On the Present Formation of a Race

Tatras Mountains
BY: DR.

in the

GUSTAVE LE BON

Robert K. Stevenson: Translator, Editor, and Assistant

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We demonstrated the extreme insufficiency of these methods. there was urgency to draft in the form of a questionnaire very simple instructions. anxious to see the uselessness of their research divulged. with the pretense of embracing all the sciences. being that. hardly troubled themselves during their travels but to measure skulls and skeletons. Exclusively hard-working. beyond which exist nations languages from that of the mountainfolk and with which the latter has not devoted to brigandage less than a century ago. We In our previous article devoted to the state of anthropology in France. Despite a climate so harsh that one almost obliged to go up to the extreme north 1 . in order to assemble accurate and comparable records concerning the physical. Regarding the particular circumstances. and the little The approval that the most authoritative anthropologists have expressly given to these weakness of the criticisms formulated against them by professed craniologists. we believe what are—from our personal experience—the data that a traveller can easily on a human agglomeration visited by him. the questions to study can be vastly collect different. only. notions. but. a most curious but yet very compatriots. We finally arrived to this conclusion that. moreover. we shall proceed to consider the practical side of the question and investigate carried out abroad. for each people there It is is a which is important to know. Until the it how anthropology can be useful to indicate above simple instructions of which we have spoken exist. 1882) we examined the methods applied to the study of races had provided and could provide. intellectual and social state of the human races. they are today very honest and is known region to our I was the first Frenchman united. that the majority of the measurements asked for by these travellers were entirely useless and caused them to waste precious time. surrounded on all speaking different what the oldest mountainfolk said. Setting aside for now theoretical considerations. the circumstances that induced I must first make two remarks about me to undertake this study. by common ground that the reader can easily make out and way of suggestion that we have given the indications that will be seen to follow. Russia to visit I determined on my way little back from a trip to the Tatras mountains. results that the current 1 pointed out that to believe that one knows something of a people just because one measured some bones. according to to have travelled through their country. It is evident that depending on the special knowledge of the traveller and the populations he observes. and showed that professed anthropologists. that many more important studies assert themselves to the attention of it is silly such travellers.ON THE PRESENT FORMATION OF A RACE IN THE TATRAS MOUNTAINS (Revue Scientifique —March 18. I found here a short people inhabiting a territory which is sides by steep and nearly inaccessible mountains. only serve to confirm us in the principles that we have set forth.

one is put on the scent of the research to effectuate.of Europe in order to find a similar one. despite very infertile soil and an alimentary regimen truly Lacedaemonian (since oatmeal. It seemed interesting to me to seek out the solution to the problem which presented itself before me. and notably the fundamental work published in the Mittheilungen by Koristka (of Prague) fifteen years ago. influences of crossbreeding and the environment could have given why. . their artistic clearly distinguish themselves and from literary aptitudes. in spite of the very difficult conditions of existence. psychology and linguistics. natural selection. presents a superiority so great. so that the Podhaleans there are almost as isolated as those living on an out-of-the-way island in the ocean. mountains whose beauty and wild aspect one can only compare to the most picturesque regions of Switzerland. their isolation is just as complete. rare The were entirely The answer to these easily. works published about these mountains and which I had studied before my trip mute on these questions. as well as the populations which surround them and have been able to influence them. the reproductions of the photographs that we have executed in this country. I naturally wondered from where it this curious population could have come. By their most lively intelligence. where the by the short people of which we have undertaken this study are situated. This territory is hemmed in by a belt of not easily accessible mountains. Our first pages are devoted to the geography of the Tatras. Slovaks. and the environment which have given birth to the present race. I shall limit myself to giving a succinct summary of each section. Simply wishing to present an idea of the results provided by the very uncomplicated methods to which I have had recourse. how it was possible for me to clearly differentiate the its reconstituted observed population from the neighboring populations and how. only discuss the physical geography. Geography and Ethnography of the Tatras. as well as by their outward aspect. intellectual. what birth to it. inquiries is recorded in a report 1 which has appeared in the Bulletins de la Societe de geographie de Paris The reader who peruses it will see how one can quite with the resources at the disposal of a traveller. arrive at a sufficient knowledge of the physical. It is at the foot of these mountains that the territory From the point of view of ethnography. Beyond the crown of the Tatras mountains diverse peoples are met with: Ruthenians. who are situated though in conditions of existence considerably more favorable. — Before entering upon the study of a people it is important to first understand the land where they live. villages inhabited named Podhale exists. their environment. after having past with the tools of anthropology. The reader will easily convince himself of this by examining. moral and social state of a people. We can then begin with a rapid examination of the country. With such records obtained about these elements of valuable information. they their neighbors. it was easy to bring to light the influences of crossbreeding. the Tatras mountainfolk of which I have spoken live in a state of remarkable prosperity. The memoirs written about the Tatras. in the journal le Tour du monde of last year. Magyars. milk and water compose pretty much the only elements).

and literary aptitudes.BWBB^^Hti By their lively intelligence. their musical. Wood creating the image of Janosik. the people of the Tatras mountains clearly distinguish themselves from carver (bottom) is their neighbors. . artistic. the brigand hero of the Podhaleans.

