Society for Music Theory

Epistemology and Procedure in Aural Training: In Search of a Unification of Music Cognitive Theory with Its Applications Author(s): Kate Covington and Charles H. Lord Source: Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Autumn, 1994), pp. 159-170 Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the Society for Music Theory Stable URL: . Accessed: 12/06/2013 21:06
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7 on Wed. ed. 12 Jun 2013 21:06:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . And third. 1991). texture-aspects for which a keen awareness is critical for performers. and since paper-and-pencilis the primarymeans of response. The Musician's Guide to Perceptionand Cognition (New York: SchirmerBooks. This content downloaded from 201. Second. neuropsychology.and Epistemology In of a Search with Its Applications Procedure Unification of in Aural Training: Music Cognitive Theory Kate Covingtonand Charles H. Since aural training takes place in a learning environment so isolated from real-world contexts. W. Yet what makes a passage musical depends heavily on factors beyond pitch and rhythm -dynamics.1 1See. GenerativeProcessesin Music (Oxford: ClarendonPress. which sponsored the 1992 symposium on Music and the Brain. W. reflect the degree to which this researchhas penetrated not only the domains of psychology and music but also such areas as neurobiology. Jay Dowling (Hillsdale. timbre. On the other hand. Krumhansl. NJ: Erlbaum. Such organizations as the Society for Music Perception and Cognition and the Foundation for Human Potential. articulation. First. trans. Another measure of the maturingnature of the field is given by the number of important volumes of reported research thereof which have appeared on the scene in the immediate past.and John Sloboda. Harwood. Lord INTRODUCTION Research in music cognition has seen significant growth in recent years. Carol L. 1986). 1988). the training they receive does not seem to match what they will do as professionals. for example. David Butler. particularlyrelatingto solo performance and ensemble work. a direct connection to other aspects of the music curriculum itself is difficult for students to discover. and composers. Jay Dowling and Dane L. Cognitive Foundationsof MusicalPitch (New York: OxfordUniversityPress. 1988). there is usually a focus on the musical aspects of pitch and rhythm to the virtual exclusion of others. The Perceptionof Music. There is usually an emphasis on musical events isolated from their natural context. register. conductors.94.the aural-training classroom. for example: Jeanne Bamberger. one laboratory in which training in music cognition takes place. The Mind behind the Musical Ear (Cambridge:HarvardUniversity Press. 1992). 1990). and computer science. find at least three endemic problems.162. FL: Academic Press. together with pencil-and-paper beset with numerous frustrationson the part of both learners and instructors. transcending many disciplinaryboundaries. Studentsfrequentlyfail to see how this methodology prepares them for the world of contextually based experience in which they will function as professional musicians. Robert Frances. Music Cognition (Orlando. Students.

although the latter is equally important as a music-cognitive skill.160 MusicTheory Spectrum students find aural training to be disconnected from their immediate musical needs. the resulting knowledge base. we will begin with an outline of the most prevalent model of music-cognitive knowledge and the strategies for teaching its acquisition-what we will call the objectivist model. Because of the need for numericalresults. we identify the most pervasive model of cognitive training. then. Second. We find that the desired knowledge base itself. thus much of what is usually done is driven by the evaluation mechanism. there are also several perennial problems. isolated examples are a match for that need. Next. the theoretical basis for constructing it. the former receives attention in aural training. instructors search for mechanisms which are conducive to quantitativeevaluation. One basic dilemma is that assessment seems to demand short.94. and the design of training.162. having cited the limitations of this model for instructional designers. In what follows. we have undertaken over several years a fundamentalreexamination of both the goals of aural trainingand the means by which they are reached. there is the ever-present dilemma of the highly skilled performerwho does not succeed in aural training situations. Can we safely assume that this student has poor cognitive skills despite success in other areas? Doesn't this situation raise questions either about what is being taught or at least whether it is compatible with how students already perceive and relate to music? It would certainlyseem that the time has come to reconsider both what is done in the auraltraining curriculumand how it is done. As an example. which educational theorists call the ob- This content downloaded from 201. we will pose an alternative model for aurallyperceived music paradigm-a constructivist We will conclude with a few thoughts on the ramcognition.7 on Wed. What we have discovered has challenged us. and researchers. Shouldn't they instead be recognizing the connections with everythingthey do in the rest of their everyday musical lives? From the perspective of the designer and deliverer of instruction. Thus. This effort is requiringmultiple testings of many related hypotheses. as well as those of longer range. consider that the identificationof intervals is easily rated.Finally. 12 Jun 2013 21:06:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . since there is still so much about musiccognitive processing which is unknown or at least has not been conclusively demonstrated to date. research which addresses fundamental issues of the nature of the acquisition of knowledge. Because mastery of these may take several years. therefore. currentthought has not yet reached a state of full development. the experimental findings which comprise this literature still represent only the beginnings of a long-term research task-that of building an elaborate but well-formed knowledge base. Traditionalpedagogy centers on a bottom-up approachin which elements are treated in isolation until well enough masteredfor integrationinto largercontexts. Short. Unfortunately. An obvious startingpoint was the study of music cognition as reflected in the research literature. the fully contextual listening integratingall aspects into the kind of listening students need as professionals rarely gets developed within the curriculum. whereas measuring sensitivity to intervallic intonation is much more difficult. and the means of evaluating the success of training are all in need of significantrethinking. As a result. Motivated by these frustrations. Parallelswill then be drawnto the paradigmson which most music-cognitive research is based. pedagogues. THE OBJECTIVIST MODEL To begin. each of which is only one component of what will ultimately become the larger knowledge base. We have therefore also sought sources outside the music disciplinesin our quest for solutions. quantifiable examples. isolated drill tasks preclude work with full musical contexts. ificationsof the constructivistparadigmfor designers of both classroom and technology-based learning for researchers in music cognition.

