Issue 3 – trSwfpOf 6

ygvrD ef'rD dkua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************************
-=uufoGefeD
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800 usyf
4§3§2009
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650 usyf
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(1)yd\m700 usyf
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4500 usyf
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(1)+yD 850 usyf
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300 usyf
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400 usyf
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120 usyf
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130 usyf
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0,f jrefrmaiG(2700)usyfv#ifxdkif;bwfaiG(100)E_ef;?
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-xm;0,f+rdK‹ 0,f -ykZGefajcmuf(eHygwf-3)(1)yd\m9000 usyf
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6?vufbuff&nfqdkifaps;E_ef;
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-umzD(±dk;±dk;) (1)cGuf
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7?[if;oD;[if;±Gufaps;E_ef;
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-=uufoGefjzL (1)yd\m400 usyf
*************************************************************************** ***********************************************
rwfv (25) 2009 ckepS f

2

March ,25, 2009

Issue 3 – trSwfpOf 6
ygvrD ef'rD dkua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************************

uBm}uD;uajymif;vJoGm;ygjyD/ tar&duefeKdifiH
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a}umifh uefhvefhumaemufuG,frSqkd-ajym-ay;

*************************************************************************** ***********************************************
rwfv (25) 2009 ckepS f

3

March ,25, 2009

Issue 3 – trSwfpOf 6
ygvrD ef'rD dkua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************************

ol.toHom t"dutoHjzpfygw,f/0ef}uD;csKyf
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bJ z,fxm;ae}ucsdefwGif puFmylESifh wuGtmpD

*************************************************************************** ***********************************************
rwfv (25) 2009 ckepS f

4

March ,25, 2009

Issue 3 – trSwfpOf 6
ygvrD ef'rD dkua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************************

,eftkyfpk0if eKdifiHrsm;rS ukþ%D}uD;rsm; jrefrm
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r}umao;rSDu rm'g*ufpum; MADAGASCAR
eKdifiHwGif ppfwyfu tm%modrf;jyD; touf
34-ESpfom&Sdao;wJh tJef'&D&m*sKdatvDem- ukd

*************************************************************************** ***********************************************
rwfv (25) 2009 ckepS f

5

March ,25, 2009

Issue 3 – trSwfpOf 6
ygvrD ef'rD dkua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************************

oRwtjzpf wifajrSmufvkdufygonf/ okd@aomf
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tawmfrsm;rsm; Y eKdifiHacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;ESpf
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axmuftulay;aom tjcm;ynma&; bmom

*************************************************************************** ***********************************************
rwfv (25) 2009 ckepS f

6

March ,25, 2009

Issue 3 – trSwfpOf 6
ygvrD ef'rD dkua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************************

&yfrsm;ay:aygufvmcJh&onf/ vlom;wkd@tawG;
tac:rsm; zGH@jzKd;vmcJh&m eKdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&;wGif
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jzifh tm%m&Sif qefrSKrsm;ukd xdrf;csKyfeKdif&ef
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SUCH AS LAND,LABOR,CAPITAL-

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yPnf;rsm;ukd xkdif;eKdifiHESifh w&kyfeKdfifiHrsm;okd@

*************************************************************************** ***********************************************
rwfv (25) 2009 ckepS f

7

March ,25, 2009

Issue 3 – trSwfpOf 6
ygvrD ef'rD dkua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************************

arSmifckda&mif;cs&aom
tqifhokdha&mufcJhjyD;
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raumufcHeKdifawmhay/ e,fpyfarSmifckdaps;onf
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t"duct%f; u¾rS ae&m,lxm;a}umifhT

*************************************************************************** ***********************************************
rwfv (25) 2009 ckepS f

8

March ,25, 2009

Issue 3 – trSwfpOf 6
ygvrD ef'rD dkua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************************

vlrSKa&; ynmESifh eKdifiHa&; ynmonfvnf;/
J Jtvif;a&mifESifh t&dyfyrm[k qkd&ayrnf/

jynfolvlxkbufwGif ppftkyfcsKyfa&; vuf
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pHepfwus oif,lxm;}ujyD; pHepfwusvkyf yk~Kdvfrsm;/ tcsdefumv tykdif;tjcm;tp&Sdaom
aqmifeKdif}uojzifh ppftkyfcsKyfa&; ESpfaygif;av; tcsufrsm;rSm txl;vSsKd@0SufrSKtjynfhjzifh&SKyfaxG;
q,fausmf}umjrifhvmcJhonfu txift&Sm; eufeJ cef;em;}uD;us,f rSKukd zefwnf;xm;
jyoaeygonf/
ayonf?
*************************************************************************** ***********************************************
rwfv (25) 2009 ckepS f

9

March ,25, 2009

Issue 3 – trSwfpOf 6
ygvrD ef'rD dkua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************************

