Charaka Samhita is a huge treatise on ancient Indian medicine. It contains eight divisions (ashtanga sthanas) viz., sutra, nidana, vimana, sharia, indriya, chikitsa, kalpa and siddha. Each division is further divided into numerous chapters; it describes not only the existing knowledge about medicinal aspects but also the philosophy and logic behind the medical systems. The present manuscript of Charaka Samhita has a long history behind it. As stated earlier, it was originally composed by Agnivesa one of the six students of Atreya, and it embodied the teachings of the latter. Agnivesha's treatise appears to have been available till the eleventh century, as Chakrapanidatta, its commentator, quotes from it. With the passage of time, as new knowledge accumulated, it looks; it was felt necessary that Agnivesha tantra should be revised. This was done by Charaka and the revised edition of Agnivesha tantra came to be called Charaka Samhita. During the ninth century, Charaka Samhita was again edited and reconstructed by a Kashmiri Pandit named Dridhabala, son of Kapilabala, a resident of Panchanadapura, now known as Panjor situated seven miles north of Srinagar . The present form which Charaka Samhita has was given to it by Dridhabala. He not only added the missing chapters but also edited the whole samhita. Charaka Samhita deals elaborately with subjects such as foetal generation and development, anatomy of the human body, function and malfunction of the body depending upon the equilibrium or otherwise of the three humours of the body, viz., of vayu, pitta and kapha. It describes etiology, classification, pathology, diagnosis treatment of various diseases and the science of rejuvenation of the body. It discusses elaborately the etiology of diseases on the basis of the tridosa theory. It gives a detailed description of the various diseases including those of the eyes, the female genital organs, normal and abnormal deliveries and diseases of the children. Charaka's materia medica consists chiefly of vegetable products though animal and earthy products are also included in it. All these drugs are classified into 50 groups on the basis of their action on the body. This vast treatise also gives an idea of the various categories of the practitioners of the healing art, specialization in different medical subjects, physicians and their fees, nursing care, centers of medical learning, schools of philosophy such as Nyaya and Vaiseshika which formed the fundamental basis of medical theories, medical botany and classification of the animal kingdom, particularly in regard to properties of their flesh etc. It also describes various customs, tradition, legends, routine of daily life, habits of smoking and drinking, dress and clothing of the people of that epoch. Commentary on Charaka Samhita by Chakrapanidatta, called ‘Charaka Tatparya-Tika’ or ‘Ayurveda Dipika’, done in the 11th century (1066 A.D.), is very famous. Charaka Samhita was translated from Sanskrit into Arabic in the beginning of the 8th century and its name ‘Sharaka Indianus’ occurs in the Latin translation of Avicenna, Razes, and Serapion, a translation of the Karka from Sanskrit into Persian and from Persian into Arabic is mentioned in the Fihrst (finished in A.D. 987). It is likewise mentioned by Alberuni. Charaka Samhita was first translated into English by A.C. Kaviratnain 1897. The life and times of Charaka are not known with certainty. Some Indian scholars have stated that Charaka of Charaka Samhita existed before Panini, the grammarian, who is said to have lived before the sixth century B. C. Another school argues that Patanjali wrote a commentary on the medical work of Charaka, which is corroborated by his commentator, Chakrapanidatta. They say that if Patanjali lived around 175 B.C., Charaka must have lived some time before him. Another source about the identity of

Mesopotamia and Greece . which seems to be acquainted with Sushruta's enumeration of bones. His techniques of dissection of the human body are unique. in part only. Another commentary is by ‘Chakrapanidatta’ written in the eleventh century. Shalya Tantra was later revised and supplemented. ‘Chikitsa’. the composer of Shalya Tantra and when did he live. are classical marvels. SUSHRUTA SAMHITA This treatise is the main source of knowledge about surgery in ancient India . The exact data of Shatapatha Brahmana is not known. and abdominal operations.L.Charaka and his times is provided by the French orientalist Sylvan Levi. of lithotomy. It is called ‘Bhanumati’ and only a portion of it is available now. teacher of repute and an admirable author. It was translated into English.C. as we know it now. practical and revealing of the structure of the body. by U. the profession of healing was practiced by surgeons (ahalya vaidas).C. calling out for patients. He also described a variety of surgical instruments. the famous Arab physician.D. Rhazes’. Sushruta Samhita was translated into Arabic before the end of the eighth century A. and ‘Kalpa’. .. viz. ‘Sharira’. Another hint is provided by ‘Shatapatha Brahmana’. but for a hint here and there. but it is said to belong to the sixth century B. the most renowned is that of ‘Dalhana’ called ‘Nibandha Samgraha’ written in the 12th century AD. They lived in houses surrounded by gardens of medicinal herbs. Before Sushruta's time. Who was Sushruta.D. From the above discussion. It was called ‘Kitabshaw-shoon-a Hindi’ or ‘Kitabi-i-Susrud. Till such