one his sister. fled away he remained behind. 5 and 6 (W. 11 [W. put the eight to portions of lotus-stems on the leaves of the their and according meal in age they it came one by one to fetch their sober order to take in their test. . fishes in The first sculpture represents the the lake before. Seventh corner. see the young sparrow on the nest whilst the other and while all birds fly for the in all directions. 4. Praying he knew to persuade the fire-god Agni into going Since that day every forest-fire died out on this spot. and Indra promised that the very tried again same spot would be never by such a plague. putting the Bodhisattva to the tion during five following took away the por- days so that the Lord was obliged to fast.-47it rained as fast as it could pour. as a brahmin. hut to hear him proclaim the doc- As for the rest they didn't see each other. drinking that he might afterwards live with The sculpture needs no further interpretation. 66. life primeval forest the Lord once lived. 12 [W. — was the Bodhisattva-who despised — insects was outdinstanced by the other young When on only the occasion of a forest-fire all all little of the other ani- mals fly. On the next service the others assembled again. after which the to fear latter admonishes him heaven. 65. other animals give way Fifth corner. 67 and 68). 59]. because he could not off. Fifth corner. 58]. We away fire. it A young sparrow worms and paternal nest.

a he possessed. in elephant. and accussing himself he says why he did so — and On on 6 humbles himself before the Lord 3 whom he wishes to serve as his superior. left everything Seventh corner. but not the white Nymplaea Lotus the leaves and flowers of which are driving on the surface of the water. . and 17 and the eighth corner. L. ^48wished the strange thief. and touched as he to by the king the was by be kidnapped and carried away spite of her who came in this region to woman's beauty he ordered her zenana. and he therefore compels the king and to ask his pardon. thief to be punished an his in a fitting manner. and we see Indra humbling himself before the Lord. 11 honour him as an ascetic On we see the brahmin and his wife on their way to the wood on 12 the hunting king. and proIn the lake of (50) Like anywhere its we also see here the red Nelumbiun speciosum hewn as a lotus plant with leaves and flower rising above the water. may But then Indra comes. He therefore ordered another lake to be made in the neighbourhood of his court-capital which was much more beautiful than the first mentioned. Manasa the Bodhisattva once ruled as a king over many hundreds of thousands of swans. 12 and 13 [W. 77 79 and 81). who didn't life. Their praise sounded till the court of the king of Benares who desired to meet the two swans. and on 13 the woman's abduction. Seventh corner. rich brahmin. The live to see all his Lord. and a monkey cursed the every one of them hopes that own manner. and accompanied by to the his wife. to his In cry for help her husband doesn't oppose himself the king asks him against the this robbery. returning good of for evil. and was assisted by his viceroy Sumukha. 1 (W. L. 73. 16. 78. (50). them. 11. Another time the Lord.. 15. he went woods to live there a hermit's There they were found chase. and 4 we see the hermits in the wood. 74 and 75]. On 5 is to be seen the lotus-pond with the servants seeking for leaves and stems. and even three auditors. this one and the other that suspected one wishes fulfilled. wish to leave him. and when why he does not brahmin answers with an oration about the virtue of self-comto mand. a yaksha. wrongly perhaps.

Another king once pursued a sharabha fell strong kind of stag]. and all other swans flew away with the exception of Sumukha however. This is lake with of swans has been hewn on birds. he bind him first. latter bids his Southern staircase. is meeting with the king. who would not leave the Lord. and on 8 the 2.. [a 92 and 93]. The bonds which tied him to his who came to visit the king said. which the horse started back into his run. Shortly after he saw himself caught by the king's hunter. the other one is Ninth corner. and from his horse into a but before cleft over which the wild beast had easily in full jumped. The following the lost at all. were stronger than those which kept the king and he demanded the hunter to in his trap. The sharabha descends and help him in all the cleft in order to rescue the fallen man. to reward he wished the be false ones. fly On 16 the king is informed all these On 17 we see how the Lord caught whilst the other swans away with the exception of one of them. This touched the hunter and releasing both of them the Lord requests punish. 97 and 98]. 96.-49mulgated everywhere that he should guarantee the safety of all birds new lake. on 5. 6. and now 15. This happens. 95. L. on 7 we 3. to Now the queen. almost wholly which represents lost. saved man be silent about the event. went there in spite of their ruler's objections. L. swans of Mdnasa The and so the Lord himself was obliged to follow them. another all life the Master ruled as a ruru [another kind of stag] over a other wild animals. 91. and the king rich presents to the two swans they the decline. see the stag [the Lord] run to assist the man. and afterwards release his master. after on way home see having admonished him to persevere princely virtues. now him but to to speak with the king to persuade the latter not to offers reward his hunter. whose dreams had never turned out . One day he rescued and for his only a traveller out of swollen mountain-stream. all the swans return to their lake. 7 and 8 [W. sculpture after the eighth corner. 90. The chasing king we brink of the fallen cleft. on 6 the hunter stands on the rescuer farewell. In 4 and 5 [W. 5.

Southern staircase. a The drowned person was he lead the king into the this the poor fellow. 102 and 103]. life 2. and drove away to an open spot the wood. and breaking his promise. 99. But but order to take to flight the animals had to risk a leap no one ruler their only ventured to undertake. situated on the bank of a brook.— sohad dreamed of a stag who preached the doctrine a rich sitting on a throne. reaches the m. but doing fell hand which had served him if it to indicate the animal. Never before had the prince seen or tasted such a fruit. could The king him therefore offered reward to him who show this miracle of an animal. L. drowned rescued. the when the rum recognises and and whilst the king has the intenand reproaches him his breach of tion to shoot at the faith. on 3 the 4. 7. the guilty one and conducts the stag to his palace. the noble animal sues the weak man's mercy fault recklessly lost his wellfare in this. in who had by his own a future world. The king pardons court. and who had conducted him there. the Himalaya. Seeing the many monkeys he told his hunters to drive them away. The Buddha keys in of after once ruled as king over a troop of monlived in a fig-tree. 101. He jumps. the king The now asked prince mentions his guide's name.ountain-slope situated on the other side. and nice and so he went up-stream in to look for the tree. from his arm as stag had been cut by a sword. where the king fine wives were fishing. Armed with the this he own body a bridge over which all monkeys know escape at the cost of the Lord who sees his skin torn to bloody pieces by the monkeys' toes. 8 and 9 [W. In order not to make the tree known by its delicious fruit the king ordered his people not to have a single fruit ripened on the branches which hung over the water. man. the king meets the stag on and the preaching stag has been hewn on 6. They abundant with fruit. . and seeks there for a long bambu which forms with his to enables him to return to the tree. a Once upon and his day such a fruit unperceivedly ripened in fell into the stream. of love before the and throning there the ruru preaches the law whole The animals person is in the wood have been hewn on the 5th sculpture. the wood and showed him rum.

as he was by wives' supplications. we see him off to seek for wives. the preacher a The king found them there. of monkeys. and the king. brings us again in the presence of a king. 105 and 106] refers to the widows on way home. They had strayed hermit and listened to his preaching. and menaced him with his calm. but when the evildoer opening itself the dying into the man he saw the ground before him. and liar. this in came to pass that the king and his wives came into wood to amuse themselves. and flaming depth. Southern staircase. L. the life unbelieving prince of Videha. I suppose the first and 2"<^ sculpture their behind the corner [W. courtiers thought that the preacher himself had pu- The frightened nished their master. nose and feet. The killed who only feared that the king could be said to have for left fell an innocent fall person. and they asked for mercy. and when the king interrogates him his duty. and lay him upon a bed of leaves. remained his ears. On his and on 8 he and hunters go in search of the tree. and cut martyr. lived in a The Lord once to all It wood as an ascetic and taught patience who then visited him. came up to the pious teacher. embit- sword.— 51 — This happens to the astonishment of the hunters the who now catch up swooning king to. and while the latter took a bath fell a brook. 7*^ sculpture the king accepts the fig. on the corner-sculpture his L. The wise tered man however. 103 and 104]. suffered the king's than from his much more from his sorrow own wounds. and on 9 has been hewn the wonderful escape of the monkeys. Second corner. his hands. the He soon came jects. 111]. which ran there. who lived a of unjustice renounc- . the former asleep. 5 [W. and also the murderer to him. Lord answers that he did because a prince should serve his sub- and not the 6*'» let himself served by them. to the Awaking he angrily called didn't see them any more. man whose ruin had remained unknown On go 10 we see the king asleep. and dying the poor blessed them. This sculpture L. 10 and the corner-sculpture [of the first angle] [W..

By means stream of his trunk shows them the way to a where to to quench their thirst and near which they will find a dead elephant whose meat indicated will feed them. They had been elephant expelled from their country with 300 others who had the died on the way. 12 and 13 [W. 118 and 19]. 11. and bids the Lord to lead him henceforth on the right path (51). 8 and 9 [W. the Bodhisattva As SuTASOMA. one of the most important jdtakas. . travellers Seven hundred astrayed and exhausted the meet on their way Bodhisattva. on 7 . Second corner. runs headlong into the bottom of a ravine and It was smashed. Along a shorter cut he speeds the spot. an elephant. to sing his praise. 113. 117. a king's wives in the was once walking with his garden of his palace when there entered a brahmin whom them they invited to deliver a harangue about virtue. this is on spot that the hungry wanderers find his dead body. son. once come hell other fall future He then speaks about the tortures to the evil-doer and unbeliever when he doesn't mend his he is and the king acknowledges that in the right. There was a time when the Lord celestials] in lived as a devarshi wise one among the the Brahmdloka. 112. 6. L. this life has been preceded by other lives lives.— 52 — ing [a all virtues. The sculpture need no further explication. This is 10. 7. and on 9 the saved ones worship the ashes to the ashes closed in a tyaitya. we see them on their is the place pointed out to them on 8 the elephant ready to into the precipice. and angels descend from heaven On 6 way to fall the exiles come across the elephant. Second corner. As sure there will — he of says — as which life. L. This harangue was unexpectedly interrupted by the arrival of a monster (51) who put all of The eternal hell of the Christians as a punishment for temporary sin the Buddhists don't know. 114 and 115]. 116. should be taken a symbolical sense only. I suppose indicate this homage if it were to a preceding cremation. and descended to earth to convert the unbelieving ruler. as in of their rescuer.

14. L. afterwards the man-eater could dispose of him. 16 and Lord 17 thirth corner. The his latter who has already gathered his 100 princes after at all. Once set driving through the residence the young man saw much fire that him thinking. most times he lived of human flesh only. 2 (W. Another i<ing had formerly procreated this monster by a lioness. 120. on 11 the former refers is carried away by robber. he saw how old age. to by allowing him his and Has not the lion's son become his benefactor do his duty? On this ground he has a right to son in spite parents' commiseration and to be released from the curse resting on him birth. and warded. inundations and destructed their pro- ed . the lion's son in order to convert him and of to rescue the imprisoned princes. 12 to the continuation of the preaching. and that he hasn't wholly heard the so he asks for permission to do that which he neglected. 123 and 127). releases prisoner hoping to rejoice afterwards having returns to the man's fall as a person false to his word. by say And when the the astonished robber delivers asks him what this brahmin did a harangue about law that the all prince so eloquent lion-man converts himself and puts his prisoners at liberty to follow them to Sutasoma's the residence.-53to flight. that is. corner. sickness and death threateneveryone while storms. Persecuted as he in was by his own subjects after his father's death he called the aid of the mised them a sacrifice of one hundred king's sons. with the exception of the prince himself. But after heard the and lion's presented the brahmin of his with gifts Sutasoma wives' supplications. But on his arriving at the den remembers that he left the latter's brahmin unrepreaching. and on 13 has been hewn the reclaiming of the lion-man. carry off demons and proHe now came to Sutasoma to add him SuTASOMA resolves to follow the violent monstre he to the princes he already apprehended. In order to withdraw him from influence demons the newborn son was educated an iron house (ayogriha). Second 122. On 10 we see the prince with the brahmin. Once whose the upon elder a day the had the was born as the son of a king in sons of died young.

The min's prince's birth has been hewn on 14. 123 and 125 of the upper series of the back-wall. but agreeing he says that death can't find him unfit to the preparation for the transition in a future life. patiently. and the prince devotes his further life to dhyana. is afterwards happens with Siddharta. L. and that they should bear him in as he There is no better exercise meekness than suffer a treatment thinking. but the strong one answers that the monkey bad otherwise than he now is. The the father agrees at last. on 3 we also perceive the yaksha.. doomed life. to set the snarer and make him turn from On 2 we and see the bull and the monkey. 124 and 126) to refer to the prince's leave-taking from just as it and wives. 17 represents the drive outside the in palace. to of after was continually teased by a monkey who. 121. taunting the wild animal's inexhaustible kindness. and (52) See W.M//a/o the Buddha way. His father asks him whether this death will not catch him in the wilderness as sure as anywhere. All from the womb. his father (52). 3 and 5 (W. moment of being in mother's And all that lives kills to save Even the but nobody can kill angels and devas can't. is is resolves to part from the world and to live in the wilderness as a hermit and penitent. on 5 the bull delivers his harangue to the demon. and 2 after the following corner describes the prince's the wilderness. 130 and 132). Living life 2. to death. Fouth corner. of this life Striking the conformity with that of the king's son of Kapilasvastu. Besides. L. . perpetually came in his A can't yaksha admonihes the bull to be less patient and crush or thrust down be is. in the primeval forest as a strong /..— 54 — perties. 129. Returned at home he lives. and by which one may hope sin. L. 16 shows us the brahlife homage to the new-born. I suppose the corner-sculpture and the first behind the corner (W. the snarer. the holy meditation which will lead him to the brah- mdloka.. and to ask his father's that consent. not it? death.

