Silicon Control Rectifier (SCR

)

The circuit symbol, semiconductor arrangement and two transistor analogy are shown in Fig. (a) - (c).

Biasing
P N P N J1 J2 J3 P N P N J J 1 2 J
3

Biasing
P N P N J1 J2 J3 P N P N J1 J2 J3

(a) Forward Biasing

(b) Reverse Biasing

(a) Forward Biasing

(b) Reverse Biasing

No current can flow through the SCR in both circuit (a) & (b). WHY? – no gate

No current can flow through the SCR in both circuit (a) & (b). WHY? – no gate

current being applied to the gate

current being applied to the gate

1

 When Vg is removed SCR still ON  Gate loses control.off state Gate is +ve w.e.e.r.  No current flowing through RL. Very high switching speed ( 109/s ). and no gate signal. Gate  Cathode Forward Biased When Gate is Open  J2 is reverse biased & J1.  The on time of SCR  Conduction time / angle Conditions required to turn on SCR 1. operating freq.t cathode  J2 is reverse biased & J1 & J3 are forward biased. anode positive with respect to cathode. Only leakage current flows through the thyristor. Operation of SCR Switching SCR OFF  Reduce apply voltage to almost zero which the anode current is reduced below certain value called holding current. Advantage of SCR     No moving parts – noiseless – high. Ig is flowing & Ia increases more at J2 breaks up  SCR ON.  When switch turned on. junctions j1 and j3 are forward-biased and j2 is reverse-biased. Higher control over IL (20-150A) – small IG (mA) Small size – reliable – longer life. cathode positive with respect to the anode. With reverse bias. i. SCR . Again only leakage current flows. SCR should be in forward biased condition 2. Ig being applied to gate. j2 is forward-biased and jl and j3 are reverse-biased.Anode P N P N j1 j2 j3 OPERATION OF SCR  With normal forward bias. 2 . J3 are forward biased. i.

Gate triggering current. which served to trigger the self-regenerative action. The collector current of Q2 cause Q1 is biased into conduction. it cannot be switched off until the anode current falls below the holding current (IH) Important Terms Break over voltage • Min forward voltage. causing the collector current to rise and saturated. VGT • Min values of gate voltage at which SCR is turned ON. Holding current • Min anode current. providing the anode current has exceeded the latching current (IL). once it has been switched on by the gate terminal. Forward current rating • Max anode current that SCR is capable of passing without destruction. IGT • Resulting gate current. Transistor Q2 is biased into conduction. causing its collector current to rise and saturated. gate being open.       When a positive current is applied to terminal Gate. The positive current applied to terminal G. Regenerative Action on SCR Important Terms Gate triggering voltage.V-I Characteristic In a conventional thyristor.e. anode current required to maintain SCR in ON state immediately after SCR has been turn on and gate current has been removed Peak Reverse Voltage PRV • Max reverse voltage can applied to SCR without conducting in reverse direction. do not need a continuous supply of gate current to conduct). Both transistors are driven into saturation. Latching Current • Min. to maintain SCR in the ON state. the device remains latched in the on-state (i. SCR starts conducting to turn ON ( 50 – 500V ). and the impedance between A and C is very low. is no longer required since the collector of PNP transistor Q1 now supplies more than enough current to drive Q2 The circuit will remain on until it is turned off by a reduction in the collector current to a value below that necessary to maintain conduction 3 . As long as the anode remains positively biased.

Reducing current through SCR below holding current DC firing signal Pulse signal TRIAC TRIAC. is an electronic component which can conduct current in either direction when it is triggered (turned on). and is formally called a Bidirectional Triode Thyristor or Bilateral Triode Thyristor. Anode current interruption 2.Firing and Triggering Lamp load Load Push button Turning OFF Considered the SCR circuit with pulse signal at gate:  Once fired. MT2 MT2 MT1 MT1 4 . from Triode for Alternating Current. SCR remains ON even when triggering pulse is removed  This is referred as LATCHING – ability to remain ON even when gate current is removed V V Methods used to turn SCR OFF: 1.

