Luke Witek 4/15/2013 Writing World War Two: Capstone

The Treatment of Conscientious Objectors Through the Civilian Public Service in World War II The concept of abstinence from violence as a matter of principle has existed since humans have felt the need to make war. Since the first forms of violence and conflict, certain members of society have felt the need to declare their own unwillingness to participate in actions that may directly inflict suffering on other living things. Many do so because their particular belief in a philosophical tenet, moral code, political belief, or religion considers such an action to be a violation of a basic foundational principle. For a country that upholds religious freedom as one of its pillars, these objectors can prove trying in times of national struggle. Such is the case with the United States, a country founded upon the principles of free association and religious tolerance, as it often found itself in the middle of war. Because of this openness to all religion even before its statehood, the United States has attracted a myriad of religious affiliations. Several of these groups, especially, those instrumental in the establishment of American colonies, have objected to war. This objection led to a long evolution spanning various conflicts in which the state and society as a whole has attempted to deal with those who would not fight, while the majority wanted war. By the outbreak of World War Two, the United States had dramatically improved

1


its treatment of conscientious objectors. In comparison to the treatment doled out to noncombatants during World War I this is in fact true. During World War Two citizens declaring themselves conscientious objectors to military service had a much less difficult road to hoe. This can only be considered an objectively true statement because the treatment of conscientious objectors in World War One ranged from indifference to outright persecution. In an attempt to prevent a repeat of the regrettable treatment during World War Two, the federal government established an alternative service program. The alternative to military service, known as the Civilian Public Service, established a de facto form of slave labor manned by conscientious objectors. The goal of this paper will be to examine the ways in which the conscientious objectors (COs) during World War Two were essentially hidden from view and thrown into a system of labor for the federal government where they received no compensation for services and lasted well on after the duration of the Second World War. In order to understand the Civilian Public Service, however, one must examine the religious roots of conscientious objection and their constant tension with the more militaristic elements of American society. The origins of this movement formed in the earliest religious groups to immigrate to America. Some of the earliest conscientious objectors belonged to group of churches known as the historic peace churches. These churches were Amish, Old Order Mennonites, Conservative Mennonites, Brethren in Christ, and the Society of Friends (Quakers). These churches stressed, as a core foundational value, that violence was incompatible with Christianity. According to them, one could only be a true Christian if they followed the path of Christ, which, according to The Holy Bible, was a path of total nonviolence. For many of these people, this was a

2


no. These convictions received their first serious test during the Revolutionary War.
Liberty
and
Conscience:
a
Documentary
History
of
the
Experiences
 of
Conscientious
Objectors
in
America
through
the
Civil
War
(New
York.
48‐120. the majority of those opposed to wartime service were members of the Society of Friends. So. which leads us into all truth.
NY:
Oxford
 University
Press. so as once to command us from a thing of evil and again to move us into it. “The Quaker Peace Testimony. will never move us to fight and war against any man with outward weapons. Laws were drafted allowing Quakers to refrain from bearing arms even after the beginning of the Revolutionary War up until 1777. neither for the Kingdom of Christ nor for the kingdoms of this world therefore we cannot learn war anymore. by the time of the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. 2 























































 1
Diana Lee Hirschi.
ed. During this period.
2002). many states had become accustomed to the presence of religious groups that were largely pacifist in nature. and we certainly know and testify to the world that the Spirit of Christ.. 2 (2004) 132-136 
 2
Peter
Brock. and this that often put them at odds with a nation that time and again found itself in the middle of turmoil.1 The Mennonites soon followed suit in 1683. The Spirit of Christ by which we are guided is not changeable. The Quakers stated their commitment to peace in the wake of King Charles II’s ascension to power in England in 1661: We utterly deny all outward wars and strife and fighting with outward weapons for any end or under any pretense whatsoever.” Dialogue 37. William Penn. this is our testimony to the whole world. The Quakers had begun immigrating to the North American colonies from England as early as 1656. This relationship was best exemplified in Pennsylvania.non-negotiable tenet of their faith.
 
 
 3
 . where Quakers exercised a great deal of influence from its history as an early settlement of influential Quaker.

the act said that anyone who didn't wish to serve in the military could either find a substitute or pay a $300 commutation fee.
2013).castle. the objector in question could possibly face having his property confiscated or serving a term in prison.edu/historia/archives/2011/2011Carnahan. This act was then amended in 1864 to include members of a religious sect that had specific doctrines that prohibited service in a war.Though the state laws generally varied. and Nazarenes from military service if they could pay a $500 fee or find a replacement. or they were forcing someone else to serve on their behalf rather than depriving the war effort of another human life to potentially waste.4 Two years after the American Civil War had erupted.
 
