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Hydrostatics

This chapter introduces some of the fundamental quantities involved in hydraulics, such as pressure, weight, force, mass density and relative density. It then considers the variation of pressure intensity with depth below the surface of a static liquid, and shows how the force on a submerged surface or body can be calculated. The principles outlined are used to calculate the hydrostatic forces on dams and lock gates, for example. These same principles are applied in Chapter 2 in connection with pressure measurement using piezometers and manometers, and in Chapter 3 to the analysis of ﬂoating bodies. Thus the sort of questions that are answered in this chapter are: What is meant by pressure? What is the difference between force and weight? What is the difference between mass and weight? How and why does pressure intensity vary with depth in a liquid? How can we calculate the pressure intensity at any depth? How can we calculate the force on a ﬂat immersed surface, such as the face of a dam? How can the hydrostatic force be calculated when the immersed surface is curved? Does hydrostatic pressure act equally in all directions, and if it does – why? How can the buoyancy force on a body be calculated? What do we do if the liquid is stratiﬁed with layers of different density?

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Understanding Hydraulics

1.1 Fundamentals 1.1.1 Understanding pressure and force

❝ Have you ever asked yourself why a trainer will not damage a soft wooden ﬂoor, but a stiletto heel will? ❞

The answer is because the average pressure, PAV, exerted on the ﬂoor is determined by the weight of the person, W, and the area of contact, A, between the sole of the shoe and the ﬂoor. Thus: PAV = W A

(1.1)

So, because a trainer has a ﬂat sole with a large area of contact, it exerts a relatively small pressure on the ﬂoor (Fig. 1.1). On the other hand, the sharp point of a stiletto means that much of the weight is transmitted to the ﬂoor over a small area, giving a large pressure. Similarly a drawing pin (or a ‘thumb tack’ in American) creates a large, penetrative pressure by concentrating a small applied force at a sharp point. I understand that, but can you now tell me what is the difference between weight and force?

❝

❞

The answer is basically ‘none’. Weight is simply one particular type of force, namely that resulting from gravitational attraction. So equation (1.1) can also be written as PAV = F/A, where F is the force. This can be rearranged to give: F = PAVA

(1.2)

The unit of force is the Newton (N), named after Sir Isaac Newton, so pressure has the units N/m2. A Newton is deﬁned as the force required to give a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/s2. Hence:

Figure 1.1 Illustration of the pressure exerted on a ﬂoor by two types of shoe. The stiletto is the more damaging because the weight is distributed over a small area, so giving a relatively large pressure

Hydrostatics

Force = mass ¥ acceleration F = Ma

3

(1.3)

where M represents mass and a is the acceleration. For weight, W, which is the force caused by the acceleration due to gravity, g, this becomes: Weight = mass ¥ gravity W = Mg On Earth, gravity, g, is usually taken as 9.81 m/s2.

(1.4)

**1.1.2 Understanding the difference between mass and weight
**

OK, so what is the essential difference between mass and weight, and why is it important?

❝

❞

It is important to have a clear understanding of the difference between mass and weight, because without it you will make mistakes in your calculations. The essential difference is that mass represents the amount of matter in a body, which is constant, so mass stays the same everywhere in the universe, while weight varies according to the local value of gravity since W = Mg (equation (1.4) and Fig. 1.2). So what is mass density and weight density What is meant by relative density? And how heavy is water?

❝

❞

(1.5)

Density, r, is the relationship between the mass, M, of a substance and its volume, V. Thus: r=M V

Figure 1.2 The concept of weight, which varies according to the local value of gravity

weight density can be expressed in several ways: w =W V or w = Mg V or w = rg (1.6 is just a shorter and more convenient way of writing this. to the density of fresh water.6)). it has no dimensions. both numerically and dimensionally.81 ¥ 103 N.7) where wS is the weight density of the substance. Box 1. Using equations (1. This can be thought of as the mass density of the water. otherwise the answer you obtain will be wrong. . the weight (W) per unit volume may be quoted. w (also called the speciﬁc weight). which is the weight density. Alternatively.6) Thus the weight density of fresh water is 1000 ¥ 9. r. rS. Quoting the relative density as 13. This is the ratio of the density of a substance.5). Thus every cubic metre weighs about the same as a large car. since it gives the mass per unit volume. For example.0 while mercury has a relative density of 13.6.4) and (1.6 ¥ 1000 kg/m3. Of course. water has a relative density of 1. the same value can be obtained by using the ratio of the weight densities (equation (1.2 Using relative density It is important to remember that s usually has to be multiplied by the density of water before it can be used in your calculations.81 N/m3. Figure 1.1 Remember It is important to realise that water is heavy! Each cubic metre of water weighs 9. s. Thus: s = rS r or s = wS w (1. Since s represents a ratio of the mass or weight of equal volumes of the two substances.4 Understanding Hydraulics Box 1. that is one tonne. For example. Another term you may come across is the relative density (or speciﬁc gravity) of a liquid. the density of mercury (rM) is 13. since g is the same for both substances.3 Illustration of the weight of water The density of fresh water (r) is 1000 kg/m3.

the force exerted on the large piston is F = PAVA (equation (1. 1. or on a lock gate. of course. Thus the jack acts as a kind of hydraulic ampliﬁer. ❞ The hydraulic jack uses two cylinders (Fig. or on the ﬂap gate at the end of a sewer. a small force. From equation (1. ❞ The term ‘hydrostatic’ means.1). one with a large cross-sectional area (CSA).4 A hydraulic jack. Also.1. so enabling a relatively heavy load to be raised . The hydraulic pressure that results from applying a small force to the small piston is transmitted to the large piston. F.3 An application of what you have learned so far – the hydraulic jack ❝ You may not realise it.2). Because A > a. so this means that the same pressure PAV acts over the whole cross-sectional area (A) of the large piston. f. 1. Now one of the properties of a liquid is that it transmits pressure equally in all directions (more of this later). and one with a small area. As a result.4). on a dam. a. but you now have a sufﬁcient understanding of hydrostatics to understand how a hydraulic jack works.Hydrostatics 5 1. A. the output force F > f. it can be seen that this generates a pressure in the liquid of PAV = f /a.2)). The water pressure must act at right angles to all surfaces with which the liquid comes into contact. since this would imply movement. then there would Figure 1. in a stationary liquid there can be no shear forces. This simple but extremely useful effect can be used to lift weights of many tonnes while applying only a relatively small force to the input end of the jack. is applied to the piston in the small cylinder.2 Hydrostatic pressure and force ❝ Now let us try to determine how we can work out the hydrostatic force. If the pressure acted at any other angle to the surface. By using a handle. or something similar. Consequently there are no viscous or frictional resistance forces to worry about (see section 4. that the liquid is not moving. even though the pressure of the liquid is the same.