time as further and more conclusive evidence is available. Datta (1883). of taking out the dead foetus. Chattopadhyaya (1891) and Hoernle (1897). to the second century A. ‘Bhuta-Vidya’ and ‘Kalamara-Bhrtya’. ‘Nidana’. makes eight divisions in the present Sushruta Samhita. It was translated in Latin by Hassler and in German by Ullers. He discovered in the Chinese translation of the Buddhist Tripitaka.C. He taught his students the surgical techniques first on the dummies and later on the dead bodies. K. Sushruta Samhita. is not in the original form which he gave it and which he called. these professionals had to go out into the open streets. a person named Charaka who was a court physician to the IndoScythian king Kanishka. Sushruta may have lived around the time when Agnivesha composed his Tantra under the direction of Atreya. Sushruta in Sushruta Samhita introduces his own exposition with a remark pointing to the difference between the Atreya system and his own in respect of the total number of bones. Surgery was not considered a respectable profession before Sushruta's time. To practise their art. A. In India . In connection with the bones of the human body. to narrow down this period would not be justifiable. If that is so. it would seem that Charaka may have lived between the second century B. physicians (bhesajas) priest doctors (bhisaj atharvana]. He made great improvements in the general techniques of surgery and performed many new and major operations. Of the commentaries on Sushruta Samhita. Sushruta of Shalya Tantra was a great surgeon. It was first called Shalya Tantra consisted of only five divisions. ‘Sutra’. Bhisagaratna translated it in full between the years 1908 and 1917 and it is this translation which is available now. This proves that Sushruta could not have lived before Atreya. knowledge and practice of surgery in India was more or less of the same standard as in other contemporary civilizations like Egypt . His operations of making a new nose or ear-lobe. often quoted from it and mentioned Sarad as an authority on surgery. poisoncurers (vishaharas) and demon doctors (krtyaharas). Later addition of ‘Uttara-tantra' consisting of three divisions called ‘Shalakya’. who in all probability reigned in the second century A.D. is not known with any certainty.

It was deciphered and published by A. cut into longish folios like the palm leaves of southern and western India . Afterwards. The material on which it is written is birch bark. a palm leaf manuscript of it. This manuscript. this manuscript has not been mentioned by anyone until it was re-discovered. This man dug in the hope of getting some treasure in an area supposed to contain an underground city. but in the year 1880.BHELA SAMHITA Bhela was one of the six students of Atreya. Bhela Samhita essentially corroborates what Charaka Samhita says.F. the then President of the Asiatic Society. which means butter. This manuscript was forwarded to J. NAVA-NITAKA The practice of Ayurvedic medicine entered a new phase when instead of the ‘samhitas’ on medicine and surgery. . The author quotes from Charaka and Sushruta and Bhela Samhita. It was written in the ‘Gupta’ script of the 4th or 5th century. According to one scholar. This manuscript was discovered by a man of Kuchar. it differs from it in some details. just as a small amount of butter is extracted out milk. the manuscript was sold to the Bodlein Library in Oxford . an oasis of Eastern Turkistan in Central Asia on the caravan route to China . it was also hung on the door. the author of Nava-Nitaka was Navanita. Occasionally. composed in Sanskrit but written in the Telugu script. The present manuscript is composed of very defective Sanskrit mixed with Prakrit. But whatever has survived gives evidence of the same ancient tradition as Charaka Samhita does. He did not find any wealth but discovered a manuscript which was bought for a small sum by L. The contents suggest Buddhist influence in its composition. Hoernle. is indicative of the manner of its composition. so does this work contain the essential formulae extracted from other larger works. was found in the Palace Library at Tanjore. Bower. Nava Nitaka manuscript by its name or by its contents has been mentioned by different authors between the tenth and the sixteenth century. compendia of prescriptions for various diseases began to appear. The title 'Nava-Nitaka'. It has also eight divisions like the Charaka Samhita and each section end with the words: “Thus spake Atreya” as it is in Charaka Samhita. written in about 1650 BC. This route was used by the Buddhist monks of India for traveling to far off places. this was supposed to check the spread of infectious diseases like small-pox. This was not traceable for many centuries. Tied with a thread. According to Hoernle. who had gone there on a private mission from the Government of India. abounds in mistakes and some of it has been disfigured beyond recognition. Waterhouse. The first of such treatises which we have with us now is Nava Nitaka. Nava-Nitaka for the first time gives details about the use of garlic various diseases such as consumption (rajya yakshma) and scrofulous glands in the neck. He is said to have composed a treatise called Bhela Samhita.H. Garlic was recommended to be used in winter and spring. havamisra quoted these treatises repeatedly in their works. After that. who spent 21 years on its study. the whole manuscript consists of not less five distinct parts.

