CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Back ground.
Prime Radio was founded in October 2002 as an Adventist Religious Radio station to serve the Adventists society in Uganda and Africa as a whole to contribute to the overall Religious Development in the country. Since then, it has built a strong reputation for delivering quality alternatives radio solutions to clients in government, the Ngo and private sectors. It has all along been offering services to clients, ranging from large to small and medium enterprises, focusing on developing and building corporate brands and services that meet critical community development initiatives and needs.

1.1Vision
To be a global player and one of Africa s leading Christian radio station.

1.2 Motto
Eweweza omutima

1.3 Mission
To excel in speaking and sharing a wholesome, balanced and informative message of hope in Jesus Christ through effective and efficient broadcasting services.

1.4 Our values
~ Integrity Trust is everything in our business ~ High quality 8 professional service delivery We pledge to be true to our customers and radio leadership. Every day we endeavour to be the best in the business. ~ Value for money in all our services Excel in service delivery. .~Excellence -Leadership -Competence -Teamwork- we believe that together as a team we achieve more. -Superior customer services

1.5 Objectives
-To promote enhance development through announcements, endorsements, sponsorship and volunteer fund raising efforts carried out by our friends and the church. - To participate in other programmes and exhibitions which help improve our coverage. -To serve customers in a better 8 more efficient manner and to strive to re-in force its position in this competitive radio industry. To become the leading Christian radio station truly µ¶The masters radio for all Ugandans.¶¶

1.6 Organisational structure of prime radio
Conference council B.O.D

M.D

Technical manager

News editor

Production manager

Marketing manager

Program manager

Finance Manager

Reporters

News readers Production Assistant Marketing Assistant

Program Assistant Director of Religious Affairs

Accountants

Cashiers

2. which we normally refer to as LANS.2 TOPOLOGIES This is the physical layout of a network. Advantages. This below is a detailed explanation of what I did in those tutorials practically and theoretically.1TYPES OF NETWORKS y Local Area Networks Local area data networks. . A feature of this topology is a direct point to point link between each neighbouring DTE which is unidirectional in operation. the network cable passes from one DTE to another until the DTES are interconnected in form of a loop. For example we use a LAN to interconnect workstations distributed around offices within a single building or a group of buildings such as a university campus. y y Easy to install and wire Messages flow from one device to another in one direction around the ring Disadvantages. LANS are normally installed and maintained by the organisation since they are located within a single building. Throughout the tutorials I went through I was able to understand a lot about networking. There are 2 different types of LANS.1 Ring Topology With this type. Wired LANS utilise fixed wiring such as coaxial cable and twisted pair as transmission medium whereas wireless utilise radio or light waves. Appropriate MAC algorithm then ensure the use of the ring is shared between communities of users. 2.0 INTRODUCTION Networking is the connection of different computers together to be able to communicate to each other. are used to interconnect distributed communities of computer based DTES located within a single building or a localised group of buildings.CHAPTER TWO NETWORKING 2. to interconnect computer based equipment distributed around a factory or hospital complex. The different types include y y y y Ring Bus Star Tree 2. wired and wireless LANS. y y Wide Area Networks Metropolitan Area Network 2.

PC B PC C PC A PC D 2. Requires much cable length. . y y Easy to install and wire.2. Advantages. This is the simplest and most common method of networking computers. Disadvantages y y y Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down. Incase of a breakage in the main cable. Easy to detect a fault and remove parts.y y Failure of one device leads to failure of the whole network.2. the entire network shuts down. Atypical bus topology consists of a single cable called trunks or a segment that connects all of the computers in a network in a single line. It is designed with each node connected to a central network hub.3 Star Topology.2 Bus Topology. Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable. Requires less cable length than the star. PC A PC B C Cable FIGURE PC D PC E PC F 2. Advantages. Connecting computers to cable segments that branch out from the single point or hub is referred to as setting up a star topology. Data passes through the hub before continuing to its destination. y y Easy to connect a computer or a peripheral device to a linear bus. Often referred to as a µ¶linear bus¶¶ because the computers are connected in a straight line.

If the backbone line breaks the entire segment goes down Repeaters . y y y More difficult to wire and configure than other topologies. Point to point wiring four individual segments. y y y Requires much cable length. It is costly.Disadvantages. Advantages. nodes attached are disabled.4 Tree Topology This type of topology combines the characteristics of bus and star. Disadvantages. PC C PC B Hub PC D PC A 2. It also consists of groups of star configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable. y y Supported by several hardware and software vendors.2. Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling. If the hub fails. Hubs can also be connected in a hierchical way to form a tree topology.