A. flies Ashamed of of the wood-pecker away. See at the bottom. 133. on 7 the with pain. and by getting the bone out of the throat. 7. richly diademed Hindu worshipping the bull (the uandi) of Shiva (53) In Mr. (53). and Striving we may err. A long time afterwards flying round and almost starving from hunger the wood-pecker met the lion again antelope. and much life. is tired whether he ought not to be thankful that his life was spared when he formerly ventured mule. 134. at Paris in 1896. prey as he And the bird answers with a glorification will find his virtue. TiSSANDIER'S work "Cambodge el Java" published by MASON we find opposite page 124 a good engraving of this last sculpture (picture XXVlll)..^55know to persuade him into acknowledging and praising virtue 6. takes as and asks why the he doesn't likes. himself into the inquirer's A lion doesn't know any commiseration. . 135 and 136). he had just killed. who even dares maintain that this whole series has nothing to do with Buddhism. disappears. says that it represents a young. On 9 we see the hungry bird near the lion with his prey. Major Van Erp supposes that this last sculpture should refer to another jataka. The Lord once a lion living the wilderness as a wood-pecker came who suffered unbearable pains because of a piece of in bone which his had remained his throat. but the lion asks the beggar whether he of life. By so much ignorance Tissandier blames his work. pick the lion's eyes. Fourth corner. On comes 5 has been to hewn the lion in the lion writhes wood where the wood-pecker is him. The praises the wood-pecker as a wise one. but the author. -The wood-pecker relieved pains by putting a piece of wood into the opened mule. After a bit of who was regaling himself on an moment's hesitation and his former rescuer begs him for a little the antelope's meat. a saint. ! himself. he who does good reward in a future all but he who deity returns evil for evil will lose the merit of his good and deeds. A sylvan deity follows him. in L. across 8 and 9 (W. but let us at any cases/?-«-wafter science within reach. and on 8 he help- ed by the wood-pecker.

but often as men with snaky hair. and the hunter's admission residence of the grateful naga. 193. he hewn as serpents. L. 6.. The Lord hewn a sinking as a tortoise at sea takes the endangered crew of his back. FouCHER didn't agree with me. (54) I thought we should not think here of the mythical subterranean said. ship on and carrying them ashore he offers his own body to the starving ones. but of a likewise called and fabulous tribe. 192. 194 and after the western 195). and 9 describes the rescued ones with their rescuer who is inclined to sacrifice himself. still Oldenburg indicated other jatakas is.— 56 — Many been pieces formerly placed among the mentioned sculptures. ly But Mr. in this series which had not been translated by Speyer. the (the exorcism and redemption into the by hunter Halaka This naga Lord). and that even this gallery may have been indeed. On meant the the front-wall of the fifth and highest the gallery Oldenburg L. But as for the lower series of the back-wall of the first gallery he shows should to: 3 after the eastern to staircase refer king and 1 after the next corner which Dakshina Pantyala's conversation with the latter's bewitched ndga Janmatyitra.7. is to be recognised at the serpents in his hair (54). have lost whereas other ones have not yet been explained. we then may believe that the not expounded and missing sculptures have had some connection with other former lives. which. that staircase. are general- serpents. Mr. On 6 has been hewn the tortoise. on 8 we see the tortoise with the shipwrecked men on his back. on 7 the sinking ship surrounded by sharks and other fish. CCCLXXXIX) be Lord as the horse Balaha.8 and 9 (W. a continuous series. once carried travellers across the sea. The ndgas. But when we remember how those described here follow each other in the same range of succession like the jatakas in the Mala translated by Speyer. Foucher fortunately gives us an acount of this story (accorI ding to the text of the Divydvadana) far more detailed than could have possibly taken from other sources. . second to sculpture the behind southern staircase (W.

36. 24. the very And In to the left may have been hewn he shortly before got the king's secret this command same brahmin when to commit this evil. In the empire of Pantydla there once lived 2 kings. The latter was bad. The hunter squats he nohara caught with his knot.-57It refers to the Sudhana Kumdrd Vaddna: 8. and following relievoes: 38 and 40 10. 20. 32. failing knot. . case this episode should be exceptionally thought as a first preceding one to both the middle-most and 4. lives in a pond situated outside the capital of north-Panto dispose of rain the country and as he knows excellent abounds with produce even are going to during the dry monsoon. The first was a good prince. The other bad king raise his discusses with his ministers what to do to empire inspects from decay. Perhaps the brahmin we see before the king. angrily and most unwillingly rising from his lotus-pond under the brahthe right) the min's formula of exorcism. but he appears without his host's present. 30. First (to young naga kneeled down calls in hunter Halaka's assistance. 1. and the other in the south. W. In the midst we see the same naga. and his empire fallen into decay. sculpture. know. the 1th after the second 16. 22. the first prince may have been 2. To the down To the right we near the kinnari left Ma- other kinnans are see the ascetic whose words directed the hunter's arm on his catching the fairy. and had his empire prospered. of all This relievo shows us a succession of three events. Under the pretext of a hunting- party to his and then forms a plan kidnap the young ndga Jammatyitraka from the hands of he his neglected country. hewn here. In the Himalaya. will be the snake-charmer whose crimes we 3. 18. in front of the latter's sacrificial but hunter Halaka up his kills the conjurer after having compel- led him to give wicked plan. Now it should be understood that this ndga tydla. and fire. their son's rescuer splendidly On this occasion the hunter wears a princely costume his which is above rank (caste). 28. thriving neighbour. corner. Probably. 26. L. 14. begins with the first panel south of the eastern staircase. the never 5. It 12. one in the north. The young naga's parents make welcome. 34. flying over a lotus-pond.

The king hesitates. whom no The prince bids his mother fare-well. sends his gene- 10. is coming on. Druma. Once more in Hastinapura. Vaisyrava- NA. and charges her with the care of his 9. discusses purohita private prelate. of the kinnaras. Fairy and prince 7. Sudhana's father. Pantyika with a troop of yakshas to assist him. So we find this region of fairies surrounded by his his left hand. crown just prince of the northern empire. 11. king of the region court. The king with his of the northern or empire. seated on among mankind. Sudhana across to the capital of king Druma. After having learned the reason of Manohara's absence he ap- plies to his 14. The hunting SuDHANA. given him to this purpose. fairy According to the text Foucher consulted. The good the air. Manohara. consults the risyi who once a helped the hunter on his and who now hands him outside ring and a travelling-plan Manohara had 16. Sudhana the ring into to flings a vase of this one of the fairies. young wife. With the assistance he took of the yakshas Sudhana performed the task and offers his father the taxes upon his shoulders and fines of the rebels submitted. 13. SuDHANA under ral a tree outside the rebellious town. the . heart of both triumphs. one of the four great deities of this country. The king asks his purohita to interpret a bad dream upon which the priest demands to sacrifice a kinnari in order to avert an immanent danger. tries to persuade the king into charging the prince with the heavy burden to overpower a rebellious vassal against than 7 expeditions had already failed. in love with one another. and Manohara escapes through 12. and the hunter presents him with the kinnari he fall caught.-586. Sudhana catch. mother again for help. and the queen gives proof of her dislike. where he comes some kinnaris who are drawing some water out of a well cleanse Manohara's body from all human-smell. the royal residence of the northern empire. and requests should have her to be the first empty vase on her mistress's head. who less 8. 15. the traitor in this drama. relates her experience ourselves in the Himalaya again. in and spirits hardly to be penetrated.

216 and 218). Returned Hastinapura the newly-married distribute presents among In their people. The man by her other Clearer however. meant another one.. and probably serving the customers likely to of the young merchant if Maitrakanyaka. is is not visible on the photograph. 3d and 4th sculpture (W. 19. We shall find them after having turned the fifth corner of the this northern ruin staircase. dancer 20. this relievo found the and tells her father about test . 222 and 224) see a all of which Mr. ring. 18. the following group in which professor Speyer made son's us feet. an arrow through 7 cocoa. a court-dancer is their happiness in the accompaniment This fair showing her art of dancing.-50remained quite ignorant of all this. after the sixth corner (W. perhaps. is one at of the best proofs of the sculptor's art. Sudhana's The king agrees to put him to the to the left of we see him bend his bow to drive this.trees. of the draughtsman. and bearded man who stands next side This man rather reminds of a brahmin or a mendicant friar instead of a rich merchant. and L. The newly-married couple is now enjoying the woman's quarter. (55) (55) In the „Bijdragen Koninklijk Instituut" of 1907. 220). And he obser- and so did van 't after heaving read Speyer's essay. and he her. This woman himself has been hewn near dressed be his mother. On the first of these imageries we is first woman handling a balance. and to of music. Winter photographed for me. 214. known Maitrakanyaka's mother threwing and beseeching herself at her him to give up his plan to undertake a sea-voyage. and 2 seventh corner (W. and on our having reached the east side to 1 of the where we are going after the L. a note-worthy karma-legend. consequently the sculptor must have swerved from 17. He then gives the prince his daughter. or. The widow's moustache (with ved tress made the professor suppose which Wilsen adorned this little I that the beautiful sculpture in Lee- mans' work) should be a mistake this rightly. Manohara coming. and 1 view the 2nd. L. Druma himself is watching and to be recog- nised by his prabha. this text. he can't possibly be the shabily to her. . same series follow 6 other sculptures referring to the MaiTRAKANYAKA-Jdtaka . In honour of them.

and after having reached the finds there four celestial reward him his first good deed by till letting him. and gave his mother the first 4. he gave her a kick and went on should board. bu evil deed. he be punished for this for his of his as sure as he would be rewarded good he deeds. for want of room. the inexorable punishment to all who one inwill or mother. the eternal law of cause and consequence. To be very short the legend runs as follows Maitrakanyaka was on a voyage. guilty of the same deed. dealt in per- fumes and Maitrakanyaka did likewise. On fourth. though. for dream a dream last of perfect happiness his young women who many years. when he was told that his father had gone abroad on business. but at a short distance from this we . Bathing tried to detain she fell on her knees at last. still a child when his father was shipwrecked According to time-honoured usage he was afterwards inclined to choose his father's profession. we and can't see 5 of the 16 last and 19 see of the 32 nymphs. afterwards sixteen. and as he soon saw that his mother could not deny this he resolved But tred in to his father's foot-steps in spite of his mother's resistance who and feared to lose her only child in the very in tears same way like she formerly lost his father. him at the last moment. him.hot wheel turning for ever on his sulted their head. karma drives him away from there. that they might be divided the brahmins and indigent. successively showing him iwo-and-thirty and at more and more beautiful nymphs in return of the as many kdrshdpanas he formerly gave away to the indigent.16 and 32 nymphs. will release him. On the second sculpture shore for we see him shipwreck. In the beginning his mother told him that he had kept a shop. This wheel the unhappy always bear another. and fifth sculpture have been hewn the encounters with the 8. 8^ 16 and 32 kdrsydpanas he gained. the thirth. that father till is. This was one deed and according to the doctrine of the karma.: -60because breasts. and there he sees a martyr bearing a red. And on suffer {\t sixth sculpture the we first Maitrakanyaka under the torture of red. I have been able to ascertain in loco that even the woman's Wilsen didn't see or engrave at least.hot wheel. Finally he happens to enter a castle which gate closes itself behind eight. These were four among good deeds. and afterwards had in gold. are clearly to be seen and palpable.

Winter. FOUCHER means that the four relievoes which precede the ship- wreck. (56). finds there the martyr from whom he takes possession of the And last of all. the son in his last business which may appear from the goldsmith's balance whereas the larger purse should very same one left in which he gathered the 32 karshapanas. if this punishment had not preceded the redemption granting the And moreover. refer to the following panel. one little sculpture to represent the it older penitent with the flaming nimble on his head. I may : never come to free him. thinks he also sees the mother I. the seventh in relievo I beg to point to my explanation. On the FouCHER sees. divided into two by a style of building. the redemption of this punishment by a deed of the highest self-denial appeared so very significant to in me that it should not have been unnoticed. neither metaphor nor in writing. . On the other. think the last group of this very same imagery should refer to the Bodhisattva's dying and his the conclusion of this ^arma-legend transition into the nirvana. mythical sense of these Jdtakas " Eeti Speyer's essay or my kanna-lcycnde" provided with 6 photo's of the photographer A. refer to the same jataka. and by no after this whilst means come and after- M. and that Maitrakanyaka may have first been already represented with his mother on the the son offered his mother a purse filled first sculpture where with the karshapanas he gained. Anyhow. kindly professor published by the firm H. Foucher at her son's feet. and so do to the following relievoes I As with regard As and (page for refer to that which I already said formerly. surely should have preceded Maitrakanyaka's sculpture. According Foucher the sculptor should not have dared to represent Maitrakanyaka as a repentant sinner. IV<*> interpretation my "Oudlieidkiindige to aanteekeningen" 25 and 26). van Ingen at Surabaya.-61 see — of his self-denying wish. part. because of his being the Bodhisattva himself. to the right. first arrives in the town of darkness. guilty of such a deed. but this would have been impossible itself. that him released by the expression another. the if separating trees should not have had any sense at all they should not refer to two following events relating to the very same person. So does Speyer. wards nimble. desire to (56) Those who are know more about referred to the deeper.