Charaka and Sushruta. Vagbhatta for sutra sthana (theoretical basis or general principles)." Ashtanga Hridaya has all along been a very popular treatise. Commentaries on it have been written from time to time by as many as 35 important Ayurvedic physicians. more so in the south. This is particularly noticeable in the new drugs and some of the new surgical procedures that have been introduced. many a time. ‘Chikitsa Sthana’. It does not mention the user of opium in the treatment of diseases and feeling of the pulse for diagnosis. literally quotes. It is easily understandable by ordinary physicians and became very popular and came to be known as Madhava nidana or simply Nidana. A special chapter is devoted to small-pox. in fact. each one interpreting it to the best of his knowledge and experience. It. It is a complete but concise description of Ayurvedic medicine.D. Dhanvantari and other earlier authors and their works. ‘Sutrasthana’ of Ashtanga Hridaya is especially popular. It is composed in a combination of verse and prose form. It specializes in the diagnosis of the diseases. the chief source. Bhela. Kashyapa. particularly the latter. they overshadowed the earlier samhitas to the extent that some portions of them were lost never to be recovered. Use of 'killed' (oxidized) metals is also not given in it. is Ashtanga Sangraha. ‘KalpaSthana’. It was written byVagbhatta around the 7th century AD. by Hakim Ali Mohammed Bin Ali Ismaili Asavali Aseeli. Commentaries on Ashtanga Sangraha were written by Arunadatta about 1220 A.D. Ashtanga Hridaya was translated from Sanskrit into Persian in 1473 A. Sushruta for sharira (structure of the body) and Charaka for chikitsa (treatment). numerous commentaries were written on Madhava's Nidana. Vangasena and Chakrapanidatta. In later times. A popular later couplet says: "The best authorities in medicine are Madhava for nidana (diagnosis). and ‘Uttara Sthana’ and it is also written by Vagbhatta. however. the ruler of Gujarat . Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita is divided into six divisions – ‘Sutra Sthana’. Its description of diseases shows a significant advancement compared with that of Charaka and Sushruta Samhita. It is predominantly based on the teachings of Charaka and Sushruta Samhita as though it also gives its own views on different topics. indicate advancement in knowledge over the two samhitas of Charaka and Sushruta.ASHTANGA SANGRAHA AND ASHTANGA HRIDAYA SAMHITA This book is still studied all over India . which previously was described only in a minor way. It contains 120 chapters and the author quotes Charaka. Chakrapanidatta and B RUG VINISHCHAYA Rug Vinishchaya. Later writers like Sharangadhara. and dedicated to Mahmood Shah I. The order in which it describes the causes. and by Hemadri a few decades later. is written in simple language and style. These treatises of Vagbhatta were extensively used and. Particular stress is laid upon surgery. however. which shows the borrowing it made from these sources. The most famous of these commentaries was ‘Madhukosh’ by Vijayaraksita . Nimi. Ashtanga Sangraha and Ashtanga Hridaya. Madhavakara's famous treatise. symptoms and complications of the important diseases sets an example for the future authors such as Vrinda. ‘Sharira Sthana’. which indicate the fame and popularity of this work. ‘Nidana Sthana’. Sushruta.

