I.

Hospitality Industry

OVERVIEW OF HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

Hospitality is the cordial and generous reception and entertainment of guests or strangers, either socially or commercially. The Hospitality Industry is comprised of those businesses, which practice the act of being hospitable; those businesses which are characterized by generosity and friendliness to guests. A. Characteristics of Hospitality Industry a. b. c. d. e. Inseparability Perishability Labor-intensive Repetitive Intangibility

B. Components of Hospitality Industry a. Lodging Operations -such as hotels, resorts, motels etc. b. Transportation/ Travel Services -such as taxi, train, and cruise ships, etc. c. Food and Beverage Operations -such as restaurants, bars, etc. d. Retail Stores -such as souvenir shops, etc. e. Activities -such as recreations, festivals, etc. C. Brief History on the Development of Lodging Industry

• Can be traced back to the civilizations of Sumeria, Ancient Egypt, Ancient
Greece, Rome and Biblical Times.

• Two possible explanations why people in ancient times felt required to be
hospitable: they felt that hospitality to strangers were necessary to their religious well-being and having superstitious belief.

• The more logical in our modern thinking explains that providing
hospitality was a result of a “give and take” philosophy.

• The need for a place to stay away from home is as old as the first nomadic
traveler. Trading between two cultures created the need for groups of people to travel often-great distances. 1

• Along these trade routes, certain stopping points became favored out of
necessity. These stopping points became known as junction points that grew into trading centers and eventually evolved into cities.

• Journey segment is the maximum reasonable distance traveled in one day
along trade and caravan routes. At these journey segments, lodging facilities became a need. They were called relay houses in China, khans in Persia, and tabernas in Rome.

• Innovations began to emerge as the history of lodging unfolds. At some
point, innkeepers began to incorporate food and beverage service in their operations.

• Another development was the Roman network of roads that crisscrossed
Europe and parts of Asia and Africa. These roads provided fast and safe routes for travelers.

• The concept of hospitality was changed in 1282 in Florence, Italy. The
innkeepers created a guild or associations that formed hospitality into business.

• The industrial revolution of the mid-1700s created new modes of
transportation that further changed the way people traveled.

• •

The emergence of railroads and later the automobile played large roles in lodging’s history because both dramatically increased the lengths of journey segments for a traveler. As the evolution of lodging continued, new facilities began to emerge as an option for travelers. The wealthy and landed aristocracy of the world began to view the many spare rooms in their castles and estates as sources of revenue. The best example of this can be traced back to the English and colonial inns of the 1700s. The significant difference between the two was that colonial inns offered rooms to anyone who could afford to pay, whereas English inns were most often reserved for the aristocracy. Another difference between the two was that English inns rented out individual sleeping rooms, whereas colonial inns regularly offered large rooms with several beds inside. This meant that English inns could offer 2

private guest rooms, whereas colonial inns were better suited for communal accommodations. • • • The word hotel is the Anglicized version of the French hotel garni, which translates into “large, furnished mansion”. The first lodging facility that can be directly considered a precursor of the modern hotel was the 73 rooms City Hotel built in New York in 1794. It is a significant milestone in the evolution of lodging because its sole purpose was to house guests. All the previous inns were homes first and lodging facilities second. In 1829, Tremont House was built in Boston. This property was another milestone in the early revolution of hotels. It was considered as the first five-star hotel. Highly trained staff, French Cuisine, and luxurious appointed rooms combined to give guests the finest hotel experience available ever to that point in time. Amenities offered by the Tremont House include in-room water pitchers and free soap that was considered revolutionary.

D. Classification of Hotels 1. According to Size: a. Small Scale (under 150 rooms) b. Medium Scale (150 to 299 rooms) c. Large Scale (300 and above) 2. According to Target Market: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. Commercial Hotels Airport Hotels Suite Hotels Residential Hotels Resort Hotels Bed and Breakfast Hotels Time-Share and Condominium Casino Hotels Conference Centers Convention Hotels Alternative Lodging Properties

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Center City Suburban Resort Airport Highway 4 . c. World-Class Service b. According to Quality Ranking a. Business Travel Pleasure Travel Group Travel Buying Influences 6. d. Owner-operated Owner-managed Independent Franchised Management-contract 5. b. e. According to Type of Ownership and Affiliation a. c. c. e.3. Economy / Limited Service 4. b. According to Location a. d. d. c. b. According to Levels of Service / Price a. d. Deluxe First Class Standard Economy 7. Reasons for Traveling a. b. Medium-Range Service c.

E. Hotel Organization Mission Statement Defines the unique purpose that sets one hotel or Hotel Company apart from others. It expresses the underlying philosophy that gives meaning and direction to hotel policies. A hotel’s mission statement should address the interests of three diverse groups: guests, management, and employees. Objectives Are those ends an organization must achieve to effectively carry out its mission. An objective is more specific than a mission; it calls for levels of achievement, which can be observed and measured. Goals Define the purpose of a department or division; they direct the actions of managers and employees and the functions of the department or division towards fulfilling the hotel’s mission. Strategies Are the methods a department or division plans to use to achieve its goals. Organizational Chart A schematic representation of the relationships between positions within the organization. It shows where each position fits in the overall organization as well as where divisions of responsibility and lines of authority lie. Solid lines on the chart indicate direct-line accountability. Dotted lines indicate relationships that involve a high degree of cooperation and communication, but not direct reporting relationship.

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F. Classification of Functional Areas: 1. Revenue vs. Support Centers a. Revenue Centers - those that sells goods or services to guests, thereby generating revenue for the hotel (front office, food and beverage outlets, room service and retail stores). b. Support Centers - these do not generate direct revenue, but provide important backing for the hotel’s revenue centers (housekeeping, accounting, engineering and maintenance, and human resources division). 2. Front-of-the-house vs. Back-of-the-house a. Front-of-the-house - areas that involves guest and employee interaction (front office, restaurants, and lounges). b. Back-of-the-house - areas where interaction between guests and employees is less common (housekeeping, engineering and maintenance, accounting, and human resources). G. Hotel Divisions:

• • • • • • • •

Food and Beverage Division Sales and Marketing Division Accounting Division Engineering and Maintenance Security Division Human Resource Division Rooms Division • Front Office • Housekeeping Other Divisions: • Retail Outlets • Recreation • Casino

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II.

HOUSEKEEPING ORGANIZATION

Housekeeping – refers to the upkeep and maintenance of cleanliness and order in a house or a lodging establishment. Efficient managed housekeeping department ensure the cleanliness, maintenance, and aesthetic appeal of lodging properties. The housekeeping department not only prepares, on a timely basis, clean guestrooms for arriving guests, it also cleans and maintains everything in the hotel so that the property is as fresh and attractive as the day it opened for business. Housekeeper – one who is responsible for administering housekeeping maintenance, insuring that everything is on order and that all occupants are made comfortable, safe and protected from disease-causing bacteria. A. Types of Housekeeping: 1. Domestic Housekeeping – refers to housekeeping maintenance in a house. Areas covered by domestic housekeeping: bedroom, living room, entertainment room, kitchen, comfort room and others that consist of a convenient house. 2. Institutional Housekeeping – applies to housekeeping maintenance in commercial lodging establishments like hotels, resorts, inns, and apartels. Institutional Housekeeping usually covers the following areas: 1. Guest rooms 2. Hallways and corridors 3. Lobby 4. Public rooms and restaurants 5. Offices 6. Stairways 7. Windows 8. Stores and concessionaire shops 9. Grounds 10. Linen and Laundry area B. Scope of Housekeeping Maintenance: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Guestroom maintenance. Maintenance of public areas. Maintenance of linen and laundry service. Washing, issuance, repair and inventory of employee’s uniform. Installation, cleaning and maintenance of fixtures and facilities.

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8. etc. 5. E. Disposing of trash neatly and safely. Paperwork. 14. fabrics and furnishings. Being alert to safety hazards and eliminating the condition. 2. Cleaning and maintenance. 3. 6. D. 2. polishing shoes. Keeping all public areas clean and inviting. 11. safe. Provision of special services like baby-sitting. Coordinating pest control services.6. Maintaining of guestrooms on a high standard of cleanliness. 18. Keeping all office areas neat. Major Responsibilities of Housekeeping Department: 1. Making sure that services and employees areas are kept clean and orderly. 10. 9. and free from obstruction. 13. 17. which could cause injury to the guest. To operate with a conscious and cooperative effort towards the company. To protect and maintain the original beauty of the building finishes. Reporting any repairs needed and seeing that these repairs are made as promptly as possible. 4. 8 . Practicing cleaning methods that help retain the original beauty of the hotel. Training of its personnel. Keeping all corridors clean. To train staff members of the hotel in housekeeping services. 3. To provide a clean. uniforms. cleaning aids and printed materials. 15. Providing records that are necessary for efficient operation. 12. 3. 2. Promoting business for the hotel through courteous service to the guest. Controlling expenses to assist the hotel in operating profitably. which gives a feeling of security and reassurance to guests. Cleaning light fixtures and using right wattages. C. 7. Securing and keeping accurate records on lost and found items. 6. To extend friendly and courteous service to all guests and to all staff members of the hotel. 5. 16. 4. Practicing sanitation methods. Requisition and control of necessary supplies and equipment. safe and comfortable environment. Main Functions of the Housekeeping Department: 1. To conform to sanitation requirements of health laws. which fulfill health law requirements and furnishing protection for the guests. Properly using and maintaining all equipment needed. Objectives of Housekeeping Department: 1. 4. Furnishing adequate supplies of linens. clean and inviting.