Rand J. it would seem that an optimal method would be to hypothesize the component schemas. Kansas City."in TheoreticalIssues in Reading Comprehension. The long-term ideal is that this nouveau expert schematic network be cognitively available whenever an educated musician is at work. Alternatively. consisting as it does largely of repetitive drills derived from a stimulus-responseparadigm. Moreover. pitch patterns. Objectivist instructional design." One view is that this knowledge is encoded and represented in the brain in some sort of schematic network or hierarchy." paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Music Theory. a sample of them might read: "the ability to identify accurately a heard minor sixth or diminished-seventh sonority. 33-58. concerns itself with identifying the facts and procedures to be transmitted and determining such factors as the order and frequency of task presentation. The prevalent strategies for such traininghave their roots in behaviorist psychology. as could be This content downloaded from 201. While examples used for assessment differ in specific details from those actuallytaught (for example. Testing need not examine the learning activities themselves. comparison. sonorities. providingthe necessary facts and skills for whatever musical context is at hand. Not coincidentally. the responses requested generally require direct retrieval of the information learned or its cognitive relatives-such as recognition.4 The primary goal of instruction. Objectivist training enables discrete components of the network to be gradually refined in structure and better anchored into their locations. 1992. 4David E. and identification. though at least minor gradations of the significance of different errors are often provided in instructors'evaluation scales. the transmissionof the expert knowledge base of the person directingthe instructioninto the mind 2Denis C." in Quantitative Inquiryin Education:The ContinuingDebate. it need only measure the retrieval of knowledge to satisfy its objectives. "Form and Memory. so that the entire fabric of the network gradually evolves into a well-formed and responsive whole. NJ: Erlbaum. in effect. ed. the assessment process is. "Constructivism Educational Technology32. this measurement is highly quantitative. 19-37. therefore. of the trainee. with self-contained production rules. Elliot Eisner and Alan Peshkin (New York: Teachers College Press. no. frames. as it forms a consensus position. different pitches for a sonority type). Responses are generally classified as correct or incorrect.ed.2The objectivist knowledge base consists of a distinct set of facts and skills-a combination of what psychologists call declarative and procedural knowledge. that is. Phillips. 2 (1992): 27.162. recall. and William Brewer (Hillsdale. 3W. rhythms. 1990). given the notated version. therefore.94. has been a hallmark of our critical tradition for decades. the isolated drilling of intervals. cited Revisited: A Search for Common Ground. the essential tasks are chosen to be similar enough to those through which the training was given that potential confusion from case novelty is minimized. and so on. it might be viewed as an expert system. Bertram Bruce. If the goal of instructionis to develop a well-structuredschematicnetwork. the growing predominance of this type of traininghistoricallyparalleled the increasing influence of behavioristicpsychology on training across all disciplines. Spiro. 1980). then teach each one in isolation until it is learned.3 If one were to write out this knowledge base as a series of behavioral objectives. Rumelhart. and so on.Epistemologyand Procedurein AuralTraining 161 jectivist model. Assessment of objectivist training is primarily based on retrieval. or what Denis Phillips refers to as the criticaltraditionwhich is shared by members of our disciplinein general. On the whole. We take this model as a point of departure. Jay Dowling." in Peggy Cole. or. becomes the development of this clear and well-organized schematic network in the minds of the learners. "Schemata:The Building Blocks of Cognition." or "the ability to recognize pitch and rhythmic errors in performed melodies.7 on Wed. "Subjectivityand Objectivity:An Objective Inquiry. 12 Jun 2013 21:06:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . And indeed. A similar increase in the strength of links between schemas develops with training.

