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Ore Geology Reviews 11 (1996) 175-196

Geology and structural evolution of the Muruntau gold deposit, Kyzylkum desert, Uzbekistan
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Lawrence J. Drew

Byron R. Berger

Namik K. Kurbanov "

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• vs. Geological Survey, MS920, Rennn. VA 22092, USA " U.S. Geological Survey, MS973, Deiwer. CO 80225. USA ' TsNIGRI, 129B. Vamhuuskoyt sli.. 113545 Mosi-nw, Russia
Received 3 April 1995; accepted 10 October 1995

Abstract The Munmtau gold deposit in the Kyzylkum desert of Uzbekistan is the largest single deposit ( » 1100 tonnes of gold) of the class of low-sulfide syndefonnation/synigenous gold deposits formed in the brittle/ductile transition zone of the cnist within transpressional shear zones. Hosted by the Cambrian to Ordovician Besopan Suite, the ores were deposited in pre-exi.sting ihrust-fault- andraecamorphism-relatedpermeabilities and in synmineralizalion dilational zones created in a large faull-related fold. The Besopan Suite is a 3.000-m-thick sequence of turbiditic siltstones, shales and sandstones. The ore is primarily localized at the base of the Besopan-3 unit, which is a 2,000-m-thick series of carbonaceous shales, siltstones, sandstones and cheits. Initial goid deposition took place within the Sangmntau-Tamdytau shear zone, which was developed along the stratigrs{)hic contact between the Besapan-3 and Besopan-4 units. During the mineralization process, folding of the Besopan Suite and a left-step adjustment in the Sangruntau-Tamdytau shear zone were caused by two concurrent events: (1) the activation of the left-lateral Muruntau-Daugyztau shear zone that developed at° nearly a 90° angle to the preceding shear zone and (2) the intrusion of granitoid plutons. These stmctural events alsoresultedin the refocusing of hydrothermal fluid flow into new zones of permeability.

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t r a l i a . The l a r g e s ts i n g l ed e p o s i t (» 1100 t o n n e s of gold) o ft h i sl y p ey e td i s c o v e r e di sl o c a t e da t Mumn­ SjTKlcformation/synigneous i n t r u s i o ng o l d d e ­ t a u( F i g . I) on t h es o u t h e a s t e mf l a n k of t h e Tamdy p o s i t s( c f . l o w s u l f i d e ; Berg«, 1986) a r ei m p o r t a n t M o u n t a i n s (Tamdytau), Kyzylkum d e s e r t , Uzbek­ s o u r c e s of l o d e and p l a c e rg o l dt h r o u g h o u tt h ew o r l d . i s t a n . W e l l s t u d i e d examples i n c l u d et h o s ei nt h e Al­ As a m i n e r a l i z a t i o n s t y l e ,t h e syndeforma­ l e g h e n y d i s t r i c t , C a l i f o r n i a ( B C h l k e . 1989). t h e t i o n / s y n i g n e o u s i n t r u s i o n g o l d d e p o s i t sa r e formed J u n e a ud i s t r i c t ,A l a s k a( G o l d f a r be t a l . , 1993), t h e i n t h e d e p t h d e p e n d e n t b r i t t l e / d u c t i l e t r a n s i t i o n zone S u p e r i o rP r o v i n c e , Canada ( K e r r i c ha n d Feng, 1992). w i t h i n t r a n s p r e s s i o n a l s h e a r z o n e s of r e g i o n a l dimenand t h eY i l g a r nb l o c k( G r o v e se ta l . , 1989) a n d . s i o n ( S i b s o n , 1977, 1983; Ho and Groves, 1987). L a c h l a nf o l db e l t( S a n d i f o r da n d Keays. 1986). AusThe depo.<iiLS o f t e no c c u ri nd i l a t i o nz o n e s a l o n g s a t e l l i t es h e a r sg e n e t i c a l l ya n dt e m p o r a l l yr e l a t e dt o t h e s e r e g i o n a l s h e a r zones. D e f o r m a t i o n a l o n g t h e s e ' Corresponding author.
1. Introduction
0I69-1368 /96/S15 .00 Copyright O 1996 Hievier Science B.V. All rights reserved. SSDI 0169-1368(93)0OO33-X

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176

U. Drew el al./Ort Geology Reviews Jl (1996) 175-196
tion during deformation and concurrent magmatism with the consequent flow of large v o l u m e s o f fluids through lithospheric rocks into a c t i v e shear z o n e s ; ( 2 ) a late-kinematic timing o f formation in and a b o v e the transition z o n e from ductile to britde shear; ( 3 ) syndepositional uplift; and ( 4 ) mineral precipitation predominantly in second- and third-order structures. Although appreciable v o l u m e s o f carbonate alter­ ation may not b e apparent, this type o f alteration, usually dolomitic/ankeritic, is associated with die g e n e s i s of these deposits ( C o l v i n e et al., 1988). Fluid inclusions are typically rich in C O j - Although the chemistry of the ore-forming fluids is dominated by

secondary shear z o n e s m a y be quite brittle, which c a u s e s elements within t h e m to be mapped as dis­ tinct strike-slip faults. T h e s e secondary zones or faults a l s o can b e regional in scale. T h e transition from ductile t o brittle shear i s widely recognized as a depth-dependent c o n d n u u m . T h e generation of quartz-vein systems, s o m e of which host gold deposits, in collision-related shear z o n e s and strike-slip faults (i.e., compressional orog e n s ) is discussed by m a n y authors including Ker­ rich and F e n g ( 1 9 9 2 ) ; C o x e l al. ( 1 9 9 1 ) ; Robert ( 1 9 9 0 ) ; H o and Groves ( 1 9 8 7 ) . T h e s e vein systems share a conwrion evolution diat includes: (1) forma­

EXPLANATION
Paltoaotc and younger Mdimemt Central KizakhstanNorth Tleri Shan Continent (Cilsdonian) f . I t - - ^ Middle CaibooKaroui volcBnic complex (c«le-alkalin«) Precambrian "HeieynJan" (old and thrust

S u t u r r - faiferrad margin ol eontinenls after 'Hercynian" collliion

lOCICIlOMETERS

Fig. 1. Location of inajor plutons and the Hercynian fold and thnist belt of the Tien Shan tystem in centia] Aila (modified from Zonensliain
et al.. 1990X

. Zonenshain et al. which e x ­ . Greenschist-grade metamorphism is encoun­ tered most c o m m o n l y in the wall rock o f these low-sulfide vein deposits. The Valerianovsky volcanic belt w a s formed during the middle to late Carboniferous as o c e a n i c c m s t w a s rapidly consumed between the Karakum plate and the central Kazakhstan-North Tien Shan continent. The fold and fault belt of the Tian Shan s y s t e m (Fig. 177 0 •n s. In the central to w e s t e m Tian Shan.D a u g y z t a u . Small intrusive p l u g s o f granitoid rocks. 1988). Regional geology of Muruntau 2.0(X) km north-westerly from Uic Fergana V a l l e y in eastern­ most Uzbekistan. along the northem flank o f the Nurata Mountains in the e a s t e m K y z y l k u m desert and thence northeast o f the Tamdytau into the eastera Bukantau (Akhber and Mushkin. the results and interpretive m o d e l presented here include data from published field nuips and pub­ lished former Soviet U n i o n literature. The latest Carboniferous and Eariy Per­ mian arc characterized by continental collision with 2... This is the suture zone that juxtaposes t w o c o n t i n e n u l masses. pas­ s i v e margin sedimentary. 1 9 9 0 ) and nappes and fragments o f oceanic crast ( S a b d y u s h e v . 1958). Cfotcigy Revims 1} (tm) 175-196 n Is *. Orvwet al/Orr. p e n n i s s i v e isotopic evi­ d e n c e indicates that s o m e c o m p o n e n t s may be of magmatic origin (Colvine et al. 1990). A characteristic of the suture zone is the wcst-northwest-striking shear zones that splay to the west off o f the main z o n e that subdivides the Kyzylkum desert region into a s e ­ quence o f tectonic blocks. volcanic. the northwesteriy striking SangruntauTamdytau and the transverse M u m n U t u . in light o f these characteristics. obducted ophi­ olitic and syntectonic granitoid rocks. indicates that they were emplaced in dilational j o g s along major inter. 1. G i v e n that s y n d e f o r m a t i o n / s y n i g e n o u s gold de­ posits are formed in coUisional orogens widiin large fault s y s t e m s . le d te •y tends from the Gobi desert in M o n g o l i a westerly dirough China into the Kyzylkum desert o f northcentral Uzbekistan (Sinitsyn and Sinitsyn.and intra-subprov i n c c faults (Kerrich and F e n g .From: Interlibraiy Loan To: DDX Date: 2/18/97 Time: 23:26:20 Page 5 of 24 LJ. I) is extremely c o m p l e x with various c o m p o n e n t s diat represent different orogenic e v e n t s that span much o f the Paleozoic and were later affected by the Alpine orogenic event (cf.. Canada. Structural setting lain T h e Muruntau gold deposit occurs at the w e s t e m end o f die Tian Shan nnountain system. Our purpose in this paper is to present. T h e main suture and the splays are offset by transverse northeast-striking shear zones (Mushkin et al. Karakum and central Kazakhstan-North Ticii Shan (Zonenshain et al„ 1990). developed durmg the 'Hercynian* (late Carbonifer­ ous to eariy Permian) at the d m e o f the continentto-contincnt collision o f the Karakum plate and the central Kazakhstan-North Tien Shan continent (Zonenshain et al. as well as a variety o f d i k e s . also generate the metamorphism and pluton­ i s m that provide the ore-depositing fluids (Murphy. Interpretation o f the alkaline magmas associ­ ated with the gold deposits in the Kirkland Lake area.to 6-km-wide stmctural z o n e strikes o v e r 1. 1989). In the vicinity o f Mumntau. usually are associated temporally and spatially w i t h the formation of low-sulHde quartz-gold de­ posits. T h e beginning o f continental collision is reflected in the succes-stve deposition o f carbonate s e q u e n c e s on the passive margin along with t u r b i d i i i c / o l i s tostix)mic formations o f the middle and late Car­ boniferous. the for­ mation o f stockwork deposits is favored (Murphy. 1976). E v i d e n c e for this conti­ nent-to-continent collision in Uzbekistan includes the intense calc-alkaline volcanism that forms the V a l e rianovsky volcanic belt o n the western and s o u l h c m margins of the central Kazakhstan-North Tien Shan continent (Fig.. T h e general physical and chemical characteristics o f s y n d e f o r m a t i o n / s y n i g n e o u s intrusion gold deposite are found at Muruntau. a 5.. 1989). Zoncn.shain et al. r- y. 1971). an interpretation of the interplay of syndcformation/synintrusion fluids and the struc­ tural g e o l o g i c evolution o f the Muruntau gold de­ p o s i t In addition to s o m e data collected by us through original mapping and from analyses o f rock samples. 1990). amphibolite grade). 1. 1992). whereas at a higher tempera­ ture and pressure (e. The same regional tectonic processes that generate the shear z o n e s and strike-slip faults that host these gold de­ posits. e •metamorphic-like' fluids. R o c k s at this metamorphic grade that arc under shear stress favor the develop­ m e n t o f vein deposits. t w o regional shear z o n e s . 1975).g. a wide variety o f host rocks can be encountered that include crystalline basement.