 6
Carnahan.
“Quakers
and
Conscientious
Objection. Brethren. passed in March. The act removed the power of conscription from the states and placed it firmly in the hands of Congress.7. one who refused to “muster” or respond to the call for conscription could pay a fine to the Revolutionary authorities or find a substitute to take his place.”
8.6 These measures provided a more 























































 3
Brock.3 If neither of these requirements were met. At first.pdf
 (accessed
April
12.
“The
Quakers
and
Conscientious
Objection. To them. Often times. This act. paying a fee or finding a substitute was unconscionable. most states at the time had a mandatory conscription law for all males aged 18 to 50.
 
 5
Tara
Carnahan.”
Historia
(31
May
 2011):
7‐10.5 The Confederate Congress passed a Conscription Act in 1862 exempting Quakers.
Liberty
and
Conscience. the Union Congress enacted nationwide conscription.eiu.
 
 4
Ibid. Mennonites.
49. this would mean that they were either paying money to support a war effort.
http://www.
 
 4
 .
51. For Quakers living outside of Pennsylvania. known as the Enrollment Act of 1863.

rather than religious ones.uniform treatment for conscientious objectors throughout the country. In order to raise a national army for the onset of the First World War. who did not fall into the historic peace churches mentioned in previous legislation. Often times these men were either socialists or members of the I. new pacifist movements had been brought over by recent immigrants. In addition to the historic peace churches of colonial America. This legislation created a series of classifications for those being drafted and required that all males 18 through 45 register for the draft. Russian Molokans and Doukhobors arrived in America in order to avoid conscription in the Czar's army. created new problems for the federal government. The new classes of Conscientious Objectors. conscientious objectors were subjected to widespread persecution from the federal government and the American populace. or had no religious affiliation at all. (Industrial Workers of the World). to abstain from war. Congress passed the Selective Service Act of 1917. Another new class of COs consisted of secular Americans who felt compelled by their own political beliefs. the next major conflict involving the United States was World War I In this conflict.W. 




































































































































































 
 
 5
 . Jehovah's Witnesses also claimed exemption from military service as "ministers" since every adult male in the Jehovah's Witnesses church claimed “minister” status. but they still forced COs to either give money to the war effort or find another human being to serve in their stead. Recent immigrant and growing collection of political ideologies further complicated the matter. The Act provided recognition for COs. After the Civil War.W.

with very little work to do.however it required COs belong to a "well-recognized religious sect. 























































 7 Selective Service Act of 1917. however. COs found themselves in separate barracks at military bases. 
 
 6
 . It is at least worth noting that many of these men realized that their refusal to serve carried a prison sentence with it. At first. It was here that many of these COs endured some of the cruelest and most inhumane treatment imaginable. COs also suffered from a lack of alternative service options in World War I. he could ultimately be denied CO status. and represented the first step towards creating an alternative service program for those refusing to participate in the military. Particularly stubborn COs who abstained from any form of service were typically court-martialed and sentenced to prison time in either Alcatraz or Fort Leavenworth. ch 15. After this proved to be problematic. objectors were housed in military camps along with servicemen."7 This definition provided to be quite problematic for many COs. that these men could have imagined the cruelty and degradation that they would suffer at the hands of abusive prison guards. but it provided no information to draft board members on the various religions that abstained from war. If a CO faced a draft board comprised of members who had never heard of his particular religious affiliation. The Selective Service Act authorized local draft boards to determine what was a "well-recognized" religious sect. There is no way. Statutes at Large 76. This furlough program was the first of its kind. 76-83(1917). Alcatraz authorities commonly manacled the hands of the inmates to their cell door for up to 8 hours a day. This waste of able-bodied men spurred the government to pass a series of acts allowing COs to work offsite on farms.

all the while enduring constant prodding with bayonets.
 
 9

Stoltzfus. the men were gravely ill and required urgent attention by the prison hospital staff.pdf.
265. 9 By the time the ordeal ended. Prison authorities also chained the men to the ceiling so high that their feet barely touched the ground.In one particular example in 1918. These men were then transferred to Fort Leavenworth.o. The men then endured a forced march outside in the cold and a several hour waiting period outside before being admitted into Fort Leavenworth. The men rode to Fort Leavenworth in an overheated cattle car.”
Mennonite
Quarterly
 Review
(April
2011):
259‐61.
“Armed
with
Prayer
in
an
Alcatraz
Dungeon:
The
Wartime
 Experience
of
Four
Hutterite
C. Joseph. David.”
Armed
with
Prayer. Joseph died by the following morning.”
259. Jacob Wipf were "indoctrinated" into the ways of the army by having their beards cut off by a gang of young soldiers while on their way to camp. and they sought to create a better system for the men who did not wish to serve in wartime. with Michael soon following several days later on December 2.edu/mqr/pastissues/Apr11Stoltzfus. and their leader. these men refused to drill and were then sentenced to up to 20 years of hard labor at Alcatraz. and Michael Hofer. This incident became a rallying cry for many of the peace churches.goshen.10 























