Favorable Worker’s Behavior:                    Enthusiastic Caring Flexible Sensitive Encouraging Positive Open Non-Judgmental Communicator Team Player Innovative Dependable Fair Organized Patient Facilitator Respectful Adaptable Ethical                  Takes Charge Pro-Active Assertive Self-Motivated Service-Oriented Meticulous Not Superstitious Does not Discuss Controversial and Issues Willing to Accept Challenges Credible Does Not Take Personally Tactful Creative Ability to Make Quick Decisions Ability to Influence Diplomatic Ability to Work Under Pressure 9 .

• HOUSEKEEPING ORGANIZATIONAL CHART For Large Establishments: Executive Housekeeper or Housekeeping Manager Roomskeeping Supervisor Roomboy Public Area Supervisor Houseman/ Utility/Maintenance Pest Control Technician Gardener/ Grounds Maintenance Linen & Laundry Supervisor Linen Attendant Chambermaid Laundry Attendant Mini-Bar Attendant Valet Runner Steam Presser/ St Ironer • For Smaller Establishments: Housekeeping Supervisor Assistant Housekeeping Supervisor Room Attendant or Roomboy and Chambermaid Houseman and Powder Girl Linen and Laundry Attendant Gardener and Grounds Maintenance Crew 10 .III.

2. Organizes the flow of housekeeping operations: • Identifies tasks to be done and distributes them to his staff • Review/upgrades job description and job procedures • Reviews/upgrades operational policies as needed 2. sees to it that housekeeping maintenance is carried out in accordance with prescribed standards and policies. A. Determines the operational requirements of his/her department and coordinates with the Purchasing Department for the procurement for the said items. Analyze variances against targets and deviations from standards and take corrective action. Leading and Directing Functions 1. 2. B. Delegates side duties to subordinates. Calls for and presides over operations meetings with supervisors to discuss and resolve operational problems. 4. Conducts job orientation and training of housekeeping personnel. Organizational Functions 1.Distribution of Housekeeping Responsibilities: Housekeeping tasks are distributed to housekeeping personnel who are designated to perform the following functions and responsibilities: I. Executive Housekeeper or Housekeeping Manager Basic Function: Responsible for maintaining a smooth and efficient flow of operations in the Housekeeping Department. Prepares and submits operations budgets and monitors consumption against budget. Planning and Problem-Solving Functions: 1. 11 . Formulates goals and targets as well as plans and strategies geared towards goal attainment. 6. C. 3. Take corrective action for any problem affecting the operation in his department attends to customer complaints coordinates with department concerned for remedial action. Regularly conducts spot checks and routine inspection to ensure that housekeeping standards are complied with. 5.

Looks after the wear and tear of equipment. initiates requisition as needed. Rooms Maintenance Supervisor Basic Function: Directs and controls rooms keeping activities including room make up. keeps track of losses and breakdown of equipment. Checks customer satisfaction. Boost employee morale and motivation through the effective use of motivational techniques. Controls and monitors expenses against the budget. 2. 3. Sees to it that house rules and housekeeping policies are carried out by the respective units under him. makes sure that the rooms are installed with standard room 12 . looks after their proper use. 6. II. 5. E. Coordinates periodic inventory of housekeeping items and supplies. storage and maintenance. 4. 8. 5. 2. Guest Relations 1. Handles guest complaints and takes corrective action. budget variance report. Controlling Function 1. takes appropriate action against excessive consumption. inventory report and other documents. Coordinates with the Facilities and Maintenance Section on matters requiring repair or trouble shooting of equipment and room facilities. 3. Conducts routine inspection to check the quality of room make up. D. solicits feedback and attends to customer needs. Coordinates closely with Front Office on room status and room bookings as well as changes in room assignments and reservations. installation of mini-bar and other room amenities. Performs other related functions as maybe assigned by superior. Provides supervision and coaching to section heads.3. Prepares and submits reports required by management such as critical incidents reports. 9. Evaluates subordinates performance and conducts appraisal interview’ 4. Enforces disciplinary action against erring employees. conducts corrective interview as needed. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. 7. ensures conformity to prescribed Roomskeeping standards and policies. Maintains par stock requirements.

4. 8. Conducts regular inspection of the different public areas. 3. storage and maintenance of linen and cleaning equipments as well as housekeeping tools and supplies. with Maintenance Unit regarding requests for repairs or maintenance. Monitors and supervises the proper use. Sees to it that his superior is informed of all unusual incidents and accidents in his area of responsibility. Attends to the performance evaluation of his subordinates. orderliness and safety in all covered areas. 6. 12. prepares and distributes room status report to Front Desk and to room attendants. 4. Coordinates with Front Office regarding changes in room status and bookings. III. Makes requisition whenever needed. 10. 2. Reports losses and damages and takes corrective action against reckless use of equipment. 5. Also checks if there is anything that needs repair or corrective action. coaches and supervises room boys and chambermaids. checks the quality of cleaning and maintenance and ensures that the area is free of safety hazards. Inquiries and requests. 9. Regularly checks the condition and maintenance of housekeeping equipment.amenities and that the area is free of safety hazards. storage. 11. Also checks if there is anything that needs repair or corrective action. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior. Checks rooms status during room check. Maintain quality housekeeping in all public areas paying special attention to cleanliness. conducts appraisal interview. Attends to guest complaints. 2. Initiates and supervises the weekly inventory of room supplies and other Housekeeping items entrusted to his unit. Looks after the proper use. Initiates service request for defective items. Checks and maintains par stock. 7. and maintenance of cleaning equipment as well as housekeeping tools and supplies. 13. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. 3. Trains. 13 . Personally attends to VIP guests and their requirements. Checks order in all areas and makes sure that fixtures and furnitures are installed in the right location. Have them cleaned regularly. Head Houseman or Public Area Supervisor Basic Function: Directs and controls all activities concerning public area maintenance and ensures conformity to prescribed housekeeping standards and policies.

6. Assists in the inventory of guestroom supplies and linens. Reports all unusual incidents and complaints of house guests. 9. Attends to the needs and additional requests of house guests. unauthorized entry of suspicious persons in guestrooms as well as guests who are sick or in critical condition. 2.5. Looks after the proper use. Checks equipment regularly for their condition. carpets. bed and the bathroom. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior. fixtures following standard cleaning procedures. • Sanitizes toilets and bathrooms using sanitizing chemicals. • Checks the condition of all guestroom facilities and fixtures and reports any defect to supervisor for corrective action. Trains. IV. maintenance and storage of cleaning equipment. 7. Initiates and supervises weekly inventory of cleaning supplies and other housekeeping items allocated to his unit. • Installs and replenishes standard room amenities in their appropriate location. Roomboy. Makes requisition to replenish supplies. coaches. orderliness and sanitation in his assigned guestrooms: • Clean walls. Checks and maintains par stock requirements. or Room Attendant Basic Function: Attends to the maintenance and upkeep of all guestrooms and service areas assigned to him/ her. Evaluates the performance of his subordinates and conducts appraisal interview. • Collects all used/ soiled linen and replenishes them with fresh ones. 4. 7. 8. 6. Have then cleaned regularly and repaired when out of order. 5. Performs turn-down service if scheduled for the second shift. Chambermaid. • Looks after the orderly make-up of the room. • Changes/ empties waste baskets or garbage cans. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. and supervises his staff. 11. 10. Reports losses and damages and takes corrective action against reckless use of equipment. Reports to management all unusual incidents and accidents in the public areas. 14 . safety hazards and items needing repair or replacement. Reports damages to supervisor for corrective action. Looks after the maintenance of cleanliness. 3. Reports and surrenders all lost and found items to supervisor.