A r e f r a c t i o n s e i s m i c of an o p h i o l i t e complex o n t ot h e Karakum. Axes of regional folds (Hercynian). 1990). sccl Ihe Tamdytau .Z o n e n s h a i n et a l . 2. plutons (cropping out and inrcnred) and location of Heicyniun suture zone in IWielcistan. mountain ranges. 1974) and two a n d Tarim p l a t e s . R . l o n c Sansnnlau-TaRuMau CKJI antAaaraone Nurata Mountalna Fig.i a r t so ft h er a n g e( S a b d y u s h e va n d Voronov. T a d j i kc s u r v e y( I v a n o v and Sabdyushev. 2).From: Interiibrary Loan To: DDX Date: 2/18/97 Time: 23:27:26 Page 6 of 24 178 U. U . 1992. now r e c o g n i z a b l ea sm a s s i f s( H i g . Dcep-Geodynamic D r i l l i n g Program h o l e s 1 . Tananaeva and Genonlov. . 1993). S . Two of t h e s en a p p e s Iran. 1990). (modiried from Kotov and Poficskaya.a regional -scale s y n c l i n ei nt h e p EXPLANATION Devonian and Caibentferous caibonaie* Silurian elastics and volcanoclastic MdimenIS m Ordovician slates and sandstones Ptecambriiin basemeni ——Suture Late Paleoioic (Hercynian) inferred conlineni lo contineni colisior. S . o c a t e d n e a rt h ec e n t e r of t h e Tamdytau c o n f i r m e d The H e r c y n i a nc o m p r e s s i o nl e dt ot h ef o r m a t i o nl h e s y n c l i n a l s t r u c t u r e of t h e c e n t r a l a n d northem of n o r t h d i p p i n gn a p p e s . Drfivelai/OreafohsyReiiixn II (im) 175-196 c e n t r a l p a r t of t h er a n g e and a r e g i o n a l s c a l e a n t i ­ t h e development of major nappes a n dt h eo b d u c t i o n l i n ei nt h es o u t h( F i g . Central Asia. .

1-196 179 l i e a n t i s e i s m i c nd two Tl h o l e s n f i r m e d l o r t h e m . Jlerous n n c n U n e l S u b s e q u e n tH e r c y n i a nt r a n s p r e s s i o nc a u s e d move­ t r a n s e c t i n gt h ei n f c m c ds u n i r e zone ( F i g . Locaiiun of shear zones.^ the central and southem parts of the mapped area from nothwest to southeaiU. 2). s h e a rz o n e sa n d a b o u t 5 km. I I (1996) 17. Drew et al. t h ec u r r e n t Muruntau open p i t mine i sb e i n gd e v e l ­ i si nt h es o u t h e a s t e r np o r t i o n of t h e Tamdytau ( F i g . 2 was c o n t r o l l e d by d e e p s e a t e d . . The left-lateral Muruntau-Daugyztau shear zone is promineatly displayed in the vicinity of the MumnUu mine as a 5-km-wide band of brittle faults that wend* in a nonheau to souUiwest direction (modified from Drew. Sympathedc f a u l t s a r e mapped t o t h e lent tlo «i tone EXPLANATION Tnr foull Thnaliauk CooacI—Ouhcd w h e r v mlnraJ Shear «m( Highly litcilied a m (Pennian) Axil ol regional aniidlne Axil oi regional lyncBnc e xone in Pig. F i g . 2). highly silicified txxlies and the Mumntiui mine in southern Tamdytaa. The i n t e r p l a y o f b a s e m e n t p e n e t r a t i n gf a u l t s . Three ttrandx of lefl-lateral Sangruntau-Tamdytau shear 7*ne ctos.p r e s u m a b l yc r e a t e d by t h e t i p of t h e Tamdytau t h a t i s b e s t o b s e r v e di n t h esame t e c t o n i cf o r c e st h a t formed t h eZ s h a p e ds t r u c ­ Besopan-2 u n i t (bS4.From: Intertibreuy Loan To: DDX Date: 2/18/97 Time: 23:28:14 Page 7 of 24 U. oped. The numerous i n t r u ­ movement a l o n gt h e s es h e a rz o n e sc h a n g e dt h es t r i k e s i o n s shown d i r e c t l y t o t h e west of t h e Tamdytau of t h ee a s t e r nn o s e of t h e a n t i f o r m a l nappe. Kotov and P o r i t ­ Sangruntau-Tamdytau s h e a rr o n ea n ds u b s e q u e n t l y s k a y a (1992) s t a t e d t h a t t h e i n t r u s i o n o ft h e g r a n i ­ t h e s o u t h w e s t s t r i k i n g . s h o w ni nF i g . r e g i o n a l. i st r a n s e c t e db yb r i t t l ef a u l t s of t h e MuruntauThe Munmtau-Daugyztau s h e a r zone. 3). Daugyztau s h e a r zone ( F i g . l e f t l a t e r a l Muruntaut o i d s. a l o n g Daugyztau s h e a r zone and i ti sw i t h i nt h i sa r e at h a t t which h e r eh a sb e e nd u c t i l e and b r i t t l ed e f o r m a t i o n . C i t i n g ment a l o n gt h ew c s t n o r t h w e s t s t r i k i n g . 3. 4). 1990). 1993). which i n d i c a t et h a t a zone of d i l a t a n c y must have e x i s t e di n r e s u l t e di naZ l i k e s h a p e df o l dn e a rt h es o u t h e a s t e r n t h er e g i o n a ls y n c l i n o r i u m . The c o r eo ft h i sZ f o l t d u r e . ' f i i i s f a u l t s t r i k e s n o r t h e a s t s o u t h w e s ta n d has C a r b o n i f e r o u s P e r m i a ng r a n i t o i di n t r u s i o n s were b e e n mapped o v e ral e n g t h of 75 km a n daw i d t ho f emplaced i n t ot h e nappes./Ore Geology Review:. l e f l l a t e r a l t h e work o fP o r s h n y a k o v (1983).