 8
Duane
Stoltzfus. three Hutterite men. made it to Fort Leavenworth two days later only to find their husbands barely able to speak.
www. upon being summoned by telegraph on November 28.8 Upon arriving at Fort Lewis. Prison authorities housed them in a dank basement. and placed them on a diet consisting solely of bread and water.'s
in
Their
Own
Words. Their wives.
 
 10
Ibid.
 
 7
 .

This conference was so successful that eight more were held between 1922 and 1932. OK: University of Oklahoma Press) 2006. 36. the peace churches organized a series of conferences known as the Interwar Peace Conferences starting in a Mennonite college in Bluffton. The peace churches also planned to represent COs to the federal government in the event that the national draft returned. but they resumed in Newton. 
 
 8
 . it was at this conference that the churches coined the term “Historic Peace Church” that is still in use today. and a desire to put these tenets into practice.”11 Furthermore. One of the main criticisms of the peace churches efforts during the First World War was the lack of organizational unity. In an effort to increase communication between the various organizations. Ohio in 1922. During the proceedings. musings on the sinful nature of war. a desire to love all mankind. Kansas in 1935. a rejection of violence. These churches were unable to effectively coordinate efforts to help defend those wishing to declare their status as COs. The Great Depression put a temporary halt to these conferences momentarily. This conference was to be by far the most important of the Interwar Peace Conference meetings. Smoke Jumping on the Western Fire Line: Conscientious Objectors During World War Two. They outlined an official stance that "included an affirmation of Christ’s teachings as the basis of the peace witness. the peace churches set out an ambitious agenda for future action in the event the United States went to war. (Norman. Mark. This unity would be instrumental in organizing an alternative to military service in the following decade when the United States found 























































 11
Matthews. a statement of allegiance to God.The mistreatment of COs led to a renewed coordination of efforts among the peace churches in order to prevent many of these tragedies from happening again.

once in 1937 and again in 1940. I-B-O: same as I-A-O I-D-O and I-E-O: deferred student declaring conscientious objection. This meeting would serve as an opportunity for the HPCs to state their grievances and prevent a repeat of the treatment of COs endemic to the previous world war. 885 (1940). Statutes at Large 783. but below the standards for general non-combatant military service. I-V-E: Conscientious objector opposed to both combatant and noncombatant training and service. these visits made very little difference in changing federal policy. They saw the consequences of similar treatment in the previous World War and felt dismay that the President expressed such an opinion. The categories for declaring status as a conscientious objector were as follows: I-A-O: conscientious objector available for non-combatant military service I-A-O(L): conscientious objector available for limited non-combatant military service I-A-O(B): conscientious objector available for limited non-combatant military service. They did so twice. 
 
 9
 . This act mandated that all males aged twenty-one to thirty-six register for the draft. fit for regular and limited noncombatant service respectively.itself on the brink of war. Available for work of "national importance"12 























































 12
Selective Service Act of 1940. This suggestion worried the peace church representatives. In an effort to engage the federal government. President Roosevelt even went so far as to suggest that he believed COs should be drilled alongside of other servicemen in military camps. The peace churches again found themselves caught in the inescapable inertia of war when the federal government passed the National Selective Service Act of 1940. Unfortunately. a coalition of representatives from the respective churches arranged a meeting with Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The act also provided the most comprehensive list of criteria and designations for those desiring to declare CO status.

This classification of I-V-E was important because it represented a major gain on the part of the conscientious objector movement. Under the leadership of Clarence Dykstra as Permanent Director and Lewis B. the peace churches formed an organization known as the National Service Board for Religious Objectors (NSBRO) on October 5. It meant the federal government's recognized the plight of COs. In response to the Selective Service Act of 1940 and the commencement of draft registration. The term "work of national importance" caused
confusion to both the HPCs and the federal government. Roosevelt appointed a task force headed by the Selective Service to define the meaning of this clause. With an executive order. who suggested the idea to Paul Comly French. Up until February of 1941. This organization aided COs who wished to declare conscientious objector status and also to serve as a liaison between the Selective Service and the HPCs. Hershey as Acting Director. the term was not defined at all as to what constituted work of "national importance". The members of the NSBRO were made up of the Brethren Service Committee. This classification provided an avenue for these men to perform meaningful work in the event that national conscription occurred. a prominent CO. the American Friends Service Committee. journalist. the government established a system where COs could work for the federal government without having any part in the actual war effort itself. and with the assistance of the peace churches. 1940. The inspiration for the NSBRO came from Lewis Hershey. and member of the American 




































































































































































 
 
 10
 . and the Mennonite Central Committee.