Checks and collects mini0bar receipts in all guestrooms. Records mini bar consumption per room and prepares a sales report. 16. Maintains par stock of mini bar items. V. listing. 8. from different floors/guest areas. 5. Assists his supervisor in conducting room check. 10.. requisitioning and other related functions. inventories and billing. 7. inventory – taking. Cleans and dusts mini-bar bottles in vacant guestrooms. 15 . Checks sales records from time to time to determine accuracy of records. Determines availability and non-availability of mini-bars stocks and updates accordingly the individual receipts distributed in guestrooms. Assists in the promotion of mini bar items. Coordinates also with other staff like Bell Service in collecting bills of guests and hotel skipper. Takes note of salable and non-salable items to have a more accurate basis for requisition and ordering of stocks. cans. Collects empty or consumed mini-bar bottles. Conducts fumigation of assigned guestrooms as needed. 11. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. and guestrooms. Performs other related duties as may be assigned by his or her supervisor. Prepares and submits daily accomplishment and consumption report to his/ her supervisor. Monitors sales and movement of stocks. 13. Coordinates with Front Office Cashiers for the billing of late charges. 11. Assists in the inventory of stocks in housekeeping stockroom as well as in all vacant. stocking. etc. 6. initiates requisition to replenish used stocks. 2. informs supervisor of slow moving and non-moving items. replenishing. pantries. Explores to the incoming attendant all un-replenishment minibars in guestrooms to make sure that all scheduled replenishments for the day will be accomplished as scheduled. 14. Mini Bar Runner/ Mini Bar Attendant Basic Function: Responsible for performing mini – bar installation. 9. 3. 10.8. 4. 9. Conduct mini-bar inventory. Promptly prepares billing of mini-bar consumption giving priority to rooms occupied by guests who are about to check out within the day. occupied and check-out rooms. 15. 12.

b. 4. following standard cleaning procedures. toilet tissues. torn carpets. 18. Performs other related duties as may be assigned by superior. Collects and disposes garbage and litters. clogged floor drain. Disinfects toilet bowls. VI. d. Sweeps/ scrubs/ polishes floors and walls. urinals. defective locks. turns-over to him all lost-andfound articles. Cleans and sanitizes public comfort rooms under his area. busted bulbs. g. cracks on walls. Polishes/ dusts of all fixtures. Secures cleaning supplies. 16 . Houseman Basic Function: Responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of cleanliness and orderliness in public areas assigned to him. Returns spoiled stocks before the end of each month and submits report to supervisor or the Cost Control section. Coordinates closely with Front Office regarding rooms on cash-basis to be able to pull out mini-bar stocks and also to obtain the check-out list for each day.. Reports all noted damages and out-of-order facilities in his area of responsibility including defective cleaning equipment. materials and equipment and looks after their proper use. ceiling leaks. 19. exhaust and glass panels. Reports guest complaints to his supervisor as well as suspicious objects or persons. storage and maintenance. Cleans ceilings. 7. 2. 9. etc. 10. f. Vacuums/shampoos carpets and upholstered furniture. 8. Replenishes guest supplies in public comfort rooms like paper towels. 20. Checks the location. 6. defective sinks. soap. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. e.17. 5. Changes/ cleans ashtrays. sees to it that they are clean and properly installed. Cleans and sanitizes all areas assigned to him following standard cleaning procedures: a. Performs other duties as may be assigned. Prepares daily accomplishment report and submits them to supervisor. Double checks the expiration dates of items for prompt replenishment. and toilet bowls. 3. Conducts fumigation in the absence of a pest control technician. condition and arrangement of fixtures in his area of responsibility. etc. c.

etc. insures that everything is in order. 3.VII. Gardener and Grounds Maintenance Crew Basic Function: Responsible for maintaining the grounds including the plants and landscape. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. 17 . Performs daily sweeping and cleaning of grounds following standard cleaning procedures. cleans. defective tiles. 6. Maintains the landscape. Retouches the cleaning of comfort rooms from time to time. 5. apply fertilizer. Regularly cleans ladies comfort rooms and locker rooms following standard cleaning procedures: • Disinfects toilet bowls. soap. 4. paper towels. • Fumigate the area as needed. checks for leaking faucets. 7. 9. scouts for new ornamental plants. 4.. shower. Powder Girl Basic Function: Responsible for the cleaning. Maintains supplies for plants and grounds maintenance and makes requisition to replenish stocks. wipe dry floor and wall tiles. • Scrubs. wash and dry garbage bins 3. Regularly checks trash and empties garbage bins from time to time. Performs cultivation of plants through planting and other techniques. Replenish toilet amenities like toilet paper. etc. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior. VIII. Assists in the issuance of linens if available. • Polish chrome and metal fixtures like faucets. and reports any defect to her supervisor. Checks the condition of fixtures and toilet facilities. prunes leaves. 5. 2. Looks after the care of plants. care and maintenance of ladies comfort rooms and locker rooms. etc. 2. Assists in other cleaning or housekeeping job when not loaded. weed out dried leaves. • Dispose garbage. Maintains a par stock of cleaning supplies and makes requisition to replenish stocks. 8.

6. Maintains stocks for pest control and looks after their safekeeping. IX. 6. 7. 4. makes report and recommendations to remedy the situation. Performs fumigation in accordance with prescribed procedures. Pest Control Technician Basic Function: attends to the prevention and control of pests through preventive and corrective techniques. gardens. Checks possible sources and causes of the proliferation of pests and insects. 18 . 2. motorpool and other related areas. façade. May perform side duties like maintenance of cleanliness of the pool area. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. 3. Looks for patches or holes and other entry points of insects and takes corrective action. 5. Searches for areas where pests and insects proliferate and perform the necessary fumigation. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior. fountains.

Involves moving heavy furniture. washcloths. pillowcases. 10. Buffing .intensive or specialized cleaning undertaken in guestrooms or public areas. for example. pillow quilts. This technique is not intended to remove heavily embedded dirt or old floor finish. Chronic Hazard .something that could cause immediate harm. Burnishing .the use of a damp (not wet) mop for spot cleaning of spills and overall cleaning of light dirt from floors. hand towels. dust ruffles. 1.the act of polishing the surface of a floor with a high-speed (350+ rpm) floor machine to achieve an extremely high gloss (wet look) surface. and bed spreads. Area Responsibility Plan. and cloth bath mats. a chemical that could cause burns on contact with the skin is an acute hazard. coverlets. mattress pads. Daily Work Assignment Sheet . and that at no extra cost. Bedding . 9. Bed and Bath Linen . 4. shams.items such as sheets. a chemical that could cause cancer or organ damage with repeated use over a long period.a service or item offered to guests or placed in guestrooms for convenience and comfort.a document that geographically defines physical areas of a facility and assigns responsibility for cleaning among the various departments of a hotel or hospitality organization.all bed linens such as sheets and pillowcases. turning mattresses. vacuuming draperies and curtains. usually developed from the division of work document. 3. 6. Amenity .form that indicates special work tasks required for a given day and are assigned to a specific worker. 7.something that could cause harm over along period. 11. Often conducted according to a special schedule or on a special project basis. bath towels. comforters. 19 . For example. 8.the act of polishing the surface of a floor with a low-speed (175-350 rpm) floor machine. and all blankets. 5. and other cleaning functions 2. Deep Cleaning . high dusting. HOUSEKEEPING TERMINOLOGIES Acute Hazard . Damp Mopping .IV.

Early Makeup . 17.comparison of the amount of water that is.a liquid applied to floors that dries to a protective coating and enhances the appearance of the floor. Double-locked rooms cannot be accessed by room attendant using a standard pass key. even when they are double-locked. Guest Expendables .the quantity of each type of linen that is required to out-fit all rooms serviced from a particular floor linen closet.a key which opens all guestroom doors. 22. Guest signs a receipt and specify a time that the item may be picked up by the housekeeping department.a room status term indicating that the guest has reserved an early check-in time or has requested his/her room to be cleaned as soon as possible. toilet tissue and soap. ice buckets.an occupied room for which the guest has refused housekeeping service by locking the room from the inside with a dead bolt.guest supplies not normally found in a guestroom but available upon request. a 20:1 dilution ratio means 20 parts water to a 1 part cleaning agent. For example.guest supplies that guests would normally be expected to use up or take away upon departure. 13. Face Fibers .the measure of a carpet’s pile. Equal to the weight of the face fibers in one square yard of a carpet. Examples include stationery. 16. razors. Examples include hair dryers. added to a specific cleaning agent that is recommended for a specific cleaning task. 20 . and cloth hangers. ironing boards. 14. Face Weight . Guest Loan Items . Examples include water glasses. 15. 21.yarns which form the pile of the carpet.guest supplies that are essential in guestrooms but that the guest would not normally be expected to use up or remove upon departure. Finish . Emergency Key . 19.not normally performed in the day-to-day servicing of a guestroom. Dilution Ratio . or must be. Floor Par . Guest Essentials . 18. and irons. Double – Locked . Finishes come in waxbased or polymer types. 20. Synonymously with general cleaning. 12.

a key which opens a single guestroom door if it is not double-locked. hair dryers. Guest Supplies .a portable container for storing. Hard Floor .floors made from natural stone or clay. 29. Types of hard floors include concrete. razors roll-away bed or baby crib. but also the least resilient. Housekeeper’s Report . based on a physical check. Guestroom Key. ceramic tile. such as for extra towels.any special request not normally included in the regular servicing of a guestroom. etc.supplies specifically needed because guests are staying in a hotel. Typically located on the top shelf of the room attendant’s cart. and checks out at the end of his/her shift. assembles and organizes cleaning supplies. Specifies what rooms are ready for occupancy. HAZCOMM Standard (Hazard Communication Standard) . 26.a report made daily to the front desk by the housekeeping department and signed by a manager indicating the correct status of all guestrooms. This is the area where the employee typically reports to work. Also referred to as one par of linen. 28. receives room assignments. House Rule . House Setup . marble. These floors are among the most durable of all floor surfaces.any published company-wide rule for which violation can result in immediate discharge. holding. 33. Hand Caddy . Linen Room .OSHA’s regulation requiring all employers to inform employees about possible hazards related to chemicals they use on the job.23. and terrazzo. 27. room status reports. 31. 32.the total number of each type of linen that is needed to outfit all guestrooms one time. and transporting cleaning supplies. 21 . 30. Guest Request . and/or on-change. Compilation of all results obtained from afternoon room checks conducted on the entire guestroom. and other natural stone. and keys. Housekeeping Status Report .a report prepared by the housekeeping department which indicates the current housekeeping status of each room. 24.area in a hospitality operation which is often considered the headquarters of the housekeeping department. occupied by guests. 25.