ykdIxl;jcm;aomtcsufrSm-Ak<bmom/
c&pf,efbmom tPvrfbmom wkd@uJhokd@wql
wnf;aom bk&m;ESifh 4if;bk&m;. ynwfawmf
rsm;[lI tpDtpOf r&SdbJ bk&m;aygif;pkHyg0ifjyD;
bmoma&;qkdif&m "R usrf;rsm;ukd bk&m;.
om0u rsm; okd@r[kwf wrefawmfrsm;u xdrf;
a}umif;vrf;n$efrSK r&SdbJ bmoma&;qkdif&m
ya&mzuf okd@r[kwf yka&m[dwfrsm;u rdrdwkd@
todynmtm;oef&m ukd bmoma&;ynwf
awmfrsm;tjzpf jyXmef; tokH;jyKcJh}uayonf?
xkda}umifh [düLbmomwGif bmom
a&; pwifwnfaxmifol r&Sdaomfvnf; tod
ynm&Sifrsm;/ uAsmvuFmynm&Sifrsm; trsKd;rsKd;
yg0ifvmcJhjyD; rdrdwkd@tawG; tac:rsm;ESifh
a&S;a[mif;rlrsm; a&mpyfjyD; bmoma&; usrf;
aygif;rsm;pGm xGef;um;cJhayonf/
[düLbmom. orkdif;a}umif;tprSm
tvGefa&S;usvSaom tcsdefu tm&Stv,fykdif;
a'owGif- INDO-ARYAN- ac: vlrsKd;pk wpkrS
qif;oufvmjcif;jzpfonf/ 4if;vlrsKd;pkonf tkyf
pk okH;pkcGJI e,fajropf&SmazG&ef cGJcGgoGm;cJh}u&m
tkyfpkwpkrSm Oa&mya'o bufokd@ a&muf&SdcJhjyD;
,ckrsufarSmufacwf Oa&my vlrsKd;rsm; jzpfvmcJh
onf/ 'kwd, tkyfpkrSm tD&ef-tD&wf a'orsm;
okd@a&muf&SdcJh}uonf/ wwd, tkyfpkrSm tdüd,
eKdifiHbufokd@ a&muf&SdcJh}ujyD; a'ocH vlrsKd;rsm;
jzpfaom rdvQ tkyfpkrsm;ESifh aygif;pnf;oGm;
}uonf?
tdüd, a'ocHrsm;xuf -INDO-ARYAN- tkyfpkrsm;u ,Ofa}u;rSK tqifh
ykdIjrifh}ujyD; todynmykdif;qkdif&mwGifvnf; ykdI
xl;cGsef}uayonf/. xkdrSsru 4if;wkd@ukd,fykdif
,kH}unfukd;uG,f aom bmoma&;vnf; yl;wGJ
yg&Sdvm}uonf/ 4if; -INDO-ARYAN- tkyfpkrsm;
ukd;uG,faom ewfbk&m;rSm-4-yg;yg&Sdonf?
4if; bk&m; -4-yg;rSm?
(1) jA[Rmrif; -uBm}uD;ESifhwuG ouf&Sdouf

oufrJhrsm;ukd zefqif;ol?
(2) pm0d}wDewfrif;(aeewfom;) tvif;a&mif
ESifhtyl"gwfukd ay;aomewfrif;?
(3) 0&k%fewfrif; (rkd;ewfom;) tat;"gwfESifh
pkdajyjcif;ukd ay;aom ewfrif;/
(4) ,r-,rrif;-aorif;/ aojcif;w&m;ukd ykdifqkdifol/
Tewfrif;okdhr[kwf ewfbk&m;av;yg;onf/
tp ueOD; -INDO-ARYAN- wkd@,kH}unfaom

bk&m;rsm;jzpf}uonf/
tif'kd-tm&,ef tkyfpkrsm;ESifh tdüd,rdvQrsm;
twlwuGaexkdifvmcJh }u&mwGif tif'kd-tm&
,ef/ tkyfpkrsm;u tkyfcsKyfolrsm; jzpfvmcJh}u
onf/ rnfokd@yifqkdap tdüd, wkdif;&if;om;rsm;
wGif vnf;4if;wkd@ukd,fykdif ,kH}unfaom bk&m;
wql&SdcJhayonf/ 4if;bk&m;rSm J JtwfceD J Jac:
rD;ewfrif;jzpfonf?
tif'kd-tm&,ef tkyfpkrsm;onf/ tkyf
csKyfolrsm;jzpfaoma}umifh 4if;wkd@ukd;uG,faom
ewfbk&m;-4-yg;rSm vnf; bk&m;}uD; -4-yg;
jzpfvmjyD; rdvQ- wkd@ukd;uG,faom-twfceDbk&m;rSm/ bk&m;}uD; -4-yg;. tvkyfta}uG;
bk&m; tjzpfokd@a&muf&SdcJh&onf/ okd@aomfvnf;
tkyfcsKyfcH vlrsKd;pk rdvQrsm;u qef@usif
uefhuGufrSK r&Sd }ubJ vQHcJh}uayonf/
tif'kd-tm&,ef wkd@. bk&m;}uD;
av;qlwGif aemufykdif;umvrsm;Y jA[Rm rif;
}uD;rSm t}uD;qkH; bk&m;rif;}uD;jzpfvmcJhonf?
(rSwfcsuf tdüd, wkdif;&if;om; rdvQ rsm; ukd;

uG,faom twfceD rD;ewfom;rSm tpykdif;wGif
az:jycJhbl;jyD;jzpfaom Zkd&kdtwfpwm; bmomrS
vmaom bk&m;jzpfonf/ 4if;bmomtm; yg&pD
ac: vlrsKd;pkrsm; ukd;uG,faom bmomjzpfonf)
4if;jA[Rme 0g'ac: - BRAHMA0g' jyefhygG;cJhjyD;aemufykdif;wGif tdüd,eKdifiHY Ak<r a*gwr- bk&m;ay:aygufvmcJh&mrS
jA[Rme 0g' ukd;uG,folrsm; Ak< bmomokd@
tawmfrsm;rsm; ul;ajymif;oGm;}uonf/
Ak< bk&m;ay:aygufawmfrljyD; aemuf ESpfaygif;

*************************************************************************** ***********************************************
rwfv (25) 2009 ckepS f

10

March ,25, 2009

Issue 3 – trSwfpOf 6
ygvrD ef'rD dkua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************************