research has shown in other domains that such training can actually develop barriersbetween the schema types instead of developing an awareness of their interconnectedness. INHERENT LIMITATIONS IN OBJECTIVIST PROCEDURES Does this model of aural training produce the desired results? Our answer is both yes and no. and Daniel K. In fact." in ArtificialIntelligenceand the Futureof Testing. 12 Jun 2013 21:06:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . If learning activates prior knowledge.ed. Feltovich. on the other hand.162. David Evans and Vimla Patel (Cambridge:MIT [Bradford]Press. and Carl Bereiter and Marlene Scardamalia. Rand J. this transfer does not occur very often or very readily. If. In practice.' " in Thinkingand Learning Skills: CurrentResearchand Open Questions. much less actual pieces with complete textures. and Robert Glaser (Hillsdale. ed.5 Instead. the desired result is the long-term goal mentioned earlier-application of these schemas to real-world contexts outside of the aural-traininglaboratory-the results are not so convincing. Paul J. 6Forstudiesof issues relatedto "inertknowledge. All newly learned knowledge is integrated into prior knowledge.vol. and Paul J. 498-531. Feltovich. Bursteinand Beth Adelson. "Foundationsof a Misunderstandingof the UltrastructuralBasis of JourMyocardialFailure:A ReciprocationNetwork of Oversimplifications. Richard L. "Issuesfor a Theory of Analogical Learning. studies in other domains have shown that training in isolation from natural context can develop schemas which are of less than ideal quality. Paul J. for example: Richard L. NJ: Erlbaum. if a student uses the NBC motto as a crutch to identify the major sixth. and if that major sixth is tied in prior knowledge to NBCthat is. Coulson. "Cognitive Coping Strategiesand the Problemof 'Inert Knowledge. 1989). 113-72. Anderson." nal of Medicineand Philosophy 14 (1989):109-46. This content downloaded from 201. and RichardL.94. Spiro. the ability of the learner to transfer knowledge from one context to another is simply assumed in objectivist theory. In addition. 137-72. Susan F. Roy Freedle (Hillsdale. "MultipleAnalogies for Complex Concepts: Antidotes for Analogy-induced Misconception in Advanced Knowledge Acquisition. 1990)."see. For one thing. and (3) success within the limited context of isolated aural-trainingexercises. 5-3 of a major scale-the learner will have to untie it cognitively in order to recognize it if it occurs as 2-i (which of course also carries a conflicting harmonic implication). NJ: Erlbaum. "TheNature of ConceptualUnderstanding in Biomedicine:The Deep Structureof Complex Ideas and the Development of Misconceptions. JudithSegal."in Similarityand Analogical Reasoning. for example:Mark H. their abilityto transferthat identificationabilityto actualmelodies. 2. Rand J."in CognitiveScience in Medicine:Biomedical Modeling. ed. 1985). Chipman. while it may be true that students can memorize the sounds of intervals well enough to respond correctly on an information-retrievaltest. Coulson. they be5See. Moreover. For example. That is. rooted in objectivism just as is the instructional design. If in fact the desired results are (1) a knowledge base of specific facts and skills. Coulson. ed. Stella Vosniadou and Andrew Ortony (Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity Press. drillingsonorities separately from their context may cognitively link them more to other isolated sonorities ratherthan to the roles each sonority might play in a phrase. Spiro. 65-80. We believe there are several reasons for this lack of success-reasons rooted in the epistemology of the objectivist model. and Rand J. Feltovich. we will accept that those students scoring well seem to have developed the type of schematic network or expert system desired. (2) format-dependent retrieval ability for the specific information trained.6 expected. Spiro. isolating elements from their natural context emphasizesthe separatenessof the elements ratherthan their integration. limitations are imposed on the context in which he or she will readily recognize the interval. is far from guaranteed.7 on Wed.162 MusicTheory Spectrum come rigid and compartmentalizedrather than flexible. 1989).

12 Jun 2013 21:06:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . done with repeated presentations. the research involved must isolate a single aspect of a musical situation for treatment. Krumhansl. and David Butler. isolated events by single or similar quantitative measures cannot reach beyond its own parameters. However. This content downloaded from 201. by the necessities of experimental design. the very model on which cognition researchersbase their work is the same as that of instructional designers-the behaviorist one. a research experiment generally involves a training situation in microcosm. (2) Measurement of the results of research needs to be scientificallyvalid. there are several reasons why answers of the scope needed have not yet been forthcoming from this research: (1) Due to the exigencies of experimental design. somewhat isolated from other results-at least until a bigger picture begins to emerge. (4) Finally. The unavoidable consequence is that research done within the same paradigms as that of traditional instruction simply cannot address issues which are outside those parameters-those which require stepping back from those paradigms to reexamine their very basis. Krumhansl. Spiro's notion of the well-structurednessor the ill-structurednessof a content 7Fora few examples. cannot serve as a basis for studyingthe effects of experimental training done beyond the context of the experiment. constitutes prototypical behaviorist training in itself." Music Perception1 (1983): 28-62. hence there is an unavoidable motivation to use quantitative assessment."MusicPerception6 (1989): 219-42. each generally self-contained and.7 on Wed. and in ways which rarely reflect their actual usage in a real-world situation.94. (3) The knowledge base which is being developed by cognition research consists of fragments of information. nearly all cognitive research focuses on isolated behaviors. The process has its analog with the objectivist trainingmodel above the study of isolated phenomena