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Structure

3.1 3.2 3.3

3.4

Introduction

Objectives

3.5

**Laws of Friction Problems Involving Dry Friction Inclined Plane Wedge Friction and Screw Friction
**

3.5.1 Wedge I<nct~on 3.5.2 Screw Fr~ctlon

!

I

3.6 3.7

Belt and Rope Friction Summary Key Words Answers to SAQs

i

3.8 3.9

L

--3.1

INTRODUCTION

L

1

!

In the preceding units. it was assumed that the surfaces in contact Were smooth and the forces between the bodies act normally to the surface of contact. However, in practice, it is impossible to have perfectly smooth surfaces. There always exists microscopic roughness which tends to prevent any possible sliding motion between the two bodies. In this unit, you will learn the laws governing the dry friction formulated by Coulomb and their applications in different situations. You will study the relation between the normal and frictional fofE6 at a point of contact between two non-lubricated rigid bodies. You will also study (he frictional forces in various devices such as inclined plane, wedges, screws, belts and rope drives. The study of frictional forces is essential to solve the practical problems in Engineering Mechanics.

Objectives

After studying this unit, you should be able to

* * *

understand the laws of dry friction, determine the magnitudes of frictional forces in different situations, work out friction-related quantities such as coefficient of friction, angle of friction, angle of repose to solve problems involving dry friction, and apply laws of friction to various devices like inclined plane, wedges, screws, belts and rope drives.

As a resull of studies carried out by Coulomb in 1781, he reported that : I. The total amount of friction that can be developed is independent of the magnitude of the area of contact. The total frictional force that can be developed is proportional to the normal force transmitted across the surface of contact. 3. Fur low velocities, the total amount of friction that can be developed is practically independent of velocity. However, it is less than the frictional force corresponding to impending motion. $jp Consider a body of weight W resting on a floor. Let P be the force applied as shown in IA Figure 3.1. As forces P and Ware concurrent, there must be a third force equal in / magnitude and opposite in nature to the resultant of P and W to keep the body in equilibrium. Let it be denoted by R. The normal and frictional components of R are represented by Nand F respectively. 2.

F

\

N 'R

Figure 3.1

As P increases F will also increase correspondingly till the limiting condition of impending motion. Tile maximum value sf F that can be developed is called limiting static friction and is proportional to the normal reaction N. Mathematically, F = N

: .

F = p N.

where p is constant and is called the coefficient of static friction. The angle between the normal reaction N and the resultant reaction R is called the angle of friction. If it is denoted by 9,then we get,

E

ia t -

Therefwe, the tangent of angle of friction is equal to the coeflcient offiiction. It is our common experience that when the body begins to move, there is a decrease in frictional effect from the limiting static friction. An idealised plot of this action as a function of time is shown in Figure 3.2. This shows that there is a drop from the limiting frictional effect to a frictional effect that is constant with time. It is independent of the velocity of the object. Generally, the coefficients of friction for dynamic conditions are about 25 percent less. Table 3.1 gives the values of static coefficients of friction : Table 3.1 Surface of contact P Steel on cast iron Copper on steel Hard steel on hard steel Mild steel on mild steel Rope on wood 0.57 0.70 0.20 - 0.75 Wood on wood (Source : F.P. Bowden and D.Tabor, 1950, The Friction and Lubrication of Solids, Oxford University Press, New York) 0.40

32

**3.3 PROBLEMS INVOLVING DRY FRICTION
**

Just before the conditions of impending motion, the bodies are in equilibrium. Using the equations of equilibrium, you will be able to work out the unlcnown frictional forces and hence determine the various friction-related quantities. The most important thing is to ascertain the direction of frictional forces which always oppose possible, impending or actual relative motion at the contact surfaces.

Example 3.1 Find the force P needed to start block B shown in Figure 3.3 moving to the right if the coefficient of friction is 0.3 for all surfaces of contact. Block A weighs 80 N and block B weighs 160N.