or pressure intensity.81 m/s2).81 ¥ 103 ¥ d N/m2. every cubic metre of fresh water equals 1 tonne. Similarly.5 Typical examples of situations where the hydrostatic force may have to be calculated be a component of force along it which would cause the liquid to move. Imagine a large body of fresh water. Please can you now explain why a submarine can only dive to a certain depth.6 Understanding Hydraulics Figure 1. Now. Try thinking of it like this. so that the column is effectively separated into cubes with a volume of 1 m3. Therefore. OK. right? ❝ ❞ The weight of the water above the submarine causes the pressure. h. The pressure intensity increases with depth. But what causes the pressure.8) shows that there is a linear relationship between pressure. as in all those old war movies? ❝ ❞ The answer is quite simple. if the column of liquid has a total depth. suppose we draw horizontal lines at one metre intervals from the surface.81 ¥ 103 ¥ d N. if you were in the submarine you would want to know.6. at any depth. it can be seen that the pressure increases uniformly with depth. which is 9810 N (that is rg N with r = 1000 kg/m3 and g = 9. Remember. as in Fig. and how can you calculate what it is? After all. Beyond a certain depth the water pressure would crush the hull of the submarine. This pressure–depth relationship can be drawn graphically to obtain . d. Dividing this by 1 m2 to obtain the pressure on the base of the column gives 9. below the water surface the pressure is: P = r gh N m 2 (1. 1. This makes it quite easy to calculate the pressure. this component is zero when the pressure is normal to the surface since cos 90° = 0. and depth. Then consider a column of the liquid with a plan area of 1 m2 extending from the surface all the way to the bottom. so the pressure acts at 90° to the surface.8) Equation (1. Every cube weighs 9.81 ¥ 103 N. Since the pressure on the base of each of the cubes is equal to the weight of all the cubes above it divided by 1 m2 (PAV = W/A). then the total weight of all the cubes is 9. Hence in a static liquid the pressure acts at right angles to any surface. However. This fact comes in useful later.

or alternatively.Hydrostatics 7 Figure 1. to calculate the depth from a known pressure. The fact there is a precise relationship between pressure and depth forms the basis of many instruments that can be used to measure pressure.8) is very useful. which are described in Chapter 2. while equation (1. This diagram shows the pressure intensity on a vertical surface that is immersed in a static liquid and which has the same height. h. and is Figure 1. The arrows can be thought of as vectors: they are drawn at 90° to the surface indicating the direction in which the pressure acts. This is called the gauge pressure. Now one important point. such as manometers. a pressure intensity diagram is used to help visualise what is happening. 1.6 .7 only shows the pressure caused by the weight of the water. as the depth of water.8) provides the means to calculate the pressure intensity.6 Variation of pressure with depth a pressure intensity diagram like that in Fig. while the length of the arrow indicates the relative magnitude of the pressure intensity. When analysing a problem. Figure 1. 1. The relationship described by equation (1.7.7 A pressure intensity diagram corresponding to Fig. it can be used to calculate the pressure at any known depth.

Now try Self Test Question 1. you know how long a second is.3 = 2943 N/m2. if you need it. that is a ‘head’ of 10. such as in pipelines. So you may deduce that a Newton is a relatively small unit of force. that is it takes the pressure of the air around us as zero. Similarly. –rgh. parts of your body are being subjected to almost 3000 N/m2. Note also that if absolute pressure is used then the gauge pressure intensity diagram shown in Fig. because it is just over three feet in length. A short guide solution is given in Appendix 2.1. 1. This is a negative gauge pressure. note that under some circumstances. but equation (1. in fact you do not even notice.8 Understanding Hydraulics Box 1. that is about the equivalent of a bag of sugar.8). to the gauge pressure (Fig.1 Oil with a weight density. very small values where accuracy may be affected by rounding off). of 7850 N/m3 is contained in a vertically sided.2 lb.3 m of water). For future reference. that is the total pressure exerted by both the water and the atmosphere. SELF TEST QUESTION 1. Consequently in this book we will always use gauge pressures (unless stated otherwise). of course. as shown in Fig. or above sea level (ordnance datum).9.9) A good way to think of this is that you can measure the height of a table top either from the ﬂoor.81 ¥ 0.0 m long and 1.3 m high. PATM.3 m of fresh water you get P = 1000 ¥ 9.0 m wide. a pressure less than atmospheric may occur (Fig. For this reason it is frequently not worthwhile quoting a value to less than a Newton (the exception being if you are dealing with very. Thus the absolute pressure. 1. For convenience. the pressure most often used by engineers. is: PABS = r gh + PATM N m 2 (1. and.6 m. 1. (a) What is the gauge pressure on the bottom of the tank in N/m2? (b) What is the weight of the oil in the tank? . It does not cause any discomfort. wO. rectangular tank which is 2. we have to add atmospheric pressure. gauge pressure measures the pressure of the water relative to atmospheric pressure. Now in reality. But do you know how large or small a Newton is? If you use equation (1.9) is still valid. So every time you have a bath at home. You may also be aware that a kilogramme is about 2. it is more convenient to measure temperature above the freezing point of water than above absolute zero.8). The depth of oil in the tank is 0. 1. which is the most convenient way.8) to work out the pressure at a depth of 0.7 will have to have PATM added to it. So if we want to obtain the absolute pressure measured relative to an absolute vacuum.3 Visualising the size of units You can easily visualise a metre. PABS. the atmosphere exerts a pressure of about 101 ¥ 103 N/m2 on everything at sea level (this is equivalent to the pressure at the bottom of a column of water about 10.

1. Now if we multiply this by the area of the gate in contact with the water. First of all. that is the vertical depth to the centroid. the second thing we have to remember is that the pressure varies with depth.1 m. F: F = r g [(h1 + h2 ) 2] A (1. what is the pressure on the timber? 1. For the full derivation of equation (1. the depth to the centroid can be found from Table 1. vertical immersed surface How do you work out the force on something as a result of the hydrostatic pressure? Say. so that each piece of timber has an area of contact with the tank of 1. For geometrical shapes other than a rectangle. becomes: F = rghGA (1.11). we get the force. there are two thing to remember. something like a rectangular gate at the end of a sewer or culvert? ❝ ❞ OK. This depth is represented by hG. see Proof 1. F.3 Force on a plane (ﬂat). G. At the bottom of the gate the pressure is rgh2. (h1 + h2)/2 is the depth to the centre of the area. .1 in Appendix 1.9 Pressure intensity diagram including atmospheric pressure (c) If the bottom of the tank is resting not ﬂat on the ground but on two pieces of timber running the width of the tank. the pressure at the top of the gate is rgh1.1. of the immersed surface. so a force is a pressure multiplied by an area.11) This equation can be applied to surfaces of any shape. However.8 Relationship between gauge pressure and absolute pressure Figure 1.2) tells us that F = PAVA.Hydrostatics 9 Figure 1. so the expression for the resultant hydrostatic force. Hence the average pressure on the gate is PAV = (rgh1 + rgh2)/2.10) For a rectangle.0 m ¥ 0. So. on a vertical surface such as the gate in Fig. equation (1. A.10.