22 . 36. Occupancy Report . acids have values of less than 7 to 0. OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) .the surface of a carpet. Preventive maintenance consists of inspection. Maintenance Work Request Form .document used as a guide in the performance of a maintenance inspection. Pile . 41.a broad set of rules that projects workers in all trades and professions from a variety of unsafe working conditions. Form allows for the control and processing of work and the recording of man-hours and materials involved in the repairs performed.face fiber condition such as twisting. flaring. It can be made from a number of natural and synthetic materials. pH Scale . is transmitted to the engineering department. Pile Distortion . MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) . a pH of 7 is neutral.a layer of material placed under carpet to increase resiliency. 44. 43.a report prepared each night by a front desk agent which lists rooms occupied that night and indicates those guests expected to check out the following day.a scale that measures the acidity or alkalinity of a substance to the scale. pilling. and work order initiation. consists of fibers or yarns that form raised loops that can be cut or sheared.a three-part document used for repairs. minor corrections.a key which opens all guestroom doors which are not double-locked. 45. The results are sometimes referred to as “square corners” or “hospital corners”. 40. Mitering . 35. Maintenance Checklist . Padding .a systematic approach to maintenance in which situations are identified and corrected on a regular basis to control costs and keep larger problems from occurring.a method for contouring a sheet or blanket to fit the corner of a mattress in a smooth and neat manner. Master Key . Preventive Maintenance . and alkalies have values of more than 7 to 14.34. or matting caused by heavy traffic or improper cleaning methods. 39. 38. 42. 37.a form containing information about a chemical that is supplied by the chemical’s manufacturer.

a situation in which the housekeeping department’s description of a room status differs from the room status information at the front desk. Room Status Discrepancy . Routine Maintenance – activities related to the general upkeep of the property that occur on a regular (daily or weekly) basis. Room Attendant’s Cart . 47.a report which allows the housekeeping department to identify the occupancy condition of the property’s rooms. Generated daily through a two-way communication between housekeeping and the front desk. 23 . 49. Spray Buffing . washing floor. or bonnet and brush shampoos. Room Inspection .the part of a carpet that is laminated to the primary backing to provide additional stability and more secure installation. Types of resilient floors include vinyl. scrub.46. These activities occur outside of a formal work order system and include such tasks as sweeping carpets. Rotary Floor Machine . Primary Backing . and require relatively minimal training or skills to perform. Resilient Floors . strip. Room Status Report . wheeled vehicle used by room attendants for transporting cleaning supplies. mist pad cleaning. 52.a type of floor that reduces noise and is considered easier to stand or walk on. On hard floors. 54.floor care equipment that accommodates both brushes and pads to perform such carpet cleaning tasks as dry foaming cleaning. linoleum. rotary spin pad cleaning. 51. Scheduled Maintenance . 48.the part of the carpet to which face fibers are attached and which holds these fibers in place. etc. burnish.activities related to the upkeep of the property that are initiated through a formal work order or similar document. and equipment needed to fulfill a block of cleaning assignments.a detailed process in which guestrooms are systematically checked for cleanliness and maintenance needs. rubber. linen. these machines can be used to buff. and wood. 53. asphalt. cleaning guestrooms.the application of a finish solution while polishing a floor’s surface to retouch worn spots and to restore a glossy look to the floor’s surface.a lightweight. 55. 56. and refinish. Secondary Backing . 50.

and its sanitation as well. CHEMICALS AND EQUIPMENT Good housekeeping requires high standard of cleanliness or the absence of dirt. TOOLS. or the absences of disease-causing organisms like bacteria. Cleaning supplies and small cleaning equipment items are part of the nonrecycled inventory in the housekeeping department. tidy the room. and turn down the guest bed. V. Turndown Service . All housekeeping tasks need the use of the right tool for the right job. Familiarization on the following cleaning supplies. These supplies are consumed or used up in the course of routine housekeeping operations. CLEANING SUPPLIES. tools and equipment will help the hospitality provider an utmost service to its guests and therefore attaining its goal and objectives. Cleaning Material: Uses and characteristics when 24 . The executive housekeeper must work with all members of the housekeeping department to ensure the correct use of cleaning materials and adherence to cost-control procedures.a special service provided by the housekeeping department which a room attendant enters the guestroom in the early evening to restock supplies. Controlling inventories of all cleaning supplies and ensuring their effective use is an important responsibility of the executive housekeeper.57.

stainless steel. Mop buckets range in size from 16 quarts up to 50 quarts.” Stainless steel buckets are the most expensive. large particles of dirt and debris. For washing and rinsing a two-bucket system saves valuable labor costs. split tip. The front row will have heavy-duty bristles designed to remove stubborn. Wringers are made out of either Wringers • 25 . The best have no seams. and structural foamed plastic. Mop wringers squeeze in one or two directions. Buckets are made out of three basic materials galvanized steel. but more expensive. and dirt builds up in the scratches. Round buckets track in a straight line when pushing them down hallways while oval buckets tend to wander. sideways and downward. but they scratch. Many good push brooms have a steel brush hood that allows the operator to change worn brushes. making them permanently “grungy. Good push brooms will have two rows of bristles. Downward wringers are better. The most popular sizes are 26 quarts and 35 quarts. The second row will have fine. Well-designed buckets have threeinch casters and rubber bumpers to protect furniture and walls. Plastic buckets do not rust and they are the most inexpensive to make.Brooms: Soft Broom Stick Broom Push Broom Corn Broom Mop Buckets • purchasing: • The role of a broom is to remove large particles of soil from hard and resilient floors. bristles designed to remove fine particles of dirt and debris.

Choose mops that are loop-end rather than cut-end. are more durable. Dust mops should be treated at the end of the job. Oil treatments should be avoided because they can strain stone and wood floors. Dust mops range in size from 12-inch to 60-inch widths. All quality mops have a tailband that helps the mop to spread evenly and retain its shape. Daily dusting helps to protect the floor’s finish by removing small abrasive particles that erode the finish. in order to allow the treated mop to dry. Cotton mops are normally treated with chemicals that attract and hold particles. • Dust Mops • 26 .” Wet Mops • Mop heads can be made of cotton. not the beginning. but it wears out much faster than the metal wringers. Rayon is best for the application of floor finishes. Dust mops are meant to be used daily to remove dust and small particles of soil from the floor. Loop-end mops hold liquids better.steel or plastic. Rayon/ cotton blends are an excellent compromises. or a rayon/cotton blend. Plastic is less expensive. Wash wet mops after each use and do not apply bleach to the mop. Wet mops can be purchased in a variety of colors for color-coding purposes. Cotton is the best for scrubbing and is the most economical material. and do not lint. Wringers can be purchased by size or in a “one-size fits all” size. bleach will speed the disintegration of the fibers. Dust mops can be made of cotton or synthetic yarns. rayon.

Bonnets and Brushes • Housekeeper’s Cart • • 27 . Handles are available in 54-inch. Used to remove excessive water from the surface and corners.000 square feet. Window squeegees come with a number of attractive features. from telescoping handles that enable a worker to clean a third story exterior window without the aid of scaffolding or a ladder. Disposable mops last for approximately 100. metal. It also speeds up the drying process. to U-joints that allow a worker to squeegee a window at an angle. bonnets. Mop Handles • Mop handles can be made from wood. Bonnets are made of yarn and are intended to be used on a floor machine to spray clean carpets. and plastic and come with a variety of features. Floor pads have a universal color code so that users can tell at a glance if they are using the right pad for a particular application. and brushes. Floor machines and burnishes use floor pads. and 63-inch lengths. The housekeeper’s cart is a most Squeegees: Floor Squeegee Window Squeegee • • Pads. Floor squeegees have a much heavier rubber than window variety. Used for stocking cleaning supplies and chemicals so as to make cleaning easier and faster. Floor machine brushes are used to shampoo carpets. The fibers are synthetic.Synthetic yarns do not need to be treated and may be the best alterative in many instances. Quick change clamps are one welcome options. Pads are made from either natural or synthetic fibers. 60-inch.

and a top that is partitioned for small items. Quality housekeeper’s carts are maneuverable with fixed wheels at one end and castered wheels at the opposite end. These bumpers should not leave unsightly marks if they come in contact with walls. strip floor finishes. sand wood floors. storage for a maid’s vacuum. Carts should have three deep shelves. The solution lies in quality caster and ball-bearing wheels. Vacuum • Single-Disk Floor Machine • 28 . Used to eliminate loose dirt and dust particles from carpet surface. Machines are available in 17.• • • significant piece of equipment. it must be maneuverable and capable of being pushed by some one weighing less than 100 pounds. 18.) Since the cart is large and may be heavily loaded. polish floors. These cart must be large enough to carry all of the supplies that the section housekeeper might readily be expected to use in the workday (repeated trips to the main or satellite linen room for two extra sheets or three more glasses is distracting and will decrease work efficiency. spray buff floors. and shampoo carpets. There should be a bumper guard that surrounds the cart that will protect the corridor walls and door casings. There should be one cart for each section of rooms. facilities to handle soiled linen sacks and rubbish sacks that are detachable. upholstered furniture and even hard surfaces. This machine can scrub floors.