46 (3. For Block A : CF. If not. Free bod diagram of b k k A . the direction of frictional forces FA and FB are shown acting towards left. As the possible motion of the block B is tow-ards right. .6) = 88. 2 A force of 200 N inclined at 600 to the horizontal is applied to the block A weighing 400 N.3 (a) shows the free body diagrams for block A and block B. Now the conditions of equlibrium can be applied to determine the force P. FA = T cos 30" = 0. = 0 Also For Block B : XF. then find out the maximum value of the coefficient of friction when it is just on the point of moving. for block B.1 F Solution - Figure 3.5.91 N Therefore.=O : . Determine whether block A moves if the coefficient of friction is 0.866 T XF..=O = 20.91 N is needed to move the block B to the right. Example 3 . When block B moves towards right the relative motion of block A will be towards left and hence the frictional force FA for block A is shown acting towards right.45 + 68. a force of 88.

FA < 100 N = 0. If the coefficient of hiction between block A and the ground is 0. As the horizontal component of P (i.8. What is the minimum angle possible before slipping occurs? The coefficient of static friction at A is 0.795 N This is the limiting static friction that will be developed between the surfaces of contact.4409 or less. Determine the frictional force developed.28 and that between block B and the ground is 0. Rr. 200 cos 60" = 100 N) is less than 113. the block A will not movc if the coefficient of friction is 0. find the value of load W so that the blocks A and B are just on the point of sliding.3? A ladder weighing 80 N rests at a comer as shown in Figure 3.398 N. then the block A will move under the given conditions. What is the value of limiting frictional force if coefficient of friction is 0. The weights of the blocks are 800 Pu'each. SAQ 1 Mark the directions of frictional force and n o d reaction at the surface of contact for block A shown in Figure 3.5.6.Solution There is a possibility of movement of block a towards right.. if the limiting static friction is less than the horizontal component of P then the block A will move.3.7.4409 Therefore. if the coefficient of friction is 0. Therefore the direction of frictional force FA will be towards left.e. 6 .22.5. The coefficient of fnction between the blocks and the ground is 0.2 and at B is 0. (d) Figure 3 . But..d the minimum value of P just to move the system. For the system shown in Figure 3. . Two blocks. Also find the tension in the string.25. A weighing 30 N and R weighing 50 N are on rough horizontal surface as shown in Figure 3. = 400 .200 sin 60" = 226.

and (i) 1 : moving up. we get. I.3. = 0 : . The component of the weight of body along the inclined plane opposes if the body has to move up or helps if it has to move down. = Wsina But p = -FA = NA Wsina = tan a Wcos a This shows that the tangent of the angle of repose is equal to the coefficient of friction. Figure 3. p = tan 4 where @ = angle of friction Therefore. The coefficient of friction is 0. The maximum angle of inclination at which this happens is called the angle of repose. (ii) Case 1 . ZF. As the body is just on the point of moving down. A force P is applied parallel to and up the inclined plane.5 m x 0.10 Resolving the forces along and the normal to the inclined plane and applying the conditions of static equilibrium. If a > I$ then the body will run down the plane and an external force will be required to prevent the body from running down. angle of repose is equal to the angle of friction.3 A body weighing 50(9 N is resting on an inclined plane making an angle of 30" with the horizontal. If the angle of inclination a of the plane is less than the angle of repose I$. One of the simplest engineering device of lifting loads to higher altitudes is the inclined plane. the direction of frictional force will be acting up the inclined plane. If the coefficient of friction is 0. we know.9..(e) A force P is applied at an angle a to the packing crate measuring 0. the body will be at rest and an external force will be required to move it. Consider a body resting on an inclined plane which is just on the point of moving down.8 m as shown in Figure 3. Also. Example 3. Determine the least value of P when the body is just on the point of Casc I : moving down.3. determine the largest allowable value of the angle a and the corresponding value of P if it moves to the left without tipping.