Friends Service Committee.
 
 15
Ibid. 1941 that was financed by the Religious Society of Friends. and the medical research field.14 The NSBRO had to either accept that the camps were to be run by military personnel or abandon the plan altogether.
 
 14
Keim.
33. however. These work camps would come to be known as the Civilian Public Service and were the first of their kind in America.738 men were in the CPS system 























































 13
Albert
N.
30‐85.
1990). unorganized religious groups. President Roosevelt rejected this plan.13 The NSBRO became the single most prominent organization in defending the rights of COs and coordinating efforts to find meaningful work for them. agriculture.15 An agreement struck between Selective Service and the NSBRO obligated the peace churches to fund and maintain the camps while the Selective Service oversaw the camps.
32. The men sent to these camps would be tasked with doing projects revolving around forest and soil conservation.
PA:
Good
Books. The very first CPS camp to open was in Patapsco State Park near Baltimore on May 15. The peace churches then advanced a plan to set up service camps for conscientious objectors under the control of the three major churches. Hershey thought that it would be much easier for the Selective Service to deal with one organization rather than the administrative nightmare of dealing with multiple.
The
CPS
Story. because he did not wish to entrust the administration of the camps under anyone else but the military. Afterwards other CPS camps opened at such an accelerated pace that 3. mental health care.
The
CPS
Story:
An
Illustrated
History
of
Civilian
Public
Service
 (Intercourse.
Keim.
 
 11
 .

942 were in detached service.
“American
COs.
 
 
 12
 . While these camps were administered by one particular historic peace church.by July of 1942. 























































 
 16
Ibid.
 
 17
William
Henry
Chamberlain. The breakdown in religious affiliations for those men was: Mennonites: 2. The National Park Service and Forest Service camps would be responsible for trail building. the Selective service allowed CPS men to leave camps and work on farms. there were 6. As the war effort progressed and shortages in manpower revealed themselves over time. The goal of the CPS camps was to continue the work of government agencies that had been stripped of manpower by the war effort. and firefighting. CPS men found work in mental hospitals as orderlies where patients languished in foul and unsafe conditions from lack of sufficient staffing.637 men at work in CPS projects. 16 By September 1943.”
Survey
Graphic
(November
1943):
 2‐8. nursery stock.
34. the demographics of the CPS workers were diverse. 1. and 120 in government projects. pest control. In industries such as dairy farming. men of the CPS enjoyed an increasing variety of jobs.308 Brethren: 696 Methodists: 438 Quakers: 380 Presbyterian: 116 Congregationalists: 115 Baptists: 109 Roman Catholics: 7417 This amalgamation of religious belief should give an idea of some of the problems beset by the NSBRO.575 of these men were in work camps. Of this number. 4.

the federal government never saw fit to pay them in return for their service.
1944). In an official letter titled "What Should Be Done? the CPS Union outlined what it saw as the main problems facing the men of the Civilian Public Service. the men of the CPS still are forbidden to receive any pay for what they are compelled to do. but the military dictated exactly the type of work the men were allowed to do without pay.
 NY. or because they receive no pay. Smoke jumpers parachuted into remote forests to fight fires that were miles away from their own base camps. New York.18 When one considers the dangerous work that many of these men were performing.
Big
Flats. 























































 18
Ralph
Rudd. Aside from the fact that their skills were not being used. the CPS Union's main complaint was as follows: Barred from their best work. If they work for a federal agency their is no workmen's compensation in case of injury on the job." These men were tasked with parachuting out of airplanes in remote regions of wilderness to put out forest fires. there was a contingent of men known as "smoke jumpers. Roughly 240 conscientious objectors served as smoke jumpers in World War Two. There are no government dependency allotments for their families.
NY.Yet for all of the services rendered by these men. Many COs also opted to work as attendants in mental hospitals during the war.
“What
Should
Be
Done?”
(Mission
Statement
of
CPS
Union
at
Big
Flats. If they work for a state agency their right to compensation is denied because they are not "employees".
 
 
 13
 . The government's only financial obligation to the camps was to provide transportation. the lack of wages or even compensation for work-related injuries sustained seems like a travesty. This arrangement inspired the creation of the Civilian Public Service Union in 1944 in a camp in Big Flats. In addition to forest and soil conservation. and housing. This line of work was inherently risky.

