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General In the context of European harmonisation it has become a requirement for standards to be unified. For many materials - steel, galvanised and pre-lacquered sheets to name but a few - this has already been done. A more difficult matter, on the other hand, would be a uniform system for building products. The national perceptions and regulations are too varied here to be able to find a quick solution. In the realm of fire prevention, certain basic European standards have already been established and these have appeared in German speaking areas as a white paper or will appear as such soon. Below we will give a brief picture of their interpretation in terms of sandwich elements with metal cover coatings and polyurethane insulating cores. It is important to state that this concerns the status of the matter as of July 2002. Changes or the introduction of further newer standards or guidelines can take place very rapidly and have a further influence upon the information below. The flammability of sandwich The flammability of sandwich elements has thus far been assessed in terms of DIN 4102-1. elements
There was a minimal value of the construction material class B2 (small fire test, see Fig. 7.5.1) and the fire shaft test for the grouping of elements in B1 (see Fig. 7.5.3).
Fig. 7.5.1 Small fire test as per DIN 4102
DIN 4102-1 comprises 5 construction material classes, from A1 through B3 (see Fig. 7.5.2 Table 1, Line 2). The new European standardisation will comprise 7 construction material tests A1 - F (see Fig. 7.5.2 Table 1, Line 3).
Building supervision delineation Non-flammable
Construction material class as per DIN 4102-1 A1 A2
Euro class A1 A2 B C
Level of standards No contribution to fire
Fire stage 60
Minimally flammable Normally
Fully developedApprox. room fire kW/m² Negligible contribution to fire Very minimalSingle burningApprox. contribution to fire object kW/m² Minimal contribution to fire Acceptable contribution
flammable Minimally flammable B3 E F to fire Acceptable flammability No standards Small flame 20 mm flame Fig. From the five results then available. As additional requirement. 7. however.3 Fire shaft test as per DIN 4102 . 7. it is possible for two further tests to be carried out.6. The standards are virtually identical to the former ones.4. The criteria are: flame spread within 20 seconds less than 150 mm. Fig. top SBI Test (single burning item test) For classes A2 through D. three tries are carried out for each system of a particular thickness. The diagram for this test is shown in Fig.2 Table 1: Euro classes of flammability The Euro class E was tested according to DIN EN ISO 11 925-2 and this test is virtually equal in terms of coverage to the B2 test as per DIN 4102-1. For sandwich elements the thickness is. Here too. Euro class A1 will certainly not affect original sandwich elements. Another new point is that in the SBI test the theoretical test body thickness can be up to 200 mm. The non-flammability thus far will also be demonstrated with this material. with the greater thicknesses thereby being covered. 7. limited to a maximum of 150 mm (as per EN 14509). The results are added together and the mean value obtained. The mean value of the remaining three tests is used for the final classification. for the Euro class E burning drops/flakes of burning parts (d2) are included. 7. in a corner a fire source is placed that roughly corresponds to a burning wastebasket in the corner of a room.5. A new point is that not every attempt need yield the desired result. the SBI test has been added.5.5. In this test.5. Thus far it was standard practice that none of the three fire shafts as per DIN 4102-1 could be worse than the required value (here the residual length). the test item illustration in Fig. If the client of the tests feels that this result is not good enough. the best and the worst are discarded. This replaces the former fire shaft test as per DIN 4102-1.
. grouping is done in the Classes A2 through D. top The following are measured in the SBI test: • • • • • energy release (THR) flame spreading (LFS) speed of fire spread (FIGRA) smoke development (SMOGRA) burning pieces and/or drops falling Valuation and grouping The valuation of the results is not very simple and may be read about by the interested reader in DIN EN 13823. SBI Test.5.top In total in each instance three tests with the smallest and largest element thickness to be evaluated (max. 7. Standards. 7.6 or according to the actual situation. Different joint constructions must be evaluated separately. Execution of the test layout In the SBI test the corner is put together either as per Fig. Indeed the SBI test is not sufficient on its own in order to facilitate a grouping in a Euro class. Length.5.11. 150 mm) are to be carried out. width. Further tests are required and these are summarised in Fig. Table: Composition of Euro classes. We will therefore not describe the valuation in this document. and height of the elements as well as the joint organisation are not changed. Depending upon the results of the SBI tests.
Fig.The test is set up or built up on a cart.5 SBI Test . in the test room. however this must be borne in mind with regard to asymmetrical bodies. Depending on the test location the long side may be at a different point.5. which plays no role with respect to symmetrical test bodies. For the manufacturer it is recommended that the test bodies be pre-assembled in the plant.Test support cart top . the so-called test support cart. 7.