A single-dish floor machine will operate between 175 rpm to 350 rpm. Resembles like a single-disk floor machine. while traditional scrubbers operate from side to side. UHS buffers operate in a straight line.500 rpm. the rest of the weight is distributed to the wheels. Only the front part of the pad comes into contact with the floor.• • Burnishers or Ultra-High-Speed Buffers • • • • • • 19. Propane models are noisy. Trash-Handling Equipment • 29 . They were developed to polish the new harder floor finishes that had been recently introduced into the market. thus reducing labor costs. do not select too small a scrubber. brushes. There are battery and propane models that enable the operator to cover vast areas without the need for troublesome electric cords. and they present a possible fire hazard. A large machine will cover an area faster. Many models have caster wheels in the front of the machine to distribute the weight. they create noxious fumes. When selecting a standard singledish scrubber. but they operate between 350 rpm and 2. the pad of a UHS buffer does not rest entirely upon the floor. Another piece of equipment used by the section housekeeping aide is some sort of conveyor whereby rubbish and other materials may be moved from various sections of the hotel to a disposal area. and bonnets. 20 and 21-inch models. These machines will accommodate pads. Unlike single-disk floor machines.

For polishing metal surfaces like bathroom fixtures. a situation that causes odor and proliferation of bacteria. walls and other parts of the building. For picking up dirt and cigarette buffs on ashtrays. wickerwork. just press the handle and push towards the dirt to vacuum sweep the carpet. etc. It removes dirt that sticks to or penetrates into the carpet layers. To polish wood surfaces. Cleaning Towel Polishing Cloths • • • Hand Brushes Toilet Bowl Brush Tongs • • • Trash Bags Sponges Buckets • • • Wood Polish/ Furniture Cleaners and Polishes 30 . Also used for cleaning tiles.Carpet Sweeper • Carpet Extractor • Scouring Pads • Dusting Cloths • • Used to pick-up dirt and particles from the carpet. Used with mops for cleaning floors. mirrors. It is designed to dry foam shampoo the carpets. Used for drying bathroom walls and floor tiles after they are cleaned. For brushing away dusts from rough surfaces such as rattan. and porcelain (white). Used to underline garbage containers so that wet garbage does not penetrate into the corners or surfaces. leather and imitation leather surfaces. For cleaning fine surfaces. For dusting wooden and painted parts of the area. For cleaning toilet bowls. Color coded pads that is used to scrub (green) and clean painted surfaces. marbles.

The best polishes contain lemon oil. This is not advisable for toilet bowls since it is very strong and it can damage the tiles. For polishing brush copper and metal surfaces.• • Insecticides • • • Normally wax or oil-based products that contain antistatic compounds. which serves to replenish the moisture that is lost from the wood. and other areas that are most vulnerable to bacterial contamination. Formulated to remove grease. etc. mildews. oil. dirt. loosen and strip off tough old waxes. Used to remove foul odor in guestrooms. sink. For fumigation to eliminate insects/pests. carbon. Used to disinfect toilet bowls. For polishing all glass surfaces such as mirrors. To be used only for removing cement or plastic remains from floors. Formulated to break up. windows. comfort rooms or any area with foul odor. urinals. Dilution will depend on the thickness of cement or plastic remains. ink. For stain or spot removal on carpets. Used to remove lacquer or paint from hard surfaces. Methylated Spirit Deodorizers / Air Freshener Carpet Stain Remover • • Disinfectant Metal Cleaners and Polishes Lacquer or Paint Thinner Muriatic Acid • • • • • Wax Stripper • • Degreaser 31 . soils.

A multi-purpose agent designed for several different cleaning tasks depending upon the dilution ratio applied. Used to clean surfaces that are badly soiled by grease. A non-buffable wax that is highly recommended for wooden floors. A kerosene base wax used for wooden floors. They also have disinfecting powers. To expedite draining of clogs. and alcohols. Used to remove soil from a surface through a chemical action. Emulsion Wax • A buffable wax used for resilient floors like vinyl. Alkalies in all-purpose cleaners typically have a pH between 8 and 9. a quartz dust that can scratch glass). kerosene. Normally contain a detergent combined with bleach and an abrasive (usually silica. wood and resilient floors. or oil.5. linoleum. Alkalies in cleaning agents boost the cleaning ability of detergents. Used to remove mineral deposits Polymer Sealer • • • • • • Solvent Wax Paste Wax Drain Cleaners Detergents All-Purpose Cleaners Abrasive Cleaners • Solvent Cleaners • • Alkalies • • • Delimers • 32 .and waxes. Solvents are made from pine oils. For polishing stone floors. tar. and rubber tile and for concrete floors and marble.

Floors are vacuumed. polished or shampooed when necessary. Windows and glass panels are dusted and polished. 1. Closets. Cleanliness • • • • • • STANDARDS OF IDEAL HOUSEKEEPING All areas are immaculately clean. Grounds are free of liters and dirt. cabinets and storage areas are also kept clean.that can dull. top to bottom. including surfaces. corner-to-corner. and/or discolor surfaces. 33 . Furnitures and fixtures are properly dusted. VI. scale. doorknobs and metal fixtures are polished with the right metal polishing chemical.

Building is provided with all required safety facilities like ventilated fire exits. are sanitized with sanitizing detergents to protect guests from possible bacterial contamination. function rooms and public areas are free from any safety hazards like open electrical outlet. etc. emergency alarm. stagnant water. regularly fumigated to eliminate pests. etc. Eye Appeal • • • • Ambiance is soothing to the eyes. fire extinguishers/hoses. Guests are not disturbed by noise and other forms of distractions. Room amenities are properly installed in appropriate location. linen are mitred and wrinkle free. Linens are neatly folded. glasses. etc.2. dangling wires. Wall decors and TV sets are posted at eye level. 34 . Area is protected from pest infestation. Suitable interior design is provided for. broken chairs. 3. toiletries. Guests’ Comfort • • • Rooms are properly ventilated and lighted. 5. slippery floors. Orderliness • • • • Facilities and fixtures are properly arranged and installed in appropriate location. Wet garbage is properly underlined with plastic. Glasses and water jug that are installed in guestrooms are covered. there is proper blending of colors. safety standards prescribed for building maintenance by the government are strictly enforced. cutleries. luminous safety signs. There are sufficient amenities for the comfort of guests like linen. etc. Sanitation • • • • • The whole area is free from all sources of bacterial contamination such as undisposed garbage and left-over. drinking glass. All items for personal use of guest and which come in contact with the body like linen. covered and disposed regularly. No eyesore can be found in guest-contact areas. Safety • • The rooms. 6. Beds are made up properly... not dim or dull. damaged tiles. etc. 4.

Guests with special problems like the sick. Staff do out of their way to render extra service to guests. All staff are trained on emergency procedures. Staff exhibit a warm and pleasant disposition in dealing with guests. Losses. are given the necessary assistance and support by the Housekeeping staff. 35 . All tools and equipment are stored safely in appropriate storage compartments right after use. Effective control measures are designed and enforced to prevent losses and pilferages. Customer feedback is solicited to determine guests’ satisfaction. etc. Customer feedback and concerns are logged down and discussed for corrective action during meetings. Staffs are trained on the proper use and maintenance of equipment. intoxicated pones. Inquiries of guests are given accurate and appropriate response. There is regular inventory of supplies and materials. Customer needs and concerns are anticipated and attended to immediately. Regular cleaning and check-up of equipment is undertaken. regular requisitions are made. documented and accounted for. Guest Relations • • • • • • • • • • Guest requests and concerns are given prompt and proper attention. All appliances and equipment are regularly checked for any damage and maintained in safe working condition to avoid accidents. Par stock requirements are always maintained. Chemicals are diluted properly and used sparingly. has a well organized safety or emergency procedures and emergency brigade. Trained roving guards are available to check movements in guestrooms and to insure the protection of guests. given appropriate action. Staff expresses warm appreciation and gratitude for guest patronage. Supplies and materials are consumed within the limits of the budget. including the use of safety equipment. The hotel is prepared for any emergency. Consumption of supplies is always monitored and excessive consumption is determined and reported.• • • • Safety instructions during emergencies are available in all rooms. Tact and diplomacy is observed in dealing with complaints and difficult situations. damages and equipment breakdown are properly reported. 7. Materials Control and Preventive Maintenance • • • • • • • • • • • • There is a designated budget for supplies and materials. 8.