in the 8th century. Siddha Yoga is in the nature of a sangraha and follows the methods of Vagbhatta and others and gives a survey of the classical method of treatment. a commentator of Sushruta. It was among the books translated into Arabic. . This treatise is a medico-chemical work which incorporates some of the material from Charaka. Madhava. Siddha Yoga of Vrinda was considered to be very important treatise. does not mention anything about Dridhabala's edition of Charaka Samhita. Nagarjuna lived sometimes between the 8th and 9th century A. It appears. Alberuni mentions of a Nagarjuna resident of the fort Daibhak near Somnath. Madhavakara and Nagarjuna. Use of metallic compounds particularly began with Nagarjuna and it increased progressively. Vrinda knew about Madhava. These indirect sources indicate that Madhava may have existed in the 9th or 10th century A. Furthermore. which include ‘Kakshaputa Tanim’ and ‘Arogya Manjari’. were prepared and used in order to make the body undecayable and strong. Vagbhatta mentions Charaka and Sushruta but not Madhava. on the other hand.D. These compounds. in it Vrinda prescribes mercury for internal use. such as iron. Nagarjuna reconstructed Sushruta Samhita and added Uttara Tantra to it. tin and lead. SIDDHA YOGA Vrinda composed Siddha Yoga probably around 1000 A. Until the seventh and eighth centuries. this Nagarjuna lived about a hundred years before his times. It describes certain recipes in which vegetable or animal products are used to transform other metals into compounds which look like gold and could be passed off as gold. more particularly of mercury (rasa). who composed a book ‘Rasayana’. According to Dalhana. Ayurvedic drugs consisted mainly of vegetable products. A commentary called ‘Kusumavali’ was written on it by Sri Kanthadatta around fourteenth century A. RASARATNAKARA Rasaratnakara deals with the preparation and use of metallic compounds. The other commentary ‘Antak-darpan’ by Vachaspati also belongs to the later half of the 14th century. it is a work composed after the time of Vagbhatta i. The commentator states that Siddha Yoga makes particular mention of the diseases prevalent in western India . son of Indrakara. particularly of mercury.D. silver. According to him.and his pupil Srikanthadatta in the 14th century. So Madhava came after Vagbhatta but before Dridhabala. Nagarjuna was quoted as an authority on ‘rasayana’ by later authors such as Vrinda and Chakrapani.D. Sushruta. Nagarjuna composed some other works also. This became very popular. Metals.D. may be Vrinda belonged to that region. Rasaratnakara was written by Nagarjuna. The time of Madhavakara. cannot be stated with certainty. This is the first large treatise dealing with the prescriptions. Vagbhatta.e. were very sparingly used for medical purposes. it appears. From the internal evidence of this book..

Surgery is mentioned only in brief.D. In his important and voluminous treatise called Bhavaprakasha he describes the best of the available material of the previous authors and sets forth his own views and experiences. Mercury in the form of calomel. human anatomy. It is also divided into three khandas (parts): ‘purva’." He was the first to mention certain drugs of foreign countries as badhkashani naspasi. . therapeutics.disease to the Indian population also. surgery. In it the author systematically deals with the origin of Indian medicine. Sharangadhara Samhita is not a ‘tantric’ treatise though the author devotes the "Madhya khanda" to a detailed description of metals and their purification. Certain other recipes are also mentioned. He describes nadi-pariksha (examination of the pulse) and also the use of mercury and opium. He was considered as "a jewel among the physicians" and the best of the scholars of his time.SHARANGADHARA SAMHITA The earliest Indian medical treatise to mention of nadi-pariksha (pulse examinations) is of the 12th century. It mentions China root called Tobchini in the vernacular. according to Jolly. diseases of the children. BHAVAPRAKASHA To the middle of the sixteenth century belongs Bhava Misra whose treatise Bhavaprakasha is an important medical work. dietetics. particularly Portuguese. rejuvenants and elixirs to prolong life. Bhava Misra's Bhavaprakasha is still popular and is consulted by Ayurvedic physicians in India . the second by Kashiram called ‘Gurartha dipika’ in the 16th century. Indian physicians were quite unfamiliar with this scourge and all their previous medical treatises were silent on this subject. in medical diagnosis and therapeutics. Many of them. By the time of Bhava Misra. had started pouring into India to enrich themselves by commercial pursuits. were suffering from syphilis and so passed on the . and utilizes them in therapy. it was called Phiranga roga. Bengali and Marathi languages. He is said to have taught and trained at least 400 students in medicine. physiology. foreigners from European countries. He was the son of Lataka Misra and lived at Varanasi in the year 1550 A. this shows that it was very popular. even though they did describe other diseases of the genital organs. It also marks certain important advances in the physiology of respiration. Two commentaries on Sharangadhara Samhita were written: one by Adhamalla called ‘Dipika’ in the 13th century. cosmology. khorabani and parasika vacha (Acorus calamus). A copy of Bhavaprakasha dated 1558. Written in the 13th century. however. medicine. Gujarati. as a remedy of "phiranga roga. Sharangadhara Samhita was translated into Hindi. 'killing' and fixing of mercury. important drugs like mercury and opium. pathology. He composed another small pharmacological work called ‘Gunaratnamala’. ‘madhya’ and ‘uttara’. Bhava Misra is the last of the great men of Indian Medicine. catechu. but admits into the Indian pharmocopoeia. was available in Tubingen . Sharangadhara Samhita describes different types of pulse in different disease conditions. It follows the orthodox system of therapeutics of the ancient classical authorities. embryology. Materia Medica. Spilanthese oleracea and honey in certain proportions are the recommended medicines. A new name was needed for this malady and as this disease was brought into the country by the Portuguese. sulemani kharjura (date fruit of Suleman) and opium. mercury and the methods of 'swooning'. His clear style and excellent arrangement of the subject matter has thrown a flood of light on many obscure and disputed views of the ancient writers.