5.Fig.5.Test set-up Illustrations 7. The sandwich elements do not contribute to the fire.10 shows the course of an SBI test in terms of time.hard foam B2) of 4 February 2000 at the MFPA Leipzig.5. After the removal of the source of the fire. 7. top .6 SBI Test . 7. the fire goes out.9 show the course of an SBI test for the technical fire prevention classification of sandwich elements (B1 . The diagram in Fig.5.7 through 7.
5. 7.Abb.7 .
5. 7.8 top .Abb.
7.9 top Fig.5.5.Abb. 7. .10 Diagram: Course of an SBI test in terms of time.
Smoke s1. d1. s3 Burning drops d0.Falling pieces d0. s2.D T ≤ 50°C .FIGRA ≤ 250 W/s .FIGRA ≤ 120 W/s .5. d1.FIGRA ≤ 750 W/s Criteria / threshold values Flame spread Within 60 sec.PCS ≤ 3. top Euro Class D DIN EN 13823 SBI-Test DIN EN ISO 11925-2 (30s burning) Additional criteria: Criteria / threshold values .6). d2 DIN EN ISO 11925-2 (30s burning) Additional criteria: Euro Class C DIN EN 13823 SBI-Test Criteria / threshold values . s2.11 Table 2: Composition of the Euro classes. s2. d2 DIN EN ISO 11925-2 (30 s burning) Additional criteria: Fig.LFS ≤ Outsides .Euro class A2 Test as per DIN EN ISO 1182 Criteria/threshold values .Falling pieces d0. ≤ 150 mm . s3 .burning drops .Smoke s1.D m ≤ 50% .THR600 ≤ 7.Smoke s1. standards (continuation of table see Page 7. ≤ 150 mm .burning drops / .LFS ≤ Outsides . s2.5 MJ Criteria / threshold values Flame spread Within 60 sec. ≤ 150mm .THR600 ≤ 15 MJ Criteria / threshold values Flame spread Within 60 sec. d1.Burning drops / .PCS ≤ 4.5 MJ Smoke s1.0 MJ/kg .Burning drops / .5. d2 Euro Class E Test as per DIN EN ISO 11925-2 (15s burning) Additional criteria: Criteria / threshold values Flame spread Within 20 sec.0 MJ/m² Criteria / threshold values FIGRA ≤ 120 W/s LFS ≤ Outsides THR600 ≤ 7. d2 or Test as per DIN EN ISO 1716 and DIN EN 13823 SBI Test Additional criteria: Euro Class B DIN EN 13823 SBI-Test Criteria / threshold values . s3 .Falling pieces d0.falling pieces d2 For the sake of completeness: . ≤ 150 mm . 7. d1. s3 .t ign ≤ 20 s Criteria / threshold values .
12 Table 3: Flammability.t ign ≤ 0 s Test as per DIN EN ISO 1716 Criteria / threshold values . top German safety level It should be possible to find the obligatory allocation of classes for flammability in terms of the currently applicable construction supervision standards in Appendix 0. 7. The European standards are sub-classified in test standards and classification standards.5. burning drops/pieces heat THR C D E F EN ISO 11925-2 EN 13823 (SBI) and EN ISO 11925-2 EN 13823 (SBI) and EN ISO 11925-2 EN ISO 11925-2 No performance determined.PCS ≤ 2. Sub-publication 2002/1 (appeared in July of 2002.2 to the Construction Regulation List A. Which classes and performance levels are necessary in order to guarantee adherence to German safety standards have been decided upon by the committees of the German construction industry authorities. sideways fire Smoke development. 7. Table 4 in Fig.5.5. 7.0 MJ/kg . The commission’s decisions as to which criteria apply to the individual classes are summarised in Fig.PCS ≤ 1. construction products legislation also anchored this directive in law after a period of time. Not every building substance that is categorised with A fulfils the German standards for non- . burning drops/pieces heat THR FIGRA. construction components are tested and grouped in flammability classes.D m ≤ 50% .5). t T m f T.4 MJ/m² Fig. The European classification concept for the realm of fire prevention that has been developed over the last few years has meanwhile been completed. Fire spread Fs Speed of fire spread FIGRA. burning drops/pieces spread LFS. And this will amaze the interested reader. sideways fire Smoke development.13 below nonetheless shows clearly how the construction supervisory authorities guarantee the German safety levels. released Additional criteria D m. As per DIN 4102.in German speaking areas as a white paper. sideways fire Smoke development. The European test standards contain very precise descriptions of the testing equipment. A1 1182 A2 (SBI) FIGRA. Between these classes and performance levels the member states can choose their building products as required. burning drops/pieces Fire spread Fs Fire spread Fs Burning drops/pieces Fig. was not yet available when this document was prepared).Euro Class A1 Test as per DIN EN ISO 1182 Criteria / threshold values .D T ≤ 30°C . released heat THR Fire spread Fs Speed of fire spread FIGRA Smoke development.5. Test behaviour EN ISO and EN ISO 1716 EN ISO 1182 or EN ISO and EN 13823 (SBI) B EN and 13823 1716 Criteria Temperature increase Weight loss D Duration of burning Gross calorific value Temperature rise D Weight loss D Duration of burning t f Gross calorific value PCS Speed of fire spread spread LFS.5. Standards (first part of the table see Page 7. In order to view the different safety and protection levels of the individual member states there are classes of requirements and performance levels that should suffice for classifying building products. test layout. 