without reference to their context. In fact. PERCEIVED MUSIC AND ILL-STRUCTURED DOMAINS We have."Music Perception7 (1990): 325-38. David Butler. found at least the beginnings of some answers among educational theorists and disciplineindependent instructional designers. The stimulus-response paradigm. debates such as that between Krumhansl and Butler over the emerging model of tonal relationships serve to reinforce the observation that we cannot yet be sure of the overall shape of this network. (Will it become a metasystem in which each validated fragment serves as a schema?) Though metahypotheses are now emerging from analyses of experimental data. Carol L.7We are simplytoo early in the gradualdevelopment of the overall picture to expect clear directionsfrom cognitive research at this point. nor can it deal directly with the processes involved in the learner's production of the results. Again an analog to objectivist training appears. we should expect a corresponding increase in the degree to which the results of this research address the problems we face in training.Epistemologyand Procedurein AuralTraining 163 LIMITATIONS OF MUSIC-COGNITIVE RESEARCH Where then do we search for answers to these difficulties? Is behavioristic training wrong? Are retrieval-oriented tasks of little use? Is measurement by quantitative means improper? Is the desired knowledge base the wrong one? Logically we might look to research in music cognition for answers. "Response to Carol Krumhansl."TonalHierarchiesand Rare Intervalsin Music Cognition. Measurement of single. As this literature grows. If one is to control variables properly.162. "Describing the Perceptionof Tonalityin Music:A Critiqueof the Tonal HierarchyTheory and a Proposalfor a Theoryof IntervallicRivalry. as noted."PerceptualStructuresfor Tonal Music."MusicPerception7 (1990): 309-24. see: Carol L. It is as though a huge communal network of results is in the process of formation.

at least partiallydue to the "explosion of higherorder interactionsamong many relevant features"mentioned This content downloaded from 201. NJ: Erlbaum. Examples of such domains are arithmetic or spelling of notated intervals.94. Glynn Jehng. prototypes of significance when assumedifferent the samefeatures patterns placedin differentcontexts. The problem comes where the domain is inherently ill-structured. ed. Spiro. Spiroand Jihn-Chang "CognitiveFlexibility and Hypertext: Theory and Technology for the Nonlinear and MultidimensionalTraversalof Complex Subject Matter. For example. 9For a summaryof this position. it could not support the varied hearings and readings of the masterworks which are essential to its aesthetic value. In addition. Coulson. how well can we expect the less-than-expert to do? On a more basic level. thematic restatements. Jacobson. Rand J. "Cognitive Flexibility.. Britton and Shawn M. Walter P. Moreover. In sum." in Executive Control Processes in Reading. And. Paul J. (Hillsdale. and Hypertext: Random Access Instruction for Advanced Knowledge Acquisition in Ill-Structured Domains. Education. the major sixth as part of the NBC motto). Indeed." 184. tonal designs. Ala Samarapungavan. simplyvaryingthe metric placement of chromatic sonorities in a phrase can create enough change in significance to confuse many students.164 MusicTheory Spectrum relevant here. research is revealing now that such single-contextual encoding creates rigid and even transfer-inhibitingschemas. it is what Spiro would call an ill-structureddomain.9 To illustrate these points in regard to music as aurally perceived. if music as an art form were well-structured." in Cognition. Feltovich. no. Linear analysis regularlyreveals examples of hidden repetitions in which different levels of activity predominate at different times. Multimedia. rhythmic theoretic 8Rand J." Educational Technology 31. and Rand J. Vispoel. John G. see Spiro et al. Spiro. 12 Jun 2013 21:06:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . discussions routinely become heated over issues such as the "predominance" or "subsumption" of variouslevels of metric hierarchy.8The principlein essence domain is particularly is this: the objectivist model may succeed in a domain which is inherently well-structured. if these contextual games can unsettle even the expert listener. E.7 on Wed. Repeated hearings continue to generate varied responses for each of us. and Richard L. then. "Knowledge Acquisition. 1990). tend to often be misleading. Don Nix and Rand Spiro (Hillsdale. students were trained to recognize a given interval in relation to a particularcontext (for example. Some of the features of ill-structureddomains are: andsubsumption areinverted relations of dominance hierarchical fromcase to case. let us reflect on the omnipresent debates in which we as music analysts engage. 163-205.ed. Boerger. 5 (1991): 24-33. Bruce K. As noted above. Constructivism. or passages in which a prolongation of one primary tone may conflict with that of another on a different level. 177-99.162. and his pervasive experimentationswith formaldesign-to recognize the gamut of ways in which composers may utilize contextual differences as a means of manipulating listeners' expectations. for example. and A. NJ: Erlbaum. One need only consider the witticisms of Haydn in so many aspects of his style-phrase lengths. Michael J. If. "Knowledge Acquisition for Application: Cognitive Flexibility and Transferin Complex Content Domains. wherein facts and procedures are highly rule-based so that little confusion can result from the attempt to transfer knowledge from one context to another. certain low-level features can be misleading when considered as prototypes in relation to their contexts.and interactions an explosionof higher-order amongmanyrelevant featuresintroduces aspectsof case novelty. music as aurally perceived is far from fully predictable. their cognitive encoding of the interval sound and its name will be linked to that context. varying contexts may alter the significanceof a given musical element. Schmitz. 1987). where the presentation of new contexts creates a complexity which cannot easily be addressed by the well-structuredand somewhat rigid schematic facts and procedures developed by objectivist training.