0.Further. Subnet mask is displayed in decimal and binary Decimal 255.1 IP Addressing. the left most bit starts with a value of 128 and counts down from there according to the binary values of binary to decimal conversion.0. 255.64.2 Subnet mask It is used to divide the IP address into the network portion and host portion.255.3 NETWORK ADDRESSING.2.3.g. It is a required TCP/IP setting. Without the subnet mask. In this case.0. the computer has no idea what network it belongs to .32.the subnet mask is also a 32 bit binary number broken down into 4 octets . every host ID on the network.g. Introduction to IP addressing In an IPV4 network.00000000.0.68.168. Internet). the IP address consists of 4 numbers called octets (8 bits each) each separated by dots. Each IP address is 32 bits in length (4×8 bits) an example of an IP address 192.Network ID represents the network the computer belongs while the host ID uniquely identifies the computer on that network.11111111.binary Binary 11111111. each bit in the octet can either be 1 or 0.2. 2.168.16.2.3.1=255. must also be unique to that network.255. Every network ID on the TCP/IP (e.1.128.when calculating the IP address. IP Address This is the number associated with the computer similar to the address of a house or a number of a telephone.Each of the octets range from 0. 2.An IP address can also be displayed in binary values.255. Table showing address classes Address class Class A Class B Class C Address format Network-host-host-host Network-network-host-host Network-network-networkhost 1st byte is always 1 to 126 128-191 192-223 . Each IP address is composed of 2 parts that is the Network ID and Host ID.4.e.00000000 The subnet mask tells you that the 1st 16 binary numbers are the network numbers which when you convert back to decimal will be 192.

H. They form the backbone all modern terrestrial communications networks due to the very high bandwidths that can be achieved. Reason Zero in the network address position indicates a host address on the local address.0 which identifies network segment 122 127.152 2^8-2=254 Restrictions on Network Addressing Restrictions 1.H. and they can be strapped to conductive supports without . Messages to network 127 are not transmitted.4 TYPES OF CABLES USED FOR NETWORKING.0. The transmission of energy in the line occurs totally through the dielectric inside the cable between the conductors.4. 2.N.214 2^14=16.1 is the reserved loop address.097.0.0.H.384 2^16-2=65.0. 0.777.0. There are different types of cables used for networking and some of them include. Zero not permitted a network address 2.1 Optical fiber An optical fiber is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length by the process of total internal reflection. Network 127. y y y y Optical fiber Coaxial cable Twisted pair cable Untwisted pair cable 2.Network class address possibilities IP address format A N. 2. Coaxial lines confine the electrical wave to an area inside the cable. which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths than other forms of communications.N. They are widely used in fiber optic communications.0.4. Coaxial lines can therefore be bent and twisted without negative effects.0.0.H 14bits for network 16bit for hosts C N.22 identifies host 22 on the local network 122.H 21bits for network 8bits for hosts Number of networks 2^7-2=126 Number of hosts 2^24-2=16.2 Coaxial cable.0 is reserved for testing.H 7bits for network 24bits for hosts B N. Zero in the host address position indicates a network address segment address. between the center conductor and the shield. They are reflected back to the TX machine Example. Zero not permitted as host address 3.534 2^21=2.N.

The 568A commercial building wiring standards of the electronic industries association and the Telecommunications Industries Association ETA/TIA specifies the type of UTP cable that is to be used in a variety of building and wiring situations. Category 3 It satisfies UTP cable for data transmissions up to 16Mbps. This refers to traditional UTP telephone cable that can carry voice but not data transmissions. Category 2 This category satisfies UTP cable for data transmissions up to 4Mbits per second.5 Cable terminations There are two types of network cables commonly used in PC networks .4 Untwisted pair cable UTP.5. about 328feet.4. The objective of this is to ensure consistency of products of products for customers. It consists of 4 twisted wires. The twisting cancels out the electrical shorting alone from adjacent pairs and from other sources such as motors.1 Straight-through: A straight-through network cable is just what the name implies. The standards include. 2.it consists of 4 twisted pairs of copper wires.UTP specifications govern how many twists are permitted per foot of the cable. Most telephone cable prior to 1983 was category 1 cable.traditional UTP cable consists or 2 insulated copper wires. twisted pair cable consists of two insulated strands of copper wire twisted around each other.4. 2. Straight-through cables are used for a variety of . a cable that passes data straight through from one end to another. 2. using the 10base T specification is the most popular type of twisted pair cable and fast becoming the most LAN cabling. the number of twists allowed depends on the purpose for which the cable will be put UTP cable is used for telephone systems.it consists of 4 twisted pairs of copper wire.It consists of 4 twisted pairs of copper with 3 twists per foot. The maximum length cable segment is 100m. They are used in television and other signals with a bandwidth of multiple megahertz.Straight-through and cross over 2. A number of twisted wire cables are often grouped together and enclosed in a protective sheath. y y y y y Category 1.3 Twisted pair cable In its simplest form. Category 5 It satisfies UTP cable for data transmission up to 100Mbps. relays and transformers. Category 4 It satisfies UTP cable for data transmissions up to 20Mbps.inducing unwanted currents in them.

5. The crossing wires in a cable or in a connector adaptor allows: y y y connecting two devices directly.g. PCs. Such distinction of devices was introduced by IBM. connecting a computer to a hub or switch. and linking switches and hubs together.) Table showing colours of a straight through cable ends SIDE A White-orange Orange White-green Blue White-blue Green White-brown Brown SIDE B White-orange Orange White-green Blue White-blue Green White-brown Brown 2. output of one to input of the other. to a cable/ISDN/DSL modem. possibly to work as one wider device.Be sure the cable(s) you are using is properly rated for CAT 5. Cable . letting two terminal (DTE) devices communicate without an interconnecting hub knot. Linking two or more hubs. by a modified cable called a crosslink. It should state clearly on the jacket thing from Table showing colours of a cross over cable ends SIDE A White-orange Orange White-green Blue White-blue Green White-brown Brown SIDE B White-green Green White-orange Blue White-blue Orange White-brown Brown .e.2 Crossover cable Connects two devices of the same type.connections. i. (e. for example DTE-DTE or DCE-DCE. usually connected asymmetrically (DTE-DCE). switches or routers (DCE) together.

. . Make sure you buy the correct jacks for your cabling. 2.6 What is needed for networking is shown in the diagram above 2.using bulk CAT 5 cable. 2.2 Connectors Crossover cables are terminated with CAT 5 RJ-45 (RJ stands for "Registered Jack") modular plugs.ble.6.1 Cables Be sure the cable(s) you are using is properly rated for CAT 5. and replace with a new "Crossed Over" end. Also. One option that you have when selecting your cable is to use a pre-made normal 'straight through' cable. We are going to make the whole thing from scratch . Keep everything within hands reach of you. RJ-45 plugs are similar to those you'll see on the end of your telephone cable except they have eight versus four contacts on the end of the plug. and simply whack off one of the ends. we aren't going to go that route. For the purpose of this article. It should state clearly on the jacket of the cable. There are also different types of jacks which are used for different types of cabling (such as Solid Core wire). make sure the ends you select are rated for CAT 5 wiring. what it is rated at. though.6..

6.but keep in mind if you go the razor blade / knife route. Spend 10 to 20 bucks.6. 2. cautious use of a razor blade or knife should work just fine .6. which can be used to strip the jackets off of cabling. If you spend abou t 40 to 50 bucks. 2.6 Cable tester This is a device that tests whether you have terminated your cable proper ly . and without proper cutters.5 Cutters You need a pair of cutters that will allow you to cu t a group of cables in a strai ght line. this can be a difficult task. and you might be able to make a few cables with it if you're lucky. It is very important that all the wires are the same lengths. If you do not have access to one of these tools. You definitely get what you pay for when it comes to crimpers! 2. you should have one that will last a lifetime. . I am talking about a tool to strip the ends off the wires you pervert! There are several speciali ed tools.2.3 Crimper You will need a modular crimping tool M advice on what brand to get? Well I reall don't have a preference at thi point but make sure you buy a good one.4 Stripper No I'm not talking about what Spot had at his bachelor party. extra special care must be used as to not damage the wires inside the jacket.6.

2. 3.1Introduction The term PBX was first applied when switchboard operators ran company switchboards by hand. Cut it back nice and square. Cut a piece of Cat 5 as long as you need. Sort the pairs by colour. green/green-white. As automated electromechanical and then electronic switching systems gradually began to replace the manual systems. You'll notice that there are 4 pairs of multi-coloured wires inside. 4. 6. 2. Insert the wires in the RJ11 connector properly. Solid state digital systems were sometimes referred to as EPABXs (electronic private automatic branch . even if you just nick it or partially cut it. will ruin your cable.8. Damaging one of the 8 wires. When you cut. Arrange the wires inside the cable according to the type of cable needed following the colours shown in the tables above. Strip about an inch of the insulation off the cable. Then use the cable tester to confirm whether your connections are correct. You should end up with wires colour coded as follows: blue/blue-white. It is extremely important that you only cut the plastic insulation/jacket and not the wire. the terms PABX (private automatic branch exchange) and PMBX (private manual branch exchange) were used to differentiate them. remember the old saying: Measure twice. Untwist the wires.2. and brown/brown-white. It will cut the jacket the right length to make a perfect crimp. cut once. Some crimping tools such as the one come with a built-in wire stripper. 5.8 Private branch exchange 2. You put the cable in to a stop on one side of the cutter. orange/orange-white.7 Procedures for termination 1. Make sure the cut on each end is clean and straight.

2 System components A PBX will often include: y y y y y y y y y The PBX¶s internal switching network. Console or switchboard allows the operator to control incoming calls. the PBX performs four main call processing duties: y y y y Establishing connections (circuits) between the telephone sets of two users (e. in-house telephony switching systems. with different manufacturers providing different features in an effort to differentiate their products. sometimes called lines. the term PBX is by far the most widely recognized. power cards and related devices that facilitate PBX operation. power switches and batteries. branches. Outside Telco trunks that deliver signals to (and carry them from) the PBX.8.8. ensuring the phone isn't already busy) Maintaining such connections as long as the users require them (i. Stations or telephone sets. or exchanging anything 2. Interconnecting wiring. Logic cards. closets. The acronym is now applied to all types of complex. vaults and other housings.3 PBX functions Functionally. Cabinets. even if they are not private.exchange).g. PBXs offer many other calling features and capabilities. metering calls) In addition to these basic functions. channelling voice signals between the users) Disconnecting those connections as per the user's requirement Providing information for accounting purposes (e. 2.g. control and logic.e. Common capabilities include (manufacturers may have a different name for each capability): y Auto attendant . Microcontroller or microcomputer for arbitrary data processing. switching and control cards. Now. mapping a dialled number to a physical phone. Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) consisting of sensors.

The exchange is configured with a list of numbers for a person. Interactive voice response Music on hold Night service Public address voice paging Shared message boxes (where a department can have a shared voicemail box) Voice mail Voice message broadcasting Welcome Message . the exchange routes it to each number on the list in turn until either the call is answered or the list is exhausted (at which point the call may be routed to a voice mail system). also known as find-me: Determines the routing of incoming calls. When a call is received for that person.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Auto dialling Automatic call distributor Automated directory services (where callers can be routed to a given employee by keying or speaking the letters of the employee's name) Automatic ring back Call accounting Call Blocking Call forwarding on busy or absence Call park Call pick-up Call transfer Call waiting Camp-on Conference call Custom greetings Customised Abbreviated dialling (Speed Dialling) Busy Override Direct Inward Dialling Direct Inward System Access (DISA) (the ability to access internal features from an outside telephone line) Do not disturb (DND) Follow-me.

3.2.1Analog radio This includes amplitude and frequency modulation. With developments in technology that have taken place broadcasting now includes many types of transmission. 3. AMPLIFIERS may be needed too at a appropriate points in the system to increase the signal strength.Since prime radio doesn¶t not use this type of broadcast we didn¶t do much about this type of broadcast.1 Basic requirements of broadcasting First of all the original information must be converted into electrical form to produce an electrical information SIGNAL. TSB and DRM. and at the destination a second transducer converts it back to the original energy form. For a radio system a TRANSMITTER is required at the source to send the signal over the radio link and a RECEIVER is required at the destination to recover the signal before applying it to the transducer. It is possible for a station to feed both AM and FM transmitters.XM satellite and Sirius satellite both licensed as Satellite Digital Audio Radio Services XM and Sirius are subscription services and each broadcasts more than 100 digital audio channels intended for reception by car.2Digital radio There are four main over the air digital radio systems in the world and all different from each other in several aspects. ISDB. . IBOC. One radio station feeds only one transmitter and this referred to as AM station or an FM station. These are particular methods of radio transmission.3 Satellite radio There are two similar XM and Sirius but competing satellite radio services in the united states. This is achieved by a suitable transducer. Prime radio uses FM transmitters. This type is also not evident in prime radio but just studied it.2 Types of radio broadcast 3. 3. DAB.2. with the energy travelling at the speed approaching that of light.0 INTRODUCTION Broadcasting by definition means to transmit by radio or television from a central point to cover a wide area like a public address system enables information to be broadcasted to all parts of the factory or similar large organisation.2.CHAPTER THREE BROADCASTING 3. portable and fixed receivers. At this point it is important to realise interference will be generated by electronic NOISE and DISTORTION of the electrical signal due a number of reasons and must be minimised because they are not desired 3. Suppose the electrical signal is now passed to the destination by a link.