. but above the Buddha two angels are floating in the air. we see hewn the niches of the highest. his curls of hair other relievoes of this very same lower series have been ex- plained by Mr. .: — 62I think it my duty to point to the following sculptures of the upper series of the front-wall which represent no jatakas but refer to the Buddha of after life. The king. 28). After the eastern staircase and the second corner.. 252 and 256) we see last similar representations. 2 (W. in the L. L. At the south-west corner. corner. L.. and describes his acts of governement after having given a short account of his youth. Returned at See at the bottom of this page. FouCHER's meaning was quite unexpectedly confirmed by another Bodhisattvavadanakalpalata which runs as so-called the follows "One day (king) Uposyada went on horseback in order to to visit a hermit's colony which had asked risyis for his assistance be defended from demons. who starts from the hero's birth. fifth corner. Western staircase. with this difference however. empties the bottle. and before he could (57) be prevented from doing so. Buddha and index in a preaching posture forming the tyakra with the thumb in of his right arm such as fifth. writing. This was meant for a sacrifice which was to have the power to procreate children. All round about him we see auditors rendering homage to him. but not any sculpture before the eighth text. Buddha and that Still (like all Buddhas on the 4 lower walls on the north have not been finished. style hair-dress and costume have same manner as those of the Buddhas of all niches. can be expounded from the Divyavadana sculptures are likely to refer to the to light The seven preceding same history the sculptor brought something more than the text's writer did. all Buddhas do. west of the southern staircase. tired as he was of the long ride. that on the sculpture the Lord has been hewn posture of the fifth Dhyaniside). of Lotus-throne and prabha. 235) shows a similar sculpture. There were princely who kept a stone bottle ready. wall (57). in the been hewn and near him After we see stand burning incense-offerings. FOUCHER. 15(W. has been hewn king Mandhatar's life. the seventh 4 and 8 (W.

On his further journey Mandhatar forms a plan to cause a rain of corn so as not to oblige his 12. neither spinned norweaved. indignant at such cruelty. The feet of none the earth. dismounting. the is fourth we see Upasyada by this. and their rosaries. Between the young prince and two recognisable by their large tuft of hair risyis floating in the air. broke their wings. the merit of all Taking offence the fact they king ascribe wonders to themselves. and with himself and his ministers falling the exception of the king we only see women 14. 8 the young prince bids is father farewell in order to travel about the country. . the now produces a seven days' rain of gold which fell within the walls of his palace. living in a neighbouring wood. and Mandhatar or Murdhatar when both names are joined together. and the sacrificial vase he going to drink from. Mandhatar marches stir out to conquer the world. On this ground of birth the child was called Murdhyaya. these and 13. 9 he informed of his father's death. people to work any longer. we see of some broken winged one of the birds sitting on the ground. is of presents done On On 5 the third sculpture the king departing. gather the treasures down out of vases hidden in the clouds. and when the came a boy whose education was disputed by the 60. it was the Kasymir poet KsyEMENDRA who gave Foucher this missing link to explain the sculptures. and his succession to the throne. his On On 10. and the astrologer's reward. On in the the two first relievoes we see the distribution name of the king that he might get a child. The 11. king. now ready clothes are falling at down out of the clouds. child got shows us the refer 6 en 7 to the horoscope of the future tyakravartin or suzerain of the world. denies the risyis every right for staying on his territory. The curse 500 risyis. Cotton shall be cultivated no more.000 women of the harem.-63home he discovers an unpainful swelling on his ripened at lengt out tumour had head.

3 sculptures north of the western staircace we shall RuDRAYANA. This is the so-called Syebi-jataka. A king receives from a courtier a square sheet of paper or gives this. 5. front (south) of the western staircase. minister. Out of the 10 relievoes in itself. may upon his cremation. Bimbisara. the Indra the of deities. Scarcely did he entertain to earth. upon which the creezy one flung order to rule himself. 19. some 22 first or 25 may refer to the Rudrayanavadana. The guide brings the . not able to 17.king to his pinnacle of glory. and it goes this. when he saw bear himself down from heaven and dying he bewails 20 his blind impertinence. the sixth explains A pigeon was caught by a falcon. the king the way as how to make new con- The sculptor represented this yaksha as a brahmin- 16. It him is Rudrayana's ? It letter addressed to Magadha's king. Two in kings having a striking resemblance to each other. throne a palace on seats which are equally high. Out west of the 30 relievoes belonging to the lower series of the north- corner. and on Mandhafrom the tar's his unuttered wishes he ceded to him half his territory. of human 18. tried to de- "The king" they throne Indra this. and upon the entombing of his ashes into a stupa. Only non-blinking god is to be distinguished that man-king. and the Bodhisattva buys the poor animal's liberty by offering the bird of prey a proportional part of his own flesh. So the principal personage should be one all. ally the deities gain the victory and 20 don't exactly correspond to the text which teaches us that Mandhatar asked replied in his ministers who got the day. but who knows which doesn't appear after . With the assistance over them. of these two. One by of them is Syakra.-64 — 15. A yaksha shows quests. consulting Rayagriha merchants about the merits of their prince. without saying the sculptor was their show Deities fighting asuras (devils). king of Roriika. Passing the see on: 4.

14. which Magadha's king destined for his cousin of The principal personage is Bimbisara again. A to reception at the court of one of them in order to lend an ear the a full bearers large of the letter or to take their leaves. receives the jewel-case Rudrayana him with in 8. a drawing with a silhouette of the is Buddha. and the Lord sent him Mahakatyayana who now takes a higher seat next to the king. In see all before the king and his wives. and on his first way as a mendicant friar he declines Bimbisara's rich offerings. In the king's place we a third bhiksyuni she she is who may king's be queen Tyandraprabha. This ought to be done by a nun. 4. To the right we see how merchants from Rudrdyana's country inform him Syikhandin's bad behaviour. who receives. we see some 20 smaller sent of other eatables. who gives. likely full of rice. BiMBiSARA the letter. A declining gesture of the monk may refer to a refusal to preach the doctrine in the woman's quarter. Such another representation but with a second nun standing belikelihood an ordinator. descends to show way a for a reunion in the Great Beyond.-656. and so to abdicate the his son's behalf. Acquainted as with the circumstance that she won't live the much 15. 16. 13. bhiksyu. longer got permission for being admitted into the order. All round about plates 7. At Rayagriha the Buddha consecrated Rudrayana a. 18. 12. the king the after death born again in heaven. Roruka's inhabitants on the occasion of the present's arrival made 11. or Rudrayana. Bimbisara gets a precious armour from Rudrayana. And to the left how the . The nun Syaila preaches hind Syaila. 17. Rudrayana communicates to to his son Syikhandin his resolution throne in become monk. The bearer riding an elephant. The queen. Almost on a part with but now Rajagriha's messengers are sounding the praise of the Buddha. return Roriika. In the midst all we see the box containing the presents made 9. 10. Rudrayana requested the Buddha for being instructed by a monk. in return by BiMBiSARA. dish.

jostle each other on catching up the treasures. Fate buried in fulfilment. perhaps by the man with his the long sword. To the left the monk he now is from the heap of sand. air the tutelary that place. 20. have his we see Syikhandin's mother her own this palace. a heavily saint. that is. the inhabitants offer the Syamaka. In order to free him from so great a debt they now pretend there are no saints. throw sand at the himself. village We of see Mahakatyayana on homeand journey goddess the of Through the the destructed town followed him to the Khara. they saw. 15. And to the left he seeks comfort from mother who frees him from the heavy burden of parricide by know that RuDRAYANA wasn't really his father. To the left we see two cats. to and we then also see how he therefore forms a plan father murdered. see the the we queen-mother with her son who agrees with such sofisms. monk built. 21. because of the wonder the shadow of the tree under which he (58) The Jdtakamuld V. 22. relievo is Even learns divided in two." . From People his palace the king watching the rain of jewels which the precedes the wicked storm of sand (58). each of them a stiipa of her own. predicts is Roruka's downfall to the two good ministers HiRU and Bhiru. of the names and to two right first They have been taught to answer to the converts convinced by Mahakatyayana. tells us that the clouds "weeped like water- jars turned about. 23. In the back-ground in 19. Deceivers are those who mean in to be arahats. To to the right king Syikhandin in a sedan-chair. To the right Syikhandin that his father has been killed. Roruka and almost all its under in the sand. In the next stage. released as He tells his retinue monk Mahakatyayana. called royalty to the monk's disciple. cup over which a stiipa will be 24. that Lambaka. letting him But the equally unpardonable murder of a bhiksyu. In foreground we see the two good ministers loading a boat with inhabitants are his the mentioned riches.son is informed by his wicl<ed ministers about his father's return. leaves her his begging. weighs on the king.

of the Maitrakanyakavaddna. have been hewn in the same manner. the monk gives his mendiciwoman. relate the touching story of two kinnaras who could never forget that one day. 29 and 30. took his the sun. Reason building of a new stupa. 27 and 28. and Bhiruka. for the rest both the reto presentations consecrated the kinnara. mentioned hereany other relievo a of the inferior series of FouHCER also of didn't explain the back wall at the north-west corner. surprised and listened to them. a in A rural scene between two sea-pieces. In one day hunting for game. and Manjiisyri. thought they were Avalokitesyvara. . who in fomer life. I These mythical beings always called gandharvas because they bust. In the third stage. Benares. 26 and 28 represent HiRU's and Bhiru's disem- barkment on the spots where they once Hiruka. found the towns of the The 2 remaining panels. at the same the fourth Dhydni-Bodhisattva. 25.or Bhaldtya-Jdtako. Some sculptures of the second gallery / as be Hindu-gods last to represented Bodhisattvas. on the other hand. 697 years ago. Mahakatyayana's will return Syrdvasti. 1 always represent birds provided with a human head and never saw them with a horse's head like kinnara's have been described in DowsoN's Classical Dictionary. in the one relievo we see the prince hewn in a standing — the other in a sitting posture. He study had no time necessary see for complete and decisive the sculptures their less we on the 3 higher or galleries. all On 27 we see monk in a town fenced around. man an wife had been separated in their millenial life for a whole The king of night because of a swollen river. With the exception above.^67-. behaved to himself but didn't follow the course of ty to a for 26. the named Vokkdna. because we haven 't any data. had been his mother. seat. This does correspond at my meaning because Avalokitesyvara is nobody time else but the deity Shiva. He only acknowledged thought to historical legendary sense but accepted their iconographic character. he. in this case Padmapanf.

and have been partly modeled an ex- cellent style. are a higher. (60). are beyond my reach. But have remained unordered this group can't for professor Speyer's acute observation she would have been never recognised perhaps. Yet.-68- IX. No double those little series of are to be seen there. Comparing this photo with Wilsen's drawing we shall perceive that the two inner-pilasters of the small temple have been wrongly drawn. and so many other ones. WiLSEN's and Leemans' engravings are not always true representations ting of the sculptures themselves. all. behind the standing women. i. it would be advisable to do what has turned out to be possible before that the sculptures should be lost for ever. no: 214 (W. and that the outer-pilasters. explained for ever. have (59) See is in the narrow space between the front and back-walls of the galleries have not yet been wholly obviated. might enough.) represen- the unpardonably bad drawing of Maitrakanyaka's mother. because it might have been easily photograpMore than one expert did so. A els. van Kinsbergen to the cost Dutch Government. in 1901 (in my presence) the known Pac?fl/7^^ and i4(v^/z photographer C. much the more. f. the thirtieth sculpture we on back-wall of the second gallery. .and so hed. I happen to to be ruined at Fortunately be photohraphed for about 4 lie (59). formerly taken by Mr. and so I've not been able to control whether this sculpture has been photographed or not. NiEUWENHUis. years ago. short word about some sculptures we see on the three higher galleries. among others. but the hewn panand fourth in especially the back-walls of the second gallery. (60) Tl\e difficulties my above mentioned "Kurma Icgende". and these photos possibly The of the productions. I think Let it was not. me mention another see example the of Wilsen's inaccuracy. we meet by placing the camera there . L. and if this group would then this sculpture.

have been wholly touch each This visitor's hand flatly folded beause itself is sembah only (salaam) has not been folded flatly. just above the for a bodhi-tree. impossibly goes upward before lions the upper-treshold of the entrance. no more. the to finger-tips so that the sembah be recognised (61).— 69 — been forgotten see sitting . rosettes and prayer-bells. to the right under this tree. changed women into men or don't just like OviD his Metamor- otherwise? I further of point the to the above mentioned sculpture because characterised of the worship bodhi-tree by parasols and tyeniaras still (fly-faps). and in the same manner imageries 1 saw to this mark of veneration it hewn on all the buddhistic intro- known sembah me. and the flower-offering right we left see near him. knew far better than the And phoses. as we always to see on the olun-aluns. visitor's both form and to placing. . the by in the Ceylon (and elsewhere) of this pagondae even and consequence worship by buddhistic ances- tors Sundas and Javanese always respect kiaras and weringins trees (banyan-trees) and other akin Ficaceae. Such all fig-trees are cultivated at and this honoured day. and one flower-piece out. the front-places of kratons 1 and dalems recognition Ceylon of princes and native chiefs fig-tree. The right foot of this man the drawer also forgot It is not difficult I to show such mistakes in other drawings of relied Wilsen's. and therefore suppose them not to be upon for the explanation of further particulars. we know how he. Perhaps. Such think. at The preacher and (61) In the pagoda Kelany 1 saw in the Buddhists perform the seinhdl/ in the very same manner as done by the Javanese. and Siavi's king and queen when on the Barainulur and tynndi Memiiit. other. originally meant. and that the throne's young as the and the carpet have been in disfigured as well garlands and refers prayer-bells. was the Buddhists who once duced this in Java. This also to the parasol. that the prabha (glory) behind the saint's head. text usynisya as he. we inside this small temple. There where Wilsen copied monks (bhiksyus) he nearly always raised them the to Buddhas by decorating the tiara or their ! clean-shaven heads with if the hair-crown. his a Buddha'?. The second parrot. who in didn't even know latter! the sculptor had followed.