(3) that one of the most serious problems with training ISDs as if they were WSDs is an inability to establish a basis for knowledge transfer. This view is commonly classified as constructivism. Learning which is significant must be usable by the learner as different situations are encountered. One might well ask if in fact the domain in which any art is expressed can be well-structured.. This content downloaded from 201. with each element connected in such a way that it can be disconnected from its original location and reassembled with other elements to apply to a new context. Such a statement would appear to be oxymoronic. emphasis must shift from the retrievalof a precompiled schema to the assembly of a situation-sensitiveschema from knowledge fragments-the features described in 4 and 5 are characteristicsof what we call cognitiveflexibility." 178. (2) that theories appropriatefor WSDs are in many ways inappropriate for ISDs-that. The goal thus shifts from schema selection to schema assembly. In other words. in fact. 1For a review of this notion.7 on Wed. recent theory proposes that there is a second constructive aspect. that the prior knowledge brought to bear in a new context is not simply retrieved intact.12 12Spiroet al. for the application of preexisting knowledge to new situations. 1980). However. (6) that the best way to learn and instructin order to attain the goal of cognitive flexibility in knowledge representation for future application is by a method of case-based presentations which treats a content domain as a landscape that is explored by "criss-crossing" it in many directions. 245-78." in TheoreticalIssues in Reading Comprehension. rather it is itself reconstructed specifically for the case at hand. and that new information is integrated with that already present.94. and allowance for various forms of naturally occurring complexity and irregularity. Bruce.Epistemology and Procedure in Aural Training 165 above. Spiro. (4) that transfer in ISDs is best promoted by knowledge representations that possess the following features: multiple interconnectedness between different aspects of domain knowledge. ed. see Rand J. optimal conditions of learning and instruction in the two kinds of domains are opposite in several important respects. the schematic network envisioned by constructivists is less static than dynamic.10 The role of prior experience is also significant. namely. Spiro. It is generally agreed among cognitive psychologists that learning does not take place in a vacuum.. Bertram C. all knowledge is constructed as it is acquired. by reexaminingeach case "site"in the varying contexts of different neighboring cases. To a constructivist. AN ALTERNATE PARADIGM FOR KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION IN ILLSTRUCTURED DOMAINS the final product-that fully integrated set of prepackaged schemas-than on the process of applying preexistent knowledge in new situations. one which addresses the features of illstructured domains. ?OIbid.162. 12 Jun 2013 21:06:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the act of learning itself is not simply the receiving and encoding of information. From the constructivist perspective. Thus the goal for developing a learner's knowledge base should rely less on 178. NJ: Erlbaum. "Knowledge Acquisition. (5) that in order for knowledge structures to possess the characteristics described in 4. one may conclude (1) that theories in the cognitive sciences have produced a far better understanding of cognitive process in well-structured domains (WSDs) than in ill-structureddomains (ISDs). Brewer (Hillsdale. "ConstructiveProcesses in Prose Comprehensionand Recall. This distinction between well-structuredness and illstructuredness reflects an alternative view of knowledge and its acquisition. multidimensional or multiperspectivalrepresentation of examples/cases. and by using a variety of abstract dimensions for comparing cases. Rand J. and William F."1 In this sense.