Economic and Social Conditions of Existence. we have examined the present conditions. The state of landed property. executed by means of the photographs that we took in the country. but not as one sees them. as one knows. somewhat recent time ~ After having researched the former conditions of existence of the inhabitants of Podhale. meanwhile. and perspective panoramas. The first can present an idea of the relief of a country only after one performs a very long and necessary labor in order to transform them into profiles. and finally 3) by having chemical or physical conditions. one can carry out the measurements that Nothing similar is possible with the former. as etc. The influence that this special environment is able to bear upon the formation of the race living in Podhale studied in another section. but not as they are. I believe. interest geographers. deform objects so much that one acknowledge them as what originates from a picturesque representation. hachures. their manners and customs. is unknown within this region. — From various indications relative to the geography of the country— the flora. which spreads is itself over all the populations bordering Podhale. establishing the generality of brigandage to a as well as determining the aptitudes that this kind of life is bound to create. the only other methods that geographers presently possess for expressing the relief of the land surface are. we have presented. have been studied in turn. in the lower portion of which who encircle them. for the mountainfolk's diet composed almost entirely of oats during the winter and exclusively of a special preparation of . This same section contains various records concerning the number of inhabitants of Podhale and the very different peoples region. different questions. The perspective panorama shows things as one sees them. by means of a have laid particular system parallel It is plans that we out with the assistance of the engineer Monsieur Roginski. Perspective panoramas. is only able to Along with our geometric panorama. their expenses. but of which the visible result that goiter.. fauna. which does not deform one would execute on the terrain itself. easy to describe. their sources of income. speaking different languages from that of the Podhaleans3 and with whom the proven by an inspection of the registers of the parish churches. and industry. level curves.Germans. a perspective panorama of one of the most interesting parts of the Tatras. Respecting this latter panorama. It besides. objects. have never united. the alimentary regimen of the mountainfolk. way of representing the relief of a country which will. latter. agriculture. Hachures do not give but a quite warped notion of the actual height of mountains. etc. we shall limit ourselves to calling is attention to the alimentary regimen. The Environment. It is only on the northern frontier of the country that the Podhaleans find themselves in touch with other individuals understanding their language. the state of the family. In fact. besides. shows them as they all really are. and climate-we investigated if the environment where the Podhaleans sojourn differs. 2) a barrenness of the its from all the adjoining regions by possessing 1) a very harsh which binds its inhabitants to an entirely unique alimentary difficult to distinctly define is regimen. given the present state of science. The geometric panorama. It is accompanied by we have tried to give an exact idea of of geometric panorama possessing a map of the drawing a the country's configuration. Not being able in this summary to enter into any detail upon these is. resembles that in which the neighboring populations live or if clearly it This comparative study showed that Podhale differs soil climate.

appealing to the saints for the success of the enterprise. as much from the physical point of view as from the intellectual point of view. and yet they were extremely religious. their literary and very extraordinary musical aptitudes. This comparison shows that of an extremely harsh climate. circulate throughout the country. 4 At a time not that remote. their religious sentiments. are replete with evidence of the protection which heaven accorded to the highwaymen. . The study of this latter has provided us with a new proof of the following fact which we have previously insisted upon in our prior work-that is. We have pointed out the development of their imagination and their love of the marvellous. such records throw a very bright light on the way of thinking and state feeling of the peoples 1 who have given birth to them. in spite Psychology of the Race. we one of those which does not appear in history. the second. The psychological qualities of the Podhaleans ancestors having been reconstituted by the their legends. Of the eight or ten infants that the majority of Podhalean families produce. These are then the kind of important records which modern is But the small population of Podhale historical science is beginning to fully appreciate. was built by some thieves in gratitude for the divine protection obtained for one of their expeditions. sheep's milk over the summer. present-day descendants. have to study this past state. their superstitions. In this manner there operates on each generation a selection process which only permits the strongest and most resistant individuals to live. a situation very much more favorable and prosperous than their neighbors. The mental constitution of a people being mainly derived from its past state. The first represented the celestial powers. in our judgment. of the complete and the state independence existing between the development of religious sentiments and morality. an exceedingly poor soil. It is asserted that the old church of Saint Anne. information substantially The description of the intellectual and moral aptitudes of a more important than that furnished by some skeletons. at Nowy Targ. of the personages of we next studied the mental constitution of then- is to say. the description of — race providing. Only the This section concludes with a comparison between the Podhaleans' economic and social conditions of existence and those of all the neighboring populations. — Having established that the psychological qualities of the Podhaleans clearly differ from those of the surrounding races. the person set whose power was the most to dread. Properly interpreted. first Never did one out on an expedition to conduct some sort of pillage The legends that one of the brigand Janosik that we have related. notably the without God and Physical Qualities of the Race. and therefore for this reconstitution we have had to have recourse to the study of their legends and tales. the particularities of their character and intelligence. that of their morality.most vigorous natures are able to withstand such a modest diet and rigorous climate. the mountainfolk devoted themselves entirely to robbery. only a small number reach adulthood. The priest and the highwayman were at that time the powers who possessed the most prestige. it was interesting to investigate whether these psychological differences corresponded with the anatomical differences. we have tried to thoroughly investigate the psychological state of the Podhaleans. the Podhaleans occupy.

blond or auburn hair (hardly ever dark). Whenever these intermediate forms become the overwhelming majority. presents as general characteristics is the following: generally elongated figure. We have. the fundamental types. 30 percent an aquiline nose. led us to recognize that the different physiognomies observed among the Podhaleans of the Tatras amount to two fundamental types more or less pure that one meets with quite often. clear proof of this by the intermediate forms that link the two extreme types that we have described and who are by far the most numerous. Among men. this latter dark hair this tint. more numerous than the preceding.word much debated nowadays. very great rest brachycephalism. by contrast. besides. and whose description photographed. Half of the subjects observed had blond hair. Exceedingly rare among individuals belonging to the first type. it is consider the second as special to Podhale. The numbers and totals that these measurements have generated. blue eyes with dark hair) proves that these two types have been intermixing with one another for a long time. voluminous auburn or dark-colored hair. through acts of crossbreeding repeated over a long time. at least in the sense that in all the very much more numerous here than surrounding populations. the title of race can only be acquired when. Our anthropological measurements have been carried out on 50 individuals of the 5 masculine sex. gave skull. is met with in a third of the cases among those individuals belonging to second type. from which these forms are derived and of which they are nothing more than atavistic reminiscences already quite attenuated. nose frequently turned up. The frequent association within each of the two preceding types of characteristics belonging to the opposite type (for example. as with animals. The second rare type. light or dark-colored eyes-but all most often light. and which we shall reproduce later on. Too many ill-mixed diverse populations compose them." so qualities In order to entirely steer clear of a discussion regarding the interpretation of the which are regularly transmitted by heredity. and the present race in . we have ascribed to it the most generally adopted sense and have indicated that we simply mean by this expression a union of individuals possessing common "race. us the following indications: short height. The inhabitants of the United States or the French themselves will perhaps form one day a race: they do not make up one yet. with the hair presenting the nuances from clear blond to the deepest black. and the 50 percent had a straight nose. but also upon follows. Two races will be different if the qualities transmitted by heredity are different for each. straight or often aquiline nose (this latter shape most among the Poles and Ruthenians). heredity has fixed in the individuals living together uniform qualities regularity which reappear from father to son with and constancy. blue or gray eyes (very rarely dark-colored). The but I first type that I have just mentioned is frequently found among the neighboring races. The study which was undertaken not only on the individuals that we had measured and 6 all those that we had encountered. The first type presents the following characteristics: roundish and even figure. will have disappeared. cheekbones often prominent.

human race. It is not only among the Mongols and the Chinese that one finds oblique eyes. Kopernicki. 1 Differentiation of the Race. but it is among these peoples that one encounters the largest number of individuals possessing such eyes. Such marks are not the exclusive attribute of any people since. never coalesced with the former and were consequently not influenced by them. it -- After having determined the anthropological qualities of the race existing in Podhale. form isolated and different islets such that the Podhaleans. its besides association with other special characteristics. first. it is nevertheless much more among the majority of other races that we have had the opportunity to observe. Concerning the 50 Podhaleans did not find a single one skull. because one of the most valid of those that distinguish the superior races from the inferior races. populations surrounding Podhale. because this and the Slovaks on the Hungarian side of the Tatras. it of a novel remained for us to research which conditions of its crossbreeding. Our comparative Germans-that situation study. in order to be conclusive. while at the same time one generally counts among the neighboring observed. the environment. . who was not brachycephalic. Only these marks frequency and their constant association with other qualities form the natural endowment of certain races and enable one to make a distinction between these races. There are scarcely any qualities which one can say exclusively belong to one The most obvious are only of importance by their frequency. we could eliminate from the very was obliged to take account of all the were some-the Magyars and the These peoples. Because of its frequency. all possess a pronounced brachycephalism. I races about 12 non-brachycephalics out of every 100 subjects. but does not yet But. for example. or natural selection could have caused formation.course of formation will have a homogeneity that possess. affirm the existence remained to examine the analogies and differences that she presents As our verifications of fundamental differences allowed us to race. by their social and language. but among them. making classifications. I therefore only had to compare my measurements to immediately perceive the analogies or the differences that his in order to may exist between the compared populations. in reality. perhaps not be useless to remark in passing that the anthropological qualities of any race only have value because of the manner in which they are associated. What remained to be studied were the Jews and Poles of Galicia as well as the Ruthenians needless. Dr. To repeat our measurements on them was work had already been done on the first three peoples by a learned anthropologist of Krakow. Whatever may be the physiognomic type to which the inhabitants of Podhale belong. with the neighboring populations. it tends toward possessing. Likewise for other no matter what-prognathism or prominent cheekbones. I shall not now lay stress on it here as soon come back to It will this matter. sufficiently far away from there the frontiers of Podhale. this quality all acquires a great value from the point of view of particularities. it is As for the development of the qualities volume of the 111 a most important quality. one finds among all peoples individuals who possess them. such as the color of the skin. and above all by their frequency. even though this homogeneity realized here than is not yet complete.