Besides the large nappe structures noted a b o v e . 1993). the oldest of which consists of small.se hydrothermal alteration. F a c i n g determi­ nations indicate that . 4. A l e k s e y e v ( 1 9 7 9 ) identified s e v ­ eral disdnct deformation events in rocks in the Amantaitau region southwest o f Muruntau (Fig. 2 ) . B««paniinB I bi] bj]^ bS] B<io|i*nunll3 Baopmiiiit3*Munnl«iLini' BocpanuMlZ * ^ Thiunhdl Fig. 4 s h o w s the c o m p l e x Muruntau-Daugyztau shear-zone system and areas o f inlen. 4). northwest o f the main fault z o n e in the s a m e nappe and further to the northwest in the overlying synfor­ mal thrust package o f Devonian and Carboniferous carbonate rocks (Fig. as may b e s e e n from die movement of the faull-boundcd slices o f D e v o n i a n carbonate m c k s located to the northeast o f the Muruntau o p e n pit (Fig. T h e evolution in tectonic stress from the thrusting to the strike-slip r e g i m e s i s demonstrated by the imposition of steeply dipping left-lateral faulting o n the previously devel­ o p e d nappes. . 1979). 2 ) . which suggests that they have been developed along axial fractures and (or) thrust faults formed during the 'Hercynian' continent-tocontinent collision. I^ocation of the 'Munmtau lens' and major straiigraj*ic units in the vicinity of the Muruntau mine.and large-am­ plitude isoclinal folds overturned to the east and north that fold the original bedding.From: Interiibrary Loan To: DDX Date: 2/18/97 Time: 23:29:02 Page 8 of 24 180 IJ. 3 ) . The MnninUu-Daugyztau shear zone spam (he area between the 'structural fault' on the northwest to the unnamed faults south of die Miutenbai deposit The 2^foM is shown by the folding of the bS^ unit (modified fiom Drew.some o f the folds. were transformed s u b s e q u e n d y into a series of tectonic slices ( A l e k s e y e v . Fig.D a u g y a a u faults is left lateral. T h e m o v e m e n t on the M u r u n t a u . OcoanlM l». T h e orientation o f the swarm of fault s e g m e n t s o f this shear-zone s y s t e m in the Muruntau area i s parallel to the axis o f the nappe south o f the fXPLAtMTION D./Ore CenUiay Rtvlmn I I (1996) 175-196 Tamdytau (Fig. Proterozoic and Paleozoic formations in the T a m d y ­ tau s h o w several generations o f d e f o n n a t i o n that record a history o f transition b o m ductile to brittle deformation styles. lirew Kl ol. w h i c h are about 2 km w i d e .

are o f critical importance to inter­ preting the s e q u e n c i n g and controls on veining and the stratat)ound nature of ore in the Mumntau and adjacent Miutenbai deposits described b e l o w . mncaitmuKeous sericite-chlorite schist. Small lenses o f s i l i c e o u s volcanic rocks occur near the base o f the unit. b S . 6 5 0 .sedimentary rocks. which i s d u e to the presence o f abundant biotite. Potassium-argon dating o f the mafic volcanic rocks i s inconclusive but indicates a middle to late Proterozoic a g e (Azhgirey. The unit is referred to as the 'Gray B e s o p a n ' and i s the only Besopan unit w i t h n o volcanic o r chcrty rocks (Azhgirey. 3 . i s light brown to greenish. Small gabbroic in­ t m s i o n s crosscut the sequence.suite i s exposed in a d o m e along the antiformal axis o f the southem Tamdytau nappe w e s t o f the Mumntau m i n e (Fig. crop out in the melange between these uppermost thmst sheets. is discussed b y A b d u a s i m o v a and Korsakov ( 1 9 9 2 ) . greenxtnne and chlorile-amphibole-albttc schist I shear rotil is D-C 1400 -C-O 3900 Differentiated Besopan units * bS^ 1000 bS. i s referred t o as the 'Variegated B e s o p a n ' b e c a u s e o f its red and green Table 1 Description of the major stratigraphic units in the southem Tamdytau Mountains in the vicinity of the Muruntau mine (see Figs. 181 In the Tamdytau.1 0 ) near Muruntau (cf. Drew el al. 2 ) . 1993).2. 3 . Stratigraphy schists derived from predominantly siltstone s o m e sandstone and clay. Riphean t o Vendian ( 1 . Cambrian-Ordovician Cambrian-Odovician Cambrian-Ordovician Cambrian-Ordovician Carabrian-Ordovic ian Riphean-Vendion Brief description limestones and dolomites undifferentiated Besopan Suite chlorite xchist. which c o m m o n l y are radiolarian chert. Largeto small-scale folding is evident. 4 ) . cf. bS|. famdy)n that brittle id s c v in the •ig. 1992). bS. plagiogranitc and serpentinite. to b S 4 . R . b y more-open folding without significant metamorphism. T h e likelihood o f an upper a g e o f early P a l e o z o i c for the Taskazgan Suite.5 9 0 Ma) marine sili­ ciclastic. is predominandy metasandstone with s o m e from the grit and gravels and i s distinguishable underlying unit by its darker color. The ore host at M u m n t a u is die Cambrian t o Ordovician Besopan Suite. b S . caibonaceous quartzite. based o n microfaunal evidence. b S . Marakushev and K h o k h l o v . w e o b s e r v e d that the unit w a s caibonaceous in the d e e p drill hole ( S G . Drew.From: Interlibrary Loan To: DDX Date: 2/18/97 Time: 23:29:51 Page 9 of24 U.st.V ) and appears to b e isoclinally folded. dolomite. Several .sion. consists o f ferroginous sericite-chlorite mica with 2. T h i s isoclinal folding w a s followed b y metamorphic recrystalliyation and.subse­ quent kink-fold events preceded the final shear-zone deformation described above. undifferenUated Besopan units are shown collectively as E-0. which is southwest o f the Tamdytau. In outcrop. as having been metamorphosed to an assemblage of chlorite-actinolite-epidote-albite schists.st of the M u m n t a u open pit. dunite. ge-amst and itermich arc lucntiy 1979). m a f i c volcanic. m u c h o f this deformation is interpreted to b e 'Cale­ donian. d i s m e m b e r e d ophiolite crops out at (he base o f the uppermost thrust sheet between the Precambrian Riphean and Vendian and Cambrian rocks and the underlying Silurian rocks ( F i g . 2000 700 bS. 1200 R-V 2800 * In some maps. varying from a few square meters up to several square kilometers in size witii similar-sized blocks of pyroxenite./Ore Geology Remews II11996) 175-196 y have ) thrust icnt-toabove. Mirkamalov ( 1 9 8 7 ) described die lower Taskazgan.' T h e s e deformation events. Fig. it i. 1991). w h i c h i s about 5 k m thick (Table 1. in tum. M o s t studies h a v e divided the Besopan into four units. B l o c k s of pelagic . The main ore ho.> carbonaceous. 2 . including the tectonic slicing. . . 4 and 9 for relations) Map symbol Tliicknest (m) Age Devonian-Carboniferuiis. but in a deep drill hole ( S G . T h e low est unit. noncaiboniiceous carbonaeeoui and pyritic setidteK:hloriie schist with cheit and tutt terictte-chloriu: schist. Although not evi­ dent in outcrop.1 0 ) southea. T h e . Because of the direc­ tion o f isoclinal folding and the transposition o f schistosity fabric by the 'Hercynian' comprcs. carbonaceous shale and dolomitic carbonate rocks arc the oldest exposed in the Tamdytau region and are k n o w n as the Taskaz­ gan Suite (Table 1). 1991).