Groeneveldt (63) Bodldsativas. Even now Javanese princes carry the tyakra.-70doctrine are still forgotten exists. makes us think. illustrated J. the vdhana or Shiva's carriage. . fourth in Buddha posture on a throne carried by a bull. 101. work te "In den Kedaton picture II. but one of the forms oi this worship I mention the eighteenth and the twenty-second sculpture (eastern staircase. and the IXth.. The throne itself has been adorned with elephants. provided with payongs and tyemaras as a sign of dignity. Some time before the digging up of Parambanan Mr. Similar images we find on 100. the 5). 102 and 104 On the first (northern staircase. of nandi. it and so Vishnu's tyankra carried after. (Boddhisattvas). if these sculptures should represent known we must Qiva was one of the lokigvaras of the Buddha-pantheon. wrote princes to me: "The theory as give up. should refer of the mean that the person it whom is tho this deity. Such is also the case witli the holy queens of Leemans' work who are Jdrds or (^aktis (wives or powers pf deitieis. perhaps. te Jogjakarta" published Brill at Leyden. in 1) W. the trisula and other weapons doensn't of deities in their ampilan (62). characteristic. second corner. The objects in his right hand are to be recognised no more. fifth corner. (63). though is true that the Buddha Mahdydnists Hindu-gods must be this god's avatdra. The lost head might have given more certainty. and sixth corner. even without any other a Bodhisattva. lions and ndgas. 2 shell. Among the following imageries I more especially see as Buddha's predecessors. photo of my illustrated work "Degarebegs Jo^ya/. and in his left hand an elephant's hook and a flower. armed sculpture on a lotus-throne (62) in 1888 See by my E. here in Java. with the glory. L. we see a four- Buddha posture.-rtr^a" (published by the "Boyal Insti- tute" in 1895). corner The four-armed sculpture we see on 18 {southern staiscase. At Paramhanan and Pelahosan we already knew these deities to be (See my above mentioned works: "Tgandi Parambanan na de ontgraving" and "Boeddhistische tempel-en kloosterboutvvallen in de Parambanan vlalite. 1) because of the winged the syankha. and we know even other brahmin deities to have been admitted into this. The four arms near the single face may possibly refer to Vishnu or another deity.

1 never saw another image in these crowns. . we see in the (64) Till 1896 crown. W. which is to signify the mudrd dkyana or meditation. had been Vishnu's this avatdra. would have been never hewn. The crescent of the moon Leemans ascribes to this sculpture we (65) Mahayanists gave of this to the iourth Dhyani-Buddha. characterised the wearers as Bodhisattvas. except the one with the tico hands in his lap. also thought that these small Buddha images. L. Another sculpture (W. the syakti of Shiva (65). the seventh after the it second corner) on a lotus- note-worthy. The king of Siam denied this. but is to be perceived on the preceding one. the Redeemer images were to characterise DhydniBodhisattvas. there is On the ruin itself how- no doubt whatever. 105. a posture the I AMiTaBHA.— 71 — but not to Brahma which we in see generally of hewn four-faced (64). that is. why. another Bodhisattva but PADMAPaNi the fourth. The six arms may point to Shiva. : the small Buddha image the crown only speaks Buddhism And as Buddha.. because the temple wherein sits ('/zof cushion) has been crowr>ed by five shivaitic trisyulas. 104) would not be easily recognised on Wilsen's drawing. The fourth sculpture (5 after he same corner. Because of his being a buddhistic prince himself he also wore such small images in his crown. according to the northern church. is still L. This also refers to the third sculpture (3 after the corner). ever. Moreover. Should this be a it woman's image hasn't it then may represent a as Tdrd or female deity. the Boddtiisattvas of the Dhydni-Biiddlias whose small images were hewn in the crowns. 106. deity it but too badly damaged to be recognised as the should represent. If now these small don't see anywhere. because is we here see clear enough that the iipavita nothing else but the Cobra (snake) with a nicely this only modeled and crowned head. And son speaks of Shiva or of his Ganesha who has been always represented as an elephant or with an elephant's head so that here he can't be meant as such. world. Even the following sculpture (2 after the second corner) has been hewn four-armed. deity may by no means raise our astonishment be- cause of his being represented here as a Biidhisattva. but any token to be recognised DuRGA. Should they refer to buddhistic princes it then may be easily imagined that they never referred to another Buddha but the one ot this their world.. On undeniable images these small ones therefore only point to the buddhistic character the northern church adjucated to these deities.

to hellish punish- then The last mentioned explanation seemed acceptable to me. Next we see three (armed) men to guarding three fettered prisoners the second. in a general sense. "Budhell. On the fourteenth sculpture on the front-wall of this gallery the (66) sun and moon have been sculptured with '^even stars (planets ?) . gallery (northern staircase. (66). but where the tyakra has been replaced by the disc of the sun. perhaps) in a temple crowned by eleven greatness?) the trisyulas. 2). between Buddha and other words. to the right.and sun-worship.-72 — Unique of its kind is the sixty-ninth sculpture on the back-wall of 2). To the left we a see a deity (a Bodhisattva. The eleven Kala. The king of Siam simply called this a representation of hell. second corner. in and the Buddha. perhaps as of death. One of can't possibly wish a more eloquent witness of the harmony the sun. To bear the right such another deity (or stands a tree on of lower seat. to the a moon I'll on lotus-cushions. representation should be connected with a particular event or." dha sees We may sculptures leave find the walled terraces after having seen two other we all on the back-wall of the fourth and highest gallery mention which has no more than 20 angles and hewn wall-panels. should refer. upon which we crescent of the see. less great deity. First of I'll the fifty-seventh sculpture (3 in after the northern staircase). that one of of the keep- waiting for further instructions the deity we see in the small temple. this Leemans thought ments. There we see a Buddha throning floating in the air a temple left. And beneath there we see a cauldron to this of boiling contents hanging over a flaming fire. ers is It who are likely to ask for mercy seems however. full but swords and daggers. but when taken in a pure symbolical sense. the tyakra and disc of celestial bodies and of the connection there is between these Vishnu or. third. And last of all point to the seventieth sculpture (/z/f/z corner showing us a similar representation. Between leaves these or two branches which don't fruit. the all destroying time. between the Buddha. a flaming tyakra and. the god trisyulas make us think of Shiva again. the following.

be another I Sigala-jdtaka. (W. this as imitation of professor Speyer's however. Performing this suddenly a treasure the fourth part of which he presents the needy. where the Bodhisattva life a monkey when he sacrificed his for the mother. brevity in therefore refer to that which has been IV. In my opinion the king of Siam rightly observed that here can't be meant any Dhydni-Buddha. engraving taka. little prey he killed (W. teaches the doctrine to the prince. His younger brother did likewise hunter from shooting killed the all which down even the mother-monkey having first two others. It only remains for me now few words about the of Mr. This is ihe Kanyty anakhandhajd- the upper series on the very same wall van Erp thought the In last of the 4 sculptures. FouCHER gave tures us another reasonable explanation of these sculp- by the connecting all them with SyrdvastVs great wonder when the Buddha covered For sake of the heaven with the reflexions of his I own body. after the fourth corner west of the southern to staircase. In CXXXVI). L. . 's engraving CLXX). the we task see. the bit of the starving sparrow asking the lion for a shortly before. In lower series on the front-wall of the first gallery of the eastern staircase. and died CLXXXIV and 3 other ones). where Bodhisattva. L. mentioned p. And side of in 5 relievoes on the same front-wall. but on the northern engraved in the ruin (not the L's) he meant he saw the Mora- jataka. on the second sculpture south sattva Bodhihe ploughing finds his field as a farmer. caught as a peacock by the hunter of the king of Benares.-73For completeness'sake I further mention that on the back-wall of this gallery are to be found many sculptures upon which more than //v£ till seventeen Buddhas have been hewn in different postures (mudras). described the jdtaka's conclusion. hereabout my "Oudheidkundige to speak a Aanteekeningen" 42 and 44. Another jdtaka has been still mentioned in Leemans' (Engraving sake of his blind can't prevent the after CLXXXIII. relie- voes major van Erp recognised to be ya^a/ro'-representations guided as he was by the the text of the great work Cowell's and con- tributors.

j. that their blind his younger brother-monkey Ananda.. and between the stones falling asunder more and more upon which the it heavy stupa has been a built. Consulting the ground-plan we come across number 120 which refers to the panel it has been sculptured upon. Van Erp It possesses a photography of this. 55-58. (67) "Oudheidkundige aanteekeningen" IV. and that these walls have a thickness of r/2 yard.a- who deity flings herself into a fire to feed a jataka however. and communicates with each other by staircases of about 10 treads on an average.. Further. the mentioned hungry man does not represent the risyi or anachorete. According to the pah-text the Buddha himself related that this for- mer hunter afterwards became afterwards reincarnated in his wicked nephew Devadatta.-74 — It is the Syula-Nandiya-jdtaka in whicii the wici<ed hunter is being severely punished. p. the Nowadays all this water per- meates through the hill till time-worn ruin. didn't mention. when the Dutch Government time this or wholly fall don't know to prevent by doing all that will be indisputably necessary. but been engraved Leemans' work either. stones into the rather loose soil of under the Dropping through lower joints. and foster-mother Gotami this hasn't Van Erp on in gives us at last an explanation of another relievo we see the lower series of the same wall. . and sooner or later there will come to the when the temple itself shall partly ground. and his step- mother was (67). that each gallery between the walls is about 2 yards wide. I And finally. the two jatakas the Bodhisattva represents a hare hungry traveller.. numerous ndga-heads with opened mules and upward curled trunks which formerly carried off the rain-water (from under walls) to all these outside from terrace to terrace. can't be otherwise or all this is to destroy the ruin more and more. INDRA but rather a who rescues the hare out of the flames as well as Indra did. I corresponds pretty well to the relievoes described as 11 and 12 stair- of the upper series behind the second corner south of the eastern because in case. in this Syas. . I further mention that each of the terraces under foot lies about 3 yards higher than the preceding one. that there are among the architectural ornaments.

of the Indian engineer corps. as a civilised colonising power. though they would be inclined to think quite otherwise this question in loco. in India and even in the mainland. '' do what I also much chance recommended her as first the only (68) The late Dr. and even the authorities in Netherland concurred with this idea if of his. Mr. they could unprejudicedly examine And the newly appointed president. and great authority on Indian matters.! -75 — And ter as it is a truth not to be denied that solar heat^nA rain-wafactors to cause tlie are the two prevaiHng destruction of these must be therefore by means of a protecting cover such as drawn up and offered to the Dutch Government by Mr. the comshall petent scholar (69). For the stone (andesit-\ava) so very porous that used anywhere in Java for filtering-stones. Later note. the appointed president of the „()Hdlicidlaimiigc Koviwhose acquaintance I've made to my great satisfaction. Krom. . Any other manner of "restoration" to prevent all this and other ruins the only way by found shutting out solar-heat and rain. But I also do expect very much from the younger sanskritic scholar. October 3^^ 1910.. that the it doesn't alter the fact that there will be no will Dutch Government thing needful.. van Erp. which. he think otherwise? Or will the rain-water continually ruin. However. did everything notwithstanding the limited means the Dutch Government (68) (69) Dr. willing I persuade the Indian and Dutch authorities into quite another and acting and better sense The major he could. that is. speaks of then. N. the official president of the Oudheidkundige Kommissie voor Java en Madoera" sovereign but cheaper effort tot the rectifi- had proposed a cation of this far less sorrowful state of things. „OudKeidkundi<ie Aanteekeningcn"

(>!jcl doesn't come.. will turn out all to be a failure even when one may succed all is in joining together itself loose stones. Buddha? . and in cementing is the gaps. and assure and under the invaluable at last and carry away its the ruin of the richest and most beautiful all Hindu-work of art we the possess. Brandes. I Dr. Should we could only in not be worthy of such a treasure? Oh. van de Kamer. tnissic" J. permeate through bottom. and II.