the frictional force will be acting upwards. we get. (3. = 500 sin 30" + F.Solution Here..WC ~ 30" S =0 .9 = 120. we get. Putting this in Eq.1 N (3. Nl .F. we get P. = 250 + F2 . the angle of Eiction @ = @I' '(0.9 N Pl = 250 .- Wsin30°=0 = 250 .7). the frictional force will be acting downwards..12 Resolving all forces parallel to the inclined plane. Figure 3 .Wsin 30°=0 : . Case I1 : When the body is just on the point of moving up. Figure 3.8) : . 11 Resolving all forces parallel to the inclined plane we get Pl +F.129.3) Case I :When the body is just on the point of moving down.Fl Resolving all forces normal to the inclined plane. P. . Nl = 500 cos 30" = 433 N Fl = p Nl = 0.3 x 433 = 129.

it is seen that when the force applied is 379. (3. Thus.5.2 kN.Resolving all forces normal to the inclined plane. The mistake most frequently made in the solution of problem involving friction is to write the frictional force in the form F .fmd the magnitude and direction ~igum 3.9 N acting downwards. Determine the value of P (a horimntal force) required to move the crate up the plane. Putting the value of F2 in Eq. The coefficient of friction between block M and block N is 0. we get.9 19 or mote fhe hody will move up and when it is 120. F. find the minimum value of weight of block P to maintain the equilibrium as shown in Figure 3. When the force applied is between 120. the frictional force acting on a body is found by solving the equations of static equilibrium of the body. SAQ 2 (a) A crate weighing 5 kN is kept on an inclined plane making an angle of 30" with the horizontal. It is to be remembered that d y h c u e of impending or actual sliding motion of bodies with respect to one another h e frichonal force will be maximum i.e. Blocks M and N rest on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 3.2 kN.1 N or less it will move down.= p N. What is the minimum value of P required to keep the crate from sliding down the plane? \ 3. the motion of one or both of the blocks is impending? If 0 = 15".9 N. If the weight of block Q is 1. 2.15. If P = 5. find frictional forces between M and N and between Nand the plane. . experiencing variable friction varying from 129. we get. fur what value of 0.1 N and 379.13. = p N. If the weight of block M is 600 N and that of N is 800 N.. (b) (c) 1.4 ahd hiit between block Nand the plane is 0.13 of the frictional force acting on the crate.9). In all other cases.14. For what range of values of P will the crate remain in equilibrium position shown in Figure 3. the body will neither move upW@ nor downwards.9 N adtittg upwards decreasing to zero and then increasing upto 129. 4.

the motion of block A with respect to wedge B being towards right. Solution F l g 3. Keeping in mind that the frictional forces oppose the motion and the normal reactions. The direction of movement of block A with respect contact as shown i to the wall being vertically upwards. : .16.0625) = 800 . Block A is in contact with the vertical wall and the horizontal surface of block B.33 N . the direction of frictional force at the surface of contact of block A and the wedge will be towards left as shown in the free body diagram of block A. the direction of frictional force will be vertically downwards as friction opposes the motion. The example given below will illustrate the procedure to solve problems involving wedges.. The problems involving wedges can be solved by applying the friction laws to the various parts of the device.25 N3 sin 6" = 0 ( as F3= 0.17:FrccBodyhgram dBloeLA D. . determine the smallest force P to be applied to raise the block A.11) eFp . a wedge remains in place after being forced under the load.0. Example 3. Owing to the friction existing between the surfaces in contact.1 Wedge Friction Wedges are generally used to move heavy loads by applying a force which is considerably smaller than the weight of the load. D Y = 0 N. the nonnal reactions Nl and N2 will be perpendicular to the respective surfaces of n Figure 3.9945 N3 . If the coefficient of static friction is 0. Therefore.33 . : N. Therefore there are only two unknowns :Nl and N2 and two equations of equilibrium being available.13) .25 N2) = 0 N2 (1 .0. In the limiting condition. DY=0 : . : . N -------'0° . N2-W-Fl=O N2 . we can find the values of Nl and N2. as the name suggests.4 A block weighing 800 N is raised up with the help of two 6" wedges B and C of negligible weights as shown in Figure 3.25 N2 .9375 1 BIgplpf18:FrccBodyDlPgRln ot Wedge B Now let us draw the free body diagram of wedge B. are perpendicular to the surfaces of contact. Similarly.25 for all surfaces of contact.25 (0.-F2=0 (3.18 N .N2 ..3.25 N3) N--. for small adjustments in the position of heavy pieces of machinery wedges are extensively used.853.9684 .' N3co~60-Nz-F3sin60=0 N3 cos 6" . .800 .0.0.0. the various forces acting on wedge B will be as indicated in the free body diagram of wedge B shown in Figure 3. .12) N2 .. we get.0.853 33 . : . .25 Nl = 0 1 1 (3. = F2= 0.0261 N3 = 0 (3.16 ~ N1 qq N2 N3 Let us first draw the free body diagrams for block A and wedges B and C.5.18.800 .881. we know F1= pNl and F2= pN2. Therefore.5 WEDGE FRICTION AND SCREW FRICTION 3.0.853.17. Applying the equations of equilibrium. 4 i ~3. 0.=o : .