free of dust. baseboards. baseboards. Dusting   All surfaces are dust-free. All floors. All spots are removed upon discovery. Corners are vacuumed. Corners and areas difficult to reach are cleaned with soft cloth to remove smudges. Floor Finishing Floor finishes are not allowed to build up in corners. or under furniture.  Stripping and removal of old floor finish is done whenever necessary to avoid yellowing and build-up in corners. Water does not run on floors and fixtures.  Walls are spot free. Floors are free of obstructions. Window Cleaning 36 .  No dirt left on corners. behind doors. or underneath furniture. carpet is shampooed as necessary.  Wall Washing Streaks and lap marks are not visible. Vacuuming     All carpeted areas/ upholsteries are kept clean. smooth and even finish.Cleaning Standards: Sweeping All swept floors do not have dust streaks nor does show mark where dirt was picked up. under carpets or furnitures. Floor Cleaning     Swept or vacuumed. Cleaning solutions are rinsed quickly and the floor is dried at once. after thorough stripping/ scrubbing are applied with a thin.  Mopping   Water is used sparingly. Cemented or vinyl floor is scrubbed or polished.

free of foul odor. All metal fixtures and hardwares are cleaned and polished with metal polish. Cleaning Glass Panels. free of watermarks and spots. Fixtures are wiped dry to avoid retention of water that causes watermarks. Waste Disposal. garbage. 37 . Sinks are clean and sanitized with sanitizing chemical. Cleaned as often as necessary. and dirt. Upholstered chairs are shampooed or vacuumed. Bathroom supplies are replenished and installed according to standard arrangement. no visible streaks. Containers are underlined with plastic. Shower curtains are properly brushed and wiped dry. door handles and other surfaces. fixtures. No soap film is allowed to remain on fixtures. Dusting/ Cleaning of Furnitures and Fixtures     Thoroughly dusted. Furnitures have no damages or defects. Bathroom and Washroom Cleaning            Toilet bowls. doors. scratches or spots. disposed daily. Appliances are properly arranged and installed in their appropriate location. urinals are sanitized with sanitizing chemicals. wiped dry. no marks. Window frames and channels are free of dust. Cleaning of Ashtrays  Emptied of soil and cigarette butts. Cleaning of Drinking Fountain   Kept clean and sanitary. There is no sign of marks or streaks on walls. sanitized and dried. Floor is mopped. Refuse is totally removed. all surfaces are free of dirt and spots. Mirrors  Thoroughly cleaned. Garbage Containers    Emptied of trash. washed and wiped dry. Bathroom walls are properly scrubbed. Bathroom mirror is well polished and wiped dry. Bowls are clean inside and out.  Window glasses do not have smudges or watermarks.

Plants are watered regularly. Grounds Maintenance        All walkways. Guests expect to sleep. make the difference in the property’s safety and security system. parking spaces. in some cases. Plant pests are eradicated. pruned. free of littered objects. fertilized periodically. VII. planted areas are clean. scrubbed as scheduled and whenever necessary to prevent the growth of algae. scrubbed regularly and dust free. and entertain in a facility that is safe and secure – and are entitled to reasonable care under law. meet. Soil is regularly cultivated. dine.Ceiling Cleaning   Ceiling is free of cobwebs and dirt. Housekeeping personnel can help meet this guest expectation and. Safety 38 . trimmed periodically and as necessary. Ceiling fan and fluorescent are thoroughly dusted. Cemented/concrete pavements are free from spots. Pool flooring is cleaned. fumigation is conducted on regular schedule or upon detection of presence of pests in the area. SAFETY AND SECURITY Safety and security are two responsibilities of hotel managers. Plants (in boxes) are maintained and replaced as needed. planted to prevent eroding.

A term that pertains to discussing disaster preparedness, fire prevention and protection, protection devices, and conditions that provide for freedom from injury and damage to property. The two hotel departments most likely to have the largest number of accidents and injuries are maintenance and housekeeping. One basis for this frequency is the sheer labor-intensity of these two departments. In many operations, housekeeping and maintenance employ more people than any other department. Another reason lies in the fact that working in housekeeping or maintenance involves physical activities and equipment use – both of which increase the risks of accident and injury. To reduce safety risks, the executive housekeeper must be aware of potential safety hazards and develop procedures to prevent accidents. Safety should be a top priority. Ongoing safety training programs help ensures that safe conditions are maintained in all work areas. To develop programs, management must be aware of the laws that regulate the work environment – and more specifically, how those laws affect housekeeping personnel. Employee Morale and Management Concerns Unsafe working conditions have a negative effect on employee morale. If employees are preoccupied with hazardous conditions in the work place, they will not be able to perform the best of their ability. For most part, it is difficult to motivate employees until unsafe conditions are corrected. One of management’s top concerns should be for the health and welfare of employees. Employees are one of the most important assets a hotel has. If managers want employees to provide quality service, they must treat employees fairly and with respect. Respect for an employee’s right to work in a safe and hazard free environment is a good place to begin. Potentially Hazardous Conditions Accidents and injuries do not have to occur. By following three simple rules, employees can contribute to a safe, accident-free work environment:

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Take adequate time Correct unsafe conditions immediately Do it safely the first time

Lifting: Housekeeping tasks often involve lifting heavy objects. Employees may also be required to move furniture in order to complete a thorough cleaning task. Incorrectly lifting heavy objects such as bags, boxes, and containers may result in strained or pulled muscles and back injury. In turn, these injuries can result in loss of work and long-term pain and suffering. Employees can also incur cuts and scratches when lifting items such as trash or dirty linens which contain pointy objects or broken glasses. In all instances, employees should know what conditions to look for and the special precautions to take. Some guidelines for safe moving and lifting:

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Inspect the object before lifting. Do not lift any item that you cannot get your arms around or that you cannot see over when carrying. Get help if it is too heavy. Look for any protrusions, especially when lifting trash or bundles of linen. Quite often, these items contain pointy objects or broken glass. Exercise special care to avoid injury. When lifting, place one foot near the object and the other slightly back and apart. Keep well balanced. Keep the back and head of your body straight. Because the back muscles are generally weaker than the leg muscles, do not use the back muscle to lift the object. Bend slightly at the knees and hips but do not stoop. Use both hands and grasp the objects using the entire hand. Lift with the leg muscles. Keep the object close to the body. Avoid twisting your body. When setting an object down, do not use your back muscles. Use the leg muscles and follow the procedures used to lift objects. When tucking in sheets, picking up a laundry or cleaning a tub, bend with the knee and not on the back, nor on the waist to prevent back injury. Use your body weight in pushing and pulling the vacuum, not just your arms and shoulder. To avoid slipping and tripping, hold the cord and coil as you go. Wear the right shoes. Working shoes should be slip resistant, with a closed toe and fit to give you the best comfort. Watch where you are going to prevent slips and fall. Use door stopper and not linens or objects that could cause a slip or fall. Turn on lights and look all sides before entering any room. There may be spills or broken glasses on the floor that need to be cleared.

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If a broken glass is found, sweep the floor and place the glass in a container separate from the trash. To push the room attendant’s cart easily, check if it has sticking wheels. Without it, it will be harder to push and could injure the user. Remove sticking thread on the wheels. Be careful with loose screw or sharp edges as they could catch on one’s clothing and cause cuts. When pushing the cart, lean forward into the cart, rely on one’s legs and feel not unto one’s back or across the body. Keep the cart close, use feet and legs and not arms and shoulders. In case a cart falls down, do not try to stop or stand it up by alone. It is heavier than you think and can cause accidents. Ask for help. Do not overload laundry cart to make it easier to pull. When reaching for something, especially in the tub, never stand on the edge of a toilet bowl. You might loose your balance and fall.

Ladders: Ladders can be used when cleaning areas on or near the ceiling or for such tasks as changing light bulbs. When selecting a ladder for a particular cleaning job, its condition, height and footing should be inspected. Check the ladder for stability and examine crosspieces for sturdiness. If the ladder is broken or defective, do not use it. Rather, tag the ladder, place it out of service, and report it to the appropriate housekeeping supervisor or the maintenance department An aluminum or metal ladder should never be used when working near or on electrical equipment. Ladders with rubber footings should be used on tile floors or in kitchen areas to prevent slipping. In all instances, the floor should be dry and clean. A ladder must be high enough so that an attendant can stand on it and do the job without overreaching. Never stand on the top step of a ladder. If the area cannot be reached while standing on the step below the top step, the ladder is too short for he job. Ladders should be placed so footing is at least one fourth of the ladder length away from the wall. Never place a ladder against window or an uneven surface. Before climbing, test the ladder for stability; it should be well balanced and secure against the wall and floor. Always be sure to face a ladder when climbing and have a clean and dry hands and feet. Do not hold any items or tools that may prevent the use of one or both hands. Mark the area underneath the ladder with caution signs so that guests or employees do not walk under the ladder. Machinery: Employees should be authorized and trained in the use of machinery and equipment before operating such devices. Most equipment, machineries, and power tools come with instructions.