-500-cef@}umvmaomtcg Ak<bmom tpGrf;
ukef wkd;wufus,fjyef@aom tqifhokd@a&mufcJh
onf/ xkda}umifh ae&mwckwGif bmomt,l0g'
ESpfrsKd;pvkH; wjyKdifwnf; wkd;wufaom ed,mr
r&Sdojzifh Ak<0g' wufvSsif jA[Rme 0g' edrfhuscJh
avonf/ xkdtcsdefrSpI jA[Rme [düL0g' bm
oma&; twGuf enf;vrf;&Sm}u&awmhonf/
xkda}umifh Ak<bk&m; ryGifhawmfrlrSD
umvrS Ak<bk&m; y&dedŠmef pHvGefjyD;aom
aemufykdif;umvrsm;wGif tdüd, eKdifiHtwGif;
&SdorSsaom ynm&Sif wkdh. tqkdtrdef@rsm;usrf;*efrsm;/ tm;vkH;ukd pkaqmif;jyD; rnfol@
t,ltq rnfol@0g'ukdrSs rqef@usifbJ tm;vkH;
ukdvQHcJhonf/?
xkduJhokd@ vQHodrf;oGif; xm;ojzifh
jA[Rm% [düLusrf;rsm;wGif vlwkd@. vkyfief;
aqmifwmrsm;ESifh ygwfoufI vkdufem&rnfh
tpOftvmrsm;/vl@usifh0wfqkdif&meDwdusrf;rsm;
ukd;uG,faom bk&m;rsm;ESifh ygwfoufaom
usifhxkH;rsm;/ ukd;uG,frSKenf;ykHpHrsm;/ cufcJaom
usifhpOfjzpfonf/ 'kU& p&d,m usifhpOfrsm;/
a,m*DusifhpOfrsm;/ tm&kHig;yg;ukd tpGrf;ukef
cHpm;eKdifaom umr oSs}w usrf;rsm;/ tbd"Rm
qkdif&m eufeJ cufcJaom "Rrsm;/ pdwfykdif;qkdif&m
awG;awm }uHqrSK usrf;rsm;/ tp&Sdonftm;jzifh
enf;ynmaygif;pkHyg0ifa&maESmaeayonf/
xkda}umifh [düLbmomonf/ bm
oma&; nGefhaygif;usrf;}uD;wyk'fESifhwljyD; vlom;
wkd@. qütavsmuf ukd;uG,fvkdaombk&m;rsm;
usifhpOf enf;vrf;rsm;/ tm;vkH;ukd awG@&rnfjzpf
onf/ aemufqkH; Ak<a*gwr onfyif [düLbk&m;
wql tjzpf owfrSwfjcif;cHvkduf&avonf?
[düLwkd@. rlv bk&m;}uD; av;
qlta}umif; wifjycJhjyD; jzpfaomfvnf;acwfum
v }umjrifh vmaomtcg -}wDrl&wd-ac:
bk&m;rif;}uD; -3-yg;[k ajymif;vJay:xGef;cJhjyef
onf/ 4if;bk&m;rif;}uD; -3-yg;wkd@wGif rdrdwkd@

}uKdufESpfouf ,kH}unf&m bk&m;ukd t"duxm;
I ukd;uG,fvm}ujyD; rdrdwkd@ ukd;uG,faom
bk&m;onf/ wefckd;t}uD;qkH; [k owfrSwf,lq
}ujyefonf?
}wdrl&wd-bk&m;rif;}uD;-3-yg;rSm/
(1) BRAHMA- r[mjA[Rm}uD;/
(2) VISHNU- 0d&SeK
(3) SHIVA- od0-bk&m;wkd@jzpfa}umif;
[düLbmom0ifrsm;/ 4if;bk&m;rif;}uD;-3-yg;
tay: rdrdwkd@,kH}unf&m bk&m;ukd wefckd;t}uD;
qkH;[ktkyfpkcGJ ukd;uG,f}uojzifh[düLbmom
a&; q&m}uD;rsm;onf4if;wkd@. bmoma&;
uGJjyJrSKrjzpfay:ap&ef 4if; bk&m;rif;}uD;-3yg;ukd }wdrl&wd-[kowfrSwfay;jcif;ESifhtwl
4if;bk&m;rif;}uD;okH;yg;.wm0ef0W&m;rsm;ukdyg
cGJjcm;ay;vkduf&kHrubk&m;uawmf}uD;rsm;ukdyif
&SmazGwifajrSmufvkduf}uao;onf?
xkda}umifh4if;bk&m;}uD;rsm;tm;wm0efay;
xm;ykHrSm
(1) BRAHMA- r[mjA[Rm}uD;onf
uBmavmu}uD;ESifh wuGouf&Sd oufrJh
rsm;ukdzefwnf;ay;aom zefqif;&Sif}uD;jzpf&kHru
ewfa'0g rsm;ukd vnf;zefqif;a}umif;/ tpue
OD;ykdif;wGif 4ifzefqif;&Sif jA[Rm}uD;onf ykHyef;
o ¾efr&Sd rnfolrSsjrifeKdifpGrf;r&Sd xkda}umifh
bmom0ifrsm;u r[mjA[Rm}uD;tm;
ukd;uG,fylaZmfrSK rjyK}uajc/ xkda}umifh[düLbm
oma&;q&m}uD;rsm;u 4if;wkd@.
r[mjA[Rm }uD;ukd yDjyifatmif o&kyfaz:}u
&avonf/ 4if;topfjzpfay:vmaom r[m

*************************************************************************** ***********************************************
rwfv (25) 2009 ckepS f