If a is the angle of .(0.53 N (3. : .25) = 14. = W cos $ . R2 P R3 sin (90" + $ + 6") .65 sin 34.072" cos 20.25 x 881.53 N will be required to raise the block A.33 + 0. a force of 524. and R2 is the resultant reaction of N2 & F2.072" Similarly.. R.036" ' .25 N3 cos 6' + N3 s i n 6" i Putting the values of N2 and N3. As the three forces keep the block in equilibrium. This can be solved graphically or by using Lami's theorem fm three COflCluTent forces. the forces must the concurrent. R2and W for block A where R1 is the resultant reaction of Nl & F. W R1 R2 sin (90" + 2$) sin (180" .6") . The thread of a screw jack may be considered as an inclined plane wound round a cylinder and the principles used in solving problems on inclined plane can be applied to solve problems involving screw friction. fjy applying Lami's Theorem. By applying Lami's theorem. : P = R2 sin ( 2 $ + 6") cos ( $ + 6") . P = 0.20.sin (90" + 0 ) I . we get.036" cos 241 cos 28.Q) where @ = angle of friction = tan p = tan.18 sin 6' i =524.Dx=0 : .879.sin (180" . for wedge B.'. R3 and P where.@) .25 x 853.we get. there are three forces acting: R. F2+F3co~60+N3~in60-P=0 P = F2 + F3 cos 6" + N3 sin 6" = 0.sin (90" . we get.W cos 14.25 N2 + 0.036" 3.14) Therefore.18 CO$ 6" + 881.2 4 1 .5.2 Screw Friction A screwjack is a device used for lifting or lowering heavy loads by applying comparatively smaller efforts at the end of the lever. You can solve the problem by constructing the triangle of forces R1. R2 = resultant reaction of N2 and F2 R3 = resultant reaction of N3 and F3 Tlle three forces acting will be as shown in Figure 3.

If the load remains in position even after removal of the effort P1 the screw jack is said to be self-locking.15) This force P which drags the load along the inclined plane is related to the force P. This can be found out by taking moments of the forces about the centre line of the cylinder.21. The coefficient of friction is 0. centre to centre distance between two consecutive threads. if the coefficient of friction is greater than -. It does not work in reverse direction because the angle of inclination. p > tan a P 'Therefore.a ) hence the effort at the end of the lever will be given by : . If the angle of wedges is 10' and the coefficient of friction is 0. P1 = r 7 W tan (a + $) When there is one complete revolution the load is raised through one pitch i. To lower the load.e. the effort P at the thread required will be W tan (I$ .25 for all surfaces of contact. If the coefficient of friction is 0. (b) (c) n r n and its mean diameter is The pitch of the thread of a screw jack is 5 r 60 mm. Find the force that should be .the inclined plane and $ is the angle of friction.e. find the value of P required to drive the wedges under the load. will be less than the angle of friction tan a c p i.22. in such cases.the screw jack will be 2nr self-locking. we get. SAQ 3 (a) Two 8" wedges are used to push a block horizontally as shown in Figure 3. Two wedges lift a heavy block of 8 kN as shown in Figure 3. applied at the end of the lever of the screw jack. and tan$=CL Using these relations we can work out the horizontal effort P.08. determine the minimum load P required to push the block weighing 6 kN.3 for all surfaees of contact. we know that the horizontal force required to pull the load up is given by P = Wtan(a+$) (3. required to rais'e the load up. If I is the length of the lever and r is the mean radius of the screw. Plxl = P x r : .