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In no instance should an attendant attempt to restart the equipment. These safety guards should never be removed. All protective gear should be worn per instructions. Even one of the most common housekeeping appliances like a vacuum cleaner can be harmful or deadly if operated improperly or in unsafe conditions. chemicals. Employees may also be required to wear protective eye goggles or gloves. Equipment wires and connections should be checked periodically. An appliance should never be unplugged by pulling or yanking the cord. Equipments should be unplugged by grasping the plug and pulling it gently away from the outlet. Many power tools and other machineries are equipped with protective guards or shields. An employee should never operate electrical equipment when standing in water or when hands or clothing are wet. There are many types of extension cords. the cord should be kept out of traffic areas such as the center of hallways or cross doorways. Equipment that sparks. Sparks from electrical equipment could start a fire. Electrical Equipment: Extra care must be taken when operating electrical equipment. keep the cord close to the wall and post caution signs in the work area. Contact the appropriate supervisor or the maintenance department to have it repaired as soon as possible. the equipment should be unplugged. If the appliance will be stationary and in use for a lengthy period. When using electrical equipment. Extension cords should be inspected for exposed wire before use just like any other electrical cord. Extension cords are sometimes required – particularly when an electric outlet is not located near the work areas. 42 . tape the cord to the floor and place caution signs over the taped cord. or flames should be turned off immediately. The local fire department can pinpoint which types of cords meet the local fire codes and regulations. In such situations. smokes. or vapors. all tools and equipment should be turned off and stored in the proper place. Equipment with loose connections or exposed wires should not be used. The malfunction should be reported to the appropriate housekeeping supervisor or the maintenance department. When not in use. Never use a piece of equipment or machinery that is not operating correctly. It is also unsafe to operate electrical equipment near flammable liquids. If it is possible and safe to do so.Some employees may need additional training and supervised practice before operating equipment and machinery on the job by themselves. Equipment and machineries should never be left unattended while in use. particularly with such tasks as vacuuming corridors. This is not always possible. This will loosen the connection between the cord and the plug and cause sparks and shorts. not all are acceptable for use in a hospitality operation.

loose connections and loose plugs. Use the right amount of chemicals. room attendants should check electric lamps. Cap of bottles/ containers should be tight and the broken nozzles must be replaced to prevent drips. and other fixtures for frayed wires. Never mix chemicals the result can be potentially deadly like fumes created by mixing bleach with ammonia. follow the direction of the label. If not sure of how to clean up a spill. Chemicals are used to clean all areas of a lodging property including bathrooms. these same helpful chemicals can cause nausea. Outlet and switch covers should be checked to ensure that they are covered properly and not cracked or broken. ask the supervisor. Chemicals: Many housekeeping employees are exposed to dangerous chemicals in their daily work routines. misused chemicals can cause serious injury in a short period. Wear personal protective equipment like goggles and hand gloves for protection from spills and splashes. injury.     43 . skin rashes. Often the use of such hazardous and toxic chemicals cannot be avoided. vomiting. Be sure the correct chemical goes in a properly labeled container when refilling spray bottles. Potentially hazardous chemicals are also used to kill insects and rodents. Use only one chemical for its intended purpose. are relatively harmless. These chemicals are powerful cleaners. To use the chemical correctly. Some housekeeping situations require employees to handle toxic substances to unstop clogs in toilets and other plumbing fixtures. blindness. block the surface. cancer. Exposed electrical wire may result in shock. and. when used improperly. new employees – especially in properties with high employee turnover – need to be trained immediately. However. kitchens and floors. the room attendant should not attempt to fix them. Excessive amount may damage surfaces. Second.When cleaning guestrooms. appliances. Handling Chemicals Safely:      Read the labels and the material safety data sheet. Continual training in chemical safety is necessary for two reasons: First. when used properly with proper protective gear. If any of these conditions are found. If a chemical spills. and even death. A minor spill can be cleaned up. or even death when touched. potential problems should be reported to the appropriate housekeeping supervisor or to the maintenance. rather.

analyzing. Clean contaminated areas. Handle potentially contaminated items as little as possible. Maintain open lines of communication with the local police department. rinse it with a clean water and get immediate medical assistance. Investigating security incidents. When the guest request for additional item. pens. Maintaining records on such incidents as theft. and suggesting solutions for returning security problems. bathrobes. anxiety. Theft: Guest theft: most hotels assume that guests will take items such as matches. as well as to the protection and defense against the loss or theft of guest. it is noted at the 44 . some properties keep count of the number of amenities inside the room. employee. and sewing kit. When these items turn up missing. Committee Responsibilities:       Development of security handbook and the design of training and awareness programs. and on-site violence. vandalism. Supervisors and selected hourly employees can also contribute important security information and add to the committee’s effectiveness. it can add up to a large expense for a hospitality operation.  To reduce the theft of these items. However. Monitoring. and pictures are not part of the marketing strategy and are not meant to be taken by guests. Conducting spot security audits and property inspections. Use proper container for disposal of items. towels. ashtrays. shampoo. Security Committees: Security committee should consist of key management personnel – including departmental heads. and company property and prevention of other emergencies. trash bins. these items are provided for the guest’s convenience and are actually a form of advertising used by the hotel.      If a chemical spill blocks your skin. Thoroughly wash hands after using chemicals. and doubt involving ourselves. Security Security refers to the freedom from fear. For most part. rinse as directed in the material safety data sheet If your eyes are exposed and contaminated by a spill.

and leather stationery folders and the like are on sale in their gift shops. bathrobes. Keep all storeroom doors locked. some hotels place items such as towels. Storerooms should be equipped with automatic closing and locking devices. The room attendant’s ability to spot missing item may allow the hotel time to charge the guest for items that have been taken. Locks on storerooms should be changed periodically to reduce the opportunity of theft. Secure windows. check local laws to ensure that the selected screening techniques are not illegal or prohibited. Keep storage rooms closed and locked Affix or bolt guestroom items and fixtures to appropriate surfaces.front desk. Employees should be aware of the results of monthly inventories – especially when shortages are discovered. These entrances should be well-lighted. The employee handbook should spell out the consequences of stealing hotel property. notes how many items are in the room. and other hotel property. Other helpful ideas to reduce guest theft:      Use as few monogrammed items as possible. adequately secured. This may reduce the likelihood of theft since guests have the option of purchasing these items. 45 . Management should designate employee entrances and exits. Another strategy. amenities. or if too little stock is on the shelves. Before asking any questions or making inquiries. records should be kept of stolen or missing items. and provided with round-the-clock security. Detailed records that note any unusual or unexplained fluctuations should be kept of all items in stock. It is a good practice to conduct a monthly inventory of all housekeeping supplies including toilet paper. Management should also detail explicit rules and regulations concerning employee theft.including those from guestrooms. Managers should screen applicants before making a job offer. A through background check should be conducted. In addition to keeping records of items in stock. A manager who takes hotel steaks home to barbeque will not be effective when asking employees not to steal food. it may be an indication of employee theft. linen. If the items in storage do not match the usage rate. including a check for any criminal convictions. Good inventory control procedures can also help control theft. The record should include the name of the room attendant and any other hotel employees who had access to the room. having these items on sale helps set a standard price that can be levied against guests for a missing item. when cleaning the next day. too. and linens. Also. Employee theft: it is up to the management to set the standards for reducing employee theft – and to act as a good example. The room attendant.

An all-clear sign should be given after all search procedures have been 46 . In such cases. identification badges may be required to prevent strangers who pose as employees to gain admittance to the property. Some bomb devices are sensitive to these sound waves and may go off. Employees should know what items they may bring onto or remove from the property. all teams should regroup in a designated area. Bomb Treats: Housekeeping procedures for handling bomb treats should be part of the property’s security manual. The employee parking area should not be so close to the building that it allows employees to easily and quickly transfer stolen property to their cars. or beepers. Housekeeping personnel have an advantage since their daily routines promote familiarity with many hotel areas. closets. trash containers. it should not be touched or moved. If the hotel is large or has a very high turnover rate. Housekeeping’s role usually consists of helping in the search for any suspicious objects that could be bombs. Management may establish a claim-checking system for bringing items onto the premises and a parcel-pass system for taking items off the premises. It may be helpful to take a flashlight to inspect areas with little light. If a suspicious looking object is found. Avoid using radios.talkies. Notification is best done face-to-face or over the telephone. walkie. exit areas. employee are less likely to know their fellow workers. Information from the caller or letter may give clues on where personnel should search and on what type of bomb or object to look for. Restricting employee parking to a carefully selected area can also help control losses. Search team employees look for objects that are normally not found in an area. Where and how the search is conducted will depend on the way the property received the bomb threat. Keeping the area well-lighted reduces the temptation to steal and also makes the lot safer for employees who leave work after dark. If nothing is found after completing the search. If an employee has permission to remove hotel property.Employee entrance may include a security staff office which monitors arriving and departing employees. elevators. ashtrays. notify the person in charge of the search team or an appropriate supervisor immediately. Searches often include stairways. he/she should be issued a signed permit from the supervisor or an appropriate manager before doing so. and window sills.