10 Understanding Hydraulics G G G Figure 1. From equation (1. For simple. F = average pressure intensity ¥ area of the immersed surface (A). since it reconciles what can appear to be different ways to solve a particular problem. Note that only the part of the pressure intensity diagram at the same depth as the gate contributes to the hydrostatic force acting on it Table 1. IG LD3/12 LD3/36 pR4/4 0. then equation (1. rg[(h1 + h2)/2]D and multiplying by the length of the gate. (b) front view. G D/2 from base D/3 from base centre of the circle 4R/3p from base Second moment of area.1102R4 Rectangle Triangle Circle Semicircle breadth L height D base length L height D radius R radius R The next paragraph can be helpful in some circumstances.11). This can sometimes provide a useful check that what you are doing is correct. you may omit it the ﬁrst time you read the chapter.10) can be written as F = rg[(h1 + h2)/2]DL.10 A vertical gate at the end of a sewer which discharges to a river. or if it confuses you. The same expression can be obtained by calculating the area of the trapezoidal pressure intensity diagram in contact with the gate. your best approach initially is usually to go straight to equation (1. . the average pressure intensity is (rgh1 + rgh2)/2. The gate hangs from a hinge at the top: (a) side view.1 Shape Geometrical properties of some simple ﬁgures Dimensions Location of the centroid. (c) pressure intensity diagram. 1. ﬂat surfaces like that in Fig. However.10). However. the resultant force. or a means of remembering the equation. L.10. If A = DL.

the greater the force. We will also use it later on when we progress to the force on inclined and curved immersed surfaces. there is a way of calculating where the resultant force acts. half way down? Above? Below? Can you deduce where it would be? I assume that there must be some way of working it out? ❞ G Figure 1. Consider the dam in Fig. The longer the arrows of the pressure intensity diagram.Hydrostatics 11 Box 1.4 Location of the resultant force on a vertical surface ❝ How do you know where the resultant force. the equation F = rghGA is the one to use. and normally you would work this out at the same time as the magnitude of the force itself. The resultant force on the dam is the result of the average pressure intensity acting over the area of the dam face in contact with the water. However. since the gauge pressure varies from zero (atmospheric pressure) at the surface to rgh at the bottom. 1. half way between the water surface and the bottom of the dam. The average pressure intensity on the dam is therefore (0 + rgh)/2 or rgh/2. let us try to deduce something about where the force must act. the greater the pressure. so I have put it in Appendix 1 (the second half of Proof 1. F. This pressure occurs at G. But where would the resultant force act? At G. In this case the pressure intensity diagram is triangular. vertical immersed surface. The larger the area of the pressure intensity diagram.11 Pressure intensity on a dam. though.1). .4 Remember Whenever you are faced with calculating the horizontal hydrostatic force on a plane. G is the centroid of the wetted area. Remember that A is the area of the immersed surface in contact with the liquid. acts? Yes. This simple equation can solve a lot of problems. 1. For the time being. P is the centre of pressure where the resultant force acts Think of it this way. You can go through it later if you want to. the proof is a bit complicated.11.

0 m high discharges to a river. 1. then the equation can be rearranged as (hP . (a) Calculate the pressure at the bottom of the gate.1. P. hG.10. of the surface in contact with the water.12) where the value in the brackets gives the vertical distance of P below the vertical depth to the centroid of the surface. The point. It hangs vertically with its top edge 1 m below the water surface.1 A rectangular gate is 2 m wide and 3 m high. SELF TEST QUESTION 1. 1. In many problems it is not obvious where P is located. is always below the centroid.5 Note that the centre of pressure. calculate the magnitude and location of the resultant hydrostatic force on the gate caused by the water in the river. The appropriate expression for the second moment of area calculated about an axis through the centroid. A is the surface area of the body. Thus (hP . IG. one involving the ﬂap gate at the end of a sewer and the other a lock gate.hG) = C/hG where C represents the value of the constants.10). 1. In fact. like that in Fig. P.1 and 1. Study these carefully and then try Self Test Question 1.2 (a short solution is given in Appendix 2).9 m above the top of the gate.8 m wide by 1. at which the resultant force acts is called the centre of pressure (Fig. For the triangular pressure intensity diagram in Fig. However. as the depth of immersion of the surface increases. If A and IG have constant values.12): the distance between P and G is (hP .hG). and compare it with the area of the trapezoidal bottom half. but if hP is the vertical depth to the centre of pressure then this can be calculated from: hP = ( IG AhG ) + hG (1. Look at the triangular area that forms the top half of the pressure intensity diagram.2 show how equations (1. The derivation of equation (1.11. P moves closer to G.11) and (1.11). Examples 1. EXAMPLE 1. so this has to be calculated using equation (1. If the ﬂood level in the river rises to 1. For a rectangle IG = LD3/12.12) are used to solve a couple of typical problems. the resultant force acts horizontally through the centroid of the pressure intensity diagram. This is apparent from equation (1. (b) Calculate the . there is no simple rule to give the location of P. indicating that the resultant force would act below half depth.hG) decreases as hG increases.12).12 Understanding Hydraulics Box 1.12) can be found in Appendix 1. where L is the length of the body and D its height. At the end of the culvert is a rectangular gate which seals off the culvert when the river is in ﬂood (as in Fig. this is located at h/3 from the base (but note that this is only the case when the pressure intensity diagram is triangular). The area of the bottom part of the diagram is much larger. The gate hangs vertically from hinges at the top. can be found from Table 1. With more complex problems.2 A rectangular culvert (a large pipe) 1. 1. G.

8).41 m above the bed.81 ¥ (3 + 1) = 39. (a) From equation (1.0 m wide.67 YR = 1.80 m Figure 1. and 2.5 2) ¥ (3.50 6 ¥ 2.81 ¥ 2.86 ¥ 103 ¥ 0.17 m Y2 = 2. (a) What is the hydrostatic force of the two sides of the gate? (b) At what height from the bed do the two forces act? (c) What is the magnitude of the overall resultant hydrostatic force on the gate and at what height does it act? (a) Using F = rghGA F1 = 1000 ¥ 9. both forces act at onethird depth from the bed: Y1 = 3. The gate is perpendicular to the sides of the lock.0) = 180.5 3 = 1.26 ¥ 103 N F2 = 1000 ¥ 9.11).12) G h P = ( I G AhG ) + hG where I G = LD 3 12 = 2 ¥ 33 12 = 4.86 ¥ 103 N (b) Since both pressure intensity diagrams are triangular. (c) Determine the depth at which the resultant force acts.50 m4 A and hG are as above so hP = (4.13 .15 ¥ 103 N (c) From equation (1.0 2) ¥ (2.24¥103 N m2 (b) From equation (1.Hydrostatics 13 resultant hydrostatic force on the gate.67 m (c) Overall resultant force FR = F1 .40 ¥ 103 ¥ YR = 180. Figure 1.81 ¥ (2.50 m A = 2 ¥ 3 = 6m2 Thus F = 1000 ¥ 9.81 ¥ (3.5 m.40 ¥ 103 N Taking moments about O to ﬁnd the height.12 EXAMPLE 1.0 m on the other side.2 A lock on a canal is sealed by a gate that is 3.58.0 3 = 0.50 ¥ 6 = 147.26 ¥ 103 ¥ 1.0) = 58. F = rghGA G Now hG = 1+ (3 2) = 2. When the lock is used there is water on one side of the gate to a depth of 3.17 .50 = 2.F2 FR = 121.5 ¥ 3. YR.0 ¥ 3. of the resultant: 121. P = rgh Therefore P = 1000 ¥ 9.50) + 2.

this indicates that YR would be higher above the base than either Y1 or Y2. 1.8) indicates that the pressure on the dam is related to the depth of water. This is a situation where the pressure intensity diagrams (which are not really needed to conduct the calculations) can be used to visualise what is happening. 1. whereas it is actually 1.14. Possibly you expected YR to be somewhere between 0. employing a similar argument to that used with Fig. since the water has the same density on both sides of the gate.14 Understanding Hydraulics The value of YR obtained in part (c) of the above example may have surprised you. The diagram is more rectangular than either of the triangles so.14 Net pressure intensity result is as in Fig.67 m and 1. Thus if the triangle on the right is subtracted from the triangle on the left.17 m.13 the slope of the two pressure intensity triangles is the same. This is not the case.15 The dam on the bottom left of the photograph is holding back a considerable quantity of water. that the greater the volume of water stored behind the dam.41 m. Many lay people believe.2 sure intensity on the gate. incorrectly. while the force is the product of the average pressure and the area of the dam in contact with the water (equation (1. The force exerted by the water on the structure must be calculated before the dam can be designed. the larger the force on the structure.11. 1. Figure 1. This is the net presdiagram for Example 1. Equation (1. In Fig. the Figure 1.2)) .

For example. consider this. but the procedure outlined above is quicker for ﬂat (plane) surfaces.6 and Example 1. but how about one that is inclined at an angle to the water surface? Surely this is much more difﬁcult? ❝ ❞ The answer is ‘no’. should be used. then hG will decrease so that hG = h1 when it is horizontal.Hydrostatics 15 1. or rghG since hG = (h1 + h2)/2. if h1 in Fig.4. Note that the inclination of the surface is automatically taken into account by the value of hG. A. inclined immersed surface I understand how to work out the force on a ﬂat vertical surface. (3) When calculating the location of the resultant force on an inclined surface. inclined surface in Fig. Thus the average pressure intensity on the surface is rg(h1 + h2)/2. To calculate the location of the resultant force.13) (never equation (1.16a is rgh1 while that at the bottom is rgh2. the resultant force on the inclined surface. as in section 1. The calculations are still very simple and almost identical to those above. so P = rgh. and the surface rotated upwards about its top edge. has components in both the vertical and horizontal directions. Thus F = rghGA. (b) When the surface is inclined always use the dimensions LG and LP with equation (1.12)) . These can be calculated separately.16 (a) Force on an inclined surface. and since the pressure acts at right angles to the inclined surface the actual area. 1. There are three things that you should remember when analysing these situations: (1) The resultant force acts at right angles to the immersed surface. One other important point. always use equation (1.11).5 Force on a plane.12). Similarly. The pressure at the top of the rectangular. 1. see below). the following equation should be used: G G G G Figure 1. as in equation (1. (2) The hydrostatic pressure on the inclined surface is still caused only by the weight of water above it. To illustrate simply that the resultant force can be calculated in the same way as for a vertical surface. the maximum possible value of hG would be obtained when the surface is vertical. The resultant force is the average pressure intensity multiplied by the area of the surface.13) (never the vertical dimensions hG and hP with equation (1. F.16a is ﬁxed.

For example.81 ¥ 1. The same argument applies to vertical surfaces and equation (1.6 sin 45° = 0. The gate is inclined at an angle of 45° to the water surface.000 + 0.212 m Area of gate.12). A = pD2/4 = p0.12). below the surface from LP if you want to (see Example 1.62/4 = 0.424/2 = 1.3 A sewer discharges to a river. I G is still taken as LD3/12 where D is the actual inclined dimension of the surface.13).13) to ﬁnd the location of the resultant force.283 m2 F = rghGA = 1000 ¥ 9. The top edge of the gate is 1.13) This is similar to equation (1. P. At the end of the sewer is a circular gate with a diameter (D) of 0. You can then calculate the vertical depth of the centre of pressure. Calculate (a) the resultant force on the gate caused by the water in the river. Never try to do this by using equation (1. circular gate at the end of a sewer . always use equation (1. are used to denote the location of the centre of pressure and centroid of surface (Fig. (b) the vertical depth from the water surface to the centre of pressure. not the vertical depths.13) must have the same orientation for consistency (see the derivation of the equation in Appendix 1). but the inclined lengths.0 m below the surface.424 m Vertical depth to G = hG = 1. LP and LG.17 An inclined.12) instead of equation (1. 1.283 = 3365 N G G G Figure 1.212 ¥ 0. EXAMPLE 1. with a rectangular inclined surface. so the remainder of the terms in equation (1.16b). (a) Vertical height of gate = 0.6 Using equations (1.12) and (1.13) Remember that when you have an inclined surface. The reason for this is that I G is calculated in the plane of the surface.16 Understanding Hydraulics Box 1.6 m.3). LP = ( IG ALG ) + LG (1.

0064 0. LG = 1. using pumps and sluice gates like the one above .18 This vertical lift gate on the Old Bedford River provides another example of where the engineer may be required to calculate the resultant hydrostatic force.714) + 1.212/sin 45° = 1.727m Vertical depth to P.0064 m4 LP = ( I G ALG ) + LG = (0.283 ¥ 1.Hydrostatics (b) Slope length to G. the gate being pushed hard against the guide channels.727 sin 45° = 1. If the horizontal force is large it may be difﬁcult for a vertical lift gate to slide up and down.1) I G = pR4/4 = p(0. hP = LP sin 45° = 1.221 m 17 Figure 1.714 m For a circle (Table 1.714 = 1. In the Fens of East Anglia much of the drainage is controlled by man.3)4/4 = 0.

21) by evaluating the weight of the volume (V ) of water above the curved surface.14) ) (1. the calculations are perhaps a little longer. Calculate the force on this projected vertical surface as you would any other vertical surface using FH = rghGA. as in Fig. This force can be thought of as having both a horizontal (FH) and a vertical (FV) component (Fig.20. (2) To calculate the horizontal component of the resultant force (FH).16) Figure 1. C Figure 1. that is: FV = rgV (4) The resultant force.20 Projection of the curved surface onto a vertical plane .18 Understanding Hydraulics 1. project the curved surface onto a vertical plane. so it passes through the centre of curvature (for example. the centre of the circle of which the surface is a part). F passes through the centre of curvature. f.22) can be found from: tan f = FV FH This gives the angle. (3) Calculate the vertical component of the resultant force (Fig. (1. is given by: F = ( FH + FV 2 2 1 2 (1.19 Pressure intensity on a curved surface. 1. where A is the area of the projected vertical surface (not the area of the actual curved surface).6 Force on a curved immersed surface ❝ I suppose that you are now going to tell me that working out the force on a curved surface is just as easy as calculating the force on a ﬂat or inclined surface? ❞ Well. This effectively is what you would see if you looked at the curved surface from the front. 1. the resultant also acts at 90° to the curved surface. F.19). (1) The resultant force (F) acts at right angles to the curved surface. Let me clarify this by breaking the analysis of the force on an immersed curved surface down into steps. of the resultant to the horizontal. 1.15) (5) The direction of the resultant force (Fig. 1. but no more difﬁcult. Remember.

22). Step 1 Project the curved surface onto a vertical plane and calculate FH FH = rghGA where A is the area of the projected vertical surface. which must also pass through C (6) The above steps enable the resultant force on the upper side of the surface to be calculated.0) = 6. 1.21 The vertical component of force.0) + (2.5 m.0 = 2. F H = 1000 ¥ 9. It is located with its top edge 1. caused by the weight of water above the surface Figure 1.5 ¥ 1.4 A surface consists of a quarter of a circle of radius 2.23 49.05 ¥ 103 N m Step 2 Calculate FV from the weight of water above the surface FV = rgV where V is the volume of water above the curved surface.052 + 60.5 ¥ 2.02 ¥ 1. f = tan-1(FV FH ) = tan-1(60. .Hydrostatics 19 Figure 1.0 = 49. Thus A = 2 ¥ 1. even if this is not the surface in contact with the water.5 + (2. at an angle of 50. Again using a 1 m length: V = (1 4 ¥ p 2. Always remember that there is an equal and opposite force acting on the other side of the surface. The resultant passes through the centre of curvature. This fact comes in useful later.14 m3 per metre length F V = 1000 ¥ 9.0 m.81 ¥ 6. Step 3 Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force F = (FH + FV 2 2 12 ) = 103 (49.0/2) = 2. because it is always easier to calculate the force on the upper surface.8°.22 The direction of the resultant force. F.0 ¥ 1. Since the length of the gate is not given.05) = 50.0 m (Fig. calculate the force per metre length with L = 1.5 m below the water surface.68 ¥ 103 N m. EXAMPLE 1. FV. C.0 m2 per metre length The value of hG is that for the projected vertical surface: hG = 1.81 ¥ 2.23 ¥ 103 N m.14 = 60. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the upper surface.8∞ .232 ) 12 = 77.

5 m radius. 1. I understand Example 1. The curved sections are a quarter of a circle of 1. Figure 1. drawn in a large body of static liquid.25 is an imaginary one. Think of it like this.0 m wide at the top contains oil to a depth of 3. To enable the force on the bolts to be determined.24.4 m as shown in Fig.4. The bottom part of the tank has curved sides which have to be bolted on.23 SELF TEST QUESTION 1. and the oil has a relative density of 0. calculate the magnitude of the resultant hydrostatic force (per metre length) on the curved surfaces and its angle to the horizontal. ❝ ❞ I suppose this is one of the tricks you have to learn to make hydraulics easy. You said that we should do this even if the upper side of the surface was not in contact with the water. The curved surface in Fig. How can this be right? No water. 1. no hydrostatic force I would have thought.3 An open tank which is 4.8.24 Tank for Self Test Question 1. Now it is possible to calculate the force on the upper side of this imaginary surface .3. but when you described the steps used to analyse the force on a curved surface.20 Understanding Hydraulics G G Figure 1. in point 6 you said something about always analysing the upper side of the surface.

that is not moving.5 m long. Step 1 Project the curved surface onto a vertical plane and calculate FH Vertical height of projection = BC = 5.0 m holds back water as shown in Fig.0 cos 60° = 2. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant hydrostatic force. Sometimes there is a tendency to think of a buoyancy force as being different from the hydrostatic force.Hydrostatics 21 using the same procedure as in Example 1. Water stands to a depth of 2. The gate is 3.25 Equal and opposurfaces. EXAMPLE 1. However. but it is easier to calculate that on the upper surface. such as a ship. so that this balances the force on the top.5 A radial gate whose face is part of a circle of radius 5. Figure 1. so what resists this force? Something must because the liquid is static. the surface is only imaginary. This will be explored in more detail in section 1. 1. The other side of the gate is open to the atmosphere.5 with air on the upper surface and water underneath. The buoyancy force on a body. Something to note from Example 1. The same is true with real Figure 1. The sector of the circle represented by the gate has an angle of 30° at its centre.5 is that the vertical component of the resultant force acts upwards.4. which means that it is a buoyancy force. because they are numerically equal. The answer is that there is an equal and opposite force acting on the underside of the imaginary surface. It does not matter which force you calculate. but in fact they are the same thing. Remember this when you encounter site forces on a surface problems like Example 1.5 m.26 .26.0 m above the top of the upstream face of the gate. is the result of the hydrostatic pressure acting on the body.7.

972 + 84. and it is caused simply by the hydrostatic pressure on the surface.4. Step 2 Calculate the vertical component.41 m2. This would cause the two pressures rgh1 and rgh2 to become closer numerically. Volume of water displaced. C. V = 2.5. 1. Step 3 Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force F = (FH + FV 2 2 12 ) = 103 (278.25 ¥ 8.41 = 1.47 ¥ 3. can be calculated as follows: AB = 5.13 m2. The hydrostatic pressure acts at 90° to the surface of the sphere.9∞ Resultant acts at 16.33 = 0.65 = 84.97 ¥ 103 N.5 = 5. Looking at this two-dimensionally.75m2 .862 ) 12 = 291. FV = rgV = 1000 ¥ 9.7 Variation of pressure with direction and buoyancy We have already discussed the fact that hydrostatic pressure acts at right angles to any surface immersed in it. f = tan-1(FV FH ) = tan-1(84.0 m radius circle = (30/360)p5. The area of ADE (and subsequently AEFH) can be found using geometry. The width of this area. Area triangle ACD = (1/2) ¥ 4. 1.00) = 2.97) = 16. as in the diagram.67 m. This is a buoyancy force.33 m.86 278. FV.9° to the horizontal passing upwards through the centre of curvature.86 ¥ 103 N. from the weight of water above the surface In this case calculate the weight of water that would be above the gate if it was not there. This is shown in the diagram as AEFH.25m. so DE = 5.33 ¥ 2. Now. consider what would happen if the diameter of the sphere gradually decreased so that the difference between h1 and h2 decreased.5 2) = 3.67 ¥ 2.54 . DE.5 ¥ 3. that is the weight of the water displaced by the gate.65 m3. then the smallest pressure intensity is rgh1 at the top.0 + (2. If the diameter of the sphere continued to decrease until it h3 Figure 1. ❝ ❞ Imagine a sphere some distance below the water surface as in Fig.0 sin 60° = 4.02 = 6.13 + (0. Therefore.5 = 8. FH = rghGA = 1000 ¥ 9.81 ¥ 8. as follows. the total area AEFH = 1.81 ¥ 3.54 m2. and the largest is rgh2 at the bottom.00 . Try thinking it through like this. Area ADE = 6. so it follows that on the underside of a horizontal surface the resultant force is acting vertically upwards. Area sector ACE = (30/360)ths of a 5.59 ¥ 103 N.47 m2.75 = 278.22 Understanding Hydraulics hG = 2. and A = 2.5 = 8.27 Pressure on a sphere .27.

would also have the same value (see Proof 1. Thus the pressure at a point in a static liquid acts equally in all directions.2. A. then the pressure is constant over the face so: Pressure on the top face = rgh1 Pressure on the bottom face = rgh2 The force on the face is equal to the pressure multiplied by the area of the face.1. Let me illustrate by using a similar situation to the sphere in Fig. so: F = rgV (1.7 Remember The buoyancy force. but this time we will make the body a cube because it simpliﬁes the calculations. is equal to the weight of the volume of liquid displaced by the body. This is: F = rgh2 A . ❝ That’s all very interesting. and working out the value of the buoyancy force is quite easy. F. You should be able to see that a buoyancy force is just the vertical force caused by hydrostatic pressure. In fact you can do so using what you have already learnt. The force. Let the area of each face of the cube be A. Appendix 1). such as rgh3 acting horizontally.Hydrostatics 23 became inﬁnitesimally small then the difference between h1 and h2 would be negligible so that rgh1 = rgh2.h1)A Now (h2 . So: Force on the top face = rgh1A Force on the bottom face = rgh2A Since h2 > h1 there will be a net force acting vertically upwards. sideways or whatever.28 Buoyancy force. F Box 1. Now go back and look at Step 2 of Example 1. 1. so only the pressure acting on the top and bottom faces need be considered. that is rgV. This is known as Archimedes’ Principle.h1)A is the volume of the cube. Then: Assuming the top and bottom faces are in a horizontal plane.27. The pressure intensities on the vertical sides cancel each other out. B. . F.rgh1A = rg(h2 . V. The point at which F acts is called the centre of buoyancy. but does it have any practical purpose.5. See also Chapter 3 and Box 3. F.28. The cube is shown in Fig.14) Figure 1. By the same argument. and how can I work out the value of the buoyancy force? ❞ Yes it has a practical purpose. acts vertically upwards through the centre of gravity of the displaced liquid (such as the centre of the cube). the pressure intensity in any other direction. 1. down. up.

this assumes that the cube is solid. rS. then the cube would sink (W > F ).19) Therefore it is also true to say that a ﬂoating body of mass M displaces a volume of water (V) that has a mass (rV ) equal to its own.5). Remember to use W with the weight density (rg) and M with the mass density ( r). because they must be able to sink and. but would stay at whatever depth it was located (F = W ). rise to the surface again. remembering that weight is a force. and a cork or polystyrene cube would ﬂoat. 1. so the relationships above allow the volume of water (V ) displaced by a ﬂoating body to be calculated. equation (1. The analysis above explains why a concrete or steel cube would sink. Typically the body’s weight or mass is known. Floating bodies. that forms the cube is greater than the density of the liquid. Of course. are quite easy to analyse.19) is a rearrangement of equation (1.29 Floating up or down). if we wanted to know whether or not the completely immersed cube would ﬂoat or sink. If rS = r then the cube has neutral buoyancy and would neither ﬂoat nor sink. we would have to compare the weight of the cube (W ) with the buoyancy force (F ). Conversely. The weight of the cube was irrelevant. However. by changing its weight by admitting or expelling water from tanks on the outside of the hull. its average density would have to be used in the calculations. not the density of the material from which it was made. such as ships and the pontoon in Example 1.24 Understanding Hydraulics When we analysed the buoyancy force on the cube in Fig.17) Thus a ﬂoating body of weight W displaces a volume of water (V ) that has a weight (rgV ) equal to its own.20) By now it should be apparent that a solid steel cube sinks. if rS < r. Since g and V are the same. F = weight of liquid displaced by the cube = rgV N acting vertically upwards. but a ship made from steel plates ﬂoats because it is hollow and can displace a much larger volume of water (V ) that has a .1: depth of imersion = V/plan area (1.7. more importantly.18) (1. then the cube would ﬂoat (F > W ). If the depth of immersion is constant.29 are exactly equal (otherwise the body would move Figure 1.28 we only considered the hydrostatic forces acting vertically on it. Then for pontoons which are rectangular in plan and cross-section like those in Fig. ❝ ❞ W = weight density of cube material ¥ volume = rS gV N acting vertically downwards. then obviously W and F in Fig. it follows that if the density of the substance. Hence the starting point for many calculabody tions involving ﬂoating bodies is: W =F W = r gV or (1. This can be achieved by adjusting the average density of the submarine. If the cube was hollow. r. 3. However. Since W = Mg this can also be written as: Mg = r gV or M = rV (1. 1. Submarines provide an interesting example.

30 Lock gates provide another example of where it may be necessary to calculate hydrostatic forces.Hydrostatics 25 Figure 1. When W = F the depth of immersion is constant. in tropical or northern waters. This is why we say that a ship has a displacement of 10 000 tonnes. increasing its displacement and consequently F. but if W is increased by adding cargo the ship settles deeper in the water. The buoyancy. Since the density of water changes according to temperature and salt content. depth of immersion and freeboard (the distance from the deck to the waterline) of the barge may also be the subject of an engineer’s calculations mass (or weight) equal to that of the ship. until W = F again. the Plimsoll line includes marks for sea or fresh water. British ships have had a Plimsoll line painted on their hull to indicate the maximum safe loading limit. for instance. . winter or summer. From 1876 onwards.

1. However. and gently squeeze it. A body in water has two forces acting on it: its weight (W) acting vertically down and the buoyancy force (F = rgV ) acting vertically up. Unless they really do have telekinetic powers. Try to disguise the fact you are doing this. When you squeeze the bottle you are exerting pressure on the water inside. Usually a Cartesian diver consists of a small length of open ended glass tubing with a bubble at one end (Fig. make sure you have your hands around the bottle. and you can claim to have a better brain than all of your friends combined. So by compressing the air. so you may have to try a few different types until you ﬁnd one that works. The weight of the sachet cannot change.8 Try this – amaze your friends Get an empty ﬁzzy drink bottle. When W > F the sachet sinks. You need one that just ﬂoats. V is reduced and so is F. The water is incompressible. they won’t be able to do it of course. F depends upon the volume (V ) of water displaced by the sachet. Squeezing and releasing the bottle makes the diver sink and then rise. W Air (a) F (b) Figure 1.31 (a) Alternative Cartesian diver using a sachet of sauce. When it is your turn.26 Understanding Hydraulics Box 1. ﬁll it completely with water and put a sachet of ketchup in it (Fig. 1. Now challenge your friends to concentrate their minds and use the power of thought to make the sachet sink. When you stop squeezing F > W so the sachet rises.31a). but the air in the sachet can be compressed. so W is constant.31b). Human divers can control their buoyancy and move up and down like this. Now here’s the trick. If you squeeze hard enough the sachet will sink. It can be used instead of the sachet and works in the same way. either by inﬂating or deﬂating their dry suits or by controlling the amount of air in their lungs. (b) Conventional glass diver . The reason the sachet sinks is as follows.

Freeboard = (2.78 = 490.81 = 490. F = 1025 ¥ 9.0.98 m.Hydrostatics 27 EXAMPLE 1. Determine whether the pipe will remain on the sea bed or ﬂoat. so from equation (1. The density of sea water (rSW) is 1025 kg/m3. (b) Determine the depth of immersion and the freeboard of the pontoon. The pontoon is rectangular in plan and crosssection.78/(10 ¥ 5) = 0. The pipe would ﬂoat and a force of at least 5533 N/m would be required to hold it down.98) = 1. The weight of the gas can be ignored. its width 5 m. (a) Determine the volume of water displaced by the pontoon. Thus: Buoyancy force.5 ¥ 103 N.19).02 m.7 A pontoon which is being used to conduct some construction work on a pier built into the sea has a mass of 50 tonnes (1 tonne = 1000 kg). volume displaced = mass of pontoon/rSW = 50 000/1025 = 48. net force on pipe = (7893 . Weight of pipe.32 EXAMPLE 1. (Alternatively F = rgV = 1025 ¥ 9.2360) = 5533 N m The net force acts upwards since F > W. Therefore.785 = 7893 N m. 2 Figure 1.0) 4 = 0.81 ¥ 0.6 A pipe which will carry natural gas is to be laid across an estuary which is open to the sea. what force would be required to hold the pipe on the sea bed? The maximum buoyancy force occurs when the pipe is fully submerged. (c) Determine the buoyancy force on the pontoon. Its length is 10 m. and its sides are 2 m high. (b) Depth of immersion (the depth in the water) = volume displaced/plan area = 48.785 m3 m length. V = 1 ¥ p (1.00 .81 ¥ 48. W = 2360 N m.33 . (a) A ﬂoating body displaces its own mass (or weight) of water. The weight of the pipe is 2360 N per metre length and its outside diameter is 1. If it does ﬂoat.0 m. F = rgV.78 m3. The density of sea water is 1025 kg/m3.5 ¥ 103 N) Figure 1. (c) Buoyancy force = weight of water displaced = weight of pontoon = 50 000 ¥ 9.

Consider points 1 and 2 at some distance below the surface as in Fig. then you can calculate the pressure (P2) at any other point so long as you can measure the vertical distance between them.34 Pressure intensity at two points ( P2 r g ) + z2 = ( P1 r g ) + z1 (1.P1) where: ( P2 .z1 ) Pressure at point 2.z1 ) (1.z1) between them.34. by now. so the meaning of the equation is considered below while the derivation of the equation can be found in Appendix 1.pg (d . P1 = rgh1 = rg (d . Nevertheless. it can be useful.rg ( z2 . Do not worry if you do not fully understand this at the moment. the hydrostatic equation states that the change in pressure intensity between two levels of a homogeneous (uniform) liquid is proportional to the vertical distance between them. Perhaps you can see from the equations that if you know the pressure (say P1) at some point in a static liquid.P1) to be determined from the difference in the height of two columns of liquid (z2 .21) and (1.z2 ) .z2 + z1 ) ( P2 .21) shows that the difference in pressure between two points is equal to the vertical distance (z2 . This time let us measure the depth of the points from the bottom (not from the surface) and let these distances be denoted by z1 and z2.9 Stratiﬁed ﬂuids How do you calculate the pressure if you have two liquids of different density? Does this make things more difﬁcult? ❝ ❞ .8 The hydrostatic equation The hydrostatic equation is really a statement of what.22) This equation contains four of the six terms of the Bernoulli (or energy) equation that will be discussed in Chapter 4. knowing the weight density of the liquid rg. or at least the meaning of the equations if not the actual equations themselves.P1 ) = rg (d . The two terms that are missing from the Bernoulli equation are the velocity heads (V 2/2g).P1 ) = . Pressure at point 1.z1 ) = rg (d . since manometers are explained in the next chapter. However. P2 = rgh2 = rg (d .21) Equation (1. 1. When we start considering pressure measurement using manometers in the next chapter we will be using equations (1. Manometers are designed to enable the pressure difference (P2 . Basically. 1.22).z1).z2 ) The difference in pressure between the two points is (P2 .d + z1 ) = rg ( . should be obvious to you.z2 . which is logical since the velocity (V ) is zero in a static liquid. the equation is more useful when rearranged so: Figure 1.28 Understanding Hydraulics 1.

The weight of the upper block of liquid is given by: W1 = weight density ¥ volume = r1gh1A Similarly. Again. equal pressure principle. which again is a statement of the obvious. 1.9). Let us analyse the situation in Fig. so the hydrostatic pressure is constant along the line and P1 = P2 = P3 Well. However.36 A stratiﬁed liquid with layers of density r1 and r2 .35 Equal level. again this is nothing new. equal pressure principle One ﬁnal thing about the hydrostatic equation. this principle is used with manometers and will be used in the next chapter. All you have to do is work out the weights (or pressures) of the liquids one at a time then add them together. Figure 1. It has to be since P = rgh.36. is that at a constant depth (or height z in the case of Fig.35) the pressure is constant. 1.Hydrostatics 29 Box 1.2 you will see that we discussed the fact that hydrostatic pressure is caused simply by the weight of the liquid above the point (or surface) that we are considering.1) told us that: pressure = weight area Figure 1. This is still true when you have two or more liquids of different densities.35. However. The meaning and signiﬁcance of this will be clearer if you look at Fig. 1. This simply states that if you draw a horizontal line in a continuous body of static. If you look back to section 1. remember the liquid must have a uniform density (otherwise see section 1. equal pressure’ principle.9 The equal level. The broken line is horizontal and the liquid has a constant density. Say that the column of liquid has a plan area of A m2. this gives rise to the ‘equal level. the weight of the lower block is: W2 = r2gh2A Total weight WT = W1 + W2 = r1gh1A + r2gh2A Now equation (1. uniform ﬂuid then the pressure is the same anywhere on that line.

30 Understanding Hydraulics Box 1. there is a change in gradient at the interface between the two liquids.0 ¥ 1000 ¥ 9.8 = 5. . This may prove useful when revising or when tackling the revision questions. I have provided a summary for you at the end of the chapter.81 ¥ 2. with which it does not mix.0 m by 1. EXAMPLE 1.10 Remember Because the liquid is stratiﬁed and has two different densities.7.23) ❝ We have analysed many different situations in this chapter.0)5. for instance).5 m and a relative density of 0.5 + 1.4 = 169 517 N (b) Total pressure at base of tank = WT/A = 169 517/5. so the total pressure.0 m and a relative density of 1.8. The oil has a depth of 1.37b in Example 1. within a particular liquid the gradient is uniform.0. The water has a depth of 2.81 ¥ 1.4 = 31 392 N/m2 (c) Pressure at the surface = atmospheric = 0 Pressure at the bottom of the oil = r1gh1 = 11 772 N/m2 Total pressure at the bottom of the tank = 31 392 N/m2 The pressure intensity diagram is shown in Fig. To help you to remember ❞ how to approach the different types of problem. 1.8 A tank with vertical sides contains both oil and water.2) by multiplying the area of the tank in contact with each of the liquids by the average pressure intensity of the particular liquid. the pressure intensity diagram does not have the same gradient over the whole depth (as it did in Fig. PT. It ﬂoats on top of the water. (b) the pressure on the base of the tank. at the base of the column of liquid is: PT = WT A PT = r1 gh1 + r2 gh2 (1. Figure 1.8 m in plan and open to the atmosphere. However.0 ¥ 1.8 provides an illustration of this. The tank is 3. 1. (c) the variation of pressure intensity with depth. (d) The side of the tank is 3.8 ¥ 1000 ¥ 9. Calculate (a) the total weight of the contents of the tank. (d) the force on the side of the tank.0 m long.4 m2 WT = (0. (a) WT = ( r1gh1 + r2gh2)A Plan area A = 3.4 = (11 772 + 19 620)5. The force on the side of the tank can be obtained from equation (1. Instead.37b.

and (b) the corresponding pressure intensity diagram Average pressure of the oil = (0 + 11 772)/2 = 5886 N/m2 Force due to the oil = 3.0 ¥ 2.5 ¥ 5886 = 26 487 N Average pressure of the water = (11 772 + 31 392)/2 = 21 582 N/m2 Force due to the water = 3.0 ¥ 1.0 ¥ 21 582 = 129 492 N Total force on the side = 26 487 + 129 492 = 155 979 N .Hydrostatics 31 Figure 1.37 (a) Tank containing a stratiﬁed liquid.

32 Understanding Hydraulics Summary G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G .

Over a one metre length of the face at the centre of the valley the water has a depth of 38 m. The gate is at the end of a pipe discharging to a river. (c) weight. Measured above the centroid of the gate. also hinged at the top. (d) gravity. using gauge pressure. (g) weight density.5 N at 0.3 A rectangular tank is 1. (b) If the river level increases to 2. and at what depth from the surface does it act? (b) A circular gate.7 A gate at the end of a sewer measures 0. During a ﬂood the river rises to 3.5 m. this being the angle of the banks of a trapezoidal river channel.7 m wide end of the tank.1 Deﬁne clearly what is meant by the following.2 m wide.2 (a) Explain what is meant by gauge pressure and absolute pressure. Assuming that the gate is initially vertical: (a) calculate the force exerted by the water in the pipe on the gate. (b) 22.33 m] 1. hangs vertically at the end of a pipe discharging to the river. 0. 25.10 ¥ 103 N. 0.1 m wide by 1.0 m above the hinge.0104 m.015 m] 1. the gate having the same dimensions as the culvert.76 m] 1.21 ¥ 103 N. (b) At what depth from the surface does the resultant force act? [7083 ¥ 103 N. 1.82 ¥ 103 N at 4.0312 m.16 ¥ 103 N at 4.0 m long and 0. calculate (a) the mean pressure intensity on the 0.6 (a) A rectangular culvert 2.3. 105 905 N/m2] 1. [(a) 46 228. (a) Calculate the hydrostatic force on the gate and the vertical distance between the centroid of the gate. what is the force and the distance GP now? (c) Has the value of GP increased or decreased.4 For the tank in question 1. and the centre of pressure.10.461 m. and the distance GP.5 m below the water surface.5 A dam that retains fresh water has a vertical face. The gate has a radius of 0.017 m] 1.8 A circular gate of 0. 858 N. (c) by taking moments about the hinge. (c) the force on the end of the tank. the head in the pipe is 6. What is the force exerted by the ﬂoodwater on the gate. P. (e) mass. allowing for rounding errors] . (i) hydrostatic pressure.5 N at 0.5 m radius is hinged so that it rotates about its horizontal diameter.6) [(c) 0. G. and give the appropriate units in each case: (a) pressure. What is the force exerted by the ﬂoodwater on the gate.7 m wide and contains fresh water to a depth of 0.0 m.0 m long side of the tank.090 m. 1. (b) What is the approximate numerical value of atmospheric pressure expressed in N/m2 and as a head of water? (c) Calculate atmospheric pressure expressed as a head of mercury (the relative density of mercury is 13. G. At the end of the culvert is a vertical ﬂap gate which is hinged along its top edge. (c) 0 exactly. and the centre of pressure.0 m while the head in the river is 2.Hydrostatics 33 Revision questions 1. (a) What is the gauge pressure at the bottom of the tank in N/m2? (b) What is the absolute pressure at the bottom of the tank? [4905 N/m2. It is hinged along its top edge and hangs at an angle of 30° to the vertical. determine the net turning moment on the gate caused by the two forces acting at their respective centres of pressure on opposite sides of the gate.5 m. (h) relative density. and why has it changed in this manner? [(a) 4. 1226 N] 1.8 m high discharges to a river channel as in Fig. (b) the mean pressure intensity on the 1. and at what depth from the surface does it act? [(a) 163. when the river level is 0. 2453 N/m2. (b) 15 409. Explain your answer. P. [2453 N/m2. and during a ﬂood the hinge is 3. and (d) the force on the side. and the distance GP between the centre of the gate. (b) 30. that is it rotates about a horizontal line passing through the centroid of the gate. (a) Calculate the resultant force on this unit length of the face.5 m above the hinge.1 m above the top of the hinge. (b) force. (f ) mass density. (b) calculate the force exerted by the river water on the gate.8 m by 1. using the results from above. (j) buoyancy force.

acting downwards through the centre of curvature.3 m. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant hydrostatic force per metre length. The side walls are 8 m high. C] 1.3 m] . with fresh water (1000 kg/m3) overlying saline water (1025 kg/m3). The water in the estuary is stratiﬁed at the point where the measurement is taken. (b) >22 352 ¥ 103 N. C] 1.12 (a) Explain what is meant by a stratiﬁed ﬂuid.11 A 7500 tonne reinforced concrete lock structure has been constructed in a dry dock.93 m.0 m of fresh water as shown in the diagram. 4.10 Fig.10 has a curved face. how thick is the layer of saline water? [4. Water sampling shows that the fresh water extends from the water surface to a depth of 2. and if so. (a) Will the lock structure ﬂoat in sea water of density 1025 kg/m3. what is its draught and free- board? (b) What additional weight will be required to sink the structure onto the sea bed if the depth of water is 5.34 Understanding Hydraulics 1. If the transducer indicates a gauge pressure of 69.7 m. The lock is 60 m long by 30 m wide in plan and is shaped like an open shoe box.0 m holds back 2.10 The dam in Fig.9° to the horizontal. how thick must the layer of sand be? (1 tonne = 1000 kg). Fig.73 ¥ 103 N/m2. (b) A pressure transducer is used to measure the hydrostatic pressure on the sea bed in a tidal estuary. The dam holds back water to a depth of 35 m. acting upwards through the centre of curvature.07 m. [7840. Q1. Q1.5 m] 1. [52. Q1.9 A gate which is a quarter of a circle of radius 4.6 ¥ 103 N/m at 40° to the horizontal.9 Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant hydrostatic force on a unit length of the gate. 3. (c) >0. [(a) yes. assuming the structure is watertight? (c) If the additional weight is to be provided by a blanket of sand (density 2600 kg/m3). being part of a 40 m radius circle.05 ¥ 103 N/m at 67.

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