20 This problem was strikingly more acute at Philadelphia's State Hospital. With the addition of 10 CPS men to Ward "A". 21 There were only two orderlies who were responsible for one ward housing 250 semi-violent offenders. Unfortunately. the demand for mental health professionals grew as more and more doctors and attendants left for better paying jobs with less grueling hours.
CPS
Story. conditions began to change dramatically.
54. there were 300 patients to care for. Because of the financial hardships imposed by the Great Depression.
5
 20
Ibid. fearing that CPS men would use the opportunity to spread their "pacifist propaganda"19 if they were given positions that put them in frequent contact with society. which housed around 300 incontinent men and women. there were only 200 by October 1942.For these men. the state of American mental hospitals at the onset of World War Two was nothing short of deplorable. orderlies chained these people to their beds for most of the day only to sit in their own 























































 19
Chamberlain. The manpower shortage was exacerbated by terminal overcrowding occurring among the patients.000 employees.
“American
COs”.500 patients. For every attendant.
6
 21
Keim. the hospital had a total of 1. Though the hospital was built for 2. this provided an opportunity to perform valuable work that was not available to most men in CPS camps. the government was opposed to allowing CPS men to work in mental hospitals. Yet as the war effort continued. In 1941. Initially.
 
 14
 . many of these hospitals lacked competently trained staff members in sufficient numbers. they had managed to admit 6. Previously. Responsibility for administration of mental hospitals fell in the hands of the state government.000.

and others wishing for some form of compensation. They often found themselves working from 72 to 100 hours a week in order to provide the best care possible for their patients.22 The first thing the CPS men did was to attempt to give the patients regular showers and establish a routine to get these patients out of their beds every day. 
 
 
 15
 25 Rudd.
 23
Ibid.25 This sentiment was inadvertently echoed by Lieutenant Colonel Lewis B. one attendant contracted tuberculosis while working in a TB ward. it was dictated that COs could be paid no more money than that given a soldier in the Army. This new regimen of treatment was not without its cost to the CPS men.excrement amidst the howls and cries of their fellow patients. In an instance cited by the CPS Union.24 Neither of these men received compensation for their injuries sustained on the job. while another had his teeth knocked out by a violent patient. 5. . The Selective Service Act of 1940 stipulated COs were assigned work of "national importance under civilian direction. a 























































 22
Ibid.
58. They also created a feeding schedule for inmates and encouraged them to eat their food slowly instead of scarfing it down all at once. For the men in the union. the answer was simple. “Cps Union and Labor Draft” (paper Presented by Ralph Rudd at CPS Union Meeting. Kosch." In separate legislation.
 
 24
Ralph Rudd. 1945).
58. the CPS would then have to turn over all of their paychecks to the federal government as part of the "cost" of maintaining the CPS.23 After working these long hours. NY. January 28.1-6. Big Flats. ”CPS Union and Labor Draft”. when in any other instance an employee of the state would receive payment for medical bills and time missed from work.

On August 19.Selective Service administrator.. General Lewis B. Conscientious Objectors Benefits: Hearing before the Committee on Military Affairs.27 At the hearing. 1942 during a congressional hearing on whether to expand compensation to conscientious objectors. Though the peace churches did in fact claim responsibility for financing and maintaining the camps. for any injuries incurred on the job. Their activities are responsible to the government. then what would prevent the federal government from paying these men. Committee on Military Affairs. He explained that the goal of making the 























































 26
Keim. when he claimed. Kosch provided valuable insight in to the Selective Service’s decision not to pay the CPS men. Hershey provided the impetus for this campaign in letter written to the President of the Senate. 2nd session.
 27
U. 76th Congress.. or at the very least. Congressman Edwin Johnson of Colorado expressed a desire to cover COs under the Employer’s Compensation Act. since soldiers received pay for their service performed for the government? The federal government justified this arrangement by saying the peace churches were the ones who assumed responsibility for raising the money to feed and clothe these men and that it was not the responsibility of the federal government to provide funds that would be better applied to the armed forces during wartime. "Conscientious soldiers are draftees just as soldiers are. Though the measure was ultimately blocked. Colonel Lewis Kosch of the Selective Service appeared before the House Committee to advocate for COs employed in the camps to receive benefits. the Selective Service Act of 1940 said nothing about CPS men going unpaid for their efforts.S. Congress. 19 August 1942.
32."26 If COs were draftees just as soldiers were. 2-6. This letter suggested that COs employed in CPS camps should receive compensation for their efforts.
 
 16
 . Senate.