although s o m e shearing extends into the l o w e r part o f the overlying Carboniferous thrust sheet ( F i g s . chlorite and carbonaceous material. ) for these intrusive rocks. Alteration minerals also readily delimit die shear z o n e . The Hercynian Sangruntau-Tamdytau fault s y s ­ tem is observable as a z o n e within which there is both brittlely fractured rock and linear z o n e s o f sheared. General aspects The gold-ore deposits o c c u r in and adjacent to fractures within regional lateral shear z o n e s wiUiin die Besopan Suite (cf." (Marakushev and Khokhlov. bS4 is described by Marakushev and Khokhlov ( 1 9 9 2 ) as consisting predominanrty of quartz-clay sandstone. E c o n o m i c g e o l o g y o f t h e M u r u n t a u d e p o s i t Muruntau is o n e o f die largest individual g o l d deposits in the worid. Kham­ rabaev ( 1 9 6 9 ) reported a l o w e r Permian average date o f 2 6 1 . Approximately 7 k m southeast of Muruntau is the Sardarin pluton (Fig.d e ­ veloped cleavage fractures associated with each o f 2.3 0 0 tonnes each at Amantaitau and Daugyztau: Fig./Ore Cenhxy Rerieivs II (1996) 175-196 3. cleavage planes related lo folding.4 Ma^ from contact metamorphic h o m f e l T l i d j a c q i r dike. W c observed minor radiolarian chert and interbedded muscovite schist and chlorite schist in the tuffs. p. . There are w e l l . 2 ) . with metasiltstone. il consists o f a mixture o f phyllitic to schistose car­ bonaceous metasiltstone.soclinal folds and the broad anticlinal nappe in the southern Tamdytau. ( 1 9 9 0 ) . 3 ) .P . In addition t o the prc-Hercynian i. Structural control of the Muruntau ore district 3. fraciuring-related active shearing during mineralization. 2 ) to small ( 5 0 tonnes at B e s o p a n . zones of higher veloc­ ity w e r e detected in the upper crust that have been interpreted us being intermediate composition intru­ sions b y Kudrin e t a l . crosscuts bedding. argillite and lenses o f metagritstone. 1 9 9 3 ) . T h e bell o f dikes along the southern margin o f the Tamdytau m a y b e traced for over 4 0 km. 2 ± 5 M a o n a diorite p o r p h y r y ^ k e J r o m the Muruntau area and a biotite dale (^^jCfOS ± 7. swarms o f felsic. particularly in the southem segment of the Sangruntau-Tamdytau shear zone and in a northeaste m . In addition to these plutons. 2). Il is localized at the intersec­ tion of the Sungrunlau-Tamdytau and M u r u n t a u Daugyztau shear zones ( F i g . mclasandslune.1. 7 1 ) . Fig. a composite g r a n i t i c / a l a s k i t i c intrusion is exposed in the nordiwestem part o f the range about 25 k m northwest o f M u r u n i a u J C h a m m b a c v ( l 9 6 9 ) reported an average date cf^^0J9 ± 7 . T h e Sangruntau-Tamdytau system both crosscuts und encloses imbricate breccia z o n e s re­ lated to the older Caledonian thrusting. substantial volumes o f postsuturing granitoid m a g m a s were emplaced into die orogen (Fig. T h e s e regionally extensive shear z o n e s contain many similar-style gold deposits that vary in size from very large ( » 1 1 0 0 tonnes o f gold at Muruntau) t o medium (several at 2 0 0 . 3 ) along the entire s o u t h e m flank o f the Tamdytay. During seismic surveys in the region.From: Interiibrary Loan To: DDX Date: 2/18/97 Time: 23:30:50 Page 10 of 24 182 LJ. Maraku. In the Tamdytau.shev and Khokhlov. the Muruntau deposit occurs within a Hercynian fault-propagated fold. phyllitic to cataclasized rock. 1992). This alteration and subsequent hydrothermal a s s e m b l a g e s m a y tw traced in the two major strands o f the Sangruntau-Tamdytau system (Fig. w h i c h is referred to as the 'Green B e ­ sopan' because o f the metamorphic alteration o f the clay l o chlorite a n d . Difxt Cl ul.3. 4 l M a ^ 3 .sericite. which is a composite porphyritic granodiorite (Kotov and Porit­ skaya. T h e z o n e . T h e pre­ dominant controls o n permeability w e r e schistosity. 2 and 3 ) .1.. coloi^tton in weathered outcrop. syenitic (syenodiorite) and lamprophyre dikes were emplaced in die regional shear zones.D a u g y z t a u shear zone (Fig. 1 9 9 2 . low-angle shear zones interpreted by Azhgirey ( 1 9 9 1 ) as being Caledonian thrust faults and high-angle brittle frac­ tures. muscovite.t r e n d i n g zone parallel to and north o f the M u r u n t a u .s o u t h w e s t e m . calcareous metasandstones and metatuff (cf. Drew. 4 ) and a large number of occurrences.. 1992) that is hypodiesized by Danskoi ( 1 9 9 1 ) on the basis o f g e o p h y s i c s to extend northwest to­ wards and beneath the Muruntau deposit.1. A w a y from the hydrothermal alteration of the Muruntau deposit. 3. though roughly parallel to the strike o f the B e s o p a n Suite bedding. the earliest a s ­ semblage being " s i l k y films o f biotite. Igneous petrology In addition to the volcanic and related intrusive rocks discussed above. 2 ) .

5). Tiny folds and crenulations are commonly observed.sothermar (Lindgren. Cox and EUieridge.st to southwest (Fig. stepped. L2.soclinal folds. the zone of orebodies appears elongated northea. 5). These veins are micrometers to I to 2 centimeters thick and may refiect a structural evolu­ tion of the permeabilities that controlled the first group of veins. 1933) ribbon suiicture and are referred to by mine geologists as die 'Central Veins. Mukhin et al. linear se­ quences.to several centimeter-width veins are often folded or boudinaged. on average.to several cen­ timeter-wide veins.section as evi­ denced by the growth habit of the quartz and trains of minor minerals and fiuid inclusions (cf. and (3) centimeter. Within the open pit. .1 it gold srsecntau>nally :gold 1100 rai at /ztau.st to southeast. The relation of these 'banded veins* to stmctural elements is best observed in oxidized rocks al the Besopan deposit.schis­ tosity and Hercynian-transposed cleavage and along post-cleavage fractures of various orientations. than the larger veins of die third group. the layer-like zones occur over a broader widUi of the shear zone than those planes tiiat constitute ore.?. Hydrothermal alteration and gold mineraliza­ tion The hydrothermal alteration elucidates die details of die stmctural evolution of the gold deposit (Table 2).to millimelcrwidc veins occur parallel lo the prc-Hercynian . Kurbanov et al.' The veins of groups 1 and 2 above make up complexly shaped orebodies. complex vein shapes and rela­ tions at Mumntau. and a these folding events.se layerlike sequences are described by Kurbanov ct al. isiiev and raced jytau >f the bodi s re­ folds them lin a 1-dch of ITiere are myriad. 4). Micrometer. Where we observed them.2. preosity. 1991). the orebodies are sinuous and in the cenU^I and northern parts of the pit are individually elongated northeast to southwest (Rg. (1988) mapped northeast-striking axial traces of i. The third group is typical 'Mother Lode'-style.. Lindgren. more-continuous veins found in most mining dis­ tricts of this type deposit woridwide. Structural control of veins Ida nt to vithin some •lying . imbricate. The reference to banding stems from the close-spaced parallel repetition of these quartz veins and not any 'ribbon'-like stmcture widiin die veins themselves (cf.to centimeter-wide veins occur along closely spaced parallel fracmres that appear to be axial-plane cleavages and are re­ ferred to as 'banded veins' by mine geologists. Millimeter. The vast majority of the Mumntau ore is made up of the first and second group of veins. In cross section. frequently boudinaged or folded. These mineralized planes extend in a colinear manner from the Miutenbai deposit to the Besopan deposit (cf. These veins have classic 'me. Within die Muruntau open pit. Dreweiai/OrtCicotngyRtiiewx II (19%) 175-196 18. These veins formed along high-angle faults (the flowcr-stmcturc faults) that crosscut all of die vein styles of the first two groups. millimeter. Crack-seal textures are commonly present in thin section in all veins of this group. In die southem part of die pit the sinuous orebodies are elongated nortiiwe. (2) micrometer. The coarsest level of classifica­ tion is to divide the veins into duee groups: (1) layer-like zones of many millimeter. (1991) as being veins and 'stringers' of synkinematic quartz. 1933). iopan icrals st as3vite. and veins typically occur in short. The. All of these veins display crack-seal growth textures in fliin . interformational thmst planes of Caledonian age (Fig.From: Interlibrary Loan To: DDX Date: 2/18/97 Time: 23:31:54 Page 11 of 24 U. these faults ore interpreted by Azhgirey (1991) to form the vari­ ous parts of upward branching flower stmctures. The second group of veins is less ductility de­ formed. The. 1983).se veins arc referred to as 'stockworks' by mine geologists. :lated angle being fracsys!re is is of zone. They are also para­ genetically earlier and lower grade. In the southeastern part of die pit. and the two groups are intermixed within the Mumntau orebody. 3. Importantiy.to centimeter-wide pervasive veins with no continuity on the meter scale in any direc­ tion. the axial traces of several isoclinal folds strike southeast The youngest fracturing events are high-angle faults delimited by breccia and gouge that crosscut all oUier fracture types. Quartz veins within die. The earliest group of ore-bearing veins occurs widiin the Sangmntau-Tamdytau shear zone in subparallel. A zone of spotted schist occurs widiin and sur­ rounding the Mumntau open pit Inside of diis spot- . and nearly meter-thick flat veins occur along dilatant stmctures parallel to partings and arc commonly boudinaged.se folds arc particularly evident in the northem part of the pit.to meter-wide veins with meters nf strike length and continuity down dip. At a small scale. This second group occurs in several forms.

From: Interiibrary Loan To: DDX Dale: 2/18/97 Time: 23:32:59 Page 12 of 24 B«id«»*rrtIfi«lor««*hloeel"ftoeliv«H<- .