Granting the means of our (Dutch) try small to empire to be too feeble to such a purpose— why then not a in form Barabudur. But this of is precious for a longer or shorter period of not yet enough. like the French founded a Societe d'Angkor India or of the ruins of Kamboja. which not only found in support from fellow-country-men Europe and Farther- anywhere but also from foreigners? .-76allowed him to dispose this of. and he consequently co-operated ruin to the preservation time.Society behalf the side of else.

Buddhism doesn't Versierende kunsten in Ned: know any Ungga. 15.or ?/o«/-worship. of the high twin volcanoes Merbabu and Merapi. but walls partly rise a perpendicular line above the foot nicely framed and (70) I hewn in the Inig(/ns don't know how it must liavc been possible for von Saher to see and yo?ns in these buddhistic produce of art. the highest volcanic materials — and. When the kingly on the polygonal upper plane the space between spires niches and tyaityas of the highest wall offers a stri- beautiful aspect deep mountainous landscapes. to the east. of Along the outer-edge highest jestic the first we see stand 32 open 24. All the open worked tyaityas like a of the round terraces have a round foot modeled lotus-cushion doing duty as Padmdsana which its carries the sculpture (placed thereupon and inside) with bell-sha- ped barrow. and connected with each other by means seven or eight-treaded staircases. Successively (concentrically thus) we a see half. '' . of and highest circular there of westward at the foot The whole valley of Praga lies mount Menoreh. The in large middle-dago b has the same type. there three circular terraces continually rising one yard and declining of three yards. the final purpose of the whole ruin. on the third so altogether 72. 21 and 64. The bell with square openings has a height of l''^ yard car- rying a slantingly rising square stone-block gular cone rounded off on its crowned with an octanits top (70). p. a third down and far off on the surrounding vista we enjoy far better when from the terrace. -and this worked and dagobs or tyaityas. See his Oost^Indre'. to the north. of the volcano of this part of Central Java. and. 18. on the second there are 16. And within circle rises the ma- middledagob as the only real dagob or stupa representing the standing of leading idea. a neptunian formation Sumbing.^77- Finding ourselves on the fourth gallery staircases we see there twelve-treaded leading to the twenty-angled upper plane which had been walled in to its outside only.

The at the unfinished Buddha image found ruin. that the staircase itself did should be understood howethere). and provisionally deposited on the north-western foot of the it Now will be impossible to reach (it this dagob's top because the temple-stone staircase leading to this ver. and as thinking beings happy and great (71) When with the the sky is not overclouded we and sec from this point 9 volcaO/'/jbig still noes the exception of the Sindara which hid themselves 3336 Metres above a height of 3145 behind Sumbmg-g\ant. able to finish now wholly closed again. This old volcano Merbabu and adjacent rises sea-level. in as Deep. and the eyes are pleased then with the very same beautiful vista formerly to be overlooked from a bench placed on the of were with the names earth-colored planes. and crowned once more with the basis of the cone. ever greening and blooming. bedewed early at morn. or harvest-time. rich. and overburdened unknown visitors scratched upon it. the Sindara (or tSendaro) reach Metres. and the cloud-like tops of craters of more than three volcanoes. inside in its bhumi-sparsyahill mitdra had been kept outside. This happened more than 37 years ago. but a walk on the highest terrace situated at the foot some 40 yards above the brick it hill-top is still worth while. the neptunian far. the .^78style of a colossal lotus-cushion in order to finish into a flat cupola rising for at least 8 yards It above the highest circular terrace. not belong has been removed. badly bursten and highly crowned. and the in their active Meropi still vomitting death or destruction life surroundings. and over me the immortal light. we feel very little— >et. Merapi 2875 Metres. was VAN Erp who found back some fragments of which once crowned this real dagob. shall 1 forget the first night I partly spent on this ful moon a death past under. . breathing ful and enjoyment sc to say under the power- ribs of mount Menoreh. or. In face of such a stupendous creation children of the very (71). the large cone. brown-yellow most often of cloud-likely life. not always visible Slamct 3472 (or Minorch) doesn't reach Metres the Menoreh more lit than 1000 Metres. as the same creation. so that he was again this stiipa. but also producing new on the soil all covered with time-worn volcanic-ruins. Never spot. life damaged cupola.

. that of the many in or conjoint Biiddhas. and on the other resignation ones. the finished alone. which made the ruin call Bara-budda or Para in bitdda. The posture speak of the less not-to-be. The last mentioned estimation of name l/aji I got from a former Moyctaiiff generally wrote regent. Not the sculptors had been equally good for they must have had much more work the best of them might have the sculptures placed opposite the five zones of heaven. walls the the have (on the east side) side their right hands with on south these very same hands with the palms upwards on west (opposite to the setting sun) hold right knees.79^ XI. Among East. It only remains for me now to add a short : description to the Buddha All sculptures is. those of the in both their hands their laps. (72). with the palm on the right foot. there is to be seen a slight difference in the posture of the right hands. Even the on their fronts is to be seen on many a sculpture. South. them are a sitting posture with crossed legs. the joy-and pain- But in the sculptor didn't all succeed in interpreting all the sculptures artists' this sense. palm forward. All the sculptures on the five encircling walls have been that hewn with their left hands in their laps. and something more difference in the posture of the two hands with regard to those sculptures we is. see on the round terraces. of all of them tells and peace.«/'? Dmrn m)ig l\at '^'^^^'i'' The Javanese and write budda. (73) Javanese characters: According to Kern the word nrnd means a symbol of both the stin and llglitnitig. but upright. on their heads iirna. and those of the north rise their right hands a little above the right thigh. and may later final dissolving in the nirvana. the little tuft of hair all covered curls. They are dressed in a thin mantle uncovering their right arms and shoulders such as the monks of the southern church wear their the — cowls — and with have the short still tiara. and the //ve fingers closed together in a perpendicular (72) line. less acurately hewn. now called in or /. Those on the four lower their backs. West and North and the Zenith. the round hair-knot. almost same posture the Javanese call sila. they are forgotten (73).

but only in the manner in which the different sculptors interpreted the positivchf viennt. because there would be tmtek more than five.-80The the sculptures of the whole fifth and highest walls dominating all regions of heaven only distinguish themselves from those on the northern lower walls by means of the bent index of the raised right closed circle with the brittleness. forming a somewhat joined thumb. A'. containing The other objects were a little metal vaso with cover — formerly some ashes. ratim or srvratrcmtiircs. a Buddha image corresponding of the size to all other sculptures.en kloosfcr-hniuvrallcn in dc Pnrnmhmian-vlakte'" and my "Tjanrii Idjo'' in the ''Tijdschri/t v.. to The man appealed (75) the official draughtsman accompanying him. and. thought he the thesis that these sculptures are to represent the different five DlnjdniBuddliaa would then be frustrated. and some coloured precious stones which were given to the dead in their graves. Moreover. whom ! met in 1898 tn the Barabudur's pasang- saw a mutual difference in the posture of the hands of these 72 dagob-Buddhas This difference really exists. There is still another sculpture unique of time ago. Ind. an absolutely unscientific fellow. Should it have another meaning grahan.. In the pits of other fi/nndh in Java we also found stone urns with ashes. a smaller middle-dagob was opened a double space was found larger one.o. they miss the glory and have not been placed in open temple-niches above a human and mythical. When. among others. the i left one with the palm and the bent finger-tips to the left in an upward fingers bent direction. the right one with the palm and the all over those of the other hand (74). in its kind. en V. and coints or other objects of precious metal. hand is. perhaps —. above a in a long the beginning of our last century. T. many sculptures. Sec my "R"C(M/n'sfLtckr tcnipel. L. raise their two hands before the epigastric region. (74) A young Dutchman. and symbolically respresenting the sa]jf. This very same difference in the execution of one and the same task is also to be seen on other Buddha images. . but hewn and in higher spheres above this world. some ancient Javanese coints and another small metal image.and animal world represented by in transparently closed graves. There is consequently more difference than between the sculptures of the five encircling walls. the inside." published in 1888. indeed. that because of the stone's The j sculptures of the open worked tyaityas on the three round terraces however. posture of the two hands. whereas the posture hands tallied with those on the eastern lower walls (75).

ought to refer to six groups. all of them seated on lotus-thrones and crowned with glories. posture of the hands however. but always. The because there are six different mudrds. and the fifth Dhyani-Buddha ture of the never hewed in the pos- hands in of the second. such as on the northern lower walls. . me would not yet solve existing mysteries. because the in. padmdsana of the tyaitya-foot. without of the open worked tyaityas on the three round any glory or lotus-throne but represented by the 3. not yet existing Buddha can't be materialized by a halfsculpis tured image. What six is the meaning of these different the to Buddhas ? According to posture of the hands we may divide them into — according less. still hypothesis challenged by own attributes. The three groups are: The 432 Buddhas of the open temple-niches on the five richly hewed encircling walls. 2. The 72 Buddhas terraces. where had been wholly closed was finished after- So it must have been intentionally it left in this state. but seated above the padmdsana which carries the whole dagob. without glory or throne. if it sculpture in such an accurate should be hidden from sight for ever. A future. dagob wards. But even the human-and animal world hewn under the niche-Buddhas we don't see there again. but / can't [fifth] possibly accept the supposition that should refer to the /«/«re Dhyani-Buddha in state of being. sattvas his own mudra whereas the future Buddhas as Bodhi- were the represented not only in other postures but also in an- other dress and ornament and with their Besides.— 81 — This image having been unfinished can't be ascribed to the merest chance or to an untimely it stop of the temple-building. The explanation / of the fact may be much manner simpler. Nothing more and nothing 1. other data into three groups. The only Buddha of the large dagob entirely sequestered. think it may have been considered quite unnecessary to finish a like all the other ones. itself. but would only give rise to other enigmas which don't bring us any farther.

Should it represent a Dhydni-Buddha.en Volkenktmde" of 1896. Taking. In the Mongol countries. / can't find it must be to place this one and for such an idea any reason. is the Buddha of Especially love. — ruled over our world these 24 centuries. But there some conformity Dhani-Buddhas are also some points five of difference. the /o«r//2 in the West and the fifth in the North (76). AMiTaBHA a — our Gautama is or Shakya-muni last. but which can't be a Dhydni-Buddha 7 That's a new enigma the by the king of Siam. crowned and provided with peculiar attributes. Buddha of the large dagob can't repre- Dhani-Buddha appears from the posture of the hands which would refer to the second. for instance. which of will be the sixth Buddha represented there by all the fifth sculptures all the the and highest encircling wall. I sup- pose. not published by the editors. Akshobhya and Ratna Sambhava successively redeemed and ruled over three following former worlds the fourth. Three them: Vairotyana. (77) and which I'm going to And that unfinished show directly. but of afterwards sent a copy to professor Kern and other learned men. 92 times hewed on the eastern sent the fifth lower-walls. by the fifth and Amoqasiddha. But happens more elsewhere But in Asia. : See Tijdschrift my „Een Bocddliisten-koning op den Barabudur" appeared in „ict van Indische Taal-. . there one of their Had (76) the Mahdydnists had the intention Out sixth in of a armed. the images of our Z)/2_va/2/-Buddhas the East would then be only occupied of them. the ^ivo//rsf Dhyani-Buddhas are throning in the East. and dominating rightly explained zones of heaven. in posture of the hands there between such as five of the six Barabudur-images and the in we see them hewed Asia.. the third in the South. by the second and the zenith by the first above the this round terraces which don't dominate any region of heaven. and creation of said to be succeeded. Land. ruins to be according to the posture of the hands. — 82 — WiLHELM VON HuMBOLDT was six the first who considered five of the Buddhas of to be the representations of the five Dhydni-BuddhsLS. after the new the world. and the manus- cript of the interpreting which I second part. (77) of the six Buddhas of the Barabudur we don't see any trace Buddha such as we found in a different form at Nipdl foura mythical dress. that is.

those of the three circular terraces as a second. the vase con- some ashes of the really died a trace of the remain- ders of the great wise man. and The Buddha wholly enclosed by the positively separated from the world. but simply as the perfect Buddha. the Shakya having taking flesh as Buddha for this is the meaning of this mudrd even to the Buddhists of the southern church who don't know several Dhydnis but the only Buddha. the wholly dissolving irt the infinite not-to-be. whereas the placing ot the sculptures on these five walls should be connected with the five zones of heaven Siddharta took possession of after his birth (78). a minim quantity of the Master's ashes. eleven centuries ago the Buddhists taining may have hidden Buddha. the final purpose of all For this dagob is a closed grave in which for about.and animal world described by the sculptures hewed beneath there. refer nirvuna. to represent (78) (79) On J the twenty-seventh sculpture for me don't know any analogue of these three groups they may exist elsewhere in the mainland. the divine fers. And as these five Dhyani-Buddhas don't wholly explain the images of the Barabudur. that thinks. Mr." we then may refer to Wilsen's and Leemans' and accept the images (taken from the mentioned world) of the upper-terraces to be the Buddha so' as Arahat in a state of supreme purity or holiness. tradict FouCHER starts from the principle that he does't if like to con- the explanation as these Buddha images were (W. the spotless preacher. may that is. 53). with reference to the human.?/-Buddha the image should Akshobhya. of the of this second Z)/z). consequently also the second. death without regeneration. to the parinirvdna. .d. The would have rendered homage to four other ones may have only In spite itself had a legendary-historical sense.-83five Dhydni-Bu66has. so that this explanation of though mine wil be a questionable thesis only. L. Should this group represent the Buddha perhaps. therefore thought it reasonable to take all the Buddhas of the five encircling not be meant as — I walls as one separated group. they surely their own Redeemer. mudrd the fourth. and the ones of the closed degob as the only representative of a third. in the large dagob. feels redeemer of all that lives and suf- and dies. and don't wholly expound the sixtii. perhaps. or at least. life (79).

