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Simulation in production system life cycle
) Jan , Milan Gregor ´ Kosturiak ˇ Institute of Industrial Engineering, Zilina, SloÕak Republic Department of Industrial Engineering, UniÕersity of Zilina, MoyzesoÕa 20, SK-010 26 Zilina, SloÕak Republic
Abstract People managing production process need a new kind of decision support in the business environment which is being changed rapidly. They need new tools for dynamic modelling of enterprise processes to search for answers to the following basic questions: What is to be changed? To be changed into what? How to change it? This paper presents some new trends in the area of simulation of manufacturing systems and gives some recommendations, derived from experience, for effective simulation application in the whole production system life cycle. The paper summarises how discrete-event simulation can be used in the design, operation and continuous improvement of complex manufacturing and logistical systems. A combination of simulation with systems engineering methodology and the horizontal and vertical extension of simulation models in an enterprise are described. Last part of the paper briefly presents the main results of above-mentioned approach in logistics, flexible manufacturing, electrical engineering industry, furniture assembly and tyre manufacturing. q 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Simulation; Production system life cycle; Dynamic modelling
1. Introduction There are several variables which affect manufacturing enterprises today—rising competition and market globalisation, stringent for high quality, low costs and short throughput times, available new technology, changes in the living standard and the value system, increased environmental problems, etc. Various modelling techniques have experienced a great boom, due to their ability for functional testing and optimisation of dynamic processes in an enterprise. These tools are able to analyse complex and dynamic relationships in production and they support the deci-
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sions in all phases of a production system’s life cycle. The new requirements for enterprise flexibility, quality improvement, costs and throughput times reduction - cannot be achieved by using the traditional approaches. While the U.S. and European industry developed the grand CIM, FMS, CADrCAM and MRP II projects, Japan introduced Just In Time and Lean Production—not to demonstrate the possibilities of the new technology but to expose operational inefficiencies and waste in the manufacturing process. The main CIM effort was in the flexibility and productivity improvement, but its implementation stressed above all the technical aspects of the factory integration and the most flexible production factor—people—remained in the background. The new technology must be implemented into the organisational framework that uses and de-
0166-3615r99r$ - see front matter q 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 1 6 6 - 3 6 1 5 Ž 9 8 . 0 0 1 1 6 - X
Instead of the difficult control systems with fixed algorithm which is often not fully understood by the user. they are not able to show the change of the actual situation in the production process in real time Žunexpected machine breakdowns. Gregor r Computers in Industry 38 (1999) 159–172 ˇ velops the skills. 2. Also the supply.. People in the production need a new kind of decision support in the business environment which is being changed rapidly. manufacturing cells with self-directed manufacturing teams. the movement of the bottlenecks. But the throughput times are in fact the dynamic quantities. Kosturiak. Combination of simulation with systems engineering methodology Systems engineering ŽSE. knowledge and creativity of the human resources. Enterprise organisational structures are dramatically changed today. etc. and the whole logistical chain of an enterprise must be optimised as an integrated system. is defined w1x as the art of designing and optimising complex systems. they are inflexible and people are often degraded to operators for data preparing. production process. wrong production schedules. centralised and static structures are transformed into dynamic.. This causes a shift of the problem e. unnecessary motion. planned by using the constant throughput times. operation and continuous improvement of complex manufacturing and logistical systems. starting with an expressed need and ending up with the complete set of specifications for all the system elements.. unnecessary inventory. overloaded production. The local focus on the enterprise processes often leads only to local improvement. dependent on the efficiency of the production resources and on the product mix. The strategic. etc. companies must optimise fundamental decisions concerning organisational structure. synthesis and analysis.e. 1. The mentioned problems of the current PPC systems leads to the fact that the skills and intellect of people being insufficiently used in the production. Insufficient attention is given to the order release control in the production system and to the utilisation of the bottlenecks at the shop floor. isolated MRP from the operational level. etc. There are also many changes in a shop floor organisation—focused factory. defective parts. The operation of many PPC systems is expensive.g. They need the new tools for dynamic modelling of enterprise processes in search for answers to the following basic questions: What is to be changed? To be changed into what? How to change it? An enterprise have to be considered as an entire system in the solving of this questions. evaluation and decision. which enable rapid modelling of the various control scenarios and testing of possible consequences of decisions. These concepts are the answer on many occurring problems in production systems today—e.. The production supervisor usually knows very well where the main problems in the production system are and he has enough experience for flexible reactions to various situations.g. The production order schedule is. production programme Žproduct variety versus production complexity. This paper summarises how discrete-event simulation can be used in design.. distribution and servicing. waiting. transporting.160 J. 3. inventories and various forms of waste in the factory instead of their elimination. manufacturing facilities and the entire logistical chain Žsuppliers. the production managers need above all the decision support tools. work often statically. execution of commands and plans from the computer programme and the level of freedom of decision making is very restricted... i. tactical and operational decisions in an enterprise must be co-ordinated. segmentation. This problem . material shortage. The main phases of systems engineering are: problem analysis and setting of goals. M.. fractals. various forms of waste in the production Žoverproducing. The traditional systems for production planning and control ŽPPC. permanent missed due dates. The hierarchical. unnecessary processing. agile structures with the removing the traditional boundaries between the departments in an enterprise ŽFig. for example. Business decisions and fast-changing manufacturing environment In order to establish an effective manufacturing strategy in this turbulent environment. distribution..
Systems engineering integrates two methodologies: system design and project management. resource allocation and co-ordination. solving cycle is reiterated in each stage of the project. In the foreground of the system design there are the technical aspects of the project. documentation. The project management is responsible for all the aspects of a project organisation—project planning and control.J. An example of the application of systems engineering . etc. project progress monitoring. Gregor r Computers in Industry 38 (1999) 159–172 ˇ 161 Fig. Kosturiak. 1. M. Changes of the enterprise organisation structures. project organisation.
Gregor r Computers in Industry 38 (1999) 159–172 ˇ Fig. Kosturiak. M.162 J. . Systems engineering in manufacturing system design and simulation application fields in the whole life cycle of production system. 2.
M. through implementation and operation to its modernisation and re-design. model building and verification.. for example. 2. tested and finally integrated into a common hierarchical model. Gregor r Computers in Industry 38 (1999) 159–172 ˇ 163 methodology in design and operation of production systems is presented in Fig.e.. from analysis and design. In the similar way the specific modelling objects and submodels are designed. . in the assembly of a production facility—various specialists in the team prepare the components and sub-assemblies. 3. but also the decisions concerning situation analysis and the defining of the project objectives. etc. the generation of solution variants and their evaluation. etc. Kosturiak. Theory of constraints. which are then assembled into the system. Large simulation models of logistic systems are designed and built on a project basis. The new generation of simulation tools should support not only the traditional tasks Žstatistical data analysis. The features of the object oriented simulation make team based co-operation in the development of the model possible. simulation and continuous improvement of production system. The model com- Fig. Systems engineering deals with a system in its whole life cycle.J. i. It is similar.
. M. Project management techniques should also be implemented in this model design phase w2x. capacity plans. Fig. The integrated application of a simulation model in the whole life cycle of a logistic or manufacturing system can improve considerable the economic results of simulation. 3. can support dynamic scheduling of the production orders. is based on finding and eliminating waste in machinery. A relatively new application area of simulation is its incorporation into continuous improvement process ŽCIP. This.4x. Internet. Gregor r Computers in Industry 38 (1999) 159–172 ˇ ponents can be developed in the different locations and their exchange and integration can be realised in the computer network Že. Simulation in continuous improvement process ŽIPI Zilina. .. The same model. etc..6x view ŽTheory of Constraints. recent very popular concept. extended with control functions and interfaces with the envi- ronment Žshop floor data collection and production planning and control database. Fig. developed for the purpose of system analysis and conceptual design.164 J. labour allocation.. labour or production methods w3. Kosturiak.g. Kaizen.. 4. Eliyahu Goldratt’s w5. The Japanese approach to the improvement process emphasises above all the incremental improvements in the shop floor level in the small teams. can be refined and used for the stage of system re-design. The rough simulation model.
. M. flexible manufac- Fig. Integration of modelling methods with a team based continuous improvement process is an optimal combination of the best Japanese. developed by the Institute of Industrial Engineering ŽIPI. inventory.J. A new approach to the integration of simulation with an improvement process. cash flow. operating expense. Kosturiak. Integrated approach—horizontal and vertical extension of simulation models in an enterprise The traditional simulation tools make it possible to model the manufacturing lines. 4. net profit. American and European techniques. Gregor r Computers in Industry 38 (1999) 159–172 ˇ 165 is focused above all on the system constraints Žbottlenecks. 4 w7–9x.. Simulation technique is an ideal tool for identification of the ‘real’ constraints and for testing and evaluation of the proposed measures and their impact on the entire company. in the enterprise logistic system and on the integration of the operational measurements Žthroughput.. Integration of simulation modelling in enterprise. 5. Zilina and implemented in a number of Slovak companies is shown in Fig. with the overall management measurements Žreturn on investment. The local decisions and improvements must be measured according to their impact on the global corporate goals.
6. Gregor r Computers in Industry 38 (1999) 159–172 ˇ turing systems.166 J. Fig. M. etc. Integration of simulation with manufacturing system design tools. . The future development of the new simulation systems is di- rected to the integrated enterprise modelling in two directions. Kosturiak. manufacturing cells.
increased building costs. Logistical system .. The experience shows two typical mistakes in the planning without simulation: Ø Over capacity Žincreased overhead costs—light. Detailed simulation analyses that enable to finetune or ‘optimise’ the performance of a system are performed at the tactical level.. 5. re-routing orders. 8. re-prioritising a specific Fig.. distribution network. the due dates for their completion and the production order release times are scheduled. to the highest degree possible. A goal is to correlate. . At the strategic level the aggregate system is modelled and details of the operating or control logic are not included. etc. economic changes on the market. tactical and operational level in production planning and control system. Ø Pro-active management support which optimally integrates the advantages of the computer technology and human resources.. Ø Horizontal integration of the manufacturing and assembly processes with the entire enterprise logistics chain and with the external processes in the manufacturing environment Žsuppliers and various supply strategies. A plant manager can test his new schedules or control polices when machine failure or material shortage occur.production output and throughput times. as well as the increase of the computer performance and simulation software capabilities. 7. On-line simulation integrated with the enterprise information system and shop floor data collection system offers the following main advantages: Ø Direct bi-directional data exchange between simulation model and its environment during simulation run.g. Kosturiak. M. led to the broad on-line applications of simulation. Gregor r Computers in Industry 38 (1999) 159–172 ˇ 167 Fig. demand forecasting. Ø Under-Capacity Žovertime costs and possible lost business due to longer throughput times and inefficient inventory floating. On the tactical level the production volumes of the individual products are planned.. An example of an integration of simulation with manufacturing system design tools is in Fig. Ø Testing of the ‘what if’ or ‘what now’ scenarios Že. The corporate long-term plans for production requirements and production resources are prepared on the strategic level. Ø Vertical integration of the decision making processes at strategic. additional capital costs for unused equipment. power. planned and actual requirements and resources. Simulation results . Ø Flexible and event-driven analyses to provide visibility of what impact of unanticipated changes that occur will have on the shop floor. orders for raw materials and purchased components are determined. Daily scheduling decisions are supported at the operational level. Simulation is used for example to decide what jobs are running on what machine and in what order.J. etc. Ø Graphical user interface and animation..furniture production. 6. etc. heat. insurance. ŽFig. The above mentioned problems.
168 J. . Kosturiak. Gregor r Computers in Industry 38 (1999) 159–172 ˇ Fig. Flexible manufacturing system. M. 9.
Chair production. Kosturiak. Gregor r Computers in Industry 38 (1999) 159–172 ˇ 169 Fig. 10.J. . M.
Electric socket manufacturing. .170 J. 11. M. Kosturiak. Gregor r Computers in Industry 38 (1999) 159–172 ˇ Fig.
adding overtime. Socket Interface. Industrial applications The simulation specialists of the Institute of Industrial Engineering Zilina who developed the above described approach implemented their solutions in the more than 20 industrial application . The following projects will be briefly presented in this section: Ø Logistical Chain in Furniture Production and Distribution . 10 presents the results of a simulation projects in office chair production.J...the simplified structure of the logistical Ø system is presented at Fig. 8. In a Flexible Manufacturing System ŽFig. RPC. 9. and the throughput times were decreased of 30%. e. etc. etc. 7 and the main results at Fig. ´ 6. Another way of integration is the building of specialised simulation toolkits for supporting decision making processes at various enterprise levels and their integration.. Simulation of an assembly system for electric sockets brought the results presented at Fig. Conclusion The new ISO 9000 proposal emphasizes a system approach to all processes in logistics and production. Transportation and process industry.above all in automotive industry.. order.Matador. re-distributing manufacturing resources. Ø Ø Ø 5. Also the testing of various control strategies brought considerable improvement of the production indicators. The traditional approach is building of standard interfaces with the other software packages. 11. Fig. SQL. warehousing and logistics. There are more possibilities on how to integrate simulation in an enterprise structure. their ongoing improvement and the necessary involvement and motivation of people. Kosturiak. the production throughput was increased of 100%. Gregor r Computers in Industry 38 (1999) 159–172 ˇ 171 Fig. M. Tyre production . This crucially affect the methods and tools for designing and managing these complex systems which have shorter life .g. Fig. 12 shows simulation model of tyre production in Matador Puchov.. 12. DDE.