the device continues to conduct until the current through it drops below a certain threshold value.  Once triggered.  Triac equivalent circuit STATC CHARACTERISTIC CURVE FOR TRIAC GTO (GATE-TURN-OFF) SCR Gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) is a special type of thyristor. GTOs. Phase control – to control power/current to the load such as light dimmers. allowing the control of very large power flows with milliampere-scale control currents. a highpower semiconductor device. and in the modern computerized control circuits of many household small and major appliances. Symbol Structure 5 . speed controls for electric fans and other electric motors.  It can be triggered by either a positive or a negative voltage being applied to its gate electrode (with respect to MT1). the GATE lead. are fully controllable switches which can be turned on and off by their third lead. APPLICATIONS  As a switch for AC circuits. such as at the end of a half-cycle of alternating current (AC) mains power. A TRIAC is approximately equivalent to two complementary SCRs (joined in inverse parallel (paralleled but with the polarity reversed) and with their gates connected together. as opposed to normal thyristors. the holding current.

or when the current flowing through (forward current) falls below a certain threshold value known as the "holding current"). the SCR remains in the ON-state until any turn-off condition occurs (which can be the application of a reverse voltage to the terminals. whereby after the forward current falls. This restricts the maximum switching frequency to approx. 1 kHz. Turn off is accomplished by a "negative voltage" pulse between the gate and cathode terminals. SCR can only be turned ON and cannot be turned OFF.   OPERATION OF GTO-SCR  GTO thyristors suffer from long switch off times. FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR   6 . not as reliable as an SCR and small positive gate current must be maintained even after turn on to improve reliability. a SCR behaves like a normal semiconductor diode after it is turned on. Thus switching frequency of GTO is faster than an SCR. SCR are switched ON by a gate signal. It may however be noted that the turn off time of a comparable SCR is ten times that of a GTO. OPERATION OF GTO-SCR The GTO can be turned-on by a gate signal. but even after the gate signal is removed. and can also be turned-off by a gate signal of negative polarity. Turn on is accomplished by a "positive current" pulse between the gate and cathode terminals. The turn on phenomenon in GTO is however. Thus. there is a long tail time where residual current continues to flow until all remaining charge from the device is taken away.OPERATION OF GTO-SCR    Normal SCR are not fully controllable switches (a "fully controllable switch" can be turned on and off at will).

The drain and source may be doped of opposite type to the channel. Field-effect transistors are also distinguished by the method of insulation between channel and gate. Types of field-effect transistors  The channel of a FET is doped to produce either an N-type semiconductor or a Ptype semiconductor. FETs are sometimes called unipolar transistors to contrast their single-carrier-type operation with the dual-carrier-type operation of bipolar (junction transistors (BJT). The MOSFET (Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor) utilizes an insulator (typically SiO2) between the gate and the body.FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR  The Field-Effect Transistor (FET) relies on an electric field to control the shape and hence the conductivity of a channel of one type of charge carrier in a semiconductor material. in the case of depletion mode FETs.   JFET Construction and symbol N-Channel JFET Conduction JFET Construction JFET Symbol 7 . Types of FETs are:  The JFET (Junction Field-Effect Transistor) uses a reverse biased P-N junction to separate the gate from the body. or doped of similar type to the channel as in enhancement mode FETs.

Question 3(80 marks) Explain the structure. Deplection layer formed by Vds Drain-Source Characteristic Curve Assignment 1 Question 1(10 marks) State the advantages and disadvantages of SCR and TRIAC compared to magnetic contactors. static characteristics and application of the following devices:• Bidirectional diode (DIAC) • Programmable Unijunction Transistor (UJT) • Opto-coupler Submission date : Before 9 August 2011 • Zener diode Prepared by Lab Group • Photo transistor Assessments :• Photo thyristor Assignment report : 50% • Photo diode Interview : 50% • Operational Amplifier N-channel JFET P-channel JFET 8 . symbol.N-Channel JFET Conduction  The depletion layer is thicker when Vgs high.  Less current can flow from Drain to source. N-Channel JFET Conduction  The depletion layer is thinner when Vgs = 0 V  More current can flow from Drain to source  The current flow from Drain to source can be controlled by controlling gate voltage.  The current flow from Drain to source can be The effect of applying a reverse gate-source voltage controlled by controlling gate voltage. Question 2(10 marks) Differentiate characteristics between FET and Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT).