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ME 362

Turbomachinery Eulers Equation

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Centrifugal Pump:
W2 V2 V2 2 2
Flow Direction

U2 W1 1 1 U1 V1 V1

Subscript: 1 - inlet 2 - exit

Velocity Triangle:

V V

Vr

W U

radial circumferential

U: W: V: Vr: V: :

circumferential speed of impeller ( U = r ) velocity tangent to blade surface absolute velocity ( V = U + W ) radial component of V circumferential component of V blade angle

To construct a velocity triangle: Draw U tangent to the rotor Draw W tangent to the blade surface Draw V

ME 362

Turbomachinery Eulers Equation

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Euler Turbomachine Equation:


Note: Eulers equation is valid for both pump and turbine bhp is the power required to drive shaft of pump (bhp > 0) or the power required to deliver to shaft of turbine (bhp < 0) Shaft torque: Brake horsepower:
Tshaft = Q( r2V 2 r1V1 )

bhp = Q(U 2V 2 U 1V 1 )

Pump vs. Turbine:


2 Pump 1 U2 (exit) > U1 (inlet) V2 (exit) > V1 (inlet) bhp > 0

1 Turbine 2 U2 (exit) < U1 (inlet) V2 (exit) < V1 (inlet) bhp < 0

Pump Performance Characteristics:


where Pw: H = hs - hL: hs: hL: power delivered to fluid available head shaft work head head loss Water horsepower: Pump efficiency:
Pw = gQH

Pw (1) bhp

ME 362

Turbomachinery Eulers Equation

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Pump in Ideal Flow Condition:


Ideal flow condition: = 1 (no head loss) and V1 = 0 (maximum bhp) Velocity triangle at the inlet: W1 V1 1 U1 radial circumferential

U 1 = r1

Vr1 = V1 = U 1 tan 1

Q1 = 2r1bVr1

(b = blade height)

Velocity triangle at the exit:

V2 V2

Vr2

W2

radial circumferential

U2 Vr2cot2

U 2 = r2
Q2 = 2r2 bVr 2 = Q1

Vr 2 =

Q2 2r2 b

V 2 = U 2 Vr 2 cot 2

Ideal head: Maximum power:

Hi =

U 2V 2 g

bhp = Pw = gQH i = QU 2V 2

( = 1)

ME 362

Turbomachinery Eulers Equation

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Examples:
Problem 1 (Pump): Given pump geometry and specifications on the figure below. Assume ideal flow condition. Find the power required to drive it.

0.75 55 V1 4 12 960 rpm 0.25 ft3/s = 1.94 slugs/ft3 Q = 0.25 ft3/s = 960 rpm

Problem 2 (Turbine): A water turbine with radial flow has the dimensions shown below. The absolute entering velocity is 50 ft/s, and it makes an angle of 30 with the tangent to the rotor. The absolute exit velocity is directed radially inward. The angular speed of the rotor is 120 rpm. Find the power delivered to the shaft of the turbine.

V1 30

b V1 = 50 ft/s = 120 rpm r1 = 2 ft r2 = 1 ft b = 1 ft = 1.94 slug/ft3

V2

r2

r1