11

March ,25, 2009

Issue 3 – trSwfpOf 6
ygvrD ef'rD dkua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************************

jA[Rm}uD;onf
t&yfav;rsufESm ukd
jrifeKdifaom tpGrf;&Sdonf[k t"d`g,f az:aom
tm;jzifh jA[Rm}uD;. &kyfxkrsm;wGif rsufESm
av;bufxkvkyfxm;ayonf/ 4if;tjyif p}uFm
0Vm ESifhwuG yx0D tmayg awaZm 0ga,m
[kqkdtyfaom "gwf}uD; av;yg;wGif wnf&Sd.
rnfonfh ae&mwGif wnf&Sdonfukd n$efjyI
r&eKdifatmif t&m&m wkdif;Y wnf&Sdav. /
wkdif;wmIr&aom/ }urf;wrf;rSK odrfarG@rSKukd
vnf;prf;oyfI r&aom/ twkd t&Snfukdvnf;
az:jyI r&aom tqif;teHhvnf;uif;aom
ta&miftqif;toHvnf;r&Sdaom ewfrif;}uD;
okd@r[kwf xm0&bk&m;}uD;jzpfa}umif;?
r[mjA[Rm}uD;wGif
ol&±0wD
trnf&Sd
}uif,mawmf &Sda}umif;
r[mjA[Rm }uD;.}uif,mawmf ol&±0wD
onf/ tajymtqkd todynm-twwfynm'l&d,m- toDtqkd tckeftu- tp&Sdaom
ynm&yfrsm;tm;vkH; ukd apmifha&Smufaom
ewfa'0djzpff.?
(2) 'kwd, bk&m;jzpfaom - VISHNU- 0d&SeK
bk&m;. wm0ef0W&m;rSm uBm}uD;tm;apmifh
a&Smufoljzpf. r[mjA[Rm}uD;zefqif;vkduf
aomuBm}uD;ukd 0d&SEk u xdrf;odrf;
apmifha&Smuf&./ vlom;taygif;wkd@tm;csrf;om
okc trsKd;rsKd;ESifh r*Fvm}uufoa& rsm;ukd
ay;a0wwf./ xkda}umifhvnf; - VISHNU- 0d&eS K
bk&m;tm; vlom;wkd@txl; cspfcifjrwfeKd;}u.
Tbk&m;onf vlwkd@. todnm%f ynm wkd;
wufrSK-,Ofaus;odrfarG@rSK- rw&m;rSKukd y,f
zsufI w&m;rSK vGrf;rkd;us,fjyef@a&;aqmif&Guf
rSKwkd@ukd wm0ef,l. /
0dpEk bk&m;. }uif,mawmfum; vcsrD;[k emr
awm&Sd./
rnfokdhyifqkdap VISHNU- 0d&SeK bk&m;onf
uBmavmu}uD;tm; apmifha&Smufa&;wGif
rdrdukd,fwkdif wkduf&kdufyg0if ygwfoufjcif;rjyKbJ

-t0wm&-ac:toGiftrsKd;rsKd;jzifh
vl@avmuokdha&muf&SdvmcJhjyD; okd@r[kwf vl0if
pm;toGifjzifh a&muf&SdvmjyD; vl@avmu}uD;
tm;apmifha&SmufcJhonf[k qkd./ xkdt0wm&
toGifajymif;bk&m;wkd@wGif tus,ftm;jzifh24-yg;&SdjyD; tusOf;tm;jzifh -10-&Sda}umif;
[düL usrf;rm;ujyqkd. 4if;wkd@teuf-10-ql
aom t0wm& bk&m;rsm;rSm/-(1) r>t0wm&
(2) ul&rm t0wm&
(3) 0&m[ t0wm& (4)e&od H[ t0wm&
(5) 0gre t0wm& (6) y& ok&mrt0wm&
(7) &mr t0wm& (8) u&oSs % t0wm&
(9) Ak< t0wm& (10) umvbD, t0wm&
(1) r> t0wm& onf uBm}uD;tm;
a&v$rf;rkd;aoma}umifh reL& trnf&Sd &aoh}uD;
tm;ulnDapmifha&Smuf&ef -ig;-toGifjzifh
a&muf&Sdvmaom 0dpEk bk&m;yifjzpfa}umif;/
(2) ul&rm t0wm&rSm vdyftoGifjzifh a&muf
&Sdvmaom 0dpEk bk&m;yifjzpfonf/ wcsdefaom
tcgu ewfrif;}uD; wyg;onf r[morkN&m
tm;a& 0J*,ufjzpfatmif ar$aESmufaom
a}umifh rü& awmif}uD; rjyKdvJatmif umuG,f
ay;&ef a&muf&SdcJha}umif;/
(3) 0&m[ t0wm& rSm awm0uftoGifjzifh
a&muf&Sdvmaom 0dpEk bk&m;jzpfjyD; wcsdefaom
tcgu [d&n bDvl;}uD;onf ol. wefckd;jzifh
uBmajr}uD;tm; r[morkN&mxJokd@ zdI
ESpfjrSKyf&ef}uKd;pm;rSKtm; umuG,f&ef a&muf&Sd
cJha}umif;/ 0&m[ awm0uf}uD;onf ol.}uD;
rm;vSaom tm;tifjzifh [d&n bDvl;}uD;tm;
wkdufckdufatmifjrifcJh ojzifh uBm}uD;onf/
r[morkN&m}uD;xJ rjrKyfoGm;&jcif;jzpfa}umif;/
(4) e&od H [ t0wm& rSm jcaoFhOD;acgif;ESifh
vlcýmukd,f&Sdaom 0dpEk bk&m;jzpfjyD; uBm}uD;
tm; orkN&ma&xJ ESpfjrSKyf&ef }uKd;pm;cJhaom
[d &n bDvl;}uD;tm; 0&m[ awm0uf}uD;
toGifjzifh ESdrfeif;vkdufaomfvnf; [d&n

*************************************************************************** ***********************************************
rwfv (25) 2009 ckepS f

12

March ,25, 2009

Issue 3 – trSwfpOf 6
ygvrD ef'rD dkua&pDygwD owif;pmapmif
****************************************************************************************************************************

bDvl; }uD;onf 0dpEk bk&m;tm; tnhH rcH
t&SKH;ray;ao;bJ vlom;rsm;tm; 0dpEk bk&m;
tm;-14-uBmwkdifrukd;uG,f&[k wm;jrpfaom
a}umifh4if; rd&n bDvl;}uD;tm; ESdrfeif;&ef
e&od H [ ac:vlwykdif; jcaoFh wykdif; toGifjzifh
a&muf&SdcJh&jcif;jzpfa}umif; ,if;uJhokdh vlom;
wykdif; jcaoFhwykdif; toGifjzifhvm&jcif;rSmvnf;
[d&n bDvl;}uD;tm; 4if; rEk±D[ toGifjzifh
om tqkH;pD&if eKdifrnf
jzpfaoma}umifhjzpfa}umif;?
(5) 0gre t0wm&rSm vlykav;toGif jzifh
a&muf&Sdvmaom 0dpEk bk&m;yifjzpfa}umif;/
wcsdefaomtcg wm0wd H omewfjynftm;
bmvDtrnf&Sd tol&u,f ewfrif;}uD; wyg;u
0ifa&mufodrf;ykdufjyD; tjcm;ewfolewfom;rsm;
tm;armif;xkwfvkdufaoma}umifh xkdwm0wd H
omewfjynftm; jyefvnfodrf;ykduf&ef a&muf&Sd
vmjcif;jzpfa}umif;/ xkdyGJwGif bmvD tol&
u,f ewfrif;onfvnf; tusifhodQm
jrifhjrwfoljzpfaoma}umifh 0dpEk bk&m;onf
t}urf;rbufvkdojzifh ukd,fxnfao;aom
olawmfpOf 0gre toGifjzifh a&muf&SdcJhjcif;jzpf
a}umif;/ xkda}umifh 4if;bmvD tol&u,fewf
rif;tm; ynm ykdif;jzifh teKdif,lvkdufjyD;&SKH;ok
bmvDtm;rowfbJ
jynfESif'%fay;vkdufa}umif;?
(6) y&ol&mr rSm jA[R% teG,f0ifwa,muf
toGifjzifh a&mufvmaom 0dpEk bk&m;jzpf
a}umif;/ wcsdefaomtcgu weKdifiHtkyfcsKyf
aom rif;wkd@onf w&m;"R&Sd jAr%teG,f
wkd@tm; trsKd;jzKwfESdrfeif;aom a}umifh y&ol&m
r jAr% ykÀm;toGif jzifha&mufvmjcif;jzpf
a}umif;/ y&ol&mr ykÀm;onf 4if;rif;wkd@tm;
wkdufckdufESdrfeif;I jAr% trsKd;eG,fwkd@tm;u,f
q,fcJhjcif; jzpfa}umif;?
a&S@tygwfwGif qufvufaz:jyygrnf?

armfpDwkH; enf;AsL[mrsm;/
AkdvfjrifhaqG (jynfcspf)wifjyonf/
J J vkdcsif&if t&ifay;yg J J Tenf;AsL[mrSm
armfpdwkH;. trSwf -6-enf;AsL[mjzpfygonf/
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wyfjyD; ig;taumif}uD; zrf;aom enf;yifjzpfyg
onf?
armfpDwkH; onf ol@vufatmufwGif }uD;rm;
ckdifcef@x,f0gaom wyfr[m}uD;r&Sdao;aom
tcsdefu awmolawmifom;v,f,m
ukdif;uGsef;vkyfukdifolrsm;ESifh &if;ESD;atmifaexkdif
cJhjyD; wyfpk wyfpdyf cav;rsm; pwifzGJ@&aom
tcsdefu jzpfygonf/ /
taumif}uD;}uD; vkdcsif&if taumifao;ao;
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onf/ Tenf;AsL[monf aysmufusm;ppfqif
a&;pHepfwGif tvG,fqkH;enf;jzpfjyD; &efoklukd
txdemapaom AsL[mw&yfjzpfygonf/
okd@aomfvnf; Tenf;AsL[mwGif ukd,fhwyf
om;rsm;tay: &ufpuf&m t}uifemrJh&m
a&mufaomenf;AsL[mw&yfwnf;jzpfayonf/
ta}umif;rsm ig;}uD;twGuf ig;pmtjzpftjycH
&olrsm;onf txl; tœ&,f rsm;jym;jyD;wcg
w&H pGef@v$wf&aom tajctae okd@a&mufeKdif
aoma}umifh jzpfygonf/ okd@aomfvnf;wkdufckduf
a&;wGif pGef@v$wfrSK rygbJ teKdif&eKdifpGrf;aom
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jcif;onf ed,mr w&m;om jzpfjyD; ppfxGufjyD
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eyfygavjyD?
Tenf;AsL[m. tpykdif;wGif aoqkH;jyD;
jzpfaom rdrdwkd@bufrS &Jabmf. tavmif;/okd@
r[kwf aocgenf; taetxm;wGif &Sdaom

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&Jabmf.tavmif;wGif vufypfAkH;ukd yifjzKwfjyD;
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tm;wu,fao rao ppfaq;&ef vSefvkduf
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ao}u '%f&m&apaom enf;yifjzpfonf?
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csnfI ta0;rS qGJjcif;tm;jzifh AkH;xnfhxm;vSsif
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}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}

PDP
GHQ (Liberated Area)
E-mail: pdp_office@yahoo.com,
Webpage: www.pdpburma.net,

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ygvDref'Drkdua&pDygwD

applying coercion and arbitrary rule without any

PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY PARTY
GHQ (Liberated Area)
- Burma –

Many demonstrations have taken place since the

Date: 2nd March, 2009.
THE 47TH ANNIVERSARY OF MILITARY
COUP IN BURMA

WHO WE HAVE TO BLAME?

On 2nd March 1962, General Ne Win led an army
coup d-etat in Burma and forcefully introduced
‘military rule’ in the whole country. It was the
beginning of the period, when Burma lost its
freedom, independence, Human Rights and the
of

Law.

The

U

Nu’s

army took power, and thousands of people were
killed during General Ne Win’s regime, which
lasted until 8-8-88, when the people of Burma
took to the streets, demonstrated demanding
democracy and ended his rule.

A PDP ANALYSIS:

Rule

restraint.

democratic

government, which had won a landslide during
the 1960 General Election, was forced out of
power and most of the leaders of the government
and opposition parties were put behind bars.
Many died in the prison and until now, we do not
know the detailed events, in prison and the plight

General Ne Win gradually disappeared from the
political scene and the current military regime
and its leaders such as Gen.Saw Maung,
Gen.Khin Nyunt, and Sec.Gen.Than Shwe are
trying to sell to the people a mirage of democracy
based on their Constitution, in which the military
will retain power forever. The only difference is,
the NLD led by DASSK became popular in
politics, after the General Election was held in
1990. They were not only popular inside Burma,
but also worldwide, as the circumstances
favoured them, not because of achievement but
of new hope.

of many detainees, as the military regime is still

Many Burma industries in the West and many

running the country since then.

project earners, around the Burma borders or

The army generals became notorious in the
country, and wielded their power by arresting,
intimidation, summary killing and imprisoning
people who opposed them. Because of their

around the world, emerged and they are the ones,
who shouted loudly while staying in their cosy
dwellings, and while the roles of others who are
really engaging in resistance, are ignored.

brutality, the army’s image has been tarnished

The information the West and the UN got from

since then. The people of Burma never expected

these people was and is misleading and wrong,

that the Burma army, whose origin was founded

as these people are not the resistance fighters, but

by our hero General Aung San, would treat them

the project earners. That is the way, the West and

with such cruelty. But the army did not and has

the UN made a fatal mistake in the case of

not changed its tactic or behaviour up to now of

Burma, in encouraging the NLD to believe that it
was and still is entitled to form the next

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government 20 years after it won the 1990

of Law through armed resistance, and to

General Election. This has been the greatest

remove the army from power, does not

mistake the West and the UN have made in

exist. But it is the only credible political

encouraging dictatorship tendencies in the NLD.

party in Burma. The NLD party has no

The West and the UN know a General Election

more mandate to form the government

Mandate is not permanent, but ha a finite period

and the military regime knows this,

4 years in the case of Burma.

which is why, it does not pay any
attention to the UN’s proposals.

If we analyse the weaknesses produced by the
West’s and UN’s unrealistic policies in the

3. The more the UN and the West give

struggle for reintroducing democracy in Burma,

pressure to the SPDC regime in favour

we can see the average weaknesses as follows:

of the lady and the NLD, the SPDC
regime

1. The UN gave the impression that it could
send

the

UN

troops

to

by

power

by

giving

them

heavy

long

of her house arrest.

reconciliation, between the military

4. The support given by the UN and the

regime and the lady, which is one of the

West can be seen as not teaching

latest strategy applied by the UN. But

democracy to the people of Burma, but

the military regime would not respond

introducing autocracy in Burma, as it

to it, Sec. General. Than Shwe would
Mr.Gambari,

its

imprisonments or extending the length

2. The UN is asking for dialogue for

meet

shows

suppressing the lady and her members

restore

democracy in Burma.

not

also

the

will lack legitimacy just as SPDC does.

UN

Why should the SPDC give up power to

representative. The UN’s latest approach

the

is an outdated strategy and Burmese

NLD

an

unelected

and

unrepresentative party?

military regime does not need to pay
any attention. But, the interesting thing

5. NLD made a late, outdated move of the

is, without formulating a new solution,

‘Credential Challenge’, which should

the UN still holds to this failed strategy.

have been done only within 4 years of

Why? Because, they are biased, because

its winning the General Election in

they pretend that, only one political

1990.

party the NLD exists in Burma, which is

6. Some Western countries can be seen

patently false. The UN pretends that the

giving the impression that they could

PDP the oldest political Party in Burma,

send ‘Willing troops’ to help restore

founded in 1970 by ex-Prime Minister U

democracy in Burma and put the lady in

Nu to restore democracy and the Rule

power. To the military, this is totally

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unacceptable and they will fight to the

cannot lead or restore democracy in

death. It is inconceivable that the SPDC

Burma.

and its military mindset and nationalist

11. While other revolutionary groups were

ethos, would ever accept willingly

fighting against the military regime with

the leadership of Daw Aung San Suu

their pocket money, the NLD leaders are

Kyi.

earning salaries, saving money at their
7. The NCGUB is an opportunist group,

banks and flying around the world, busy

incapable of political leadership, for 20

attending meetings, although produce

years has wasted political opportunities

zero achievements.

to gain support.

12. While people of Burma are asking for

8. 8-8-88 groups gave impression that, they

democracy, fighting for democracy, by

were the heroes who toppled the

giving their own lives, the NLD group,

General Ne Win’s regime and they are

which is now in a terminal condition is

the one who will be able to kick out the

claiming an Election Mandate, without

military regime in Burma. They should

producing any achievement for twenty

be educated to be humble and welcome

years or submitting itself to a new

to the other batches.

General Election.

9. 8-8-88 groups can be seen not paying

13. When Mr.Gambari talk in favour of

respect to the elder generation who are

2010 General election, while he was

still fighting for democracy, but they

visiting Japan in the middle of February

want to erase the contribution of the

2009, some Burmese view that, he

elder generation from the history of

should resign from his post as the UN

Burma. Their attitude shows that they

representative for Burma. Although they

are narrow minded groups and they

do not like Mr.Gambari for what he said

should be educated to analyse the

in Japan, even if the UN assigns another

political situation of Burma with broad

best

minds, which will help enhance the

representative for Burma, that person

image of the people of Burma.

would not be able to fine tune any

political

mandarin

as

its

effective solution for Burma.

10. The UN made numbers of resolutions

14. We

with the impression that the NLD will

believe

that,

successive

UN

be the only one which can lead and

approach

restore democracy in Burma. They are

misguided,

now beginning to realise that the NLD

celebrity politics and the personality cult

on

Burma

because,

have
it

been

accepted

of one individual and one party. It

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accepted the political fiction that the

a historical benchmark of the continuity

NLD’s term of office was indefinite, as

and factual historical events, unlike the

this is the logic of its General Election

historical fraud peddled by the NLD and

1990 Mandate after 20 years. The PDP

its supporters. The only way the UN can

is concerned that, the UN has been

play a constructive role in Burma is, to

responsible for the falsification of the

abandon its misguided attempt to try to

true history of Burma by its readiness to

choose a leader and a party to govern

embrace the untruthful suggestion that,

Burma. This is against the UN Charter.

Burmese political history began in 1990
or

8-8-88.

As

a

result

of

15. So, during the occasion of the 47th

this,

Anniversary of military coup in Burma,

generations of Burmese do not know

the PDP has to present its analytical

their authentic political history from
British

Colonialism

through

assessment of the political situation in

the

Burma to the readers that, we need to

Independence struggle by the “Thirty

find another alternative approach. We

Comrades” led by General Aung San

must not despire in the struggle for

our hero and U Nu who led Burma in

restoring democracy in Burma. We must

1947 to regain Independence from the

not give in to the way the SPDC military

British. U Nu introduced Democracy to

regime is manipulating the political

Burma, the Rule of Law, freedom of

situation in Burma by force in their

speech and a liberal economy. U Nu’s

favour, monopolising power forever.

democratic government lasted for 14

Every citizen of Burma should oppose

years interspersed by General Elections,

the SPDC trend of 2010 General

which were free and fair. Certainly, the

Election. Every citizen of Burma should

SPDC’s General Election in 2010 will

prepare to continue to fight against the

not be fair nor free, because, the mindset
of

a

dictatorship

is

incapable

army rule even if the 2010 were to taken

of

place in Burma. The UN

introducing democracy, freedom and the
Rule of Law. Its authority is not based

should not encourage the SPDC regime nor the

on persuasion, but on coercion, arbitrary

people of Burma should give in.

action and intimidation. Ex-Premier U

world leaders, who are paying their times,

Nu’s legacy is still alive and strong in

concern, patient and effort for the people of

the PDP organisation he founded to

Burma. Central Committee

Solute to all

restore democracy and rid the country of
military rule and govern with the Rule
of Law. This is very important for those
born in 1988 and 1990, as it gives them

Parliamentary Democracy Party (Burma)
GHQ (Liberated Area)
E-mail: pdp_office@yahoo.com,
Web page: www.pdpburma.net,

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Date: 6th March,
2009.
Dear Sheyuli,
We appreciate your question “Will you take part
in the 2010 election if you were allowed to do
so? Please give the reason of “Yes or No”. This is
a very pertinent question, which political parties,
groups and the people of Burma of all
communities, who want democracy and freedom,
should ask themselves and discuss with friends,
about the General Election implications under a
military dictatorship.
The Parliamentary Democracy Party (PDP) has
discussed and considered this political fraud
about to be visited on the people of Burma by the
military regime, who wants to entrance
themselves and their families in power for the
indefinite future. The PDP is resolutely opposed
to this, because, it is a continuing affront to the
legacy of the “Thirty Comrades” led by Burma’s
hero General Aung San and his successor Prime
Minister U Nu, who brought Burma democracy,
freedom of speech, private enterprise and the
Rule of Law. Our members and many people of
Burma share these sentiments and want to end
military rule by negotiation, but the military
leaders are obstinate, the PDP is prepared to carry
out resistance by guerrilla methods. As we have
said many times before, our people are prepared
to pay the supreme price of life.
Why is the PDP taking this hard-line stance? Our
position is driven by our nationalist ethos, which
is committed to ending military dictatorship and
to restore democracy, freedom, a liberal economy
underpinned by the Rule of Law, in which all
communities, minority communities and the
majority Burman will have equal access to equal
opportunities in all the fields of endeavour,
including the highest political office. The PDP
opposes all kinds of discrimination based on
community origin, political affiliation, and
political party. Our living political anthem is
“One Country, One Nation, One People, One
Vision”.

Giving such a political creed, our overriding
objectives cannot be realised, if we were to be
co-opted by the SPDC regime, which we detest,
and are committed to removing it either by
negotiation or armed resistance. You will by now
have an idea, where the PDP stands with regard
to the General Election 2010, which we believe
will be manipulated and will not be fair. This is
because the dictatorship mindset is incapable of
restoring democracy and freedom. The PDP will
not participate in 2010 General Election
organised by army. We congratulate all those
who are boycotting this, the army run General
Election. We call upon all the people of Burma of
all communities, to have courage and confidence
by refusing to participate in a sham General
Election. The SPDC regime must understand
that, this defiance of the people’s will has serious
consequences for them, when the people win.
However, it is their choice.
Central Committee
Parliamentary Democracy Party (Burma)
GHQ (Liberated Area)
E-mail: pdp_office@yahoo.com,
Web page: www.pdpburma.net,
Dear PDP,
Will you take part in the 2010 election if
you were allowed to do so? Please give the
reason of your 'yes' or 'no'. Thank you.
Sheyuli325
Date: 8th March,
2009.
PDP REPLIES TO THE EMAIL OF
SHEYULI SENT ON 6-3-09
Dear Sheyuli,
It is an honour for us to receive your prompt
reply to our last email sent to you. Most of
all, the reason the PDP’s fighting against the
military regime, is, we want to reintroduce
democracy in Burma. In this connection, we
are on the way, writing a manual for