SECAM refers to the way colour information is sent sequentially and stored from one line to the next.1Analog television This includes NTSC. Prime has TV station and this type but its transmitters are located in merry land in California.3. PAL systems that are used for analog television broadcast.3.NTSC is broadcast over the air on channels in the VHF and UHF bands.DVB-T and ISDBT.3 Satellite television These use Big Ugly Dishes and like in the SHF frequency band.NTSC defines the format of the video that carries the picture information and also how the audio and video signals are transmitted. This television station is always on air between 6am-6pm.2 Digital television Over the air digital television. DTV is referred to as Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting.3. There three main DTV systems in the world and ATSC. 3. 3. SECAM. 3.ATSC use a modulation system called 8-VSB.3.4 Frequency allocation used for broadcasting The propagation characteristics of radio waves through the atmosphere vary greatly with the frequency and the choice of frequencies for a particular radio service must take into account. .3 Types of television broadcast 3.PAL refers to the way colour information is carried on alternating lines. Radio waves are divided into different frequency bands according to their propagation characteristics as shown the table.DVB -T is transmitted over the air in the VHF and UHF TV bands. whereas DVB-T uses COFDM with QAM or QPSK modulation.like ATSC.

Transmitter power amplifier to produce the high-powered signal for broadcast. sound broadcasting. Short-distance communication. FM and TV. transmitter site for all types of broadcast facilities (AM.000m Application Long distance telegraphy broadcasting Long distance point to point service.Frequency band VLF Frequencies A below 30KHz Corresponding wavelength Above 10. Antenna Input from studio STL Processing Equipment Exciter Audio Amplifier Tower TX line y y y y y y Studio-transmitter link Processing equipment to prepare the signal for transmission. Transmitter line to carry the signal from the transmitter to the antenna.000 to 1000m MF 300KHz to 3MHz 1000 tm 100m HF 3MHz to 30MHz 100 to 10m UHF 300MHz to 3GHz 1m to 10cm SHF 3GHz to 30GHz 10cm to 1cm EHF Above 30GHz Below 1cm Viewed overall. analog and digital) have some similarities. Transmitting antenna to transmit the signals to the customers. Transmitter exciter to create the low-power version of the RF signal to be transmitted.shore distance.radar. most transmitter sites will have at least the following categories of equipment all as shown in the figure. line carrier systems Sound broadcasting. TV broadcasting. Medium and longdistance point to point services.airair and air ±ground services Point to point microwave communication systems and radar Satellite communications LF 30KHz to 300KHz 10. As a rule. . navigational aids. ship. sound broadcasting and line carrier systems. line carrier systems.

monitored and fed to the transmitter.5.3Audio processor This equipment that is used to prepare the signal for transmission by prevention of overlapping of the excessive signals. it has to be at the transmitter site. The audio processor needed to optimize the sound of the station may be located at the studio or at the transmitter site. The transmitter consists of a processor that prepares the signal for transmission that is prevention of overlapping of the excessive signal. monitored and tones are generated then fed to the transmitter via the studio transmitter-link. The signal moves to the exciter which converts the audio signal to an RF signal by modulation and also oscillation takes place.5. 3. If the stations transmitter is located adjacent to its studios. CD players or a hard disk recorder telephone lines. then the STL might be a cable or asset of cables connecting the output from the master control to the transmitter area like for the case of prime radio. The antennas used at prime radio are dipoles that direct the signal to different places. The modulated input from the exciter is amplified to a high-power radio frequency signal needed to drive the antenna.5 Process of broadcasting at prime radio. .1 Mixer TX line It is a device that allows several programmes to be mixed. The transmission line that is the RF cable now connects the transmitter to the antenna. 3. Prime transmitter site block diagram STL Mixer Processor Exciter RF Amplifier Antenna Tower Microphone 3.y Tower to support the antenna. It has multiple signals fed in to it from different program sources such as microphones. It has controls that allow the operator to select each source and feed one or more simultaneously to a mixed program output called a bus.5.th5s equipment is within the transmitter rack at the premises of prime radio. This is a small cable that runs underground from the studio to the transmitter house located at same place but a few meters away from the studio. If the station is also transmitting IBOC. Signals from the microphone go to the mixer or the console and this where the audio signal is mixed. This is located in the studio when we consider prime radio 3.2 Studio transmitter-link (STL) The STL is the means by which program material produced in the studio is transported to the transmitter site for broadcast. a common STL is used for the audio.

rigid coaxial feeder or waveguide. Cannon rearranged the pins and added a latch. Later.1 XLR connector The origin of the XLR connector was the Cannon "X Series" connector. Self. which are held up with guy wires attached to anchors in the ground. video.6.7 Antenna The antenna is mounted as high as possible usually on a tall tower. and guyed towers go up as high as about 2000feet. dipole. This connector soon became the industry's standard and nearly every connector manufacturer copied the Cannon connector.4 Exciter The exciter is a device that takes the baseband audio.5 Power amplifier The second main part of a broadcast transmitter is the power amplifier. The antenna is fed with the signal from the transmitter by the transmission line that extends the transmitter up the tower to the antenna.5.5. 3.6 Transmission line The transmitter line that connects the transmitter or diplexer to the antenna is usually a length of flexible or semi flexible coaxial cable.8 Tower Towers are of two types self-supporting and guyed towers (also known as masts). It fit the demands of the audio community except that it wouldn't latch into place. There are different types of antennas i. 3. 3. 3. Every antenna must have a director and a reflector.supporting towers are usually in the range up to 1000feet high. parabolic antenna.3-pin XLR connectors are mainly used for balanced audio signals. The connector was then called Cannon "XLR Series". . and could be easily unplugged. the female version was changed to put the contacts in a resilient rubber compound.e.3. The new connector was called Cannon "XL Series". horn. yagi and many others. This takes the modulated input from the exciter and amplifies it to the high-power radio frequency signal needed to drive the antenna power amplifiers for analog and digital transmission generally use similar components although the way they are set up and used may be very different. The output of the exciter is at a low level and has to be amplified further to produce the high power needed to feed the antenna. 3.5.5. Using a balanced signal reduces the risk of inference. An RF cable is mostly used as a transmission line.6 CABLE CONNECTORS There are 2 types of audio cable connectors commonly used for broadcasting and these include the XLR and the jack pin connectors. or digital bit stream baseband signal and converts it to a radio frequency signal with the appropriate method of modulation.5. Sometimes the transmitter is installed inside the transmitter housing like for the case of prime radio but otherwise it is a separate unit installed in an equipment rack next to the transmitter. 3.

5mm Jacks: Mono and stereo. 1/4" Mono Jack 1/4" Stereo Jack Some common uses of jack plugs are : y Headphone and earphone jacks on a wide range of equipment. many different configurations of 1/4Ǝ jack plug were used. the ring is the right. only the two-conductor version with a rounded tip profile was compatible between different manufacturers. The wiring for all of them is the same. 1/4Ǝ plugs are common on home and professional component equipment. 5-pin etc 3-pin XLR Male 3-pin XLR Female 3. 3.5mm (¼"). and the sleeve is the shield. There are a number of different XLR's . Most 1/4Ǝ plugs. now have the profile of the original stereo plug.5 mm plugs are nearly .y y y Pin 1 is the earth (or shield) Pin 2 is the +ve (or 'hot') Pin 3 is the -ve (or 'cold). the stereo jack has ring. 4-pin. Of these many varieties. while 3. the tip is the +ve.6. mono or stereo. The mono jack has a tip and a sleeve. and the sleeve is the shield. Jacks also come in various sizes .5mm. y y y On the mono jack the tip is the +ve. On a stereo jack being used for a stereo signal (left and right).2 Jack pin connectors In the original application in manual telephone exchanges.3-pin. and the sleeve is the -ve or shield. the ring is the ve. On a stereo jack being used for a balanced signal. the tip is the left. a tip and a sleeve. with several tip profiles. although a few rounded mono plugs are also still produced . some accommodating five or more conductors.5mm. 2. There are two types of 6.6.