Dr. and stupid. are short in height. and in a word have a constitution much lively less vigorous than the Slovaks. the Slovaks and Podhaleans present considerable The Slovaks are individuals of tall height and large stature. instead of being like them lazy are. Kopernicki and those Kopernicki having expressed his totals as averages. Here now is our table of comparison made between the various populations measured by upon which we have effectuated corresponding measurements. Independently of the way of life. general appearance rather slim than robust. I did not visit the Slovaks on the southern side of the Tatras. we have done the same in order to render our results comparable. but at the same time they are thick-headed and lazy. by contrast. but the differences existing between the Podhaleans and the Slovaks are so manifest that one perceives them differences of language. the averages.Among the races measured by the author that have just been mentioned. Relations special research moreover. but. Le Bon was the first Frenchman to visit the Tatras mountains region. and at first sight. infrequent between these two our request by Dr. The reader who chooses to refer to the table presented a little further on will easily see to what extent groupings in series show more convincing and conclusive results than do Dr. The external differences. The conducted at examining the civil state registers of the border villages did not reveal to him any example of a marriage between the Slovaks and the Podhaleans. Dr. they are most and sharp. and for a very long time no one has ever gotten married between them. most sought after for this reason during the era when the regiments of Hungarian grenadiers were only composed of individuals of gigantic height. Kopernicki of peoples. . they maintain quite poor communications. Podhaleans. diet.

5 25.5 84.5 100.0 Auburn Dark/black Total 37.0 26.1 6.0 100.2 Blond 31.1 Straight 67.0 100.0 34.0 Nose (in Percent %) 59.0 Dark-colored Total 54. .3 84.6 34.8 18.3 15.5 29.4 .7 Hair Color (in Percent %) 23.1 36.0 162.2 159.4 34. .9 6.0 Eves (in Percent %) 45.6 68.0 20.0 34.5 Light-colored 60.5 Transverse diameter 15.0 Average height (cm. . circumference. 54.5 Turned-up Total 9.4 Anterior-posterioi diameter 18.9 100.1 70.0 100.7 39.0 100.3 164.4 50.2 15.8 100.0 100.6 54.0 100.3 54.0 Aquiline 30.4 29.4 85.0 18.3 56.2 100.9 Cephalic index.0 100.9 45.2 15.) 162.Skull Measures (in centimeters) Jews Ruthenians Poles of Podhaleans of the Galicia Tatras Average cranial .0 100.2 18.3 18.0 32.3 70. 83.0 30.0 39.

10 .66% of the population of the Tatras mountains possess blond or auburn as is hair. evident in these Podhalean children.

joined to the special we have described and the short height of the Podhaleans. disregarding the individual exceptions. Larger proportion of dark-haired people than among the among other Galician Poles. most important is the very and of its circumference. and above all the considerable enlargement of the diameters and circumference of the skull. one of the The following table summarizes from this point of view the results obtained. the Jew does not mix with his neighbors. but their influence else. It indicates how many. Brachycephalism a little greater. confirms what we have tried to demonstrate in another work-that the dimensions of the skull are always correlated with the state of intelligence. by contrast. Besides. great development of the diameter of the skull Among the differences that we have just highlighted. larger. Without a doubt. there are who fall into the various dimension divisions of the cranial circumferences shown in the table's first column. because less in Galicia than everywhere and less yet in Podhale than in the rest of Galicia. whenever. One can formulate these striking differences by saying that a Podhalean differs as much from the Poles and Ruthenians of Galicia as these two peoples differ from the Jews. Anterior-posterior and transverse diameters of the skull. Considerably higher proportion of aquiline noses the Podhaleans (nearly among the Poles and Ruthenians (about 6%). with regard to the aquiline noses. Cranial circumference much bigger. one considers them in series. but mainly more general. compared to its extreme rarity among the other Galicians (1/3%). This fact. This high proportion of aquiline noses. Podhaleans.Almost as important a quality to add to the preceding ones. given the intellectual superiority of the Podhaleans. clearly them from the neighboring populations. 11 . we must mention as well the relative frequency of curly hair among the Podhaleans (16%). because they possess particular qualities that these races do not possess. examination of the preceding table shows that the Podhaleans present with the diverse populations of Galicia the following principal differences: An Height shorter than that of the other Galicians. among 100 given individuals. the Jews possess them as much as the is not worth examining. from one of the races that is the easiest to distinguish from all the others. a large proportion of Jews (almost 30%) than 31%) also possess aquiline noses. the Podhaleans have a deep contempt and abhorrence for them. physiognomic type which differentiates The previously mentioned qualities likewise prove that the present-day Podhaleans of the Tatras are by no means the simple result of crossbreeding of the populations that now surround them. that is to say. so rare among the Slavs.