retrieval) and towardencouragingthe development of the learningprocess. and Paul Duguid. assessment is built into the design in two ways. "Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning. One clear advantageto a constructivistapproachis that the most essential problem of traditional training-that of developing knowledge transfer between varying contexts-is addressed directly. This feature appears to improve the transferabilityof the knowledge acquired. since the assessment is done in a manner which embeds transferinto the process itself.for example:Allan Collins. and Susan E. a natural progression of maturing application of knowledge will emerge. Resnick (Hillsdale. the need for such repetitive acclimationsis minimized. 12 Jun 2013 21:06:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 5 (1991): 34-40. including the means of supporting student-controlled learning." EducationalResearcher19. no. John S. no."14 They share a concern with learnenvironment contextual in a (either real or simufully ing lated). For one thing. therefore. decisions in instructionaldesign should shift away from identifying in advance the precise responses to be desired (that is. Allan Collins. Brown. LaurenB. and Allan Collins. 1989)." or "multiple criss-crossings of conceptual landscapes.162. 15TheCognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University conducted a series of mathematicalprojects in which multiple tasks were embedded in a "How do you get from here to there?"problem-solvingscenario. and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. It was the primary means of theoretical training until well into this century." "situated cognition. there is a certain front-end cognitive investment in becoming acclimated to a new context." Educational Researcher18. Constructivistresearchers also demonstrate that spending a good deal of time in one context is highly beneficial. in order that the interconnectedness of the various features of that context are present to the learner at all times. Learning. See their report "Technology and the Design of Generative Learning Environments."in Knowing. 453-94. throughsituated cognition many subtasks can be addressed while leading toward a larger overall task. For another.166 MusicTheorySpectrum in multiple ways reinforces the interconnectedness of concepts. and of course still exists in performance and composition studios. and Spiro and Jehng. dealing with one situation 13See. First. transfer of knowledge is similarly assured. NJ: Erlbaum. The very activities one performsin learning this way consist of transferitself-working extended types of exercises within a single context.and Instruction. The notion of cognitive apprenticeshipis now gaining favor among constructivistsas they recognize the type of teacherguided but learner-controlledexplorations which this model provides.7 on Wed. presentinga new context in which to perform the same types of skills which have been learned. no. 1 (1989): 32-41. 3 (1990): 2-10. to manage the learning. If the contexts and activities are chosen wisely.ed.13 Constructivistmodes of instructionwhich are appearingin other content domains are variously termed "anchored instruction. Writing and Mathematics. John S." American Educator 15. that is. only to confirm one's success by performingsimilaractivities in a different but similar context. "CognitiveApprenticeship:Making Things Visible. 15 In line with constructivist thinking. In this manner.94. the learner must both have successfully encoded the knowledge and also be able to apply it correctly to the context at hand. no." Educational Technology31. the facts/skillsto be taught are tested as integral subtasks of solving the cognitive problems presented. And thirdly. 3 (1991): 6-11. providing not only a lifelike variety of tasks but also the opportunityfor the learner to plan a strategy for completing the entire task. 38-46."AnchoredInstruction 14Cognition and Its Relationship to Situated Cognition. Brown. Newman. "Cognitive Apprenticeship: Teaching the Craft of Reading. One such model with a long traditionin the musical world is that of apprenticeship. This content downloaded from 201. Second. where anchoredinstructionis employed. then.

on solving problems in context. envision an appropriationof this constructivistmethodology. such as a brass solo with keyboard accompaniment.7 on Wed. so that the accuracy of their perceptual focus and memory can be verified. Consider music analysistrainingof various types-formal. linear.162. therefore. and in many cases there can well be more than one valid interpretation.Our work to date has been informaland our reports can only be anecdotal. we have been gradually developing over the past several years an approach to aural trainingfounded on the constructivistparadigm. in our music technology laboratory. but the focus is on the learner's control of the process of knowledge acquisition. And analysis can only be taught well by providing full contexts in which to work. say a classical double period. For example. (2) we allow for multiple possible answers (provided that sound reasoning supportsthem). The instructionalgoal in such situations focuses as much on the process of analysis as on the production of correct answers-on the rationale as much as on the final conclusions. coaching.we train students to focus on specific aspects of a musical fabric. ensemble work. At the outset of this portion of the curriculum. Of course. recordingtheir performance on a separate track while they do so. we are engaging in essentially constructivistmethodology when we teach analysis. Certain cases may also lend themselves to other linear focusing as well. And perhaps it could enable students to see how essential and vital is the role that aural training plays not only in their music-theory experience. stylistic. Yet we have succeeded in implementing a number of the features associated with Cognitive Flexibility Theory and anchored instruction. Assessment too is done in context. future conducting.we have employed a number of interrelated activities within a casebased training model. and on the learner's revealing his or her mental processes to the instructor through providing rationales for the analytical decisions involved. on one track of a MIDI sequencer. on distinct sequencer tracks. A multitimbral sequence. to the extent that (1) we encourage students to do their own learning. it is actually not so novel to instruction in our discipline overall.Multidimensional analyticaldecisions can lead to different interpretations. One way this is accomplished is by providing a complete formal unit in its original texture. but we then proceed to extracting the bass line-not an automatic skill for many students. Could we not. for use in the aural-trainingaspect of our curricula? Perhaps such a change would better equip students for the kinds of tasks they will face once launched into their professional careers. and (3) we work from one context to the next in order to apply the knowledge base to new contexts. but also across their entire curriculum-in private study. could lend itself to extracting not only the This content downloaded from 201. Therefore. Studentsrecordthese individuallines separately. 12 Jun 2013 21:06:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and even in music analysis! ANALYSIS TRAINING: THE ALTERNATE PARADIGM IN CURRENT USE While the use of constructivistmethodology in the auraltrainingcurriculummay be a novel concept. teaching. We then ask students to extract individuallines from that texture by playing them back on their keyboard. both from other domains where it is proving beneficial and from elsewhere in our own domain. the instructional methodology may well involve the provision of general guidelines for proceeding at the outset.94. Perhaps it could better train students to FIRST STEPS TOWARD UNIFICATION At the University of Kentucky.Epistemologyand Procedurein AuralTraining 167 be aware of the interrelationshipsbetween the various elements of the musical fabric. The melody serves as a natural first focal point. Here our critical tradition reflects the view that the domain is indeed complex and ill-structured. by asking for an application of the learned analyticalskills in a similarbut distinctcontext.