and consequently not hewed . for the present he discerns the bhunisparsya the mudrd in the 92 niches on the 4 first walls to East.: . West the dhydni-mudrd . Mr. As 1. formerly the most competent authority on our the Dutch Indies. and especially. Hindu sculptures of this in thought the unfinished image of the the middle-dagob to be a representation certainly this in Adi-Buddha. that they should be examined more different and completed. 3. And there are more objections than the divine primeval being materially re- only this impersonality of vealing himself in the different Buddhas. /mmaterial primeval a material represented Buddha might have been ever image. but never did he dispute or refute this scientifically. Brandes. "and Buddha preaching this means the tyakra" said the kingTSYULA Longkorn the tyakra". to the to the 4. represent the It Buddha great is true that the exactness of this view of mine had been indirectly the late Dr. but he means closely. of his right hand so as found form something This seemed convincing to me. -84 — Dhydni-Buddhas. but also. among the 72 cupolae of the 3 circular terraces: the 6. Groeneveldt. and in the 64 niches on the fifth and highest wall the vitarka-mudrd (the gesture of discussion) and higher. dharma-tyakra-mudrd (mark of distinction). and that the groups ought to be judged again after severe study. joining to tops of the like thumb and the index a circle. So there north-indian is a slight difference between Foucher's idea about the Mahdydnists and my defended explanation of the Siam Hinaydnists. hewed in the bhumi- sparsya-mudrd. to the North the abhaya-mudrd. and only on all I this idea confirmed not and still undamaged in statues on the highest wall. South the vara-mudrd 2. and finally the only sculpture from the wholly closed dagob. "This to is me. 5. and in it would if have expounded this statue separatedly placing. on a great many relievoes of the second gallery which a preaching posture. denied by my official antagonist.

This also refers to the posture of the sixth. the Master.— 85 — at Nepal and (80). and possibly referred to both the world of the four zones of heaven and to the one of the celestials in the zenith. but only the perworld will fect preacher having die. all people. a circle or two eyes Would the mahayanistic architects of the Barabudur have acted in quite a different sense? / don't see any D/z_vc. been placed upon the highest consider the preaching of the That wall this preaching preacher easily has if will be understood we doctrine to be the highest vital expression of Buddhism. the buddhistic Doctrine. (80) See p. circularly joined together. though exist. Tibet but only represented by a symbol. god Vishnu's disc. there as preacher. and there are like much more than Siam where one plained five mudrds even in the hinayanistic countries doesn't know any Dhyani-Buddha.?/-Buddha in this Buddha. See my apologetics mentioned in VI note 14 and my „Oudheidhm(81) dige Aanteekeningcn" I.. who. the sun. Thumb and index. the symbol of the dharma. 90 and 157 and the pictures 219 and 260 of the second volume. and consequently towards all the regions And this teaching of the king-Buddhist has been perfectly confirmed by the fact that on all the sculptures (especially on those we also see on the backwall of the second gallery) the thumb and the index join each other in the very same manner. represent the tyakra. he did continues to live as long as this his Each posture of the hands has its own meaning. opposite . taking flesh as the Buddha. . for a long time unex- Buddha on the highest encircling wall whose mudra was rightly called dharma tyakra (81). Oldfield's "Sketches from Ntpal' p. preaching Buddha has been consequently hewed the doctrine to of heaven.

so to say. ures for the scenes of each panel (from 1 fig- till 6 or 1 till but these numbers have been occasionally noticed time to don't in a just direction. In 1890 I proposed them to be in uncovered and photographed.86 wall A few we remarks about the sculptures of the original foot of the outerdidn't discover before 1886. If 160 scenes which form this combination are to represent a following (like series events or nearly all legends we then must try to find the beginning on other hindu temples) to the south of it the eastern staircase following from there through the South. . and hidden from sight. but the staircases divide the four middle fore-buildings into two panels. Each metre of the 24 hewed panels contains six or eight imageries one long by about 80 inches high. afterwards they were covered again the ancient manner. West and North till the starting-point in the East. On a few copies off we see any letter and number. They have been marked on and with 8). This didn't happen and could not have happened when they were photographed because the temporary uncovering began and was continued at more than one place at the many sculptures there same time without knowing how would be found. and from time in a reversed successive number. a regular combination interrupted by the staircases only. but only on 24 of the 40 panelsof The two each of the double fore-buildings of of the four temple-fronts built towards the different zones heaven. haven't been adorned with any sculpture. series A system of flat frames might have separated the whole the of from the mentioned ogive. They have been hewed on a projecting wall-foot which goes toler- ably deep beneath the heavy ogive. now resting as a socle again on all the surrounding outer-terrace that has been afterwards built round the 36-angled sides basis of the temple. the cliches with capital letters for the different panels. they may have been cut with the margin of papier.

L. 6. . 1 5. .6 N. 2 and 4. 2 1 and 1 . 1 U. 2 and 5 and 6. 4. 4.6 S. 2 and 5 and 6. A. . 4. 3. 3. 2 and 4. 6 5. 5. 6. are badly damaged less whilst one them wholly lost. 4. 1. do not belong to the favoured. 1 5 and 6. 4. 7. 5. 4. 6 T. 5 and 6. 2 and of is these 160 sculptures (R. 2. though they sometimes started from quite a wrong point. 1 4. 2. 1 south of the eastern staircase. schemer of the plan. 3. 3. 2 and 4. 2. 5. 7. /. 5 and 6. Instituut" (Royal Institute) from 1887. I. 4. R. 1 1 G. E. 5. . 3. 6. notwithstanding president. Notes of the (82) and following ones. the figures in lead pencil on the back-side could assist me. 2 and 4. 3. Q. sent this plan to the Government for about 25 years ago (82). 2 and 1 1 HI. Seven have suffered. . 7. Twenty p. 6. 3. 8 1 6. 4. 1 2. 3. 3. 3. 4. 3. M. The Dutch Government ordered these the cliches. 5. 7 and 8.6 . 4. 1 7 and 8. 1 K. 5. But 1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 8 Six 2 and 1 C^6 of 5. 3. 4. 87 Fortunately. 6. 3. 2 and 1 1 S'. Ni. 4. P. 7 and 8. 8 4. 5. 1 4. 15 pair af photos to be taken from to special and presented them musea or societies. 4. 6 5. 5. 1 . 4. 3. 6. 3. . 3. 3. 2. 1 2. 6 D. 3. 2. F. XCIV . the her afterwards wrecked Archaeological Society did. 1 5 and 6. 3. 3. 5. 2. B. O. 5 and 6. "A'o«. 3. 3. 5. 3. 7 and 8. 5. 7. Those who and with C. 4. 1 2. 4. 1 desire to examine these photos will find here the letters figures in the just successive number of the sculpures to begin C 2. 5). 4. 2 and H. 5 and 6. 2.

. N 5. have been hardly hewed here on the walls of the finished temples.B 8. . 5 (bis). but not each tyaitya is a dagob. Some and such inscriptions may contain the name of the person to be hewed. 3 and 4 (twice). and once to the Dhyani-Buddha AMiTaBHA. as if it the other ones that more than sons read by Dr. 4. as on other tyandis at Parambanan. Further there are offerings of food or flowers to Bodhisattvas or other venerable personalities. M 2. from about the year 800 in hewed and were scratched in stone with a knife or a chisel. This word only given to the depositary of one or more than one relic. 2. K 4 and 1. Among many fowlings fishing a domestic and some rural scenes I saw two or 5 and 3). II p. U 4. on the occasion (S 2 of one war-dance (C 5) and some other dancings which a wind-instrument provided with a bag- and R. A. Some of these legends are no more or hardly to be read but a perfunctory manner. J. 7. drawn l)has in the rough are 3 scenes (H' and D whereas one (I been scarcely sketched. that is. Brandes don't teach us any which we may understand by closely examining the representations themselves.— 88representations remained partially unfinished (C 3 and 4. In the same manner I saw Ceylon Buddhists render due homage to the dagob at Kelany. 17) was played on. H 4) 1. 139 and following ones. above H 1. D 8. The unfinished and scarcely sketched sculptures prove us that they. three with (I a pea-shooter or bow and arrow (M and one pipe 6). H^ 2. O 7. See Kern's •'OescMedenis van het Boeddhisme tn Indie. just as the following one Each dagob is a tyaitya. 4. and 5. F 1. for instance. (84) is 6. the Redeemer marked with of this world G 5 has been wrongly (83) has been numbered G 6. In these sculptures I could not have recognised any continuous series. to assist the sculptor. 1. 6 (bis). that the sembah of the per- seated around a tomb or sanctuary refers to a reverence to a tyaitya (84). according to professor of the Syaka-era). S 6. Partly finished but for the rest not yet F'. G 4 and F 4 and D 3 and C 4). On the flat frame above the series we see a few short indications engraved in ancient-javanese characters— dating. roughly Kern. 3 and 1 (bis) (83). 2> 2. 5 (bis) and 6 (bis). 3. E 6 and 5.

most often attacking or killing other people (M 2. D 8. F 6. by six crowned men and to be distinguished by their glories has been four times represented (Bodhisattvas perhaps?) On one sculpture (K 2) AMiTaBHA (?) as an ascetic in the wilderness. F 3 {bis) E 4 and C^ 6). Sometimes there are hewed demons or raksyasas. such as to be found more than once in the Parambanan ruins and speaking of Buddhism even there. 4 and 3. Bodhi-irees covered by payongs and some gandharvas under their shade. G 6. T 6. have been hewed five times (K 6. 6 and 3. and once with a payong only (D 1). 3. and C^ 6). tyaityas are to be seen has been once represented on a lotus-cushion in the sky (C 2). Vishnu's tyakra and 8) . G 4.— 89 — (K 3). E 6. ' A . K 4. 6. 7 more than once (U 3.

— 90Concliuling word.

In

a small

compass

1

suppose to have mentioned

all

that

may be

dis-

cussed about the three buddhistic monuments speaking

in this valley,

on the two banks of the

river

Praga, of a former high

civilisation

and

of a very developed art.

Buddhism,
to

Those who require, or desire, a better insight into the ancient and those who wish to know more about its sanctuaries
be found here
in

Java and elsewhere

in

India, are kindly referred

to the
I

works

I

consulted by the study of this subject, and to those

wrote

myself and which have been for the greater part mentioned

in or at the

bottom of the text of

this little
lost

book.
in

Granting
in

Buddhism

to
still

have been
exists,

Java
less

and

elsewhere
still

India.

yet,

it

more

or

degenerated,

counting
its

more followers than any other
from bigotry, especially
of love

religion ever counted,
in

and

lucky freedom

the hinayanistic counis

tries,
all

and noble doctrine

and self-command

raised

above

suspicion (85).

Jogjakarta, October, November 1906, and 1911.

(85) I'm not a

Buddhist myself though

I

highly esteem the undegenerate

Buddhism

of the southern church.

91

CONTENTS.
Page.
Preface
Buddhistic temples
in

3
Praga-valley

5
13

Tyandi Mendut

Tyandi Pawon
Tyandi Barabudur
Concluding word
Errata

23

26

90 92

92

ERRATA,
p.
p. p.

15

line

3 from bottom: ground instead of groud.
line
1

30 note 22
38
line

from top: as well instead of as weil.

7 from bottom to be read: the knot of hair on his crest,
the

with
.

lotus-cushion

and

disc

of

the

sun worshipped by

princes and inferior people, by priests etc.
line 17

p.

60

from top: but instead of bu.

.

.

m. .

642-3405 This book is due on the last date stamped below. ciR.'56 (B9311sl0)476 .1P M18 : i — UKI 6 1970 7 2 flED II m iC7t.B73 E&W FEB2377 WAY R EG.'70 (N5382sl0)476-A-32 General Library University of Californi Berkeley 3 8 4 %4 LD 'jU 4IVI General Library University of California Berkeley 21-100m-6. or OQ the date to which renewed. ^ET> RENEWALS ONLY—TEL.. 6 MAY 6 % 1979 LD21A-60m-3. NO.14 DAY USE RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED LOAN DEPT.2F REIUSN© l'^ m 7 1977 (5 i7. Renewed books are subject to immediate recalL D LP gggl m Z "J 70.