are extracts from our report on the variations of skull capacity. The latter two columns. 12 . Kopernicki has kindly consented to extract for us from the registers of the anthropology section of the very foot of the Tatras. that Dr. The next column has been calculated by means of the 50 Podhaleans measured at Zakopane. Academy of Sciences of Krakow.One of (the districts this table's columns has been made with the measurements of 254 cranial circumferences of Galician peasants from the regions adjoining the northern border of Podhale of Limanowa and Zywiec). at the owed equally to personal research. Shepherds with flock and sheep dogs in the Tatras mountains.

5 0.0 J | 100.0 18.2 ") 14.0 ( J > 44.0 2. 9 56 to 57 57 to 58 58 to 59 V J "\ 49.0 100.0 J 8.0 13.0 .0 20.0 V42.0 13 .0 2.5^ 14. 18.0 59 to 60 60 to 61 Total (%) 100.5 22.0 54 to 55 55 to 56 20.1 57.0 5.9 I 2.0^ 18.0 100. 6 10.0 6.0 2.0 Total (%) 100.6 36.0 "V 18.2 57.4 J 5.9 7.6 f J ") t 6.0 - I 6.6 SUMMARY OF THE PRECEDING TABLE Percentage with small heads 45.0 100.2 I 45.5 52.0 56.0 0.0 8.0 Average Circumference 54.J Galician peasants Cranial bordering the Tatras Podhaieans of the Tatras Learned and Middle-class Parisians cultured Parisians Circumference (in centimeters) 50 to 51 51 to 52 12.6 V ' I 5.5 52 to 53 53 to 54 16.5 ^ 6.0 I 24.5 42.) 2.0 100.6 1.0 44.7 > J ^ > 28.0 4.0 8.0 52.8^ 100.0 > 52.0 6.8 70.5 2.5 J V 52.4 0.7 28.0 24.0 Percentage with average-sized heads Percentage with large heads 49.8 | J I 70.0 4.0 24.

at least as far as the shape of the skull is concerned. we discover a verification of the following law which was enunciated by us in a previous work-that the hierarchical position of a race is determined by the more or less considerable number of voluminous brains that this race contains. one sees from the preceding table that at the same time when the large cranial circumferences prove to be most numerous. there are 45. First of all. there are twenty out one can characterize as gigantic. given that the among the learned and cultured Parisians. in considering all upon the anthropological surrounding races. there are only whose head circumference exceeds 57 centimeters. whereas there exist eight out of 100 fact is quite characteristic. This have carried out our measurements is number of learned and cultured Parisians upon which we precisely equal to the number of Podhaleans that we have had occasion to study. respecting 100 Galician peasants. This same table further shows us that the Podhaleans form. by not just depending setting aside the psychological differences.Studying all these numbers provides a strong lesson. We have already shown how the environment in which the Podhaleans live. and in a direct or indirect way the environment above all had its own role. Moreover. 58 of 100 among the Podhaleans. there are 53. and way of life differ from that influences that Among the we 14 . it us to investigate the conditions of environment. qualities and the Podhaleans of the Tatras as constituting a special race differing clearly from the Haw the Present Race ofPodhale Has Formed Itself. We have already emphasized this homogeneity more important-the generality of their brachycephalism. crossbreeding. we can say that the firmly established anthropological differences existing between the Podhaleans and their neighbors are as large as those existing between the European races that science has believed itself well-founded in distinguishing. Deviations in cranial circumferences are. To be sure. show us this. among 100 middle-class Parisians. with 100 Podhaleans. Lastly. As for the extremely large skulls. a race much more homogeneous than the neighboring Polish highlanders. in effect. respecting another point even To conclude our preceding discussion. with 100 Galician peasants. 5 Our tables. there are only 6 by whatever differences the comparison of averages can express. that the inhabitants remains for Having demonstrated the fact ofPodhale constitute a race distinctly different from all the adjacent peoples. we believe ourselves to be equally well-founded. The differences existing between the Podhaleans and the peoples to which we have compared them are much more eloquently made evident by these numbers than Podhaleans. in effect. certainly each played its part. their diet. significantly greater among the latter than among the former. the proportion is is even more striking: among the Galician peasants there only one individual out of 100 centimeters. as regards the skulls that one does not ever find them among the Podhaleans nor among whose cranial circumference is greater than the Galicians. with 100 learned and cultured Parisians. 70. and immigration that it. the small circumferences become rarer: among 100 whose cranial circumference is smaller than 54 centimeters. have given birth to have seen to enumerate. there are 42.