(A) l^tcation of gold nuneralization. Mg dilorite. albite to albite-oligoclase rather dian more calcic plagioclase. 1991). 7 ) . major faults and t>cdding in the Mnniutau mine area.D a u g y z t a u shear zone.. R R L L R L L I5e«cription spotted schist. Geology of the Munmtau mine area.. . brookite (?) and rare-eanh-eletnent minerals * Sequence established by crosscuuing relations. In general the alteration consists o f the formadon o f shert silicates. Marakushev and Khokhlov. FeMnCO)./Ore Geology Review. originally consisted pre­ dominantly o f biotite and chlorite widi smaller quan­ tities o f oUter minerals. tourmaline and pyrite calcite veinlets and pervasive alteration of rock matrix: some pyrite.From: Interlibraiy Loan To: DDX Date: 2/18ffl7 Time: 23:33:34 Page 13 of 24 U. 1 9 8 8 .shev and Khokhlov. quartz. 4 ) and occurring more narrowly to the w e s t along several strands o f Uie Sangruntau-Tamdytau shear zone (cf.biotite + chlorite -toligoclase with linear. 1 9 9 3 ) and also to the southeast along this zone dirough the Miutenbai d e p o s i t T h e bulbous part o f the alteration pattern occurs toward the soudiw e s t within and adjacent to the Muruntau open pit along the M u r u n t a u . T h e spots. 1 9 8 8 ) and (or) 'biotitc-two feldspar alteration' (cf. This alteration i s overprinted o n d i e spotted schist and consists o f quartz + albite -1. ting is a bulbous-shaped zone of hydrothennal alter­ ation surrounding the Muruntau ores (Fig. *" R >. 1992). Drew et al. higher whole-rock potassium contents and the proportions o f the individual minerals when compared to unmineralized. than the metamorphosed or altered B e s o p a n . A c c o m p a n y i n g plagioclase in t h e unaltered spots i s distinctiy more calcic andesine t o labradorite. (C) Northwest-southeast cross section through the Muruntau mine area (modined fiom Kurbanov et al. with cordicrtie and sillinranite in spots at greater depths quartz-albite-biotite-chlorite-oligoclase alteration and subpnrallel zones of quartz veinit and veinlets as incipient 'Mother Txsde*-style veins within the northem strand of the SangranUu-Tamdytau shear zone phlogopitc-pyritc-arscDopyrite veinlets with muscovite. T h e earliest hydrodiermal alteration assemblage occurs along the northern strand o f the S a n g r u n t a u Tamdytau shear z o n e continuously between the Miutenbai and Besopan deposits and is k n o w n l o ­ cally as d i e 'Muruntau L e n s ' (Mukhin et al. Kur­ banov et al. metamorphosed rocks (Marakushev and Khokhlov. Uzbekistaa (B) East-west cross section through the Murunuiu mine area. 1992.. K-spar and FcMnCOj selvages quartz-K-spar-FeMnCO]-sulfide& veinleu with apatite. monazite and brookite quartz veins with FbMnCO. Gold concentrations throughout the z o n e between Miutenbai and B e s o p a n generally e x c e e d crustal abundance. sheared and brecciated rocks widiin the zone. subparallel z o n e s o f quartz veins and veinlets. 5. W e refer to the subparallel zones quartz veining as incipient 'Mother L o d e ' . overprinted b y t h e later shear-zone controlled mineralization. Hydrothennal alteration related to several stages o f the mineralizing process occurs extensively along t h e northern a n d s o u t h e r n strands o f d i e Stmgruntau-Tamdytau shear zone. I I (1996) 175-196 Tattle 2 Sequence of alteration and veining associated witfi the Murunuu hydrothennal system 185 Sequence' 1 2 y 4 5 6 7 8 Scale" I. Marakushev and Khokhlov.spar-FeMnCO. biotite-chlorite-plagioclase spots at shallow depths.. alteration intrusion of silicic dikes quartz vcinleti with K-spar.t y p e veins (Fig. T h e alteradon is distinguishable from regional metamorphism by the higher magnesium content o f the biodte and chlorite. The spotted schist is considered to b e due to contact metamorphism (Maraku. Mukhin et al. and sulfides (Central Veins) with quart2 -K-. Drew. quartz and feldspar in carbtmaceous. biotile is more dtaniferous and sillimanite and cordierite are found at depth. 1992). muscovite. 6 ) . A b o v e back­ ground concentrations of arsenic and gold also occur within these rocks (Fig. 1992).regional and local scale distribution of alteration and (or) veining. Widiin the Muruntau open pit. several paragenetic Rg. 1 9 9 1 .

Uzbelcistan (modified fwn. ..southern TanKlyiau Monnurins. « c n i c «. in the . 6.d 8old/«se „i« « « m a U « in relaii. «>toe. / .hear zone.M..ANOMALOUS GoldandAnerIc ^ » HtoMyslclflalarea ffrequtnlKi ore twuingl ' • ^ • 1 ^ - Shear lone MuruniM . H g . Ucation of gold.. Khamnibaev. 1969).

however. which indicates that the sulfide deposition is not entirely a later alteration event Analytical data indicate that this assemblage may contain at least several hunilred parts per billion gold. 7. The third stage of veining consists predominantly of quartz. . Location of the Sangruntau-Tamdytau shear zone in relation to the axis of a regional anticlinal structure in the Tamdytau Mountains. K-feldspar and mi­ nor iron-magnesium carbonate. Crack-seal and step-fractured textures arc common.selvages of muscovite. The Mumntau Lens-equivalent. Silicic dikes intmde all of the above alteration stages after die formation of the Central Veins. The Muruntau open pit ores within metasedimen­ tary rock are confined wholly to bS. dikes strike nonhwest along tlie SangruntauTamdytau shear zone. These veins contain the highest grades of gold in the deposit widi average grades varying from 3. phlogopite. locally. It crosscuts the phlogopite veins and locally contains abundant carbonate that also pervades and replaces therockmanix. Mukhin et al. K-feldspar and muscovite with ankeritic cartwnate and sulfides. 1969). The fourth stage of veins and alteration Fig. which appears to have filled portions of originally phlogopite microveins that were intermittently reopened.. 1991). A swarm of latc-stage intramineral felsic dikes strikes northwest in the northeastem pan of the open pit and adjacent gmund (Fig. This s a m e alteration is associated widi die Central Veins (cf. Khamrabaev. having been replaced by albite u n d (or) later K-feldspar. 4).scmblage was followed by the widespread formation of phlogopite widi pyrite ± arsenopyrite in en eche­ lon microveins with . The earliest alteration assemblage consists of quartz + albite + phlogopite ± oligoclase. Phlogopite is fine-grained where it grew along grain boundaries and is coarser along the cleavage planes.5 to 11 g/t Au (Kurbanov et al. Alteration c o m m e n c e d along planes of schistosity and cleavage related to prc-orc folding. Quartz and albite occur primarily within the rock matrix and are elongated in the plane of the schistosity. The phlogopite. 1975. The oligoclase occurs a s only remnant grains. forms selvages around the sulfide. (1988). 3). albite-bcaring as. magne­ sian chlorite. The veinlets crosscut the schistosity and axial plane cleavage. U2bekisttn. either concurrendy or immediately before the next alter­ ation stage. which we con­ sider to be equivalent to the earliest ore-stage alter­ ation assemblage noted above in the Muruntau Lens of Mukhin et al. which indicates diat a n e w regime of permeability was developing. grades are much higher.. S o m e of die microveins arc filled widi pyrite-I-arsenopyrite. 1988). Similar dikes occur in the central part of the deposit and along and adjacent to north­ east-striking faults that make up part of the Mumnlau-Daugyztau shear zone in the southeastem part of the pit (Nekrasov.From: Interlibrary Loan To: DDX Date:2/18«7 Time: 23:35:08 Page 15 of 24 I U. Drewel oL/Ort Genlngy Reriews 11 (1996) 175-196 187 sluges of hydrothermal alteration were recognized on the basis of cross cutting or replacement relations. (1988) depicted the dikes as dipping soudicast Soudicasl of the Soudi Fault (Fig. Mukhin et al.. quartz.