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(>!jcl doesn't come.. will turn out all to be a failure even when one may succed all is in joining together itself loose stones. Buddha? . and in cementing is the gaps. and assure and under the invaluable at last and carry away its the ruin of the richest and most beautiful all Hindu-work of art we the possess. Brandes. I Dr. Should we could only in not be worthy of such a treasure? Oh. van de Kamer. tnissic" J. permeate through bottom. and II.

Granting the means of our (Dutch) try small to empire to be too feeble to such a purpose— why then not a in form Barabudur. But this of is precious for a longer or shorter period of not yet enough. like the French founded a Societe d'Angkor India or of the ruins of Kamboja. which not only found in support from fellow-country-men Europe and Farther- anywhere but also from foreigners? .-76allowed him to dispose this of. and he consequently co-operated ruin to the preservation time.Society behalf the side of else.

Buddhism doesn't Versierende kunsten in Ned: know any Ungga. 15.or ?/o«/-worship. of the high twin volcanoes Merbabu and Merapi. but walls partly rise a perpendicular line above the foot nicely framed and (70) I hewn in the Inig(/ns don't know how it must liavc been possible for von Saher to see and yo?ns in these buddhistic produce of art. the highest volcanic materials — and. When the kingly on the polygonal upper plane the space between spires niches and tyaityas of the highest wall offers a stri- beautiful aspect deep mountainous landscapes. to the east. of Along the outer-edge highest jestic the first we see stand 32 open 24. All the open worked tyaityas like a of the round terraces have a round foot modeled lotus-cushion doing duty as Padmdsana which its carries the sculpture (placed thereupon and inside) with bell-sha- ped barrow. and connected with each other by means seven or eight-treaded staircases. Successively (concentrically thus) we a see half. '' . of and highest circular there of westward at the foot The whole valley of Praga lies mount Menoreh. The in large middle-dago b has the same type. there three circular terraces continually rising one yard and declining of three yards. the final purpose of the whole ruin. on the third so altogether 72. 21 and 64. The bell with square openings has a height of l''^ yard car- rying a slantingly rising square stone-block gular cone rounded off on its crowned with an octanits top (70). p. a third down and far off on the surrounding vista we enjoy far better when from the terrace. -and this worked and dagobs or tyaityas. See his Oost^Indre'. to the north. of the volcano of this part of Central Java. and. 18. on the second there are 16. And within circle rises the ma- middledagob as the only real dagob or stupa representing the standing of leading idea. a neptunian formation Sumbing.^77- Finding ourselves on the fourth gallery staircases we see there twelve-treaded leading to the twenty-angled upper plane which had been walled in to its outside only.

The at the unfinished Buddha image found ruin. that the staircase itself did should be understood howethere). and provisionally deposited on the north-western foot of the it Now will be impossible to reach (it this dagob's top because the temple-stone staircase leading to this ver. and as thinking beings happy and great (71) When with the the sky is not overclouded we and sec from this point 9 volcaO/'/jbig still noes the exception of the Sindara which hid themselves 3336 Metres above a height of 3145 behind Sumbmg-g\ant. able to finish now wholly closed again. This old volcano Merbabu and adjacent rises sea-level. in as Deep. and the eyes are pleased then with the very same beautiful vista formerly to be overlooked from a bench placed on the of were with the names earth-colored planes. and crowned once more with the basis of the cone. ever greening and blooming. bedewed early at morn. or harvest-time. rich. and overburdened unknown visitors scratched upon it. the Sindara (or tSendaro) reach Metres. and the cloud-like tops of craters of more than three volcanoes. inside in its bhumi-sparsyahill mitdra had been kept outside. This happened more than 37 years ago. but a walk on the highest terrace situated at the foot some 40 yards above the brick it hill-top is still worth while. the neptunian far. the .^78style of a colossal lotus-cushion in order to finish into a flat cupola rising for at least 8 yards It above the highest circular terrace. not belong has been removed. badly bursten and highly crowned. and the in their active Meropi still vomitting death or destruction life surroundings. and over me the immortal light. we feel very little— >et. Merapi 2875 Metres. was VAN Erp who found back some fragments of which once crowned this real dagob. shall 1 forget the first night I partly spent on this ful moon a death past under. . breathing ful and enjoyment sc to say under the power- ribs of mount Menoreh. or. In face of such a stupendous creation children of the very (71). the large cone. brown-yellow most often of cloud-likely life. not always visible Slamct 3472 (or Minorch) doesn't reach Metres the Menoreh more lit than 1000 Metres. as the same creation. so that he was again this stiipa. but also producing new on the soil all covered with time-worn volcanic-ruins. Never spot. life damaged cupola.

. that of the many in or conjoint Biiddhas. and on the other resignation ones. the finished alone. which made the ruin call Bara-budda or Para in bitdda. The posture speak of the less not-to-be. The last mentioned estimation of name l/aji I got from a former Moyctaiiff generally wrote regent. Not the sculptors had been equally good for they must have had much more work the best of them might have the sculptures placed opposite the five zones of heaven. walls the the have (on the east side) side their right hands with on south these very same hands with the palms upwards on west (opposite to the setting sun) hold right knees.79^ XI. Among East. It only remains for me now to add a short : description to the Buddha All sculptures is. those of the in both their hands their laps. (72). with the palm on the right foot. there is to be seen a slight difference in the posture of the right hands. Even the on their fronts is to be seen on many a sculpture. South. them are a sitting posture with crossed legs. the joy-and pain- But in the sculptor didn't all succeed in interpreting all the sculptures artists' this sense. palm forward. All the sculptures on the five encircling walls have been that hewn with their left hands in their laps. and something more difference in the posture of the two hands with regard to those sculptures we is. see on the round terraces. of all of them tells and peace.«/'? Dmrn m)ig l\at '^'^^^'i'' The Javanese and write budda. (73) Javanese characters: According to Kern the word nrnd means a symbol of both the stin and llglitnitig. but upright. on their heads iirna. and those of the north rise their right hands a little above the right thigh. and may later final dissolving in the nirvana. the little tuft of hair all covered curls. They are dressed in a thin mantle uncovering their right arms and shoulders such as the monks of the southern church wear their the — cowls — and with have the short still tiara. and the //ve fingers closed together in a perpendicular (72) line. less acurately hewn. now called in or /. Those on the four lower their backs. West and North and the Zenith. the round hair-knot. almost same posture the Javanese call sila. they are forgotten (73).

but only in the manner in which the different sculptors interpreted the positivchf viennt. because there would be tmtek more than five.-80The the sculptures of the whole fifth and highest walls dominating all regions of heaven only distinguish themselves from those on the northern lower walls by means of the bent index of the raised right closed circle with the brittleness. forming a somewhat joined thumb. A'. containing The other objects were a little metal vaso with cover — formerly some ashes. ratim or srvratrcmtiircs. a Buddha image corresponding of the size to all other sculptures.en kloosfcr-hniuvrallcn in dc Pnrnmhmian-vlakte'" and my "Tjanrii Idjo'' in the ''Tijdschri/t v.. to The man appealed (75) the official draughtsman accompanying him. and. thought he the thesis that these sculptures are to represent the different five DlnjdniBuddliaa would then be frustrated. and some coloured precious stones which were given to the dead in their graves. Moreover. whom ! met in 1898 tn the Barabudur's pasang- saw a mutual difference in the posture of the hands of these 72 dagob-Buddhas This difference really exists. There is still another sculpture unique of time ago. Ind. an absolutely unscientific fellow. Should it have another meaning grahan.. In the pits of other fi/nndh in Java we also found stone urns with ashes. a smaller middle-dagob was opened a double space was found larger one.o. they miss the glory and have not been placed in open temple-niches above a human and mythical. When. among others. the i left one with the palm and the bent finger-tips to the left in an upward fingers bent direction. the right one with the palm and the all over those of the other hand (74). in its kind. en V. and coints or other objects of precious metal. hand is. perhaps —. above a in a long the beginning of our last century. T. many sculptures. Sec my "R"C(M/n'sfLtckr tcnipel. L. raise their two hands before the epigastric region. (74) A young Dutchman. and symbolically respresenting the sa]jf. This very same difference in the execution of one and the same task is also to be seen on other Buddha images. . but hewn and in higher spheres above this world. some ancient Javanese coints and another small metal image.and animal world represented by in transparently closed graves. There is consequently more difference than between the sculptures of the five encircling walls. the inside." published in 1888. indeed. that because of the stone's The j sculptures of the open worked tyaityas on the three round terraces however. posture of the two hands. whereas the posture hands tallied with those on the eastern lower walls (75).

ought to refer to six groups. all of them seated on lotus-thrones and crowned with glories. posture of the hands however. but always. The because there are six different mudrds. and the fifth Dhyani-Buddha ture of the never hewed in the pos- hands in of the second. such as on the northern lower walls. . me would not yet solve existing mysteries. because the in. padmdsana of the tyaitya-foot. without of the open worked tyaityas on the three round any glory or lotus-throne but represented by the 3. not yet existing Buddha can't be materialized by a halfsculpis tured image. What six is the meaning of these different the to Buddhas ? According to posture of the hands we may divide them into — according less. still hypothesis challenged by own attributes. The three groups are: The 432 Buddhas of the open temple-niches on the five richly hewed encircling walls. 2. The 72 Buddhas terraces. where had been wholly closed was finished after- So it must have been intentionally it left in this state. but seated above the padmdsana which carries the whole dagob. without glory or throne. if it sculpture in such an accurate should be hidden from sight for ever. A future. dagob wards. But even the human-and animal world hewn under the niche-Buddhas we don't see there again. but / can't [fifth] possibly accept the supposition that should refer to the /«/«re Dhyani-Buddha in state of being. sattvas his own mudra whereas the future Buddhas as Bodhi- were the represented not only in other postures but also in an- other dress and ornament and with their Besides.— 81 — This image having been unfinished can't be ascribed to the merest chance or to an untimely it stop of the temple-building. The explanation / of the fact may be much manner simpler. Nothing more and nothing 1. other data into three groups. The only Buddha of the large dagob entirely sequestered. think it may have been considered quite unnecessary to finish a like all the other ones. itself. but would only give rise to other enigmas which don't bring us any farther.

Should it represent a Dhydni-Buddha.en Volkenktmde" of 1896. Taking. In the Mongol countries. / can't find it must be to place this one and for such an idea any reason. is the Buddha of Especially love. — ruled over our world these 24 centuries. But there some conformity Dhani-Buddhas are also some points five of difference. the /o«r//2 in the West and the fifth in the North (76). AMiTaBHA a — our Gautama is or Shakya-muni last. but which can't be a Dhydni-Buddha 7 That's a new enigma the by the king of Siam. crowned and provided with peculiar attributes. Buddha of the large dagob can't repre- Dhani-Buddha appears from the posture of the hands which would refer to the second. for instance. which of will be the sixth Buddha represented there by all the fifth sculptures all the the and highest encircling wall. I sup- pose. not published by the editors. Akshobhya and Ratna Sambhava successively redeemed and ruled over three following former worlds the fourth. Three them: Vairotyana. (77) and which I'm going to And that unfinished show directly. but of afterwards sent a copy to professor Kern and other learned men. 92 times hewed on the eastern sent the fifth lower-walls. by the fifth and Amoqasiddha. But happens more elsewhere But in Asia. : See Tijdschrift my „Een Bocddliisten-koning op den Barabudur" appeared in „ict van Indische Taal-. . there one of their Had (76) the Mahdydnists had the intention Out sixth in of a armed. the images of our Z)/2_va/2/-Buddhas the East would then be only occupied of them. the ^ivo//rsf Dhyani-Buddhas are throning in the East. and dominating rightly explained zones of heaven. in posture of the hands there between such as five of the six Barabudur-images and the in we see them hewed Asia.. the third in the South. by the second and the zenith by the first above the this round terraces which don't dominate any region of heaven. and creation of said to be succeeded. Land. ruins to be according to the posture of the hands. — 82 — WiLHELM VON HuMBOLDT was six the first who considered five of the Buddhas of to be the representations of the five Dhydni-BuddhsLS. after the new the world. and the manus- cript of the interpreting which I second part. (77) of the six Buddhas of the Barabudur we don't see any trace Buddha such as we found in a different form at Nipdl foura mythical dress. that is.

those of the three circular terraces as a second. the vase con- some ashes of the really died a trace of the remain- ders of the great wise man. and The Buddha wholly enclosed by the positively separated from the world. but simply as the perfect Buddha. the Shakya having taking flesh as Buddha for this is the meaning of this mudrd even to the Buddhists of the southern church who don't know several Dhydnis but the only Buddha. the wholly dissolving irt the infinite not-to-be. whereas the placing ot the sculptures on these five walls should be connected with the five zones of heaven Siddharta took possession of after his birth (78). a minim quantity of the Master's ashes. eleven centuries ago the Buddhists taining may have hidden Buddha. the final purpose of all For this dagob is a closed grave in which for about.and animal world described by the sculptures hewed beneath there. refer nirvuna. to represent (78) (79) On J the twenty-seventh sculpture for me don't know any analogue of these three groups they may exist elsewhere in the mainland. the divine fers. And as these five Dhyani-Buddhas don't wholly explain the images of the Barabudur. that thinks. Mr." we then may refer to Wilsen's and Leemans' and accept the images (taken from the mentioned world) of the upper-terraces to be the Buddha so' as Arahat in a state of supreme purity or holiness. tradict FouCHER starts from the principle that he does't if like to con- the explanation as these Buddha images were (W. the spotless preacher. may that is. 53). with reference to the human.?/-Buddha the image should Akshobhya. of the of this second Z)/z). consequently also the second. death without regeneration. to the parinirvdna. .d. The would have rendered homage to four other ones may have only In spite itself had a legendary-historical sense.-83five Dhydni-Bu66has. so that this explanation of though mine wil be a questionable thesis only. L. Should this group represent the Buddha perhaps. therefore thought it reasonable to take all the Buddhas of the five encircling not be meant as — I walls as one separated group. they surely their own Redeemer. mudrd the fourth. and the ones of the closed degob as the only representative of a third. in the large dagob. feels redeemer of all that lives and suf- and dies. and don't wholly expound the sixtii. perhaps. or at least. life (79).