of Zakopane.70% of the Podhaleans have blue eyes. both of these characteristics are present in this elderly resident 15 . 42% of them large heads.

it does not crossbreed anymore with other peoples. But it is necessary not to forget that the environment can only act under certain special conditions. partly through an analogous qualities that and most capable were able to be triumphant and bequeath to their descendants the had made them victorious. be Now that this unceasingly intermix. despite its energy. it was necessary to either tame it or die. not having anymore then to struggle against such influences. observed. can freely act. influences so heavy Does the population of Podhale find itself in these conditions where the environment is able to exert a powerful effect? Is this population. But in an earlier time. in a word. most intelligent. that is to say. by the slow accumulation of acquired by each generation. between different peoples possessing different hereditary aptitudes. If the environment is a strong factor. pitiful. to transform the it. all the feeble. upon races from the interbreeding similar conditions. A similar selection. More particularly. and how numerous have been peoples who have invaded this part of Europe since the days of the primitive Aryans and the hordes of Attila. for various reasons. Under parallel conditions. heredity. It is is ancient. Under of the past find themselves annulled or dissociated by hereditary influences of an equal weight. and. had need for refuge. the qualities fixed it. and incapable beings-unfortunates centuries qualities who only the philanthropic institutions of Western Civilization prevent from vanishing~are fatally condemned to die. repeated over the upon the infants and adults. the conditions of existence are so difficult and the climate so harsh that the majority of infants succumb. which represents the aptitudes accumulated during the passage of an immense length of time. additionally. very often unrecognized. very old races is who have successively invaded and who all have found here resulting their tomb. by dint of intermixing more and more with itself as well as submitting itself to the action of the same environment and same natural selection process. and the environment. is an even much more powerful factor. Only strong enough to struggle against heredity. recalling One should realize that the most varied elements must have been present by the how diverse the nationalities are who surround the Tatras. Numerous historical examples prove that when a race environment itself. when the steeply sloped and hardly accessible regions of the Tatras served as shelter for any adventurers from neighboring countries who. In their battle against nature that the first American pioneers undertook. the vigorous and intelligent race of the Tatras that we have It is mechanism that one might undoubtedly explain the formation of the present-day Anglo-American. 16 .which the neighboring populations experience. and for this reason the environment can only have an effect upon new races. the product of crossbreedings It occurring at an earlier period between dissimilar elements? appears evident to us that both must population is numerous enough to provide for itself. it tends to become homogeneous. all these individuals of diverse origins would necessarily and so. would contribute to form. we have seen that the infertility of the soil obliges the inhabitants to devote themselves to various trades requiring all their effort and resources. The environment and natural selection therefore have to be important factors in the formation of the race currently living at the foot of the Tatras. it is also in this of Egypt has been powerless. Only the most vigorous. and only those then who are possessors of a most vigorous constitution are able to endure these conditions. by heredity are so stable that the is henceforth unable to act on all and that this race will perish rather than transform thus that in latitudes the sons manner heredity that the scorching soil of Israel conserve their invariable type.