(Jeevaneeyam.) 19.CLASSIFICATION OF AYURVEDIC MEDICINE Various Ayurvedic medicines were classified into several groups by different authors of Ayurvedic books.) 12.) 18.) 7. Promoting Happy Feeling (Hridyam. Destroying Satisfaction (Triptighnam. Promoting Life.) 20. Promoting Appetite (Deepaneeyam.) 6.) 10.) 8.) 11.) 14.) 2. Promoting Lubrication (Snehopagam.) 21.) 15.) . Promoting Growth (Brimhaneeyam) . Destroying Skin Diseases (Kustaghnam. Producing Sperm (Sukrajananam. Destroying Parasites (Krimighnam. Destroying Poison (Vishaghnam. Destroying Piles (Arsoghnam. Promoting Evacuation (Bhedaneeyam. Producing Milk (Sthanyajananam. Promoting Union (Sandhaaneeyam. Promoting Strength (Balyam. Destroying Itching (Kandughnam. 3.) 5.) 9. Purifying Milk (Sthanysodhanam. These are as follows:- CHARAKA’S CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS (50 GROUPS) 1. Promoting Voice (Kantyam.) 17. Promoting Complexion (Varnyam.) 16. Purifying Sperm (Sukrasodhanam.) 13. Reducing Growth (Lekhaniyam) 4.

Relieving bodily Pains (Angamardaprasamanam.) 45. Reducing Urine (Mutra Sangrahaneeyam. Restoring Blood (Sonitaasthaapanam.) 37. 41.) 43. (Purisha Sangrahaneeyam. Reducing Faecal Matter. Relieving Suffering (vedanaasthaapana.22. Useful for Oily Enemata (Anuvaasanopagam. Relieving Exhaustion (Sramaharam. Promoting Sweat (Swedopagam. Controlling Vomitting. Purifying Urine (Mutra Virajaneeyam.) 39.) 29.) 23. Useful for Non-oily Enemata (Aasthaapanopagam.) 46. Relieving Colic (Sulaprasamanam. (Purisha Virajaneeyam. (Sirovirechaniyam.) 33. Relieving Burning Sensation (Daahaprasamanam. Relieving Cough (Kaasa Hara. Controlling Thirst.) . Promoting Purgaiton (Virechanopagam. (Trishnaanigrahanam.) . Checking Hiccough (Hiccanigrahanam.) 28.) 44.) 36.) 26. Relieving Cold (Seethaprasamanam.) 42.) 30. Relieving Rashes (Udardaprasamanam.) 25. Relieving Fever (Jwaraharam. Relieving Swelling (Swayathuhara.) 35. Increasing Urine (Mutra virechaneeyam.) 47. Purging Doshas in the Head.) 38. Purifying Faecal Matter.) 27. Relieving Dyspepsia (Swasahara.) 24. (Chardinigrahanam.) 34. Promoting Vomiting (Vamanopagam.) 32.) 40.) 31.