Note that traditional. In this usage.5 mm connectors for composit e video and audio output. 2. often providing a 1/4Ǝ unbalanced line connector alongside (or in a few cases in the middle of!) and as an a lternative to an XLR balanced line connector. and portable DVD players use 3. a TRS connection is used for mono audio plus video. and twoway radios. Stereo 3. use of a stereo plug for a mono microphone is for balanced output) o LCD monitors with built-in speakers will require a 3. y y y y y 3. Modular synthesizers commonly use monophonic cables for creating patches. The majority of professional audio equipment uses mono jacks as the standard unbalanced input or output connector. Typically. but are used on communication equipment such as cordless phones. a change in voltage on the wire indicat es a drum stroke. Tip/ri¡¢/£l¤¤¥¤ ¤r §i¡¨l¨¢y   ¦ . usua lly with 5 vo lt power available on the r ing.5 mm plugs are not as common. sometimes with remot e control switching on the r ing. and in addition o Sustain peda ls.y y y y universal for portable audio equipment. Electronic keyboards use jacks for a similar range of uses to guitars and amplifiers. Electronic drums use jacks to connect sensor pads to the synthesizer module or MIDI encoder. camcorders. Microphone inputs on tape and cassette recorders.5 mm jacks are used for : o Line in (stereo) o Line out (stereo) o Headphones/loudspeaker out (stereo) o Microphone input (mono. Personal computers. Some compact and/or economy model audio mixing desks use stereo jacks for balanced microphone inputs. incompatible.5 mm ma le-ma le cable from the sound card. o Expression peda ls. mobile phones. Consumer electronics devices such as digital cameras. sometimes using a sound card plugged into the computer. and a TRRS connection forstereo audio plus video. Patching points (insert points) on a wide range of equipment.

Slee e: usually ground 2. negative phase for balanced mono signals.ended . Two separate wires carry the signal. %&b'('&ce) c0&&ec120& 3 2 1 $ This is a two wire system. positive phase for balanced mono signals. sometimes for low impedance microphone in consumer equipment. The balanced system is more immune to noise and is preferred method in professional audio.#. The unbalanced syst em is susceptible to noise pickups. ce c ec!"   This is a three wire syst em. Another term for unbalanced circuits is single. signal line for unbalanced mono signals 4. one inverted in polarity with respect to the other and the third is the shield which again is connected to the ground. Below is how unbalanced connection is made.1.They are used for high impedance microphone and pickups. Balanced connections are almost always used for low impedance microphones. Insulating rings 3. Tip: Left-hand channel for stereo signals.. One wire carries the audio signal and the other called the shield is connect ed to the ground or the electrical reference point. 2 3 1 2 1 . Below is how a balanced cable is connected. power supply for power-requiring mono signal sources 3. Ring: Right-hand channel for stereo signals. 3 2 1 3 . The most common balanced connection is the three pin XLR-type. TYP S OF CO ©    C T O S 3 .

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). capacity and quality.1. as with all telecommunications networks. General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) and EGDE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution) are examples of 2. GSM stands for Global System for Mobile communication 4. private networks and other mobile networks. y Home Location Register (HLR) The HLR is a centralized network database that stores and manages all mobile subscriptions belonging to a specific operator.0 INTRODUCTION First generation (1G) systems were analog with reasonably reliable networks but limited service offerings and did not permit roaming between networks. Each system comprises a number of functional units or individual component of the mobile network. GSM networks are operated. private networks and other mobile networks. If the capacity of the HLR is exceeded. It includes the following functional units: y Mobile services Switching Center (MSC) The MSC performs the telephony switching functions for the mobile network.CHAPTER FOUR GSM 4. The information stored includes: o Subscriber identity o Subscriber supplementary services o Subscriber location information o Subscriber authentication information The HLR can be implemented in the same network node as the MSC or as a stand-alone database. such as the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).1 GSM NETWORK COMPONENTS The GSM network is divided into two systems. It controls calls to and from other telephony and data systems. It acts as a permanent store for a person's subscription information until that subscription is cancelled. The SS is responsible for performing call processing and subscriber related functions. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). (SS) components The MSC performs the telephony switching functions for the mobile network. additional HLRs may be added. maintained and managed from computerized centers. Second generation (2G) mobile systems are digital and bring significant advantages in terms of service sophistication. Thus we speak of 2. public data networks. The increasing demand for wireless access to the Internet has led to further developments within 2G systems.1 Switching System. The two systems are: y Switching System (SS) y Base Station System (BSS) In addition. GSM is a 2G technology. public data networks. .5G systems. It controls calls to and from other telephony and data systems. 4.5G technology and are standardized packet switched Technologies enabling mobile use of the Internet. such as the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).