7. top Classification as per European standards After the Council of the European Community had accepted the construction products directive in 1988. for example DIN EN 13 501-1. However they do not contain any specifications as to how the measurement values should be assessed or evaluated. Industrial representatives were not involved/accepted. test execution and if applicable the destination of the measurement results (SBI test). European test standards are available that to a great extent have already been published .11 Table 2: Composition of the Euro classes.12 Table 3. released Speed of fire spread spread LFS. These standards represent a clear change from the German standards that existed in the past. For this purpose there are classification standards such as those for sandwich elements and other products.
B. C . C B1 . For sandwich elements a classification in terms of flammability can already take place as per DIN EN 13501-1.flammable substances. 7. In any case the property owner will not accept this without question.s1 d0 A2 B. with respect to the construction authority requirements. B.5. The fear even arises that the unclear definitions contained herein will lead to anti-competitive situations. however. For example for the SBI test it is not specified how test bodies of various materials are confirmed and/or adhered to during testing (exception: sandwich elements: this regulation applies here. According to current practice. At present much is still up in the air.6). Thereafter they are revoked. It is up to the customer to determine which agency can “optimally” test his product. B. C . Therefore it is possible that the highest construction supervision authorities may demand a general construction supervision certification to determine building materials classes A1 through D for unregulated and harmonised building products with which we once again arrive at the end of the second chapter.s3 d2 s1 s2 s3 s1 s2 d0 d0 d0 B2 d2 d2 B3 At least Easily flammable Fig. It should be noted that there are both harmonised and non-harmonised European standards. The classes of smoke development and burning drops/pieces are decisive. B. Fire resistance as per European classification can be determined as of the end of 2002. Construction requirements Not flammable At least supervision Additional requirements No smoke No burning drops/pieces X X X X X X X European Class as per DIN ENClass as per 13501-1 4102-1 A1 A1 A2 . For manufacturers of sandwich elements. Table 5 in Illustration 7. Therefore there is no guarantee of a uniform test for all member states. even if these have not all yet appeared as harmonised standards.s1 d0 A2 s2 d0 A2. C . These standards can already be used for certification before they are harmonised.s3 d2 E -d2 F At least X Normally flammable . they say.5. . the standard acquires validity and can be applied.s1 d1 DIN Minimally flammable X A2. 7. This might for example be compared to DIN standards that have been established both inside and outside construction legislation.15 once again shows the European classes of flammability of construction products with a specification of their testing processes. Recommendations and hints With the appearance of a harmonised European standard.13 Table 4: Classification of the flammability of construction materials top Uniform test not guaranteed in various member states A further danger lies in the fact that a large number of European harmonised product standards come onto the market without a suitable confirmation of test specifications. Fig. can only take place if these have appeared as harmonised standards. it is recommended that fire testing now be carried out not only according to German standards but also according to European standards. The classification of construction products according to European standards. depending upon standards. German testing agencies also confirm that differences in valuation of results and/or in the execution of tests exist. C D E D . It is debatable how planners and construction and certification authorities will deal with this situation. A harmonised European standard is generally recognised by its bearing the appendix ZA. test certificates for the classification of construction products in the construction material classes as per DIN 4102 remain valid without limitation.5. The test results can then be classified after the introduction of this standard. German standards continue to be valid for a specific period of time. classification criteria and additional classifications.s3 d0 A2.s2 d2 A2. delineated in German speaking areas as the “white paper”. generally speaking 12 months.