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democracy, which will be suitable for all
members of the public from Burma, to be
able to easily understand the meaning of
democracy.
People of Burma today definitely need to be
taught about democracy. But the military rule
prevents this and is an obstacle, which we
must remove from power. You may ask how
can we do this? Either by negotiation for the
military to give up power to civilians
voluntarily, or by armed guerrilla resistance.
The PDP accepts the implications of this
step, which is we must be prepared to die if
we want democracy and freedom. We
cannot depend on outside people to come to
liberate us.
When U Nu was running the country as the
Prime Minister, he introduced democracy in
the country successfully. The people of
Burma in those days enjoyed the democratic
rights, such as freedom of speech, freedom
of movement, fundamental Human Rights,
liberal economy underpinned by the Rule of
Law. General Elections held in those days
were free and fair too. Burmese citizens
would be seen managing their daily lives
happily with full confidence and peaceful
minds. The Government did not disturb their
fundamental
Human
Rights.
People
managed their daily lives efficiently. Social
welfare, Government sponsored Healthcare
system, administrative system, policing, the
role of the army, the role of the religion which
is Buddhist majority, were functioning
properly. The Government and private
industries sent their people to be trained
abroad. We had, Nylon textile industries,
Children bicycle factory, rubber products
production
factories,
pharmaceutical
industry, paper factory, and many others of
basis commodities production factories were
running successfully.
democratic
Particularly,
U
Nu
led
government, introduced a ‘Speaker Box’
inside the well-known park called ‘Ban-doo-

La Park’, in Rangoon. There, people could
criticise the government openly. The police
security was provided, to give protection to
those speakers, similar to the way ‘Hyde
Park Speaker’s Corner’ in London does.
In the case of Burma, although U Nu’s 14
years period as a democratic government,
laid down the foundation for democracy in
the country before the army made a coup
d’etat, but after the army took power,
democracy, freedom, the Rule of Law were
extinguished. For 47 years, the army
withheld fundamental Human Rights which
are the foundation stones of democracy,
from the people.
Because of the military has held power as a
dictatorship, it effects has been dire. Some
political leaders and their political parties are
still trying to claim the 1990 General Election
Mandate until now. It is sure that, they are
doing it, because, they do not understand or
follow the rules of a democratic system. It is
happening, because, they do not have
experience of how democracy works. This
experience has given the PDP to teach a
special subject for democracy in schools,
colleges and Universities, once after
democracy is restored in Burma.
The PDP has no personal animosity towards
the military as individuals or group, but as a
collective institution of dictatorship, we
detest, reject and condemns in the strongest
terms, the coercion, arbitrary brutality, and
violation and denial of people’s freedom, and
loss of democracy. Which is why, the PDP is
adamantly opposed to the so-called
Constitutional reforms drafted by the
dictatorship; because, the instinct of coercion
and arbitrary mindset cannot device
democratic procedures, let alone change
their minds to that of democrats. However,
having said this, the PDP is not seeking
revenge against the capital crimes, human
right violation, arbitrary arrest and heinous
crimes, because, we want to end the cycle of

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bloodshed
and
foster
a
reasoned
forgiveness. We believe that, this will help
channel the energies of all the communities
towards the major task of reconstruction of
Burma, in which all the communities will live
in security, peace and to rediscover the
many things that unite us. We want to
integrate all the energies of our people, so
as to build a new Burma with economic
prosperity, employment opportunities, as
well as business opportunities, education
and a primary health care. But this means
that, all of us will have to work hard in
farming, industry, factories and in selfemployment.
We want the military to be a National
Defence Force and not as an oppressor, and
from our contacts with the military, this is
what a substantial part of them want. They
want to be able to go to their villages not as
outcasts but as welcome sons and
daughters.
Another important aspect of the PDP’s
political approach is, inclusive by working
and cooperating with the different minority
communities of Burma and the Burman
majority in all fields of aspirations. This is
underpinned by our policy of equal access to
equal opportunities for all in all areas of
endeavour, without discrimination based on
colour, community origin, language or
gender. Also the PDP is strongly opposed to
xenophobia such as that meted out to the
Rohingyas. This political creed unites us with
all the communities of Burma in the political
and resistance struggle against military
dictatorship, and we believe that, it has given
us the strength to persuade the SPDC
regime to hand over power to civilians by
negotiation. If the regime resists this, the
PDP is prepared and ready to escalate
armed resistance until, with the support of
the people, defeat the military dictatorship.
For example, the PDP has been working and
cooperating closely with the Great General

Mya, the well loud Karen leader, in the
resistance against the SPDC regime since
1970, and also with other minority
communities of Burma. In 1994, when the
opportunity to form a Government in the
Liberated Area, the PDP chose the Great
General Mya for the post of President and
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi for the post of Prime
Minister. The international was ready to
recognise the such a Government. Sadly,
the NLD rejected this, because, they wanted
the post of President for Daw Aung San Suu
Kyi and the Finance Ministry for Dr.Sein Win.
We in the PDP do not mind the community of
origin of people, who occupy high political
offices. What is important is that the people
are competent to do the work. This political
approach is exemplified by our creed of ‘One
Country, One Nation, One People, One
Vision’.
So, your interest for ‘discussing about it
politically as well as philosophically but
critically, keeping the need for the
advancement of democracy in the core’ is
welcomed.
With regards,
Central Committee
Parliamentary Democracy Party (Burma)
GHQ (Liberated Area)
E-mail: pdp_office@yahoo.com,
Web page: www.pdpburma.net,
Dear PDP,
I am pleased with the feeling of being
honored as you kindly and promptly reply my
query.
If permitted I would like to discuss about it
politically as well as philosophically but
critically, keeping the need for the
advancement of democracy in the core.
Would you allow me to do so?
Thank you

Sheyuli325

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rwfv (25) 2009 ckepS f

21

March ,25, 2009

Bulletin

twGJ 3?trSwf 6 / 25 rwfv2009 ckeSpf?

www.pdpburma.net