the frequent employment of the letter G~for example hruby instead of gruby 7 One also finds the vowel A replaced by the vowel E.that it will be necessary to determine the elements were able to contribute in former times to the formation of the present race. so. and very religious. know in what manner the peopling of the villages of Podhale has been carried out. for example. and perseverance which is the opposite of the qualities that the Podhaleans possess. the combined resources of anthropology. as in czerny. as happens in Slovakian. Now. The mountainfolk of the Tatras are related to the Poles by several psychological characteristics and. especially by the abandonment of the nasal vowels as well as the elimination of proper phonetic H as. elevated stature stand in contrast with their compatriots of short height. but the contrary qualities possessed by the latter had to have been engendered by the conditions of existence that we have detailed. But. likelihood the principal core of the Podhaleans was fashioned out of the Poles. a certain number of words. linguistics. Psychology likewise offers us valuable resources in this difficult task of reconstitution. two distinctly separate peoples who do not interbreed anymore with each other. As for the quite remarkable development of the skull among the Podhaleans. We can sometimes find proof of this of Podhale. The verb "to be" is frequently conjugated in the Slovakian manner. musicians. Slovaks and Podhaleans today form. the vowel O replaced by A or E. lacking historical documents. instead of tyjestes. Finally. The probability of the influence of Slovak blood from a more or less remote time is also confirmed by linguistic indications. speak their language. 17 it does not seem to us . about the elements which have contributed to form the present population of Podhale. among the races that surround Podhale. one of the nearest to the Hungarian border. for example. notably in the village of Koscielisko. there are scarcely any but the Ruthenians possessing all environment-above these aptitudes. are purely Slovakian. In the Ruthenians these aptitudes are combined with a quite capricious nature. are literate people. etc. a lack of energy. The language spoken throughout the Tatras is Polish. signs in the former in place of these languages: such letter of the instead of jajestem. because there does not exist any historical document that permits us to In order to complete the preceding study. ja sent (I am). poets. It is from the influence of Ruthenian blood then that we are inclined to attribute the previously mentioned particularities. It is therefore probable that heredity alone was able to have produced them. by observing individuals of tall height (quite similar to the Slovaks) who by but appears evident that this may not have been always fact in various parts their These are undoubtedly atavistic influences from ancestral forms which have made their reappearance in the present-day race. as we have said. moreover. ty sy (you are). the Slovaks deserve as first mention. like czesta (way). we it have said. and psychology allow us to make conjectures. The solution to such a problem is not easy. but the Slovakian influence amongst the Podhaleans is proven by the alteration of certain words. activity. The an environment as harsh as that of Podhale-can hardly create such qualities. and which tend more and more to disappear as a result of crossbreedings by the Podhaleans with recent influences. It is with this primitive Polish core that the quite varied populations which we have previously identified must have mixed. bran (border). albeit somewhat removed from the truth. The Podhaleans. Among those who certainly all In played an important role.

But theories come from individual interpretations which are independent of the facts upon which they are based. by not intermixing with any others but themselves. way which we have often cited certain facts emanating from our own research. In pointing out the state it of anthropology and seems to us that this the transformations of which she science must engage itself. the process responsible for this race's formation can be summarized in the following manner. 18 . As incomplete as they have to be. Future anthropologists will perhaps be able to modify with their discoveries some of our results. because it seems to us clearly proven. We that shall not persist anymore with our conjectures relative to the origin of the elements may have contributed in earlier times to form the present-day Podhaleans. We shall conclude what we is have to say here about the present capable. it ended up forming a new race whose homogeneity will be able to increase further. though the methods that we have utilized to obtain them may remain a mystery to these scientists. The main fact to remember. and contested. upon the have contributed to form From the results of our study. but is likely the consequence forced by the continual It exercise of intelligence and activity that they are obliged to engage in constantly. but which already possesses common hereditary qualities which clearly distinguish In the remote past. some of which may be JjmodfM oL& ti)(M7. the race it from all the surrounding races. is that there is an on-going formation at the foot of the Tatras of a new race differing significantly from those who origins it. and by incessantly submitting themselves to the action of the same environment and same natural selection process. the primitive agglomeration became more and more homogeneous. we have inferred theories. the brain does not know how to avoid this law.that it is the result of ancestral influences. As these individuals isolated themselves more and more. less than any other. our conjectures suffice to demonstrate whatever light today's scientific methods are able to cast of a people (while tradition and history remain entirely silent on such). which presently populates the Podhale was formed through a blending of individuals originating from very different peoples. is an elementary fact of physiology that organs exercised develop and expand.