6. Colonel Kosch feared that the establishment of such a program would be detrimental to Erin Edinger-Turoff 5/14/13 3:28 AM Comment: ‘no
slackers’??

 























































 28
Ibid.28 According to the CPS Union. Upon hearing of this plan. and have benefits conferred on their spouses in the event of their injury or death. 18 (July 1944) 81-117. 
 
 17
 . Leo Crespi of Princeton University. This claim of interference is corroborated the American Legion’s extensive lobbying history against COs.” Journal of Psychology. the federal government also argued that public opinion didn't support the right of conscientious objectors to seek payment for services rendered. After a lengthy meeting with representatives from veterans groups. “Attitudes Towards Conscientious Objectors and Some of Their Psychological Correlates. the issue of their payment was another matter. worker's compensation.
“CPS
Union
and
Labor
Draft”. Vol.men work pro bono was to ensure that not slackers saw the CPS as avenue to avoid military service while still being paid. This could ensure that men who were participating in the program were entirely committed to their path of nonviolence.30 The union believed that the refusal to pay the men of the Civilian Public Service was in a large part due to pressure from veterans organizations. Leo. and not just avoiding military duty.
 29
Rudd. the American Legion threatened to block the measure’s passage. In 1942. roughly three quarters of those polled claimed that they thought CPS workers should receive payment. In a study by Dr.29 Although public opinion did not support the stance of COs.
3
 30
Crespi. the NSBRO and Selective Service began discussing their tentative plans for staffing the overcrowded mental hospitals with some men of the CPS.

In a similar instance in Massachusetts. Many of these men received a higher education or vocational training before the way. an officer involved in the administration of the CPS camps: 























































 31
Nicholas
Krehbiel. which was laborious and monotonous.
107
 33
“Unused
skills
in
CPS”.
General
Lewis
B. One common complaint of these men was that they were unable to do work that they found meaningful in any way. It is no surprise that these men felt that performing mindless tasks was a waste of their expertise.
Hershey
and
Conscientious
Objectors
During
 World
War
II
(Columbia. They often lamented the "ditch-digging" and general "boondoggling"33 that they found themselves doing in many of the camps.
General
Lewis
B. teachers.
 
 32
Krehbiel.the Selective Service by inducing a furor in public opinion over the matter.
107‐108.31 When CPS workers planned to begin work at a mental hospital in Elgin. economists. A mission statement from the CPS Union made note of the many mechanics.
MO:
University
of
Missouri
Press.
2011). social workers.
2
 
 18
 . the American Legion denounced staffing the state mental hospitals with CPS workers and effectively lobbied for the blocking for its blockage.
Hershey
et
al. Illinois. The Selective Service’s position towards the issue was expressed in a statement by Major Franklin McLean. Thus the state of Massachusetts became the only one in New England to not have any "mental hospital or training school unit". engineers. and carpenters all unable to contribute through their chosen vocations because of the military's refusal to find other tasks besides hard labor. the majority of CPS men were stationed in remote camps performing forest and conservation work.32 Though many of the CPS men working in mental hospitals expressed satisfaction at their task. the American Legion spoke out publicly about the plan but could not obstruct its implementation.

"36 It is important to note. veteran's groups. The impression that the camps are democracies to be run by the assignees is entirely erroneous34 This opinion was expressed more bluntly by Deputy Director Colonel Kosch who claimed that allowing CPS men to teach and do social work would permitting them to spread their "pacifist propaganda. In his own words the CPS was an "experiment in democracy to find out whether our democracy is big enough to preserve minority rights in a time of national emergency"37 Lewis B. by my theory. he supported the camps and conscientious objectors in general.
33
 
 19
 .The program is not being carried on for the education or development of individuals. There is no obligation to provide an assignee with work for which he has been particularly prepared. the NSBRO.
33
 37
Ibid. to train groups for foreign service or future activities in the postwar period.
 35
Chamberlain. is best handled if no one hears from him.
5."35 Even the camp Acting Chair of the Selective Service Lewis B. This sentiment was expressed when Elmer Thomas introduced legislation that sought to outright do away with the CO status within the conscription bill.
 36
Keim. It is understandable that at certain 























































 34
Keim. that despite this political pandering on Hershey's part. and the general public.
32. Congress. wishes to do.The work being done is mainly a continuation of projects originated by the CCC [Civilian Conservation Corps]. Upon hearing of this. or regards as socially significant. Hershey opined the idea that COs should be kept out of the way of the military and the public view at a legislative hearing in 1943. Hershey was placed in the uncomfortable position of having to answer to the executive branch. or for the furtherance of any particular movement. Hershey argued: "Do you want to saddle the military with thousands of non-cooperators? The CO.

known as the Starnes Amendment (after its author.
Affirming
Peace:
The
History
of
Civilian
Public
Service
 Camp
#21
at
Cascade
Locks. Again the NSBRO found itself at odds with the American Legion.
2009.
 