If T.then the impending motion-ofthe Eigure 3 . State with reasons whether the screw is self-locking or not. as shown in the Figure 3. we get. If a load of 2 kN is to be lifted.23 (b).resolving all forces in nonnal direction.-) 2 (3. sin 0 + 0 : . For small angles. what force at the end of the lever will be required? Take p = 0. dT = p dnr ( : . de Tde = dnr (neglecting very small quantity dT .6 BELT AND ROPE FRICTION A belt or a rope with a pulley is a device in which friction is utilised in raising a load. 3. : . when the motion is just developed between the belt and the drum. of length ds subtending an angle d0 at the centre. T and T + dT are the tensions at P and Q respectively and dN is the normal reaction. cos 1 -t 1) Similarly.2. 'Ihe pitch of a square threaded screw jack is 8 mm and the mean diameter is 50 mm The length of the lever is 400 mm. Let the angle of contact be a. we get. be the tensions in the belt.23 (a). Resolving all forces tangentially and applying equation of equilibrium. Let TI and T. > T2 . transmitting power or applying brakes to stop motion. d0 d0 is small. Consider a flexible belt wrapped around a portion of a drum. The free body diagram of this element is shown in Figure 3.(d) applied at the end of the lever 200 mrn long measured from the axis of the screw (i) to raise a load of 20 kN and (ii) to lower the same load. 2 3 (b) belt will be clockwise relative to the drum Consider a small element of the belt. The friction force is (p dN) acting as shown.18) . 2 3 (a) F i g u n3 .

g. The angle between the normal reaction Nand the resultant reaction R is called the angle of friction when sliding motion of the surfaces is impending. The relative sliding motion of one body on another body is resisted by forces called friction forces. is called the angle of repose. you have studied laws of friction and problems involving dry friction. Integrating both sides around the portion of belt in contact with the drum. By drawing free body diagrams indicating correct sense of friction forces and applying equations of equilibrium. When there is no impending motion. you can analyse the engineering .Tz) r If the belt or rope is actually slipping. (3. the retarding friction force has the magnitude pkN where p .17)and Eq. t. 7 SUMMARY In this unit. . the coefficient of static friction should be replaced by coefficient of kinetic friction. Proceeding on similar lines.18).= pa T2 Thus. 3 . When sliding motion actually occurs. The belts used are sometimes V-shaped.From Eq. If /3 is the angle between these two surfaces of contact then the magnitude of the total friction force acting on the element will be 2 dF and the sum of the components of the normal forces is 2 dN sin therefore. The contact between belt and pulley takes place along the sides of the grove. when the body kept on it is just on the point of moving down the plane. we get. it is seen that the ratio of tensions depends only on the angle of wrap a and the coefficient of friction p. The sense of these friction forces is such as to oppose the impending or actual sliding motion. the engineering applications where dry friction plays an irnprtant role e. wedges used to lift heavy loadsand screw jacks frequently used in presses and other mechanisms. Tbe angle of repose is equal to the angle of friction. we get : . Tl log. is the coefficient of kinetic friction. The limiting static friction is reached when relative sliding motion of the surfaces is impending and is given by: where p is the coefficient of static friction and N is the normal reaction. The torque developed by the belt as a result of friction is given as under: Torque = TI r .T2r = (TI . (3. the friction forces must be found by using the equations of static equilibrium.we get. You have also studied in this unit. This angle @ is related to the_ coefficient of friction by: The maximum angle of inclination of the inclined plane.

