Homogeneous catalysis

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(Redirected from Homogeneous catalyst) In chemistry, homogeneous catalysis is a sequence of reactions that involve a catalyst in the same phase as the reactants. Most commonly, a homogeneous catalyst is codissolved in a solvent with the reactants.

1 Examples 1.1 Acid catalysis 1.2 Organometallic chemistry 1.3 Other forms of homogeneous catalysis 2 Contrast with heterogeneous catalysis 3 References

Acid catalysis
Main article: acid catalysis The proton is the most pervasive homogeneous catalyst [1] because water is the most common solvent. Water forms protons by the process of self-ionization of water In an illustrative case, acids accelerate (catalyse) the hydrolysis of esters: CH3CO2CH3 + H2O CH3CO2H + CH3OH

In the absence of acids, aqueous solutions of most esters do not hydrolyze at practical rates.

Bell "The Proton in Chemistry". As such. heterogeneous catalysts are difficult to study. ^ R. e.[2] Many non-organometallic complexes are also widely used in catalysis. separate category of catalyst.P. doi: . as opposed to processes that use bulk metal or metal on a solid support. Other forms of homogeneous catalysis Enzymes are homogeneous catalysts that are essential for life but are also harnessed for industrial processes. where the liquid reactants are immiscible with a solution containing the catalyst. London.[3] Enzymes possess properties of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. so their reaction mechanisms are often unknown. References 1.Organometallic chemistry Processes that utilize soluble organometallic compounds as catalysts fall under the category of homogeneous catalysis. for the production of terephthalic acid from xylene. Contrast with heterogeneous catalysis Homogeneous catalysis is the opposite of heterogeneous catalysis. and heterogeneous catalysts are often more stable and degrade much slower than homogeneous catalysts. A well studied example carbonic anhydride. Chapman and Hall. One example of heterogeneous catalysis is the petrochemical alkylation process. they are usually regarded as a third. Heterogeneous catalysis offers the advantage that products are readily separated from the catalyst. Some well-known examples of homogeneous catalysis include hydroformylation and transfer hydrogenation. 1973. as well as certain kinds of Ziegler-Natta polymerization and hydrogenation. which catalyzes the release of CO2 into the lungs from the blood stream. However.g. where the catalyst is in a different phase than the reactants. which are examples of heterogeneous catalysis.

doi. a non-profit organization. ”Organometallics” (2006) Wiley-VCH: Weinheim. Inc. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Retrieved from "http://en. 249-251. ^ Elschenbroich.php? title=Homogeneous_catalysis&oldid=491653857" Categories: Catalysis Homogeneous catalysis This page was last modified on 9 May 2012 at 19:02. ISBN 978-329390-6 3.org/10. additional terms may apply. pp. Miessler "Organometallic Chemistry".10. 1997. . Prentice Hall.1016%2F00222860%2876%2980186-X) 2. C. Upper Saddle River..1016/0022-2860(76)80186-X (http://dx.wikipedia. NJ. See Terms of use for details. Spessard and G. O. L. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.org/w/index. ^ G.