4.

Examination Questions

1. Why does some of the suspended material in wastewater Basic fail to be removed by settling for 1 hr? a. Because it takes 1.5 hr to settle. b. Because it is lighter than water. c. Because it is attached to fine air bubbles. d. Because its specific gravity is very close to that of water and it is so small in size. e. All of the above. 2. The average particle to be removed in a sedimentation tank should Advanced a. Drop to the far end of the tank within the aver­ age detention time. b. Be carried halfway down the tank before set­ tling. c. Fall directly into the sludge hopper. d. Be carried out in the effluent.

4. Scum collecting on the surface of a primary settling tank

Basic a. Will not cause trouble and may be ignored. b. Must be removed by skimming or it will be troublesome. c. May be disposed of by stirring with a paddle. d. Is caused only by certain industries having in­ organic wastes.

6. The test for settleable solids is useful in estimating

Basic

a. b. c. d. e.

Gas production. Btu's. Removal efficiency of dissolved solids. Head loss in sludge pumping. Necessary sludge pumping rate.

Saw-toothed weirs are used on uncovered circular sedi­ mentation tanks to Advanced a. d. e. The most positive way of knowing when sufficient sludge has been withdrawn from a primary settling tank is Advanced a. 9. b. 10. 8. Provide better flow distribution. To check for rising sludge in the settling tank. d. Prohibitive cost of construction. d. b. Characteristics of the wastewater. Save metal. Take a reading the sludge pump time clock.7. d. Break up the overflow. Condition of the wastewater. c. d. Not more often than once a week. Restart the pump. Increase the sludge drawoff.. Proper design of the tank. d. c. Identify the cause. The chief objection to the use of a long weir on a sedi­ a mentation tank is the Advanced a. Advanced should a. e. If short-circuiting occurs in a clarifier. d. The efficient operation of a primary sedimentation tank depends on the Advanced a. Basic b. b. e. c. the operator . 12. Operating care given by the operator. To time the operation of the sludge pump. The major purpose of an inlet baffle in a settling tank is to a. Raw sludge should be removed from a primary settling Advanced tank at any plant a. c. 11. e. c. Catch floating material. All of these. Reduce velocity and disperse the flow. b. Maintain a cleansing velocity. Difficulty of securing uniform discharge over its entire length. 13. b. Remove scum from the wastewater. Protect the scrapping mechanism from damage by excessive velocities. At least hourly. Increase in the necessary depth of the tank. Time required to change elevation as flow changes. To note the consistency of the sludge by sam­ pling from the pump discharge or sludge well. c. e. Ch ec k th e wlnng. To measure the increased volume in the di­ gester. Increase velocity to prevent excessive settling near the inlet. Whenever sludge rises to the surface. Reduction in the velocity of the approach. Change fuses. b. At least once a day. c. .

c. Assume that the raw wastewater entering the primary clarifier contains 0. Basic a. Septic influent wastewater. Decrease. . b. d. Too infrequent sludge pumping. Increase. Compacted and hardened sludge in a hopper may be caused by Basic a. Sludge from a settling tank should be drawn a. b. \yhat is the most probable cause? a. d. b. A colored dye solution was introduced into the waste­ water entering a primary settling tank. On weekdays. c. and all of the color had passed through the tank in 30 min. the dissolved oxygen will a. Settling in the tank must be exceptionally good. c. The dye color was noticeable in the effluent in 15 min. b. 16. c. Once a week. Provide good distribution of the influent waste.0. Advanced b. Sludge pH below 7. d. Advanced 15. Indicates that the sludge removal equipment is not operating in a satisfactory manner. Excessive BOD removal. ct. Only in the morning. b. d. You know that Advanced a. This tank is too large for the amount of flow being treated. Is inherent in the design of this type of equip­ ment and indicates normal performance. Wastewater is passing through the tank too quickly and settling is probably not very good. 17. c. Such a test has no meaning. Stay the same. Provide for all of the above. Poor adjustment on the weirs. c. c. As the wastewater passes through the primary clarifier. Too heavy a wastewater flow. 18. Provide detention time to allow efficient set­ tling.14. On a regular basis. A good settling tank will always Basic a. b.8 mg/l DO. Excessive quantities of grit in the sludge. Basic 20. Too infrequent pumping. Have long weirs to reduce the overflow veloci­ ties. 19. Improves the efficiency of the tank. Septic action in a primary clarifier with mechanical re­ moval equipment. You have an excessive DO drop across a primary clari­ fier.