applications where dry friction is involved. The ratio of limiting frictional force to the normal reaction when motion is impending is called the coefficientof static friction. The coefficient of Kinetic friction is less than coefficient or static friction. where is the angle between two surfaces of contact forming V. The ratio of frictional force to the nonnal reaction when actual sliding motion takes place is called the coefficientof Kinetic friction. The'typical values for this angle are 5" to 10". 3. \ 63 . The tangent of the angle of repose is equal to the coefficient of static friction. ?be angle of inclination of an inclined surface when there is impending motion of the body kept on it is called the angle of repose. The frictional effects are reasonably predictable under dry conditions. The wedge is a simple machine which is intended to transform an applied force into a force at approximately right angles to the direction of the applied force. are considered. the reaction force exerted by the force can be split into two components :(i) perpendicular to the surface of contact and (ii) parallel to the surface of contact. In this unit. The vector addition of normal reaction and the frictional force gives the resultant reaction. The maximum possible frictional force when the motion is impending is called the limiting frictional force. When two bodies are in contacts and one body tends to slide over the other. The perpendicular component is called the normal reaction and the parallel component is called the frictional force. when sliding motion is impending the ratio of tensions is given by: T l= p Friction T 2 where TI= tension of the tight side T2= tension on the slack side p = coefficient of friction a = angle of lap in radians In case of V belt the above formula is modified by multiplying a by cmec E. over a curved 'surface. The tangent of the maximum value of angle of friction is equal to the coefficient of friction. The wedge angle is usually quite small. The angle between the n o d reaction and the resultant reaction is called angle of friction.8 KEY WORDS Dry Friction : Normal Reaction : Limiting Frictional Force : Coefficient of Static Friction : Coefficient of Kinetic Friction : Angle of Friction : Angle of Repose : Wedge : Friction depends on the condition of lubrication which exists between the surfaces of contact of two bodies. the problems related to friction when the surfaces of contact are dry. In case of belt and rope drives.

opposite to the direction of tending motion.728 N.9 ANSWERS TO SAOs SAQ 1 (a) Tbe directions of frictional force F and normal reaction N are marked in Figure for Answer to SAQ I (a). .426 N towards right. Figure for Answer t o SAQ 1 (a) The horizontal force which tends to move the blockA is 60 cos 45" = 42. the difference being gradually taken up in friction between the belt and the rim of the pulley.3 NB .cos a + FE.sina . the limiting frictional force will be 0. I .e.3.426 N but acting towards left. I I 1 NA -.3 ( 150 + 60 sin 45O ) = 57.NB. the motion is not impending.Belt Friction Angle of Wrap (lap) Ratio of Tension Vee Belt and Rope When aflexible element such as a belt.= 'Ihe frictional force developed will also be 42. As the actual frictional force is less than limiting frictional force. Taking moments of all forces about C . The ratio of tension in the belt depends on the angle of wrap (lap) and the coefficient of friction. rope or cable passes over a pulley or a drum.cosa = 0 * 2 2 2 2 (1) and FB = limiting frictional force at B = 0. the various forces and reactions will be acting in the directions as shown in Figure for Answer to SAQ 1 (b). : When a rope passes through a V notch it comes in contact with two surfaces of Vee. the distributed force which opposes motion of the bell or rope or cable is called belt friction. we get. s m a + FA . (b) If slipping is impending.3 x n o d reaction = 0. : - - -- 3. : The tension TI in the belt on the side leaving the pulley is greater than the tension T2on the side approaching. when the motior~ is not impending. N is acting vertically upwards and F is horizontally acting towards left i. If the coefficient of friction is 0. : The angle subtended by the belt which is in contact with the pulley or drum at the centre is called angle of wrap. The ratio of tensions in the rope depends also on the angle subtended by the two surfaces of Vee.