he retraced the history of craniology and showed what it was before him. and as Ruthenian. he expressed astonishment at seeing the author. in his last work. I repeat." As for cranial measurements. emanating from the ideas and a prion issues of phrenology concerning the topographical relations of the skull and brain." This ferocious zeal of the neophyte breaking his ancient idols produces some size pleasure. Faced with the evidence." The author added that when. and it is certainly the same sentiment which the former president of the Societe d'Anthropologie. and that the time thus lost could have been much better employed I have only stated above what a great many anthropologists have thought to themselves. the learned Professor Dally. but it is difficult to share in it. Budapest and Warsaw.FOOTNOTES 1 In declaring that the majority of the anthropological measurements carried out for the last twenty years at the price of considerable labor are useless. in a recent publication. publish a "troublesome imitation" of a work of Broca where the name of the author himself was not even mentioned. the most obdurate are reduced the latest issue of the Bulletins de la Societe d'Anthropologie\ I found a curious example of these confessions in "You know only. languages presently spoken throughout a large kingdoms of Bohemia and Moravia. then no other race can pretend to equal the part of the former importance of the Slavic race in Europe. or would have challenged his having been the true creator of craniometry that one now pretends to have experienced many centuries of existence. believes that it can provide the best indicators for distinguishing the races. this is to go backward many centuries and profess a little too The majority of the some like that of the employment of exact work of Broca (pictured left). the same language which is spoken between Prague. Czech. because the two peoples quickly succeed in understanding each other. one sees that in reality no other European language is spoken over an extended territory as vast as that covered by the Slavic language. yielded to when. but matches even more so to Czech and to Moravian. "that the measurements which the travellers have transmitted to us and which have produced such an effect upon those who obligate themselves to regard them. because we do not have anything which one can compare and reconcile them with. the measurements that we take in our journeys will be sterile and will only result in a waste of time. It turns out that it is. for want of a basis of operation. do not waste an occasion to indirectly attack his work. 3 The language spoken by it the Podhaieans is Polish mixed with usages a little old-fashioned. which is spoken by 15 million individuals. Choosing to reject en bloc the methods in anthropology and limiting oneself to the impressions produced by the exterior aspect." wrote a former assistant of Broca. It was surely not when Broca was living that one would have made the declarations that I have cited above. and we have it available for persons in which this question may be of interest. 19 . are dead letters. ignoring that which gives us systems of operations and has value. It seems that Broca presaged that which has attended his memory when. the same author judges them in the following way: "Today it is the skull that is in vogue. "we proceed at random. The idiom spoken by the Slovaks sufficiently approximates Polish. in reality. It is truly saddening to which certain pupils of the eminent master. It is not without sadness. With Polish. measurements are surely useless. that we are witnesses to this spectacle. does not differ much from Russian. If. a race can be defined by saying that it is the assemblage of populations speaking the same language. one to publicly confessing their old errors. This is an error. as one might claim quite wrongly. disdain for the see the ease with much 2 A printing of a portion of this work has been made. but there are certainly which are not. whose extracts I have reproduced above. Slovakian. all speaking without cease of their admiration for him. and Moravian being as close to Ruthenian as French is near to Italian.

" recently wrote a distinguished travelling anthropologist. that is to say. A person can easily build this instrument by following the model that I have presented in the Bulletins de la Societe d'anthropologie and in the work that I have published under this title: la Method graphique et les appareils enregistreurs. the rules to follow are infinitely easier than those that allow for exactly reconstructing the geometric form of if I objects in most plans. and 3) the successive positions of the face and profile to procure of the subject. moreover. avec 63 figures dessinees en parti e d'apres des instruments nouveaux au laboratoire de Vauteur. but. 2) the distance which exists from the photographer to the individual whose image is to be reproduced. in order to be able to utilize photographs for this purpose. which unfortunately proved too confined to still is the fashion well understood the usefulness of photography. "today To be sure. and the contours reproduced in the picture are just as exact as are those of the geographical maps reduced or enlarged by photography. II. In certain easy observing conditions. for this art has rendered cooperation between subject and investigator as little useful as what the stagecoaches have become after the invention of the railroads. He very much desired to communicate with me upon reading the proofs contained in shares concerning the influence my treatise. Colonel Duhousset. perspective images that substantially conform in practice with geometric projections. as chain of the Alps. These measurements have all 5 named the compass of coordinates. been performed with a simple tape-measure and the instrument that I have is extremely easy to cany in one's pocket. camera equipment producing cumbersome than the bulky tools that yield the proportions of a skull to nearly 1 millimeter. professors all at the University of I Warsaw. of whom give thanks to for the service that they have provided to 20 . that the Podhaleans intermixed with the Slovaks. asked permit 7 1 owe this precious information to Professor Kopernicki. instantaneously the face and profile of a subject is less the progress realized in the construction of aplanatic lenses over the last several years as well as to understand the elementary laws of perspective. the revision of my map and report. who would be able it. to install for nowadays and as Monsieur Civiale notably has done for the me towards the end of his life him a photo laboratory on his premises. 1881. by Dr. Broca. The majority of photographs made with an 1) artistic aim in mind obviously do not it's allow for measurements to be taken. Vol." The importance of photography is nowadays no more denied than by the behind-the-times craniologists. It is childish to contest the fundamental utility of an art of which all the anthropological laboratories of Europe (with maybe one exception) make daily use. leurs origins et leur histoire.4 L'Homme et les societes. it is necessary to be up-to-date on asserts itself as the most accurate basis of all anthropological studies. am indebted to this learned anthropologist as well as to Doctors Chalubinski and Wrzesniowski. the individual to be photographed can be considered as a noticeably flat image. observe some very simple rules about sufficient to the focal length of the lenses one can choose. In order to speak about the deformations produced by cameras. any historical testimonial. earlier in order to confirm my hypothesis—a hypothesis that he entirely from an time of which there does not I exist. who graciously consented to accompany me on several of my excursions. In order to get photos of the various types of individuals rigorously exact. which 6 "Photography. Gustave Le Bon.