In the OMC. the VLR will already have the information required for call set-up.25 or TCP/IP data network links. A number of BSCs may be controlled by each MSC.1. radio channel assignment and the collection of cell configuration data. The BSS is comprised of the following functional units: y Base Station Controller (BSC) The BSC manages all the radio-related functions of a GSM network. TheAUC is a database connected to the HLR which provides it with the authentication parameters and ciphering keys used to ensure network security y Equipment Identity Register (EIR) The EIR is a database containing mobile equipment identity information which helps to block calls from stolen. The advantage of this hierarchical approach is that staff at the NMC can concentrate on long-term . When a subscriber roams into a new MSC service area. y Authentication Center (AUC) The main function of the AUC is to authenticate the subscribers attempting to use a network. The VLR can be regarded as a distributed HLR as it holds a copy of the HLR information stored about the subscriber. The HLR sends a copy of the information to the VLR and updates its own location information. y Base Transceiver Station (BTS) The BTS controls the radio interface to the MS.3 NETWORK MONITORING CENTERS y Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) An OMC is a computerized monitoring center which is connected to other network components such as MSCs and BSCs via X. A group of BTSs are controlled by a BSC.2 BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS) COMPONENTS The BSS performs all the radio-related functions. there is one VLR for each MSC in a network. or defective MSs. 4. In this way. When the subscriber makes a call. It should be noted that due to subscriber equipment separation in GSM. There may be one or several OMCs within a network depending on the network size. unauthorized. the barring of MS equipment does not result in automatic barring of a subscriber. staffs are presented with information about the status of the network and can monitor and control a variety of system parameters. It is a high capacity switch that provides functions such as MS handover. The VLR temporarily stores subscription information so that the MSC can service all the subscribers currently visiting that MSC service area.y Visitor Location Register (VLR) The VLR database contains information about all the mobile subscribers currently located in an MSC service area. Thus. the VLR connected to that MSC requests information about the subscriber from the subscriber's HLR. The BTS comprises the radio equipment such as transceivers and antennas which are needed to serve each cell in the network.1. Only one NMC is required for a network and this controls the subordinate OMCs. 4. y Network Management Center (NMC) Centralized control of a network is done at a Network Management Center (NMC). it is used to protect network operators against fraud.

2. This extended version of GSM is called EGSM.GSM MSs consist of: o A mobile terminal o A Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) 4. 4.person" communication rather than "station-tostation". The main difference between the American GSM 1900 standard and GSM 900 is that it SUPPORTS . each allowing the subscriber to make and receive calls.2 GSM FREQUENCY BANDS As GSM has grown worldwide. The range or coverage area of an MS depends on the output power and frequency band of the MS.2. 1900 and 800. Different types of MSs have different output power capabilities and consequently different ranges .2.System-wide issues.1 GSM 800 The multi band support in Ericsson¶s GSM system is now enhanced to include support for the GSM 800 MHz band.3 GSM 1800 In 1990. but this has proven to be the most effective method. The frequencies used in Uganda are 900 and 1800. In this way. the United Kingdom requested the start of a new version of GSM adapted to the 1800 MHz frequency band. the service to subscribers is improved. while the primary version is called P-GSM. GSM 1900 MHz is seen as an opportunity to bridge this gap. which provides extra network capacity. 4. Licenses have been issued in several countries and networks are in full operation. 4. In some countries and extended version of GSM 900 can be used. in order to increase competition between operators. the Personal Communications Services (PCS) concept was specified in the United States. The basic idea is to enable "person to. PCS does not require that such services be implemented using cellular technology. By granting licenses for GSM 1800 in addition to GSM 900. whereas local personnel at each OMC can concentrate on short term. regional issues. due to increased competition.2.4 GSM 1900 In 1995. Several types of MSs exist. 4.2 GSM 900 The original frequency band specified for GSM was 900 MHz Most GSM networks worldwide use this band. Manufacturers of MSs offer a variety of designs and features to meet the needs of different markets. thus increasing capacity for operators with a license for this frequency. y MOBILE STATION (MS) An MS is used by a mobile subscriber to communicate with the mobile network. it has expanded to operate at four main frequency bands: 900. 1800. a country can increase the number of operators. This frequency band was traditionally used by TDMA. The frequencies available for PCS are around 1900 MHz As GSM 900 could not be used in North America due to prior allocation of the 900 MHz frequencies.

 The distance has been long from home to kireka.3 RECOMMEN DATIONS  I recommend prime radio to train the students from 8am to5pm and ensure that the students train from Monday to Friday. some of the challenges I faced include the following. 5.  Inadequate facilitation by the university in terms of finance.4.1 INTRODUCTION This section discusses the achievements realized throughout my training. CONCLUSION The training was a success and I was able to acquire some hands on skills and special thanks go to the staff of prime radio for their cooperation and support during my report.  I recommend the trainers at prime radio to ask for weekly reports from the interns. the challenges encountered and are concluded by giving recommendations regarding this training. 5.CHAPTER FIVE CHALLENGES. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 5. 5.  Inadequate components.2 CHALLENGES During this training. . This helps us when we are writing down our report.