4=0 .-. : 0.22(50 .0.976 = 19.877 N.2NA Putting these values in equation (I). The free body diagram f a the hinge. (d) .866P . and ~ c o s 30° . .4 = 0 0.5 P (FB= 0.-.4/0.0 .T = 0 .8. 5P) .8 . 3 a =0 . NA NA s i n a + 0 . tan a = 1.-. 4 =.5666 : .NB for Annrcr b SAQ 1(b) FA = limiting frictional force at A = 0.11P .22NB) 0.FB.4N NA Figam lor Aaracr to SAQ 1(c) NB Now applying equation of equilibrium to block B .-. a=5 7 ' (c) 2 6 ' 59" Applying equations of equilibrium to blockA we get NA = WA = 30 N T = FA = 0 .-.m 0 . 2 )cos a .0. 2 s i n a = (3.877 N The minimum value of P just to move t h e system is 19.866 P . 2 N A c o s a + NAeina .WE = 0 = 50 . .. NB + P sin 3 0 ' .Tension in the string = 8. we get.-.976 P = 11 + 8 .P = 19. 2 8 NA = 0.28x 30 = 8 .rigid rods and blocks A & B are shown in Figure for Answer to SAQ 1 (d).we get. 1 9 . 4 .333 . 4N and .11 + 0.0 .

8 sin a) As t h e block does not overturn.4 (0. N+Psina-Br=O : . = C (say) Applying equations of equilibrium to block A .5 cos a + 0. = C . : C .75 N) .= The value of load W .3W = P (ms a + 0.P w a = 0 But F = 0 .75 N. when the blocks are just on the point of sliding is 1221. C A ~ ~ 6OC 0 B ~ ~ 6= 00 . we get.3 sin a) : . 0. W 2 P 0. W .we get.8) and the stabiiising moment due to weight W about the left corner is 0.CAsin 60° = 0 (Alternately.P s i n a and F . W = (3. . N-. .3 (W . 3 N .25 cos a + 2 sin a) P Applying the equations of equilibriumwhen the block is just on the point of sliding. NA .333 cos a + sin a) P (111) : .W A .4 W (e) : .Figmm lor Answer bSAQ 1(d) Applying equations of equilibrium.5) + P sin a (0.considering block B also.-.W 2 (1. The overturning moment due to force P about the left comer is P cos a (0.P sin a ) = P cos a : . we get. we will get W= 1221. ( N : Normalreaction) 0.

: .2 N (assuming F acting upwards) .33) 0.5 P + 4.25 N and N . SAQ 2 sin a = 2. 0. applying equations of equilibrium after resolving the forces along and n o d to the inclined plane. 0.835 N ?his is the minimum value of P to move the crate in upward direction. 0. we get. 2. Considering the above two results. h e get.866 P = 2. it can be concluded the crate will be in equilibrium for the range of values of P between 1.5 . Figure for Answer to SAQ 2 (a) Pcos30° . 3.5m 4 /// Figure for Answer to SAQ 1 (e) Comparing Equations (II) & (111).F = 0 : . 1.430 N 'Ibis is the minimum value of P to keep the crate sliding down the plane.25 (0.430 N and 4. : : .4175 P = 1.5 + F = 2.5825 : . the direction of friction force F = 0.25 (0. a=6 4 O 21' 32'' and correspondingly P = 0. we get. If P = 5. When the mate is just on the point of moving down.P 0( -0-8m- \ T I" N 0.25 N will be acting upwards.0.P sin30° .5 P + 4.741 P = 3. N = 0.Wsin30" . we get.991 P = 1.866 P = 5 x 0.333cosa+sina : .083 cos a tan a = 2.33 Putting this value in Equation (IV).5 P + 4. : . 4.25cosa+2sina = 3.835 N.Wcos30° = 0 : . . When the crate is about to move up.4266 W (a) 1.33) P = 4.083 : . 0.5+0.5 + 0.866 P = 2. Working on similar lies.

Here T . Consider forces acting on block Q.(b) The negative sign indicates downward direction of the frictional force. Applying equations or equilibrium after resolving the forces normal and parallel to the inclined plane. 1400 sin 8 = 0.5 .968 kN.T = 0. : : . T-Fp= 0 . .4 NM 8 = 21" 48' 5" If both blocks together are on the point of sliding down the inclined plane. To maintain the equilibrium.5. then working on similar lines and noting p = 0.1.2 sin 3 5 O + 0. we get.~ s i n 3 5 O = +~ 0~ : . Frictional forces can be worked out from equilibrium equations FM= 600sin 15' . As this angle is greater than 21° 48' 5" the block M will slide fmt.600sin8 = 0 . we get.5 x 1400 cos 8 tan 8 = 0. the motion is not impending. If only block M is on the point of moving down then applying the equations of equilibrium. Figwe tor Answer t o SAQ 2 (bl and T.-.492 kN Now.-. If 0 = 15O.-. consider forces acting on block P . 4 ~ 6 0 0 ~ 0 ~ 8 tan 8 = 0.-. the minimum value of weight of block P (c) is 1. But FM = 0.983 = 0 .2 X 0.4 . we get.