10. Arkaadi Gana The Arkaadigana checks Kapha.) 50. Medas and Visha. Surasaadi Gana Suraasadigana checks Kapha and destroys Krimees (Parasites). it is useful in Sosha (emaciation). Paandu (anaemia) and lessens Kapha and Medas. it creates luster of the skin ( Varna prasaada). Oordhwaswaasa (a kind of Swaasa) and Kaasa (cough). it destroys itching (Kandoo). develops complexion (Varnya). 6.) SUSHRUTA’S CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS (37 GROUPS) 1. Gulma (tumour). loss of appetite. Saalasaaraadi gana This gana is very helpful in Kushta. Pidakaa (Disease with elevated skin on account fo an abcess etc) and Kotha (eruption on skin). Elaadi Gana Elaadigana checks Vasta and Kapha and Visha (Poison). Rodhraadi Gana The Rodhraadigana lessens Medas and Kapha. Fixing Pregnancy (Prajaasthaapana. it is also useful in Prameha. 5. it is also useful in cold. it also acts as a curative in Prameha. 3. Jwara. 4.) 49. and Aabhyantara vidradhi (internal abscess). Kushta and is chiefly a purificator of Vranas (Viseshaat Vrana Sodhanah). Vidaarigandhaadi Gana The Vidaarigandhaadigana counteracts Vaata and Pitta. cold (Pratisyaaya). it creates appetite (deepana) and digests (resolves) AamaDosha (Aama Paachana). Fixing Youthfulness (Vayasthapana. hard breathing and cough. Gulma and pain (Soola). . it is curative of Yoni Dosha (disorders of Yoni). Pippalyaadi Gana Pippalyaadigana reduces Kapha Dosha. Mushkakaadi Gana Mushkakaadigana reduces Medas and is useful in Sukradosha (impurity of Semen). Vaata. It also acts as a curative in Prameha. it purifies (Dushta) Vrana. Angamarda (bodily soreness). Varunaadi Gana This Varunaadigana checks Kapha and Medas. Restoring Consciousness (Prajaasthaapana. 9. it is also useful in headache. it is astringent (Stambhee). Paanduroga and Sarkara. and mitigates the poisons (Vishavinaasana).48. 8. Kandu (itching) and it purifies Vrana (Dushta). Kushta. Aaragwadhaadi Gana The Aaragwadhaadigana checks Kapha and Poison. Gulma. Vami (vomiting). 2. 7. it is helpful also in Krimi. Arsas. anorexia.

It is beneficial in Pittajwara and cures Daaha (burning sensation) especially. Hridroga.11. Ambashtaadi Gana Both Priyangwaadi Gana and Ambashtaadi Gana are useful in Pakwaateesara. it is pleasant to take (Hridya). 23. 17. Vrishya (increases semen). it checks Vaata and Pitta. 14. Priyangwaadi Gana 22. Kapha and Arochaka (anorexia). 19. itching and Visha (poison). Udara. 13. Saaribaadi Gana Saaribaadigana allays thirst and Raktapitta. 18. Mootrakrichchra and Gulma. it is astringent (Sangraahee). Aanaaha (distension of abdomen). 21. it acts as curative in Asmaree (stone). They cause Sandhaana (union of bones etc). 15. and Udaavarta. it allays thirst and creates appetite. Vachaadi Gana 12. Brimhana (promotes bodily growth). it is beneficial in Vranas. Ooshakaadi Gana Ooshakaadigana allays Kapha and diminishes Medas. Syaamaadi Gana Syaamaadigana checks Gulma and Visha (poison). and it allays internal burning sensation. Mootrakrichra (Dysuria) and a kind of pain during urination. and cures vomiting. it causes free evacuation of the bowels. Further. Haridraadi Gana Both Vachaadigana and Haridraadigana purify the breast-milk. Brihatyaadi Gana Brihatyaadigana is a digestive (Paachaneeya). Parooshakaadi Gana Parooshakaadigana cures Vaata and disordered urine. Patolaadi Gana Patolaadigana cures Pitta. Sarkaraa (sand in urine). it allays Jwara. they are especially digestive of the Doshaas (Viseshaat Doshapaachanou). It is also beneficial in Arochaka (Anorexia) due to Kapha. Kaakolyaadi Gana Kaakolyaadigana cures Pittasonita (Rakta vitiated by Pitta. are beneficial in Pitta and heal the ulcers (Vranaanaam chaapi Ropanou). it allays Raktapitta (Haemorrhage) and Daaha (burning sensation). and increases breast-milk and Kapha. 20. Anjanaadi Gana This Gana cures Raktapitta. It is Jeevana (increases vitality). Nyagrodhaadi Gana Nyagrodhaadigana is beneficial in the treatment of Vranas (Vranyah). it is beneficial in Visha (poisoning). or Pitta and Sonita) and Vaayu. act as amelioratives (Samana) in Aamaateesaara. it reduces Medas . it is useful in fractures (Bhagna Saadhaka). 16.