for example. rhythm. Or.And it is instructiveto observe students' learning strategies for the activitieswhich they do during class periods. We encourage them to use timbral distinction between the sound they perceive from the original context and that with which they play their extracted sonorities. Thus a structurewhich requires the reassembly of prior knowledge in new situations is built into our curriculum. recordingthe results for later evaluation and discussion. also provide cognitive templates from which patterns may be extracted. If. middle voices. bass. such as that of a folk song or the Pachelbel canon. In addition. students have recorded the bass and chords for a segment of a Mozart aria. they can then be asked to turn off the original context and compose a new melody appropriateto the now isolated bass and harmony. while technology-based. and harmony. they can study at the keyboard how to reharmonize an extracted melody or bass line. and texture. students explore the bass line. By allowing students the freedom to select not only their sonorities and inversions but also the harmonic rhythm itself. At such times they learn the interactions of the various lines by personally experiencing them and developing intuitive strategies for reacting and performing successfullyin real time. rhythm. Our evaluation of activities such as these has been enlightening. With the same context at hand.168 MusicTheory Spectrum brass line but also any complementary keyboard lines of interest. we ask that students determine the sonorities used in the piece. Not only do we requirepairs This content downloaded from 201. which had always seemed ratheracademicto our classes when run under an objectivist model. we utilize a sequencingprogramwhich only records and plays back.162. is as intuitive as possible. This variation in turn leads to fascinating class discussions about such issues. These are designed to challenge students to cooperate musically as they develop performanceskills in melody. In a traditionalclassroom setting.7 on Wed. harmony. varied. we explore many of the above-mentioned tasks with students' own instruments. Working with a deliberately patterned context. Thus we ensure that the responses we evaluate are ones that have been performed. and presented again for recognition in other contexts. As a means of involving the student in a manner which.94. again fostering a more direct link between aural training and the other aspects of the curriculum. or readily-learnedOrff xylophones. Carefullyselected archetypicalcontexts. They demonstrate their understanding by recording the harmony in whatever manner and at whatevertempo they can physicallymanage. Another means of incorporatingintuitive and familiar elements into auralinstructionis provided by our use of acoustic performancemedia.portable keyboards. Yet another strategy which we employ extensively is to assign performancesto be done by pairs of students. Once students display sufficient ability to discern individual lines-as measured by their success in extracting these lines-we progress to harmonic considerations. and even improvisedmelodic lines of these harmoniccontexts in a sort of jam session. No editing of the digital data is permitted. different combinations of extracted textural components can lead to still further exploration of the interrelationships between melody. nor is any extratemporal step recording. such as the Pachelbel canon. has taken on a new life when addressed in a fully contextual musical problem-solving situation. We develop their sensitivity to the line. And these discussions of subjects such as harmonic rhythm. melodic lines. The varied learning styles of different students are reflected not only in the results they achieve but also in their approaches to solving the problem at hand. or sonority which their partner carries as a means of preparing them for the multiple situationsin which they will be required to perform professionallywhile listening and reacting to others' performancesaroundthem. to facilitate their comparison of their own version with that of the original. we often observe vastly different responses from different students. 12 Jun 2013 21:06:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

and in view of the fascinating responses we get from our students. Second. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. it requiresapplication of knowledge to new situations. First.16We believe that a change in emphasis from the objectivist focus 16ThomasS. Kuhn develops the concept of the paradigm shift in The Structureof ScientificRevolutions. helps to de- Therefore. it does not emphasize retrievalof factual knowledge. but we also have them explore multiple interconnections in the harmonicdomain through accompanyingeach other with simple harmonizationsof sight-singing melodies. in view of the difficulties which we all experience with aural training under its current methodology. 12 Jun 2013 21:06:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .7 on Wed. is embedded in our approachfrom the outset. the issue of transferability of knowledge. In that sense the methodology is identical with that for most analysis training.The use of full contexts.Epistemologyand Procedurein AuralTraining 169 of students to sing melodic and/or rhythmic duets together. and in this manner the question of transfer of knowledge is answered by the very nature of the learning process itself. Further. Instead. He had predicted a particular configuration as most likely. For example.94. Finally. in view of the call for change which comes from other domains. indirectlydisplayingwhat strategies they were using. only to find that the actual result was almost universally different.162. Like us. traversed in multiple ways. then. This content downloaded from 201. since they are learned themselves in context. 2d ed. one which is not even directly addressed in objectivist methodology. he found himself in the midst of a lively and productive discussion of significantcompositional issues. emphasison the multidimensionalityof each case. students gain an appreciation of the interconnectedness of the various musical parameterswhich cannot be gained from traditional context-free exercises. presented a sequence from an Ives song. linearizing each other's harmonic successions. together with an allowance for and even encouragement of varied responses. NEXT STEPS? AURAL TRAINING BY THE CONSTRUCTIVIST PARADIGM In sum. One instance. devised by our colleague Peter Simpsonfor use in our technology facility. which incorporatedan alternating3 and 2 meter. 1970). Various types of musical problems can be addressed in a similarmanner. All the activities of this type share the concept that what is learned from one context will be cognitively reassembled and reapplied as appropriatefor the next one. our approach serves to implement the constructivistmodel in several ways. is the hallmark of constructivist methodology. velop the type of knowledge representations which will be more cognitively flexible. compositional problem solving can be introduced by judicious choice of contexts to study. Next. providing a more unified approach to training across the musictheoretical curriculum. with study anchored in a single context to permitthe assimilationof all of its inherent interrelationships. and consciously considering the influence of the harmonic domain on both foreground and middlegroundmelodic lines in transcribingmelodies or playing them back from memory in a variety of keys. or better able to transferfrom one cognitive situation to another. Simpson required his students to record the melody in a straight 3 meter. we believe that the time has come for considering a significant paradigm shift as regards aural training. one which could hardly have occurred in a traditional auraltraining environment. the use of case-based learning more closely follows models that succeed in other domains and that we employ in our own development of students' analyticalskills. by working within the same complete musical context for extended periods.