wedge B. We get.35 N.NC . RB = W sin 118SI72" ' ( : . NA Ground D W = 6kN Flgare for Answer to SAQ 3 (a) Three forces. FN = 1400sin 15O (W = WM + WN = 600+800 = 1400 N) . Refer to Figure for Answer to SAQ 3 (a) and apply the Lami's theorem.NB .25) = 14. RC & RD are making an angle of 14. B. The angle of friction 4 = t a n ' (0.036' to NA .964" . : .RD and Ware acting on block C.036O for a l l surfaces.'. the frictional forces FA and Fc w i l l act upwards. block C and ground D respectively. RB.Friction Figure for Answer to SAQ 2 (c) This is the frictional force between block M and block N. : SAQ 3 (a) The frictional force between the block N and the inclined plane is 362. RB. C and D refer to wedge A.25. Here. The suffixesA.82 N) Similarly.ND respectively when motion is impending. W = 6 kN) . sin 165. RA.4 x 600 cos 15O = 231. the coefficient of friction is 0. (Note this is less than limiting frictional force which is 0. As wedge B is moving down. : .

2i$ . Note. the reaction offered by B is equal to reaction offered by C .22.At the contact surface of wedge B and block C.036') Rc sin 143.. we get. Three forces.212 kN.10") - RA sin (90" + +) : .3' sin 53.928" P = and Rc = 1..3) i.649 kN Now. Three forces RA .3.649 kN sin 112. contact surface between wedge A and B is inclined at 8' to the vertical. RA.478 sin 43. e. W RA (or Rc) sin 2 (16" 41' 57" sin (180" . RA . Therefore.16" 41' 57" . consider wedge B. The value of P to drive the wedges under the load is 3.. P sin (180" . Three forces. RB = Rc = 1. (Note : A and C denote wedges and D ground) R g m for Answer to SAQ 3 (b) Applying Lami's theorem.699" - : . the angle of friction will be tan-' (0. 16' 41' 57" for all surfaces. Applying Larni's theorem.10" ) + 10") .RD and P act on it as shown i h Figure for Answer to SAQ 3 (b).036" .036") sin (90"+ 22. RC and P are acting as shown in figure.0475kN. we get. ?be minimum load P required to push the block horizontal is 1. sin (180" P Rc 14. : . (b) The coefficient of friction of all surfaces of contact is 0.RC and W act on the heavy block as shown in Figure for Answer to SAQ 3 (b).398" Consider left hand side wedge.398" cos 16. we get. . P = RA sin (2 + + 10') cos 0 4..036" - : . RA = RC = 8 sin 153.

c p (0. P1 = 0. .160kN =160N (d) To lift a load. the screw jack is self locking.225O = 0.125 tan 14.200 = 3 tan(3. P2required is given by .08 = 4 O 34' 26" r = mean radius = 30 mm 1 = length of lever = 200 mm W = 20kN 30 x 20 x tan (lo 31' 10" + 4 O 34' 26") : .32 kN = 320 N (ii) To lower the load. PI = 200 1 = 3 tan (6.051 < 0. It cannot work in reverse P XD direction as the angle of inclination is less than the angle of friction.(c) (i) ' h e force PI to be applied at the end of the lever to raise the load up is given by PI = where and Here r Wtan(a + $) $ = tan-lCc p = pitch of the thread = 5 rnm d = mean diameter and I$ = tan-' 0.054') = 0.03169 kN = 31.30 X 20 tan (4'34' 26". the force required at the end of the lever is given by r P I = : Wtan(a+$) Putting the values of a and $ we get..69 N As .1°31' 10") .093") = 0.2).

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