 
 20
 . and Lewis Hershey put forth a plan for overseas training for a small minority of CPS men to aid in reconstruction efforts after the war. had to be spent at all on their aims for peace. and lamented the fact that any amount of money. the American legion raised objection to the plan publicly and began a campaign in the press to turn opinion against the COs. According to Jeffrey Kovac in Refusing War: Affirming Peace.times he may have said things to certain groups of people that would be disconcerting to others. Hershey tried extremely hard to be mindful of the various interests and the tensions arising from them. while still respecting the rights of COs in America. and not 























































 38
Kovac. 1943. Alabama Congressman Joe Starnes) mandated that no money appropriated for the military could be used to send any conscientious objectors to college.
1
(March.
“Relief
Efforts
Denied:
The
Civilian
Public
Training
Corps
and
 the
Starnes
Amendment
1942‐1943. indicates that he was trying to adopt a moderate position for those who considered COs to be "yellowbellied slackers" as they were often called.)
94‐95
 
 39
Nicholas
Krehbiel.
(Corvallis. with the support of Eleanor Roosevelt.39 This amendment was especially pernicious in that it targeted solely COs. or allow them to provide any relief effort overseas. His statement that COs should be tucked away out of sight. The amendment. These feelings of animosity represented themselves again when the NSBRO.
OR:
Oregon
State
Press.
Jeffrey.
no. regardless of amount.
Refusing
War. For all of this pressure.”
War
and
Society
30.38 This effort was promptly shot down by an amendment attached to the Military Appropriations Act on July 1. her husband.
2011):
48‐ 61.

and a point was deducted for every 























































 40
Krehbiel. Starnes confided that he did not appreciate the fact that the First Lady had gotten into what he saw as being the affairs of Congress.
58
 
 
 
 21
 . four of the men in the Committee of Appropriations of the House were military veterans.40 It was common for veterans of the armed forces to harbor hostile views towards conscientious objectors. In total.42 The conflict between the CPS and NSBRO versus the American Legion and other veterans groups came up yet again at the period surrounding the end of the war. Another reason that historians have deemed likely for the Training Corps' failure is the fact that Eleanor Roosevelt was an ardent supporter. Hershey's idea for demobilization was one similar to that of the armed services. and three points for a spouse.
56. After the surrender of Germany.41 Apparently. but it also declared that the only military appropriations that could be used would be in order to pay military officials tasked with terminating any such ongoing projects. in a meeting with Paul Comly French and others from the NSBRO.
“Relief
Efforts
Denied”. One point would be awarded for each month of service. Those who had served less than a year could not be released.
 41
Ibid. twelve points for every child.
 
 42
Ibid. and the HPCs began formulating a plan to demobilize the CPS. because many of the representatives responsible for the passage of the amendment had served in the military. Hershey. A point system based on merit would be established where those earning the most points would be the first to be sent home. Kosch. in part. The bill passed.
58.only that.

Hershey found himself caught between the American Legion and the NSBRO.
 
 22
 .
137.
137. Congress also then stepped into the fray to voice its discontent over sending CPS men home before servicemen. Upon hearing of this plan.
Hershey.
 
 45
Ibid.46 He responded by saying that the procedures followed by Selective Service were within full accordance with the law.
 47
Ibid.
138. Congressman Arthur Winstead.absence or refusal to work.
135.
 46
Ibid. The American Legion and other veterans groups voiced their strenuous objection to the plan.44 As the plan began to be implemented over the course of several months. and that the American Legion had no grounds to object to such action. a Democrat from Mississippi. which they saw as unfairly rewarding men who did not make the same sacrifices as servicemen.
 
 44
Krehbiel. attempted to introduce legislation to limit the accumulation of a point total beyond three children. Congress and veterans groups yet again voiced their displeasure at the idea of allowing a single CO to return home before men who had served as combatants. They also felt that the point system would make it much easier for COs to return home than soldiers. 47 Winstead’s 























































 43
Krehbiel.
General
Lewis
B.45 Perceiving this criticism as a lesson on how to do his job.
136. Upon hearing of this plan for CPS demobilization.
General
Lewis
B.
Hershey. 43 Hershey also wished to implement more points for those who had served as human guinea pig experiments and also those who had volunteered for smoke jumper units. General Hershey took offense.