quite intense zones appear to occur along brittle faults that offset Central V e i n s and other types o f ores ['sericitolites' in Kotov and Poritskaya (1992)]. sphalerite. sphalerite and chalcopyrite in Central Vein material. melange and ophiolite fragments over older metamorphosed. Regional tectonics The g e o l o g i c relations and physical attributes o f the deposit cleariy imply that Muruntau w a s formed within die brittle/ducUle transition z o n e during the later stages o f processes related to the collision o f t w o tectonic plates. molybdenite. The tourmaline in this assemblage is dravite and occurs as segregated clots within the quartz vein. 1 9 9 3 .s and as discrete microveins o f tourmaline.shear stress during forma­ tion. all followed by brittie fracture and associated veining. 4.1. 1 9 7 1 . tennantite. Thnist faulting o f a c o l l a g e o f platform cartmnates. 1988.seal and ribbon vein strucmres. Although w e did not observe this alteration. galena. Mukhin et al. The morphology of microscopic fracture v e i n s imply diat die deposit w a s under . many late orogenic (early Per­ mian) plutons. polybasite and native silver.st-northea. stocks and dikes o f varying c o m p o s i ­ tion intruded the previously developed Tamdytau dirust plates ( K o t o v and Poritskaya. Disciusion T w o questions for which w e sought answers dur­ ing our field work at Muruntau deposit were " W h a t . tetrahedrite.From: Interiibrary Loan To: DDX Date: 2/18/97 Time: 23:36:01 Page 16 of 24 188 U.2. magnetite and ilmenite (Khamrabaev. Drew el al./Ore Geolngy Reviews ll (I'm) 175-196 is die relation o f the deposit to its environment?" and "What tributes of the d e p o s i t ? " lithotectonic at­ consists o f K-feldspar -I. During shearing. Subsequently. Ore minerals from this event include miar­ gyrite. Kham­ rabaev ( 1 9 6 9 ) s h o w e d that the tourmaline veins o c ­ cur m e a s t . pyrargyrite. followed by Carboniferous-Per­ mian stratiform gold ores and culminating in the Permian-Triassic w i d i the formation o f t h e h i g h grade CenU'al V e i n s ( M i g a c h e v . A later stage of alteration consists o f quartzsericite. with associated perva­ sive calcite replacement o f the rock matrix. siliciclastic rocks. S o m e late-orogenic granitic c o m p o s i t i o n dikes were emplaced during the mineralization associated with brittie fracture veins. wolframite. Other minerals include scheelite. 1992). are the physical 4. In addition.dolomitic carbonate + tourmaline ± pyrite. 1969). W e observed small quantities o f galena.t o ea. 3. gold and bismuth tellurides and selenides. T h e m o s t abundant sulfide mineral is pyrite with significant arsenopyrite and s o m e marcasite and pyrrhotite.. as evidenced by early-stage folded auriferous and (or) boudinaged veins and crack-. brookite(?). is the last stage o f veining and it occurs diroughout the mine. Marakushev and Khokhlov. chalcopyrite. which occurs in the m e g a s c o p i c to microscopic quartz veins. tour­ maline forms the matrix in breccias. Calcite veining with sparse pyrite.somatic products o f 4. Khamrabaev ( 1 9 6 9 ) reported a paragenetically late silver-enriched ore event with sulfosalLs and tel­ lurides.3. Ore mineralogy T h e principal ore nuneral is nadve gold.st-elongatcd ellipti­ cal z o n e s o f e n echelon fractures. 1990). This assemblage crosscuts the silicic dikes and appears to h a v e been formed along brittle fractures o f a similar orientation to those that control the emplacement o f die Central Veins. H y ­ drothermal activity occurred in association with in­ trusive activity and w a s confined predominantiy to die ductile shear zones. w h i c h include coarse auriferous quartz-vein fragments. a transition from ductile to brittie shear occurred. monazite and baslnacsite(?).w e s t . Kuibanov ct aL ( 1 9 9 1 ) argued that Muruntau w a s f o n n e d from the superposition o f high-temperature alteration and metallization o n synkinematic metamorphic/meta. also B e l ' k o v a and Ognev. folded and thrust-faulted siliciclastic and volcanic rocks w a s f o l l o w e d b y transpressional ductile shear­ ing. Theories on the timing of gold mineralization Considerable attention has been g i v e n in the R u s ­ sian language literature to die hypothesis that there have been more than one episode o f mineralization occurring at different times at Muruntau beginning widi Ordovician-Silurian lenticular accumulatioas of gold-bearing z o n e s . with zones that occur intermittendy across Ihe breadth o f the open pit from north south.

." (Kurtjanov et al. 1987) and towards zones of lower mean stress (Ridley. Kotov and Poritskaya (1992) noted diat quartz veinlets crosscut the contact between die Besopan and the Devonian carbonate rocks widi small areas of oxidized gold mineralizadon occurring up ° into the carbonate rocks. continental collision environ­ ments. all lining. 19) at «=278 Ma. 4. it is likely that fluid-phase viscosity contrasts in bS. olcanic . The geometries of the alterations and ores are a function of the prelateral faulting permeabilities. imply formadikes •dated tion jRusdicre zation inning ons of :-Pern the high*kova ushev rgued on of 1 on :ts of . Kurhjuiov refers to this as ' polychronic' mineralization. The restriction of the quartr-albite-phlogopite . 1991. 1992). most of these are confined to the shear zones. Wall ct al... A model Our model shares some aspects in common with other interpretations.ffu. ±2. in a generally compositionally homogeneous rock unit such as die Besopan Suite.st5..following the emplacement of the orogenic granite intrusions.From: biteilibrary Loan To: DDX Date: 2/18/97 Time: 23:37:02 Page 17 of 24 U. magraatic activity as a diermal-focusing mechanism and fluid flow and metal enrichment owing to seismic pumping. flow and sealing (Cox and Elheridge. 1983. A second line of evidence that mitigates against a pre-Carboniferous goldmineralizing episode is Rb-Sr isochron data from a pre-gold ore hornfels assemblage of 273. 18). comminuted shale and quartz cemented with carbonate at the contact of the Be..3. permeability and fluid focus­ ing The lateral faulting in the Tamdytau is con­ strained by geologic relations to have originated during the later stages of the upper Carboniferous continent-to-continent collision. Drew cl al. the clear control of these structures on the distribution of earliest stage alteration in the Muruntau ore field and the intramineral alteration of dated Eariy Permian granitic dikes associate and link all aspects of the mineralization to the late-accretionary structural pro­ cesses and pre-existing . Because of the compositional homogeneity of bSj widiin the Sangmntau-Tamdytau shear zone. Fluid flow in such environments should be by repetitious crack opening. The earliest alteration that we have recognized petrographically in samples that we collected at Mu­ runtau is quartz-albite-phlogophite and die distribu­ tion of this assemblage is predominandy along the northem sbiand of the Sangmntau-Tamdytau shear zone. such as die Caledonian thmst planes. 4. Dynamothermal metamorphism and postmaginaiic activity served as a mechanism to concentrate the metals with the ' ' bulk of commercial gold-quartz ores related to the late stages.n earlier stage (Ordovician-Silurian). Critical to unraveling the relation of fault system evolution and hydrothermal alteration geometry is the constraint of how fluids move and arc focused in deep.sedimentary unit. Thus. p. Aldiough some cnick-seal microveining and alteration effects occur in rocks outside of the large lateral shear zones at Muruntau. Sibson. Further. Our model does not require a gold-enriched protolidi. compressional. Variations in mean stress in layered sequences de­ pend upon layer diicknesses and the relative compe­ tency of die layers. and fluids will be focused into diem.sopan and die Devonian carbonate rocks (cf. die sequence of evolution of various shear zones..st have been derived from gold sulfide accumulatioivs. shear zones arc the most continuous zones of high permeability. This is evidenced by the subparallel vein zones within the shear zones. "The metal .shearly Permposindytau ). Fault geometry. 1993).. were die result of pre-existing permeability contra. These variations are an effective mechanism for focusing fluids in a regional stress field (Ridley. but we rely on the interplay of structure and fluid chemistry in our explanation of die origin and physical character of Muruntau. 1994).. 1983. Hyidi inntly to nsition ienccd inaged les. p. Instead of a dirust contact the muldple-epLsodcs models consider the contact to be an unconformity and the 'conglomerate' to be a .8 Ma sampled within die Munintau open pit (Kosdtsyn. volcanosedimcntary [and related] formadon stages" (Kurbanov et al.1.structural elements. Our field observations and die results of drilling through the carbonate and siliciclastic sequences convince us diat die contact is tectonic and that the conglomerate is not a sedimentary unit. Widiin diis alteration are subparallel layers of quartz veinlets frequendy manifested as linear siliceous masses within the shear zone (Fig.formed at the earlier.3. Kotov and Poritskaya. S). 1993). The proposition that there are several temporally distinct episodes of mincralizadon is generally supported by an interpretation of layers of angular fragments of Besopan. 1991.../Ore Geology Reviews II lim) 175-196 189 tectonic leal at- •utes of formed ing the sion of lage of ige and Jhosed.