worms (Krimi). It allays’ Hrillaasa (nausea accompanied with hawking of mucous etc. it is Laghu in Paaka It promotes appetite and it is slightly sweet in Rasa (Taste). bitter and sweet in taste. it also cures Yonidosha and purifies breast-milk. Kushta. it creates appetite. 30. Triphala It includes Hareetakee. Laakshaadi Gana Laakshaadi Gana is Kashaaya (astringent). Peenasa and Agnyalpataa (Poor digestion). it is digestive (Paachana). Kaneeya Panchamoola (or Hraswa Panchamoolam of Laghupanchamoola) It includes Trikantaka (Gokshura). reduces ailments due to Kapha and Pitta. 34. Kantakaari Prithakparnee and Vidaarigandhaa (Saalaparni). Visha (poisoning). it digests Aama-Dosha and it is curative of all Jwaras (fevers). 26. Kushta. Hridroga. thirst. from the mouth). it is useful in Kushta and Krimi (worms). 33. Kaneeya Panchamoola is Kashaaya. thirst. Brihatee. 27. Visha.(obesity) and it is useful in Yonidosha (Yonivvaapat). Dashamoola (Gana) reduces Swaasa (hard breathing). thirst and burning sensation. Mahaa Panchamoolam is bitter (tikta). 31. it checks Kapha. Tikta and Madhura in Rasa (taste). 29. Vami (Vomiting). 32. 24. Aamalakyaadi Gana This Aamalakyaadigana is useful in all jwaras (fevers) is beneficial to eyes. Chardi (Vomiting) and Moorchaa (Syncope). Arochaka (Anorexia). it is beneficial to eyes. Thriphala reduces Kapha and Pitta. Twagaamaya (Skin diseases). Trikatukam This is also called Tryooshanam and Vyosha. 28. It reduces Kapha and Medas and is useful in Pramea. it is Brimhana (tissue building) and increases strength (Balavardhanah). . 25. Aamalaka and Vibheetaka. Dashamoola It includes Kaneeya Panchamoola and Mahaa Panchamoola. Pitta and Rakta. Mustaadi Gana Mustakadi Gana reduces Kapha. checks Kapha and Vaata. it creates appetite and is useful in Vishamajwara. Utpalaadi Gana Utpalaadigana allays Daaha (burning sensation). it is useful in Gulma. Both the Panchamoolas when mixed are called Dashamoola. Gudoochyaadi Gana Gudoochyaadi gana checks all Jwaras (fevers and it increases appetite (Deepana). Pitta and Vaayu. it also purifies Dushta vranas. Hridroga Paandu and Prameha. it is useful in Prameha. it reduces Vaata and ameliorates Pitta. Trapwaadi Gana Trapwaadigana is useful in gara (poisoning usually through food). is an aphrodisiac and cures Kaphaarochaka (Anorexia due to Kapha).

they are aphrodisiacs (Vrishya). namely. Rakta (disorders of). VAGBHATTA’S CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS (32 GROUPS) 1. cause satisfaction (Preenana). Trinapanchamoola reduces Pitta. Saaribaadi Gana 11. Vallee Panchmoola 36. the other two. Laghupanchamoola and Mahaapanchamoola usually reduce Vaata. 9. 5. Niroohana Dravyagana 4. Vamanaoushadhagana (Emetics) 2.) 6. . ameliorate the vitiated Pitta. Valleepahchamoola and Kantaka Panchamoola. 8. thirst and Jwara (fever. Both the ganas are beneficial in Raktapitta and are useful in three kinds of Sopha (Aama. and it ameliorates Vaata and Pitta besides checking Sosha (wasting). Seershavirechaneeyagana Vaataharaganas Check Vaayu. Padmaakadi Gana The ingredients of Padmakaadi gana increase the breast-milk. 10. existing individually or in various combinations in a person. It should be understood that the substances in the groups (Ganas) may be altered. Prameha and purify Sukra.35. Virechanaoushdhagana (Purgatives) 3. Kantakapanchamoola It includes Vallee Panchamoola and Kantaka Panchamoola. diseases pertaining to urine (Mootraamaya) and Vaata. Gulma (tumour). Brimhana (tissue-builder). Pachyamaana and Pakwa). Oordhwaswaasa (a kind of hard-breathing). reduce Kapha. promote life (Jeevana) and build tissues (Brimhana). 7. Kaphaharaganas Ameliorate Kapha Dosha. Parooshakaadi Gana Ameliorates thirst. 12. Pittaharaganas (Ameliorate pitta). or individually used and variously combined according to the Doshas or Dooshyas etc. Ameliorate Daaha (burning sensation). Pitta. and Kaasa (cough). Angamarda (bodily soreness). Jeevaneeyaadi Gana Vidaaryaadi Gana The Vidaaryaadi gana is hridya (pleasing).