Institute of Flexible Automation—INFA Vienna Ž1993. TU Salerno Ž1996.. decision processes in production and marketing. w4x I.. 1992. Kuric. The Haystack Syndrome. w7x R. ´ I. Goldratt. Jan and Milan Gregor are lectures on simulation tech´ Kosturiak ˇ nology as visiting professors at TU Lodz Bielsko Biala ŽPoland. Kosturiak. M. F. Industrial ´ M. 1997. Imai. Huber. Mi Ieta. Debnar. Japan Productivity Centre Ž1997. They have consulted with numerous companies involving simulation projects and implementing new production philosophies. in Slovak. ˇ ´ F. in Czech. and many papers in a wide variety of journals in the area of computer simulation. TU Salerno Ž1996. NotZurich ¨ tingham Trent University.Tool for Productivity and Profit Increasing. Professor Milan Gregor. and BWI ETH Saarbrucken ¨ Ž1993. the right formulation of this question should be: ‘How long can we still ignore this technology and make the wrong decisions?’ Simulation can lead to considerable improvements in industrial companies. Nottingham Trent University Ž1997. is ´ Kosturiak ˇ the Managing Director of the Institute of Industrial Engineering Zilina ŽSlovakia. Ways to the Higher Productivity. E.. University of Zilina 1998 Žin Slovak.. is the Head of the department of Industrial Engineering at the University of Zilina and he is lecturing computer simulation. He must manage this method. Prague 1996. w5x E. He has international experience from the University of Technology Vienna Ž1988. . Methods and Tools of the Enterprise Logistics.. ˇ Engineering. Professor Jan . Simulation . ˇ´ M. Basl. the simulation tool. It can help to identify the bottlenecks in the enterprise logistic chain or it can support the decisions concerning investment in new production technology.. the required theoretical basis and he must objectively estimate the requirements and costs for the simulation project and the expected profit from this technique. ´ J. Slamkova. Masın. Simulation of Production Systems Ž1994. Vytla. AESOP GmbH Stuttgart Ž1992. INFORWARE 4r1998.... TU Bielsko Biala 1996. born 1961.. Gregor. Gregor r Computers in Industry 38 (1999) 159–172 ˇ w9x B. The crucial factor of the efficient simulation application is the ‘‘simulationist’’. Kosturiak. M. ´ Production Planning and Control. He has international experience from the Fraunhofer Institute of Production Technology and Automation ŽIPA. University of Zilina. w8x J. ŽRandom House. cycles due to changing requirements and new technologies. The wide availability of simulation tools and powerful computers create the appropriate conditions for the broad application of simulation methods in solving the above mentioned problems. Kral. Just in Time—Philosophy for a Good Management Ž1994.. and University of Technology. Integration of the Key Software Areas in an Enterprise... 1997 Žin Slovak. production systems design and production planning and control. FH UlmrGeislingen Ž1992–1998.. w3x M. in German. Kaizen.172 J. and FH Ulm ŽGermany. References w1x F. IPI Liberec 1996 Žin Czech. ŽNorth River Press 1991. Jan and Milan Gregor have published three books: ´ Kosturiak ˇ Factory 2001—Revolution in the Corporate Culture Ž1993. 4th International Conference System Integration 96. Kosturiak... 1986. ´ J.M. Industrial managers often ask in the following wrong way: ‘Can we afford the simulation technique in our company?’ However. and he is lecturing production systems design and computer integrated manufacturing at the Department of Industrial Engineering University of Zilina. Systems Engineering ŽVerlag Industrielle Organisation 1985. H. Gregor. J. w2x E. born 1955. Daenzer. Slamkova. Matuszek... in Stuttgart Ž1987–1988. Chromjakova. w6x J. Turekova. Saarlandes University in Ž1992.
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