After meeting with several veteran's groups and coming to the conclusion that demobilization would have to begin with the oldest men first. 49 Conclusion The legacy of the CPS labor camp system of World War II was one of mixed results for conscientious objectors in America. the treatment of these men at the hands of the federal government left much to be desired. Even with the understanding that it was a new and somewhat more tolerant approach to war resisters. Hershey declared that the end of the CPS camps would have to wait till 1946. The CPS system represented a step toward a more progressive approach to dealing with members of society who do not wish to participate in war. and by early 1947. the CPS demobilized about 45 percent of its men. In comparison with their treatment in World War I.48 By this time the war with Japan had ended as well. Even within their own confines of the 























































 48
Ibid. as servicemen were subject to a rule that only allowed three children to be claimed. Upon meeting with the House Committee on military affairs.
 
 23
 . men who wished to declare conscientious objector status were afforded new opportunities for an alternative form of service. On one hand. however. By January of 1946. which ranged from indifferent to brutal. Hershey and Kosch realized that the only way for demobilization to occur would be to abandon the point system.complaint carries water.
145.
138
 49
Ibid. the last men of the CPS had finally left their camps. the Winstead bill had lost a good bit of its momentum and Hershey still hoped his point system would be enacted. the system was far more humane.

they still went unpaid and uncompensated for their efforts unlike combatants and even noncombatants. Despite COs being categorized as draftees and thus members of the service. Furthermore. Essentially. the government failed to treat them fairly. or work in a tedious or possibly dangerous field that offered no wages or benefits.language dictating the treatment and classification of Conscientious Objectors. conscientious objectors were faced with the decision to either participate in an activity that deeply violated their religious beliefs. men who were injured on the job were denied benefits by the government and were left to their own devices. 
 24
 .

“What Should Be Done?” Mission Statement of CPS Union at Big Flats. U. 1944. NY. Conscientious Objectors Benefits. Peter. Senate. Statutes at Large 885 (1940). Congress. Big Flats.Bibliography Primary Sources Rudd. Swarthmore Peace Collection. NY. PA. Liberty and Conscience: a Documentary History of the Experiences of 
 25
 . Secondary Sources Brock. Ralph.S. 2nd session. NY. Ralph. Swarthmore Peace Collection. Swarthmore. 1944. Swarthmore Peace Collection. Statutes at Large 76 (1917). Swarthmore.” Paper Presented by Ralph Rudd at CPS Union Meeting. PA. 1945. “Cps Union and Labor Draft. Big Flats.. Committee on Military Affairs.. Swarthmore. Rudd. 
 Selective Service Act of 1940. Selective Service Act of 1917.” Part of CPS Union collected materials. 76th Congress. 19 August 1942. NY. January 28. “Unused Skills in the Cps-Part of Cps Union. PA. Big Flats.

http://www. no. Smoke Jumping on the Western Fire Line: Conscientious Objectors During World War Two.edu/historia/archives/2011/2011Carnahan. Norman. Hershey and Conscientious Objectors During World War II. OK: University of Oklahoma Press 2006.'s in Their Own Words. Leo.castle. “The Quaker Peace Testimony. Albert N. 1990. New York. 18 (July.Conscientious Objectors in America through the Civil War. Stoltzfus.” Mennonite Quarterly Review (April 2011): 259-61. 1 (March. 2009. Kovac. Swarthmore Peace Collection. 2013).” Historia (31 May 2011): 710. Diana Lee.pdf. MO: University of Missouri Press. Columbia. Intercourse. Corvallis. NY: Oxford University Press. www. 
 26
 . PA: Good Books.pdf (accessed April 12. no. 2011): 48-61. Carnahan.eiu. OR: Oregon State Press. Tara. Chamberlain. “Attitudes Towards Conscientious Objectors and Some of Their Psychological Correlates. “The Quakers and Conscientious Objection. Hirschi.o. Crespi. 2011.” War and Society 30. Jeffrey.” Survey Graphic (November 1943): 1-10. Matthews. Affirming Peace: The History of Civilian Public Service Camp #21 at Cascade Locks.goshen. Duane “Armed with Prayer in an Alcatraz Dungeon: The Wartime Experience of Four Hutterite C. General Lewis B. Krehbiel. USA.” Dialogue 37. 2 (2004) 132-136 Keim. Nicholas. Krehbiel. Nicholas. Swarthmore. William Henry. Vol. PA. “American COs. Refusing War. The Cps Story: an Illustrated History of Civilian Public Service.” Journal of Psychology.edu/mqr/pastissues/Apr11Stoltzfus. “Relief Efforts Denied: The Civilian Public Training Corps and the Starnes Amendment 1942-1943. 1944). 2002. Mark.