T h e upper surface of the anomaly consists of a number o f linear. Mukhin et al. K o ­ tov and Poritskaya.semblages and d i k e emplacement de­ scribed above. Secondary albite and quartz are e l o n g a t e d in the plane o f schistosity and the textures imply piutially annealed crack-seal growth (cf. California. dike-like magnetic highs. and. T h e various orientations o f schistosity and other c l e a v a g e within die rock in the shear z o n e result in locally inhomogeneous permeability and. therefore. northeast-trending.sed fluid into die z o n e . Marakushev and Khokhlov. The crack-seal-style textures indicate that increased permeability occurred b y m e a n s o f pene­ trative fracnire propagation (Wall et al. mineralogical e v i d e n c e indi­ cates that tiie highest temperatures in the southern Tamdytau most probably were initially in the M u m n ­ tau mine area. continued high fluid pressures witiiin the shear z o n e led t o addi­ tional microfracturing. A s w e k n o w the paragenetic position of the dikes vis-a-vis the alteration s u g e s (Table 2 ) . Furthermore. W e b e l i e v e that the critical geologic evidence regarding hydraulic conductivity versus nonconducdvity o f a pre-cxisdng structure is in the interpreta­ tion o f aeromagnetic data regarding buried intrusions in conjunction with die paragentic relations between alteration as. linear z o n e that extends from the Besopan deposit to the Miutenbai deposit (cf. and these fractures. dilatancy will b e local and die fluid-flow within the shear z o n e will be focused further into these local z o n e s o f dilatancy. R i d l e y . Because the shear z o n e i s the main focus of fluid flow. die bulk permeability o f the S a n g r u n t a u Tamdytau shear zone relative to the surrounding rock fucu. and other c l e a v a g e s related lo different scales of folding within the B e s o p a n Suite. 1988. subsur­ face positive anomaly approximately 5 km w e s t soutiiwest o f the Muruntau m i n e .uniform chemical composition o f the B e s o p a n Suite. therefore. 1992) implies diat other strands o f die Sangruntau-Tamdytau shear zone cither did not exist at dial time or were hydraulically nonconductive at the time diis alteration and the subparallel microveinlets were formed.2.From: Interiibrary Loan To: DDX Date: 2/18/97 Time: 23:38:06 Page 18 of 24 190 UJ. Drew el ul. Association of intrusions with shear zones A s discussed above. and the dilation of die schistosity and other c l e a v a g e w i l h i n the z o n e focused fluid flow locally in the a b s e n c e o f otiicr fractures. there is a much smaller. 1992. 199. therefore. that is./Ore Geology Reviews 11 (1996) 175-196 s i v e alteration within the northern strand o f the Sangmntau-Tamdytau shear z o n e w a s initially c o n ­ trolled by schistosity. Our interpretation o f data in Khamrabaev ( 1 9 6 9 ) is that this small anomaly w e s t of Muruntau i s highly correlated with dikes throughout the suuUiern Tamdytau with a prob­ able source region beneath the alluvium south o f die range. W e interpret the subparallel zone.served. with subsequent alterations and deforma­ tion superimposed upon this lens. the lack o f evidence o f earliest stage alteration out­ side o f d i e northem strand o f the SangrunuiuTamdytau shear z o n e i s itself evidence diat the other shear z o n e s did not exist in the initial stages of die development o f die Muruntau deposit. which produced prehydrothermal contact/metamorphic spotting but only in the immediate vicinity o f the Muruntau deposit. where the d e v e l o p m e n t o f high-tem- .3. In addition. alteration to a long. Through seismic pumping in die large v o l u m e o f h o m o g e ­ neous rock..3). S i b s o n . most of which are coincident widi surface exposures o f dikes. and Juneau. W e found petrographically that die early perva­ 4. All of these data taken togedier imply that as shear zones developed.. tiie implica­ tion is Uiat this western intrusive activity is younger than the Sardarin intrusion beneath Muruntau. they were hydraulically conductive. die fluid c o m p o s i t i o n is effectively buffered to die regional-scale c h e m i c a l c o m m o n a l i t y ob. The homogeneity and pervasiveness o f the earlystage alteration is the result o f the generally .. fluid pressures will increase within the zone. Thus. Alaska.s o f quartz veiidets to be the incipient development o f large vein s y s t e m s witiiin the shear zone o f the variety c o m m o n m such mining districts as the Modier L o d e . i n h o m o geneous stress. supplanted the schistosity as the z o n e o f l o w e s t mean stress. the gold-bearing. zones of lowest mean stress (cf. hydrodiermally derived Muruntau Lens is restricted to die northem strand o f die Sangruntau-Tamdytau shear z o n e . Regional magnetic surveys of the Tamdytau indicate that the largest pluton in the vicinity o f Muruntau is die Sardarin stock that crops out soudieast o f MurunUiu and projects to the north­ w e s t in the subsurface to Muruntau. 1983) and that permeability probably increased m o r e rapidly in the zones of Caledonian thrust-related shearing. During active transpression. 1990).

and perature c o n t a c t / m e t a m o r p h i c and metasomatic effects are obscn-cd.sy. Drevt el al. 4).. 1993). 4. W e ilets to .iliear zone in the southem Tamdytau. A s diis fold formed. silica-bearing hydrothermal solutions invaded the near-vertical brittle stmctures depositing the 191 high-grade gold-bearing quartz veins (the Central Veins.sequently to the q u a r t z . Within the Sangruntau-Tamdytau shear zone. Stmctural elements formed s u b . Fig.ystems in . Effects of additional shear zones On the basis on h o w fluids flow in c o m p r e s s i o n ally stressed regimes (Ridley. Within the mine.J. changes witti depth from a creenschist facies metamorphic rock to amphitiolite and gamet-bearing c a l c . ^ Temporal relation between the.b i i u i t e alteration zone and its enclosed subparallel z o n e s of quartz microveining. the geometry of the orebodies and stmctural control and strike of late-. Movement on the Munintau-Dangyztau shear zone is last major shearing event in the foimation of the gold ore zones in the area of the MurunUu mine. 5 A ) and oblique to the displacement direc­ tion on the northwest-trending S a n g m n t a u . Adjustment o n this z o n e w a s left-lateral resuldng in the formadon o f a fault-related fold (the Z-fold. which is restricted to the area within and surrounding the Muruntau mine.such lia. however. a z o n e o f dilatancy formed west o f die Tamdytau (Fig.D a u g y z t a u shear zone formed. With each succcs-sivc m o v e m e n t o n this britde fault s y s t e m .s this emplacement proc&ss e v o l v e d . T h e lavage locally homomain crease id the )cused hat i s . 5 ) . mineralizadon developed over a much broader area. quartz-tourma­ line veinlets and calcite veining. 2) that allowed igneous magmas to be emplaced. An equant shaped zone o f permeability (on the order of 9 km* in plan v i e w ) o p e n e d forming the large bulb-shaped mass in the previously developed Muruntau Lens (Sangruntau-Tamdytau shear zone). tmean eariyniform hrough imogectively onality ite that •' pene3 ) and •idly in ig. and dikes were emplaced along many structures in die southem Tamdytau. e a s t . W e .From: Interlibraiy Loan To: DDX Date: 2/18/97 Time: 23:39:12 Page 19 of 24 L.s i l i c a t e facies rocks. diis strike o f tensional opening is not s t m c ­ turally consistent w i d i all m o v e m e n t being o n the northem strand and thus implies that s o m e c h a n g e Muruntau-Oaugyitau shearlone nes :eindioudiem Mumngh-tem- ^ S . northeast-striking orebodies.stage dikes imply sequential changes in the stmctural environment at Mumntau. A. T h e s e c h a n g e s are after the formation of the q u a r t z . in the irtially ). auriferous. slippage along the fault .T a t n d y i a u shear zone.stem developed (Fig. 1993). 4).w e s t Central Veins. Fig.a l b i t e . the main individual orebodies strike northeast parallel to the axial traces o f folds in b S j (Fig. untauunding lion o f J zone • other :d high I addirefore.b i o t i t e alteration in­ clude the Z-shape fold.J.?./Ore Geology Reciewx II (1996) 175-196 >f the y conited to Suite. The prealteration spotted schist. With time. folds in the subparallel quartz veinlet zones (siliceous masses). the britde-acting M u m n t a u .speculate that as the stress regime e v o l v e d in this orogen after collision. .a l b i t e .

. (A) Location of sevend shear zotiex and faults in the southem Tamdytau. Structural elements associated with the mineralization at Muninuiu. U/Aclcistan. (C) Initiation of the formadon of the 'stockwork' ore in relation to Ihe movement of die nuuor faults. (D) Formation of the Central Veins in relation torouvcnwotoo the maiot faults. (B) Creation of the fault-related fold (Z-fold) and the Munmtau Lens. 9.3 B) FonnacionofthaZ-foktandmpantian o f t l w Muruntau Lena s 4 Fig.

