LESSON 8 PRIMARY CHILDREN’S LEARNING STRATEGIES IN ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

Introduction Young children begin learning mathematics before they enter school and when they are formally in early primary school. They learn to count and they can solve simple problems by counting. After the counting stage, they progress towards developing understanding in addition and subtraction as well as related facts and strategies associated with these operations. They develop strategies for adding and subtracting whole numbers on the basis of their earlier work with small numbers. Then the instruction focus shift towards helping students develop quick recall of addition and related subtraction facts, as well as fluency with multi-digit addition and subtraction. “Unpacking” ideas related to addition and subtraction strategies is a critical step in establishing deeper understanding. To someone without training as a teacher, these ideas and strategies might appear to be simple to teach. But those who teach primary school students are aware of the subtleties and complexities of the ideas themselves and the challenges of presenting them clearly and coherently in the classroom. Teachers for primary school students should have an idea of the overarching importance of addition and subtraction strategies and these big ideas will be discuss in this lesson. LEARNING OUTCOMES Upon the completion of this lesson, you should be able to: 1. Determine the type of strategies children use in addition and subtraction. 2. Describe and discuss children’s conceptual understanding in additive reasoning and how to develop them through.

Strategies in Addition and Subtraction The strategies that primary school children use to memorize, conceptualise, reason, and solve problems grow increasingly effective and flexible, and are applied more broadly, with age and

30. Student was shown a card that read : 32 + 9 = L: Use 8 from 9 to make 40. Sharan (S) has developed this construction of 10 as a unit. 37 – 7 = 30. … then 4 plus 10 minus 5…. R: Why did you break up? S: Because its easy for 10 minus 5. She was able to decompose a unit into tens and ones very efficiently and the unit 10 is a benchmark for her in subtraction or addition. 50 + 20 + 10 is 80. 80 + 7 ( 7 left) is 87. 34 – 4 is 30. . 42 . one less is 87. This strategy is called ‘Making Ten’ which means Sharan has constructed ten as an abstract unit and has the intention of ‘making ten’ in her calculations. Taking eight from nine is compensated for by putting it with thirty-two and this strategy is called Compensation. now add the 4 which is 27. now subtract the 3 which added yielding 27. her From the interview above. R: What is ten minus 5? S: 5. 78. 68. R: How did you do it? S: Same like just now……use the break up method …7 plus 10 minus 9 …(doing in head and after a few seconds) …8! R: Wow. . M: Counts on by tens: 32. (within few seconds) …9. R: I see. which is duly enhanced by thinking in units.3 is 27. Counting up from 58. R: Why not 4 – 5? S: How can a small number minus a big number? … Cannot! R: What about 17 – 9? (after a few seconds) S: 8. B: Subtracting in parts.R: S: How about 14 – 5? You break up 14 into 4 and 10. 30 – 7 is 23. R: What is 29 + 58 (shown on a card) V: Sa : P : D : Takes 1 from 8 to put with the 9 to make 10. 30 + 58 is 88. 87. then back off one …41 Student was shown another card: 34 – 7 = N: Treats 34 as 30 and 4. leaving 1 which is the added to 40 to get 41. you are fast. 70 + 17 is 87. Bo : Adding 3 to make a convenient 37.