0 MJ/m2 (2) and PCS < 4.0 MJ/m² (3) and PCS < 3. requirements = 30 s EN 13823 (SBI): (5) and burning EN ISO 11925-2Fs < 150 mm within 60 s (8). 7.5 MJ drops/pieces (6) FIGRA < 120 W/s.After that it is a case of “wait and see” regarding which further changes or updates will confront the manufacturers of sandwich elements and their customers and planners.0 MJ/kg (1) and PCS < 2.0 MJ/kg (2) (2a) and PCS < 1.e. requirements = 30 s EN 13923 (SBI) and EN ISO 11925-2 (8).5 MJ drops/pieces (6) Fs < 150 mm within 60 s FIGRA < 250 W/s. and Smoke development LFS < edge of test body and THR600s < 7. and LFS < edge of test body and THR600s < 15 MJ Fs < 150 mm within 60 s FIGRA < 750 W/s Smoke development drops/pieces (6) (5) (5) and and burning burning A2 EN ISO 1182 (1) or EN ISO 1716 EN 13823 (SBI) B C D EN 13823 (SBI) and EN ISO 11925-2 (6).0 MJ/kg (4) D T < 50°C and D m < 50% and tf = 20 s PCS < 3.5.0 MJ/kg (1) and PCS < 4.14 Testing room for SBI test top Class A1 Test EN ISO 1182 (1): Classification criteria D T < 30°C and D m < 50% and t f = 0 (i. no continued flammability) additional classification - EN ISO 1716 PCS < 2.0 MJ/kg (4) FIGRA < 120 W/s. Fig. requirements = Smoke development (5) and burning drops/pieces (6) .4 MJ/m² (3) and PCS < 2. and Smoke development LFS < edge of test body and THR600s < 7.
factory produced products specifications (05/2002) Fig. d2 = neither d0 nor d1. For every inner insignificant component of non-homogeneous products. ignition of the paper in EN ISO 11925-2 leads to a classification in d2. For every other insignificant component of non-homogeneous products. Vocabulary (10-2000) Self-supporting sandwich elements with two-sided metal cover coatings . Fs < 150 mm within 20 s Burning drops/pieces (7) requirements = 15 s no data established For homogeneous products and significant components of non-homogeneous products. Non-flammability test (draft 09/98) Tests for flammability of construction products. d1 = no burning drops/pieces longer than 10s in EN 13823 during 600s. In the last phase of development of the test process changes in the smoke measurement system are introduced whose results demand further studies.5. Fig. combustibility in response to direct fire (draft 9/98) Classification of construction products and construction types in terms of their flammability. s3 = neither s1 nor s2. Fire prevention.fire stress on the test side.0 MJ/m².30 s E F (1) (2) (2a) (3) (4) (5) EN ISO 11925-2 (8). For the product as a whole.16 Table 6: European Standards for Fire Prevention for sandwich elements .15 table 5: Classes of flammability of construction products (6) (7) (8) top DIN EN ISO 1182 DIN EN ISO 1716 DIN EN ISO 11925-2 DIN EN 13501-1 DIN 13501-2 DIN EN 13823 DIN EN 13283 DIN EN ISO 13943 prEN 14509 European Standards for fire prevention for sandwich elements Tests for flammability of construction products. 7. For the effects of fire stress on a surface and . 06-2002 Classification with the results of the tests for flammability of construction products Classification of construction products in terms of their flammability.5. to appear at the end of 2002) Tests of flammability of construction products (SBI test) 06-2002 Tests of flammability of construction products and construction types. Classification with the results of the fire resistance tests (draft 06/99. d0 = no burning drops/pieces in EN 13823 (SBI) within 600s. Alternatively another insignificant component can have a PCS ≤ 2. Tolerated = no ignition of the paper (no classification). This may result in a correction of the threshold value and/or the parameters for assessment of the smoke. s1= SMOGRA ≤ 30m²/s² and TSP600s ≤ 50m².0 MJ and s& and d0. 7. s2 = SMOGRA ≤ 180m²/s² and TLS 600s ≤ 200m². From conditioning process and general regulations for the choice of support plates. not tolerated = ignition of paper (classification d2). determination of the specific gross calorific value (draft 9/98) Tests for flammability of construction products.insofar as relevant for the end use of the product . assuming that the product fulfils the following criteria of EN 13823 (SBI): FIGRA ≤ 20 W/s and LFS Edge of test body and THR600s < 4.
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