Jwara. and thirst. Gulma. it purifies Vranas (ulcers) especially. Vatsakaadi Gana Checks Vasta. Krimi (worms). 26. Kapha and Sukradosha. Privangwaadi Gana . Arkaadi Gana Reduces Kapha. Sarkaraa (Sand in urine). Asmaree.. headache. Kushta. 22. Kapha. Asma (calculus). Arsas (Piles). Prameha. and which is astringent. Kushta. Kapha. Kapha. (Anorexia). Yonidosha (disorders of Yoni). Asanaadi Gana Ameliorates Switra (leucoderma). Medas (fat) and Kapha. Antardaaha (internal burning sensation). 14. 23. Mootrakrichra (Dysuria). 21. Mootraghaate (Dribbling of urine etc. Gudoochyaadi Gana Ameliorates Pitta.13. They are also useful in Medas. Poor digestion (Mandaagni). Baahyavidradhi and Antarvidradhi). Paanduroga. Jwara. Visha. 16. and Kaasa (cough) and which purifies the Vraas. 25. Pratisyaaya. 17. complexion giving and antipoisonous. excessive Kapha. 19. 18. and Pitta. further. Veerataraadi Gana Ameliorates diseases caused by vitiated Vaata. Gulma. Kushta. Kapha. Vachaadi Gana Both Vachaadigana and Haridraadigana check Aamaateesaara. it promotes appetite. Medas (fat). Peenasa. beneficial in Asmaree (Caleulus). Sools and Durnaama. Visha. Prameha and reduces Medodosha (obesity). Jwara. itching and Prameha. Gulma. Swaasa (hard breathing). it purifies Dushta Vrana. burning sensation. 15. Vomiting. Krimi. Patolaadi Gana Checks Kapha. Medas. Vaayu and impurities of breastmilk. Checks vomiting. Pitta. Medas. Ooshakaadi Gana Checks Mootrakrichra. it ameliorates Krimi. Arochaka and Kaamalaa (Jaundice). Anjanaadi Gana Ameliorates Visha (poison). Vaata (vitiated downwards). Medas (fat) and poison. Varanaadi Gana Checks Kapha. it is. Paanduroga. Vami (Vomiting). and Kushta. 24. Surasaadi Gana Checks Kapha. Kapha and Medas. Rodhraadi Gana Reduces fat. Jwara. and pain in urinary organs. Mushkaakadi Gana Checks Gulma. Aruchi. 20.

Pitikaa (elevated swellings like abscesses etc. is astringent and useful in fractures (Bhagnasaadhanah). Ambashtaadi Gana Both Priyangwaadigana and Ambashtaadigana check Pakwaateesara. Elaadi Gana Elaadigana reduces Vaata. Hridriga and Mootrakrichra (Dysuria).com .) and Kothas (red eruptions on skin). 31. Kapha.webnode. Kacharagadla Media Corp http://kacharagadlatechno. they are Sandhaaneeya (cause union of fractures etc. it also checks Medas. Syaamnadi Gana Checks Gulma.27. thirst. Visha (Poison). 29. it develops complexion of the body. Kapha and Visha (Poison). Rakta. Aruchi (Anorexia). Nyagrodhaadi Gana Helps to heal the Vranas. Mustaadi Gana Curative of disorders of Vulva (Yoniroga) and breastmilk and are digestive of Malaas. Daaha (burning sensation) and Yoniroga. Pitta. it also cures itching. 28.). they are beneficial in Pitta and cause healing of ulcers. 30.

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