T a m d y t a u shear zone.straints as hydrothermal fluids (Ridley. 9 ) . ( 1 9 8 8 ) showed die isoclinal folds in the Besopan to strike northeast in the northem and centrai parts o f die Mumntau mine and northwest in the southem part o f the mine. as presented a b o v e .se orebodies. Clearly. T h e s e factors. its tectonic importance to die . Nevertheless.5 to 2 ppm A u is in immediate proximity to ore-grade bodies implies that the eariy stage contains o n l y a small proportion o f die total g o l d w e . thus resuUing in the Z-shape fold (Fig. T h e greatest vertical thickness o f ore is within die fold structures along the s o u t h e m .D a u g y z t a u zone up to this time w a s d u c d l e shear with later move­ ment b e i n g o f a britde nature. the axial cleavage o f these folds has been rotated into die plane o f extension within the San­ g m n t a u .T a m d y t a u shear zone may be inferred from the fracture trends that control post-Z-fold mineralization in the M u m n t a u deposit and those shears diat controlled the e m p l a c e ­ ment o f intramineral dikes. die amount o f sulfide. The dikes are along die S a n g m n t a u . side of the Northeast Fault ( F i g . 5 C ) . therefore.strand (Fig.ny Reviews II (19%) 175-196 had taken place. There were t w o major effects o f die acdvadon o f the Murantau-Daugyztau shear zone. 8 and 9 ) from Miutenbai across die Mumntau ore zone.T a m d y t a u shear zone southeast of the Mumntau mine und the soudiem strand o f this shear z o n e west o f Murantau (Fig. T h e northeast­ e m strike o f the orebodies is the expected position­ ing o f tensional opening in die system b e t w e e n the t w o steps. increases as does the amount o f carbonate alteration. The critical argument.a l b i t e . T h e z o n e s o f quartz veinlets within the q u a r t z . 5 A ) . 5B and C ) .b i o t i t e alteration are folded to varying extents within the Muruntau deposit (Fig. 9 ) in the Besopan where the t w o major shear z o n e s intersect. / Ore Ceoh.m u s c o vite-K-feldspar alteration. K) became a c d v e before the formadon of the. That most o f die altered ground with 0. primarily in the form o f pyrite and arsenopyrite. 3 ) . or hanging wall.D a u g y z t a u shear system and atten­ dant stresses. W c suggest that die predominant effect o f die M u m n t a u .From: Inteiflbrary Loan To: DDX Date: 2/18/97 Time: 23:40:51 Page 21 of 24 LJ. which brought the axial traces o f the Caledonian isoclinal folds into an orientadon subparallel to the Muruntau-Daugyztau shear zone. T h e effects o f the M u m n t a u . 5 ) . but also from the nearly orthogonal left-.D a u g y z t a u shear zone o n the strike o f the S a n g m n t a u . Drew el ul. further imply that there is a step in die S a n g m n t a u . T h e dikes imply that the lowest m e a n stress had been transferred to the s o u t h e m strand o f the Sangmntau-Tamdytau system. the amount o f C O j in solution h a s in- .T a m d y t a u shear z o n e from southeast of Mumntau across the pit area to die west-striking s o u d i c m shrand (Fig. S e c o n d w a s its effect on die trace o f and fluid flow within the Sangruntau-Tamdytau system. Kurbanov et al. 3 and 8 ) were probably formed al this time because diey localize no alteration and shearing is much less extensive tlian on the early . Thus. is diat dikes respond to the s a m e mean stress c o n .o l i g o c l a s e cariy-stage alteration between Muruntau and B e ­ sopan are c o n v i n c i n g evidence that g o l d w a s b e i n g deposited from the beginning o f hydrodiemuil activ­ ity. Geochemically anomalous concentrations o f g o l d ( > SO ppb to > 1 ppm A u ) in the a l b i t e . in the northern and central parts of the Mumntau open pit. One was the folding to varying extents o f the prior quartzalbite-biotite alteration and subparallel gold-bearing quartz veinlet zones.stmctural control o f the Mumntau mineralizadon i s evident not only from die folding o f die Besopan rocks. T h e formation o f the Central V e i n s and the later tourmaline-bearing v e i n s along more c a s t wcst-trending structures rather than die northeastern strike o f the earlier banded and stockwork ores is consistent with the ultimate regional predominance o f the M u m n t a u . T h e amount o f offset o f the Besopan Suite and die over-dirust carbonate rocks along faults related to die M u m n t a u .D a u g y z t a u shear system i s not signifi­ cant. T h e shear z o n e s that crosscut up into the upper plate rocks in the T a m d y ­ tau (Figs. ( 1 9 9 1 ) indicated that the amplitude and w a v e length o f die folding of diese surfaces were not uniform and that the greatest am­ plitudes and shortest w a v e length folds are south o f the Northeast Fault (Fig. Mukhin et al. During die later stages o f die p h l o g o p i t e . 1993).stepping (rather than oblique) o f the S a n g m n t a u Tamdytau shear z o n e (Figs. T h e rotation o f the prior structural elements and subparallel quartz veinlet zones is evident within the Muruntau mine. T h e following t w o p i e c e s o f evidence are crirical to the e v o l v i n g structural relations: ( 1 ) the northeast-striking orebodies and ( 2 ) the emplacement o f late-stage intramineral granidc dikes. W e suggest that the left-lateral Muruntau-Daugyztau shear zone (Fig.

w a s an apparent increase in the re­ duced-gas content. S . more dut)ugh-going aurifer­ o u s quartz veins along brittle fractures. Pyrite and nuc-carth-bearing minerals. w h i c h Includes lower gold concentrations in solution. Khamrabaev ( 1 9 6 9 ) presented analyses o f pyrite and arsenopyrite that s h o w v e i n and veinlet (stockwork veining) pyrites contain l o w to moderate amounts o f gold and that coarse. O n e possible effect is that in carbonaceous and (or) fer­ rous-iron-beating lithologies. 5. the increased amount o f sulfide in solution also w o u l d h a v e increased the solubility o f gold. final of tourmaline-bearing quartz veinlets. T h e latest stage o f vein formation in die Muruntau deposit is calcite. A c c o r d i n g to Khamrabaev ( 1 9 6 9 ) .striking brittie faults (Fig. Location of the fonnation of the calcite veins as mapped in the Munmtau pit riod (Hercynian) o f tectonism. T h e high-grade nature o f die Cen­ tral V e i n s c l o s e l y associated with our third-stage assemblage o f hydrodiermal alteration further im­ plies dial higher grades o f gold g o along with tiic main period o f potassium-carbonate meta. 1 0) indicate that tiicy w e r e deposited during the w a n i n g stages o f the mineralization process. T h e changed stress r e g i m e refocu. Ortwetal/Ort CenloKy Rm-iews ll (19%) 175-196 along north-southerly . The development o f these incipient major quartz veins w a s interrupted by changes in the regional stress regime and the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c o m p e t i n g left-lateral wrench-fault system.sed die hydrodiermal fluids to form the s e c o n d stage of veinlets in the northeast-striking z o n e s o f tension that are related to the interaction o f tiie. are found in these veins at s o m e locali­ ties.and fine-grained arsenopyrites contain from l o w to high amounts o f gold. or low-sulfide shear-zone-hosted. as well as igneous dikes. T h e ore-bearing stage followed the emplacement granitic dikes and consists o f consists of calcite veinlets. a schistosity w a s d e ­ veloped in the Cambrian lo Ordovician host B e s o p a n Suite. During the initial creased. die MuruntauDaugyztau shear z o n e . T h e lower concentrations o f g o l d associated with the tourmaline. includ­ i n g g o l d . T h e s e veins crosscut all preceding alteration types. hydrogen is relea. which possibly include baesnaesite.sed. 10. T h e w a n i n g stage o f mineralization Acknowledgements This work is a product o f a cooperative scientific agreement between the U .somatism. G e o l o g i c a l Survey and the Ministry o f G e o l o g y in die Former S o v i e t U n i o n signed in 1989. i s catalyzed. Depending on the temperature.D a u g y z t a u system. the sub­ stantial size o f which is a result o f its structural evolution. W e gratefully a c k n o w l e d g e the assis- . tourmaline-bearing veins contain only minor amounts o f g o l d in pyrite.se fault systems and the left-stepping o f the Sangrun­ tau-Tamdytau shear z o n e . C O j reacts with the rock to form methane. T h e overall effect o n the hydrodiermal s y s ­ tem. and metal precipitation. and intraformational imbricate thrusting re­ lated shear z o n e s w e r e d e v e l o p e d . With methane in e x c e s s . therefore. Conclusions Muruntau Ls a s y n d e f o r m a t i o n / s y n i g e n o u s . g o l d deposit. T h e s e r d a t i o n s and the occurrence o f veins stage of mineralization. a third stage o f mineralization occurred that is represented b y major. refocused into 7ones of pre-existing permeability witiiin the S a n ­ gruntau-Tamdytau left-lateral wrench-fault s y s t e m . Before the Carboniferous to Permian p e ­ Fig. The mineralization look place within the hrittle/duc-tilc transition zone in the crust and within the thermal influence of concurrent granitic pluton­ ism. quartz veinlet z o n e s with gold were formed as fluids w e n .From: Interiibrary Loan To: DDX Date: 2/18/97 Time: 23:41:55 Page 22 of 24 194 U. A s the initial wrench-fault system was succeeded by the M u r u n t a u .and carbon­ ate-bearing v e i n s may reflect the paucity o f reactive ferrous iron and carbonaceous matter that remain in the i m m e d i a t e host rocks or s o m e other process. die ensuing c r o s s cutting.

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