170 Music Theory Spectrum on information retrieval of static schemas to the constructivist focus on the flexible assembly of situation-specific schemas will better equip students with the type of knowledge which is available for ready application to the multifaceted situations with which they will have to deal spontaneously in their professional musical experience." paper presented at the annualmeeting of the Society for Music Theory. both in terms of length and variability of performing media. Richard D. Lord.17 For cognition researchers. "RethinkingAural Training.18 The optimal benefit would be that. criss-crossing the conceptual landscape to focus on the multifaceted nature of our art medium. Reasons for the frustrations generated by the gap between current cognition research and its applications are presented. is examined. Piagentini. and Kate Covington and Charles H. The pervasive model of knowledge acquisition. We would call for more use of full musical contexts. The article concludes with a call for a broadening of the epistemological basis of all the interrelated areas of aural training. Next an alternate."Proceedings of the InternationalComputer Music Conference1990 (San Francisco:Computer Music Association. and its advantages are cited. and cognition research itself. 1992. '7We have addressed these issues elsewhere. thereby presenting a unified approach to the study of music-theoretic concepts -a step which should in turn produce a more unified. Kansas City. ABSTRACT This paper reflects a reexamination of the desired knowledge base of aural cognition. better-structured. 14446. "Skill Acquisition in Undergraduate Music Theory: Analysis as ProblemSolving. 2 (1992): 5-18. teaching aural cognition. 9-12. in line with this paradigm shift. Finally. no. Lord. instructional design. 12 Jun 2013 21:06:15 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "A Computer Programfor Analyzing Computer Musicians' Problem-solving. more flexible knowledge base in our students. and Susan M."Journalof Music Theory Pedagogy 7 (1993): 105-17.94. rather than relying on the induction of cognitive processes from the study of its products. Issues relating to courseware design for computer-based instruction are addressed in Charles H. "An Alternate Approach to Aural Skills Pedagogy. Ashley. "HarnessingTechnology to Open the Mind:Beyond Drill and Practicefor Aural Skills. A distinction between well-structured and ill-structured content domains is introduced. the theoretical basis for constructing it. 1991. and the limitations of the training effected through this model are noted."paper presentedat the annualmeeting of the Society for Music Theory. This content downloaded from 201. Further. one rooted in objectivist theory." Proceedingsof the International Conference1989 (San Francisco:Computer Music Association. A further shift from an almost exclusively quantitative to a more triangulated evaluation process-including or even emphasizing the qualitative-may enable a wider scope of research projects to be undertaken. Cincinnati. such "messy" research has become widespread in areas such as anthropology and women's studies. We would call for sustained study within each of these contexts.162. we could more directly address the processes themselves. Ashley.7 on Wed. 1990). encouraging students to develop a sense of the interconnectedness and interrelatedness of the various elements of music. we find the need for rethinking the actual goals of aural training and their implications for computer-based instructional design. see: Richard D. "Computer-basedLearning: Models and Lessons for ComputerMusic ComputerMusic Systems. 18For examples of the use of qualitativemethodology in our domain. 1989). and the means of evaluating the success of its training. constructivist paradigm for training in ill-structured domains is proposed. A further inconsistency in the epistemological/procedural relationship is cited regarding teaching of analysis vs." Journal of Music TheoryPedagogy 6. might we also call for an analogous expansion of the paradigms of scientific inquiry? While it is true that study of individual responses to full contexts is difficult. A revised set of aural development goals is outlined in: Kate Covington. we would call for a reconnection of the epistemology undergirding our teaching of music analysis with that of aural cognition.