An uneven flow and short-circuiting. b. Cause the flow into the tank to be distributed as evenly as possible. b. c. Filter fly from breeding. c. d. The detention time is too short. c. The plant is underloaded. Clogging of the "V' notch. you may conclude that Advanced a. Sludge should be withdrawn from final settling tanks used after a trickling filter Basic a. Deflect the wind. The grit chamber is too small. b. Often enough to prevent creation of septic con­ ditions. In drawing sludge from a primary clarifier. . Maintain the proper water level in the tank. To avoid anaerobic decomposition. Draw a large quantity of sludge once each day. Which of the following would you first suspect if float­ ing sludge were on a primary clarifier? Basic a. Hold the side walls of a tank a fixed distance apart. 26. b. thus helping to eliminate fast-moving currents. The principal reason for frequent or continuous removal of sludge from a primary clarifier is Basic a.m. Every morning at 8 a.21. When it is as concentrated as possible. The effluent weir of settling tanks should be level in order to prevent Basic a. When it has accumulated to a depth of 6 in. To avoid clogging in sludge lines. b. To avoid sludge with a high moisture content. d. b. d. That the withdrawal of sludge was not fre­ quent enough. Corrosion of the weir material. in the bottom of the tank. d. c. c. 22. b. If the BOD reduction in a primary clarifier is about 15 percent. which is usually about once each week. c. c. A broken flight chain. CI 25. 27. Draw only as often as is necessary. The purpose of the baffle at the inlet of a primary set­ Advanced tling tank is to a. 23. An increase in raw wastewater solids concen­ trations. This is normal. Draw small quantities of sludge two or more times each day. To keep the digester level up. the best prac­ tice is to . 24. Basic a. d.

Amount of bacteria in the wastewater. Remove solids from effluent of activated sludge or trickling filter unit. Provide a home for organisms. Advanced Rate of flow of the wastewater into it. f. e. None of the above. Odors near the secondary clarifier. The sludge from the final tank of a trickling filter may best be disposed of by pumping a.28. Basic 29. d. which con­ ditions are likely to occur? a. Directly to the digestion tank. Coagulants are added m the clanfier. If outlet weirs in clarifiers are not kept level. BOD content. 31. which of the following conditions would you expect to find existing? Advanced a. c. c. c. Allow septic conditions to develop. b. Settled solids will become septic and floating solids will be intercepted. 30. d. All of the above. The principal difference between a sludge blanket-type a. Prechlorination is used. Back to the influent sewer or to the primary settling tank. None of these. clarifier and a conventional clarifier is that in the former . b. . Solids removal will decrease and uneven flow distribution will occur. d. c. d. The flow is usually upward. d. 32. b. b. Weirs are notched. Sludge rising to the surface in the secondary clarifier. If insufficient withdrawal of secondary sludge is as­ sumed. Basic Directly to a sand bed. Settled solids will become septic and uneven flow distribution will occur. c. . e. Amount of hydrogen sulfide in the wastewater. 33. b. Length of the discharge pipe. Solids removal will decrease and floating solids will be intercepted. Sludge in the chlorine contact chamber. d. Or draining at intervals to the river. c. Secondary or final clarifiers are needed to Basic Increase sludge digestion. e. Advanced a. b. Presence of gas bubbles in the secondary clari­ fier. The detention time of wastewater in sedimentation ba­ sins is dependent on the size of the basin and the a.

The filter. At least once a day. Sludge should be pumped from the final settling tanks of a conventional activated sludge plant. a . The sludge beds. Continuously. The primary settling tank. d. Advanced a. c. b. The digester. b. it is preferable to pump the sludge from the intermediate and final settling tanks to a. When sampling indicates the sludge is about 2 ft deep. d. If you have a choice. Often enough to prevent flotation of sludge solids resulting from septic action. Advanced 35.34. c.

35. 3l. 23. 16. 32. 15.Sedimentation 19. 18. 1l. 9. 2. 26. 7. 34. e b e d b 4. 10. 17. 33. 12.Answer Key SECTION 4 . 28. 2l. 13. b 22. 29. 30. 14. e e a a b d d 24. d b l. a b e d a a d e b d e e a a e e d a &b . 20. 27. 25. 6. 8.