and consequently not hewed . for the present he discerns the bhunisparsya the mudrd in the 92 niches on the 4 first walls to East.: . West the dhydni-mudrd . Mr. As 1. formerly the most competent authority on our the Dutch Indies. and especially. Hindu sculptures of this in thought the unfinished image of the the middle-dagob to be a representation certainly this in Adi-Buddha. that they should be examined more different and completed. 3. And there are more objections than the divine primeval being materially re- only this impersonality of vealing himself in the different Buddhas. /mmaterial primeval a material represented Buddha might have been ever image. but never did he dispute or refute this scientifically. Brandes. "and Buddha preaching this means the tyakra" said the kingTSYULA Longkorn the tyakra". to the to the 4. represent the It Buddha great is true that the exactness of this view of mine had been indirectly the late Dr. but he means closely. of his right hand so as found form something This seemed convincing to me. -84 — Dhydni-Buddhas. but also. among the 72 cupolae of the 3 circular terraces: the 6. Groeneveldt. and in the 64 niches on the fifth and highest wall the vitarka-mudrd (the gesture of discussion) and higher. dharma-tyakra-mudrd (mark of distinction). and that the groups ought to be judged again after severe study. joining to tops of the like thumb and the index a circle. So there north-indian is a slight difference between Foucher's idea about the Mahdydnists and my defended explanation of the Siam Hinaydnists. hewed in the bhumi- sparsya-mudrd. to the North the abhaya-mudrd. and only on all I this idea confirmed not and still undamaged in statues on the highest wall. South the vara-mudrd 2. and finally the only sculpture from the wholly closed dagob. "This to is me. 5. and in it would if have expounded this statue separatedly placing. on a great many relievoes of the second gallery which a preaching posture. denied by my official antagonist.

This also refers to the posture of the sixth. the Master.— 85 — at Nepal and (80). and possibly referred to both the world of the four zones of heaven and to the one of the celestials in the zenith. but only the perworld will fect preacher having die. all people. a circle or two eyes Would the mahayanistic architects of the Barabudur have acted in quite a different sense? / don't see any D/z_vc. been placed upon the highest consider the preaching of the That wall this preaching preacher easily has if will be understood we doctrine to be the highest vital expression of Buddhism. the buddhistic Doctrine. (80) See p. circularly joined together. though exist. Tibet but only represented by a symbol. god Vishnu's disc. there as preacher. and there are like much more than Siam where one plained five mudrds even in the hinayanistic countries doesn't know any Dhyani-Buddha.?/-Buddha in this Buddha. See my apologetics mentioned in VI note 14 and my „Oudheidhm(81) dige Aanteekeningcn" I.. who. the sun. Thumb and index. the symbol of the dharma. 90 and 157 and the pictures 219 and 260 of the second volume. and consequently towards all the regions And this teaching of the king-Buddhist has been perfectly confirmed by the fact that on all the sculptures (especially on those we also see on the backwall of the second gallery) the thumb and the index join each other in the very same manner. represent the tyakra. he did continues to live as long as this his Each posture of the hands has its own meaning. opposite . taking flesh as the Buddha. . for a long time unex- Buddha on the highest encircling wall whose mudra was rightly called dharma tyakra (81). Oldfield's "Sketches from Ntpal' p. preaching Buddha has been consequently hewed the doctrine to of heaven.

so to say. ures for the scenes of each panel (from 1 fig- till 6 or 1 till but these numbers have been occasionally noticed time to don't in a just direction. In 1890 I proposed them to be in uncovered and photographed.86 wall A few we remarks about the sculptures of the original foot of the outerdidn't discover before 1886. If 160 scenes which form this combination are to represent a following (like series events or nearly all legends we then must try to find the beginning on other hindu temples) to the south of it the eastern staircase following from there through the South. . and hidden from sight. but the staircases divide the four middle fore-buildings into two panels. Each metre of the 24 hewed panels contains six or eight imageries one long by about 80 inches high. afterwards they were covered again the ancient manner. West and North till the starting-point in the East. On a few copies off we see any letter and number. They have been marked on and with 8). This didn't happen and could not have happened when they were photographed because the temporary uncovering began and was continued at more than one place at the many sculptures there same time without knowing how would be found. and from time in a reversed successive number. a regular combination interrupted by the staircases only. but only on 24 of the 40 panelsof The two each of the double fore-buildings of of the four temple-fronts built towards the different zones heaven. haven't been adorned with any sculpture. series A system of flat frames might have separated the whole the of from the mentioned ogive. They have been hewed on a projecting wall-foot which goes toler- ably deep beneath the heavy ogive. now resting as a socle again on all the surrounding outer-terrace that has been afterwards built round the 36-angled sides basis of the temple. the cliches with capital letters for the different panels. they may have been cut with the margin of papier.

L. 6. . 1 5. .6 N. 2 and 4. 2 1 and 1 . 1 U. 2 and 5 and 6. 4. 4.6 S. 2 and 5 and 6. A. . 4. 3. 3. 2 and 4. 6 5. 5. 6. are badly damaged less whilst one them wholly lost. 4. 1. do not belong to the favoured. 1 5 and 6. 4. 7. 5. 4. 6 T. 5 and 6. 2 and of is these 160 sculptures (R. 2. though they sometimes started from quite a wrong point. 1 4. 2. 1 south of the eastern staircase. schemer of the plan. 3. 3. 2 and 4. 2. 5. 7. /. 5 and 6. Instituut" (Royal Institute) from 1887. I. 4. R. 1 1 G. E. 5. . 3. 6. notwithstanding president. Notes of the (82) and following ones. the figures in lead pencil on the back-side could assist me. 2 and 4. 3. Q. sent this plan to the Government for about 25 years ago (82). 2 and 1 1 HI. Seven have suffered. . 7. Twenty p. 6. 3. 8 1 6. 4. 1 2. 3. 3. 3. 4. 3. M. The Dutch Government ordered these the cliches. 5. 7 and 8.6 . 4. 1 7 and 8. 1 K. 5. But 1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 8 Six 2 and 1 C^6 of 5. 3. 4. 87 Fortunately. 6. 3. 2 and 1 1 S'. Ni. 4. P. 7 and 8. 8 4. 5. 1 4. 15 pair af photos to be taken from to special and presented them musea or societies. 4. 6 5. 5. 1 . 4. 3. 6. 3. . 3. 3. 2. 1 2. 6 D. 3. 2. F. XCIV . the her afterwards wrecked Archaeological Society did. 1 5 and 6. 3. 3. 5. 2. B. O. 5 and 6. "A'o«. 3. 3. 5. 3. 7 and 8. 5. 7. Those who and with C. 4. 1 2. 4. 1 desire to examine these photos will find here the letters figures in the just successive number of the sculpures to begin C 2. 5). 4. 2 and H. 5 and 6. 2.

. N 5. have been hardly hewed here on the walls of the finished temples.B 8. . 5 (bis). but not each tyaitya is a dagob. Some and such inscriptions may contain the name of the person to be hewed. 3 and 4 (twice). and once to the Dhyani-Buddha AMiTaBHA. as if it the other ones that more than sons read by Dr. 4. as on other tyandis at Parambanan. Further there are offerings of food or flowers to Bodhisattvas or other venerable personalities. M 2. from about the year 800 in hewed and were scratched in stone with a knife or a chisel. This word only given to the depositary of one or more than one relic. 2. K 4 and 1. Among many fowlings fishing a domestic and some rural scenes I saw two or 5 and 3). II p. U 4. on the occasion (S 2 of one war-dance (C 5) and some other dancings which a wind-instrument provided with a bag- and R. A. Some of these legends are no more or hardly to be read but a perfunctory manner. J. 7. drawn l)has in the rough are 3 scenes (H' and D whereas one (I been scarcely sketched. that is. Brandes don't teach us any which we may understand by closely examining the representations themselves.— 88representations remained partially unfinished (C 3 and 4. In the same manner I saw Ceylon Buddhists render due homage to the dagob at Kelany. 17) was played on. H 4) 1. 139 and following ones. above H 1. D 8. The unfinished and scarcely sketched sculptures prove us that they. three with (I a pea-shooter or bow and arrow (M and one pipe 6). H^ 2. O 7. See Kern's •'OescMedenis van het Boeddhisme tn Indie. just as the following one Each dagob is a tyaitya. 4. and 5. F 1. for instance. (84) is 6. the Redeemer marked with of this world G 5 has been wrongly (83) has been numbered G 6. In these sculptures I could not have recognised any continuous series. to assist the sculptor. 1. 6 (bis). that the sembah of the per- seated around a tomb or sanctuary refers to a reverence to a tyaitya (84). according to professor of the Syaka-era). S 6. Partly finished but for the rest not yet F'. G 4 and F 4 and D 3 and C 4). On the flat frame above the series we see a few short indications engraved in ancient-javanese characters— dating. roughly Kern. 3 and 1 (bis) (83). 2> 2. 5 (bis) and 6 (bis). 3. E 6 and 5.

most often attacking or killing other people (M 2. D 8. F 6. by six crowned men and to be distinguished by their glories has been four times represented (Bodhisattvas perhaps?) On one sculpture (K 2) AMiTaBHA (?) as an ascetic in the wilderness. F 3 {bis) E 4 and C^ 6). Sometimes there are hewed demons or raksyasas. such as to be found more than once in the Parambanan ruins and speaking of Buddhism even there. 4 and 3. Bodhi-irees covered by payongs and some gandharvas under their shade. G 6. T 6. have been hewed five times (K 6. 6 and 3. and once with a payong only (D 1). 3. and C^ 6). tyaityas are to be seen has been once represented on a lotus-cushion in the sky (C 2). Vishnu's tyakra and 8) . G 4.— 89 — (K 3). E 6. ' A . K 4. 6. 7 more than once (U 3.

— 90Concliuling word.

In

a small

compass

1

suppose to have mentioned

all

that

may be

dis-

cussed about the three buddhistic monuments speaking

in this valley,

on the two banks of the

river

Praga, of a former high

civilisation

and

of a very developed art.

Buddhism,
to

Those who require, or desire, a better insight into the ancient and those who wish to know more about its sanctuaries
be found here
in

Java and elsewhere

in

India, are kindly referred

to the
I

works

I

consulted by the study of this subject, and to those

wrote

myself and which have been for the greater part mentioned

in or at the

bottom of the text of

this little
lost

book.
in

Granting
in

Buddhism

to
still

have been
exists,

Java
less

and

elsewhere
still

India.

yet,

it

more

or

degenerated,

counting
its

more followers than any other
from bigotry, especially
of love

religion ever counted,
in

and

lucky freedom

the hinayanistic counis

tries,
all

and noble doctrine

and self-command

raised

above

suspicion (85).

Jogjakarta, October, November 1906, and 1911.

(85) I'm not a

Buddhist myself though

I

highly esteem the undegenerate

Buddhism

of the southern church.

91

CONTENTS.
Page.
Preface
Buddhistic temples
in

3
Praga-valley

5
13

Tyandi Mendut

Tyandi Pawon
Tyandi Barabudur
Concluding word
Errata

23

26

90 92

92

ERRATA,
p.
p. p.

15

line

3 from bottom: ground instead of groud.
line
1

30 note 22
38
line

from top: as well instead of as weil.

7 from bottom to be read: the knot of hair on his crest,
the

with
.

lotus-cushion

and

disc

of

the

sun worshipped by

princes and inferior people, by priests etc.
line 17

p.

60

from top: but instead of bu.

.

.

m. .

642-3405 This book is due on the last date stamped below. ciR.'56 (B9311sl0)476 .1P M18 : i — UKI 6 1970 7 2 flED II m iC7t.B73 E&W FEB2377 WAY R EG.'70 (N5382sl0)476-A-32 General Library University of Californi Berkeley 3 8 4 %4 LD 'jU 4IVI General Library University of California Berkeley 21-100m-6. or OQ the date to which renewed. ^ET> RENEWALS ONLY—TEL.. 6 MAY 6 % 1979 LD21A-60m-3. NO.14 DAY USE RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED LOAN DEPT.2F REIUSN© l'^ m 7 1977 (5 i7. Renewed books are subject to immediate recalL D LP gggl m Z "J 70.

RETURN TO—^ CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT 202 Main Library 1 LOAN PERIOD HOME USE .

I .

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