persistent chemical change that releases heat and light and is accompanied by flame. housekeeping employees should follow procedures to assist in rescue efforts. It is very likely that a fire started by Class A combustibles could grow to include Class B and C materials. This is because many bomb threats are just that – threats. Quite often. Generally. Fires: Fires are grouped into four classifications based on the different products of combustion.  Accident chain. bomb threat emergency procedures should still be followed just in case it is a real emergency. If police respond to such calls.  47 . employees. However. the employee should respond in a way that does not arouse unnecessary suspicion or fear. especially the exothermic oxidation of a combustible substance. Fires start for many reasons. The local police should be notified of all bomb threats. Others may be the result of arson. Accident Prevention: An accident can be defined as the result of a series of events and conditions that lead to an unsafe situation resulting in injury and/or property damage. these procedures do not include notifying guests until a search is completed. the hotel should follow the directions laid out by police personnel. It is described as a rapid. Many hotel fires are fueled by a combination of combustibles. a series of events and conditions that can lead to an accident. Some fires may be caused by an accident or mechanical malfunction. In these instances. is a simple chemical reaction. If a guest does ask an employee what he/she is doing during a search. Mission: “To save lives and property” Fire Behavior:  Burning. It should also include provisions for emergency medical services. The safety and security manual should include evacuation plans in case a bomb should actually be found or explode on the premises. and property are not under by real threat. also called combustion.performed and management is satisfied that the guests. guests are not notified when bomb threats are received.

keep an escape path open. fitness. lighting. Event:  The event is the intersection of the foregoing components. and serviceability. Never let the fire to get between you and the door. surface conditions. Your knowledge of the situation will aid those responding. If you must enter a room to combat the fire. and physical barriers. call out your discovery. A “near miss” or “close call” is an accident without injury or physical damage. access. Fight the fire with the wind or the wind coming from your back. Injury:  Deals with the actual injury (or property damage) associated with the accident. Never pass the fire to get an extinguisher. 48 . sound the fire alarm and summon help. and equipment limitations. Close the door to confine the fire. Something or someone had to bring those components together in such a way to create the unsafe situation. fatigue. Human Factors:  This includes human and social behaviors. maintenance. training (lack of training).Classifications:      Environment Human factors Equipment Event Injury Environment:  Included here are physical surroundings such as weather. and attitudes. If you enter a room and your attack with a portable extinguisher fails. Equipment:  Included here are apparatus. A dead-end passageway could trap you. Fire Safety Rules and Principles:      When you discover a fire. get out immediately. proper application.

Well-planned actions for every emergency will surely achieve firefighting operations safely. Each side represented as essential ingredient for fire:    Heat Fuel Oxygen  As researched.  Know how to recognize fire hazards and to take the necessary steps to prevent fire. Thus the name fire tetrahedron The Burning Process:  The process of burning occurs in clearly defined stages:     Ignition Growth Fully developed Decay 49 . When entering an enclosed space. efficiently and effectively. That fourth element was the actual chemical combustion. Regular training and drills are very necessary so that each member learns his duties and the order in which they must perform. as this will cause electrocution. Be curious enough to know all the shortest possible ways to escape from a fire zone to a safe place in order not to be trapped. it became evident that a fourth ingredient was necessary.       Never use and direct a solid stream of water on liquid fire as it will cause splashes and make the fire more difficult to handle. adequate preparation is very much required. Rooms filled with thick smoke. Smoke is a visible product of fire that aids to the problem of breathing. see to it that the space is gas-free and with sufficient oxygen.  Raise the fire alarm promptly upon discovery of a fire. One of the priorities that should be given due attention is the escape route. To be successful in firefighting.  Know how to extinguish fire correctly with the use of portable extinguishers and other methods. Safe Practices:  Smoke only at the designated area. Fire Triangle and Tetrahedron:  The combustion process was once depicted as a triangle with three sides. there will be great possibility of suffocation because oxygen content of the room will be reduced to a minimum. Never use foam and water on electrical fire.

and ignite.  The three modes by which heat transfers its energy from one substance to another are through:  Conduction  Convection  Radiation Conduction:  When a hot object transfer its heat. fire begins to grow.  The transfer could be to another object or to another portion of the same object. conduction has taken place.Growth Stage:  From the point of ignition. the container would be the surrounding walls and obstructions. Several factors in the growth of fire:     Oxygen supply – the amount of oxygen will have a direct effect on the speed of growth and the size of the fire. spreading the chain reaction to other flammables and resulting in an increase in size. other combustibles heat up. Insulation – heat that is radiated back into unburned areas will accelerate growth.  Ultimately. the fire will extinguish itself when the fuel supply is exhausted. A large container would permit dissipation of heat and slow the growth of fire. Modes of Heat Transfer:  Heat is a by-product of combustion that is of significant importance to the fire fighter. Decay Stage:  When the point at which all fuel has been consumed is reached. the fire will begin to diminish in size. Fully Developed Stage:  This stage is recognized as the point in which all contents within the perimeter of the fire’s boundaries are burning.  Starting out as a spark or a small flame. liberate flammable gases. 50 . Fuel – size of the fire will naturally depend on the amount of fuel available to burn. Container size – in a structure.

In this case. Radiation:    When combustion occurs. heat it up again. The application of water cools the fire by absorbing as water is converted to steam. Class B type – are fueled by liquids. hafnium. Oil. uranium. gasoline. Fire produces infrared light waves. rubber. wood. plutonium. zirconium. sodium. light is produced. rubber and other organic solids including petro-chemical solids (plastics) make up this class. or grease-type fuels. the temperature of the fire is lowered below the ignition temperature of the substance and thereby collapses the fire pyramid.    Fire Extinguishment:  Class A fire. the electricity is actually the heat source that propagates the fire and often communicates to other fuels of the class A or B type to sustain the burning process. air that is cooler than its surroundings sinks. or plastic. and calcium. and other liquids are more common types found in this class of fuel. and potassium. Class C type – are basically fueled by electricity. titanium. cause it to ignite. the fire collapses due to a lack of oxygen. Light travels by way of light waves. cloth. thorium. lithium. Most metals in the group are magnesium. is extinguished by cooling the fire. is fueled by metals. Combustibles such as paper. can permit fire to jump from the source to a distant object. which can be identified on the periodic table of the elements and found mostly in the alkali metal group. Classes of Fire:  Class A type – made up of ordinary combustibles such as cellulose. Class D type – a less common fire type. and with enough concentration. A particular class of heavy metals. alcohol. When enough of the heat is removed.Convection:  Air that is hotter than its surroundings rises. These light waves range from ultraviolet to infrared.  51 . and if intense enough. will burn. zinc. Class B fires. gases. In this case. the application of smothering agent is used to prevent oxygen from getting to the fuel and propagating the chain reaction of fire by removing the oxygen leg of the fire pyramid.

The presence of the letter “C” indicates that the extinguishing agent is non-conductive. In some cases. oil. Class C fire extinguishers are suitable for use on electrically energized fires. Releasing the lever will stop the discharge 52 . is the action taken to break down the fire pyramid and put the fire out.      How to use fire extinguishers? P – ull the pin This unlocks the operating lever and allows you to discharge the extinguisher. electricity. gasoline. Class A fire extinguishers will put out fires in ordinary combustibles such as wood and paper. These extinguishers generally have no rating nor are they given a multi-purpose rating for use on other types of fires. identification and utilization. is overcome by removal of the flow of electric current. The numerical rating for this class of fire extinguisher states the approximate number of square feet of a flammable liquid fire that a nonexpert person can expect to extinguish. the mere presence of water will cause a violent reaction. There is no picture designator for Class D fire extinguishers. fueled by electricity. combustible heavy metals differ somewhat in their reactions under fire. The numerical rating for this class of fire extinguishers refer to the amount of water the fire extinguisher holds and the amount of fire it will extinguish.  Fire extinguisher classification symbols:  Classes of fire should be identified primarily to determine the type of fire extinguisher that would be used. Fire extinguisher classification symbols are displayed by shape. In other cases. This class of fire extinguishers does not have a numerical rating. the removal of fuel. releasing heat and brilliant light. Class D fire extinguishers are designed for use on flammable metals and are often specific for the type of metal in question. color and letter for flexibility of the user for better recognition. Class D fires. Class B fire extinguishers should be used on fires involving flammable liquids such as grease. the mere presence of air will cause the reaction. In this case. A – im the base of the flame Point the extinguisher nozzle of hose at the base of the flame S – queeze the lever This discharge the extinguishing agent. etc. Each metal’s characteristics should be evaluated on its own merits. Class C fires.

S – weep from side to side Moving carefully toward the fire keep the extinguisher aimed at the base of the flame and sweep back and forth until the flames appear to be out. 3oC in 20 seconds. Personal Protective Equipment:            Helmet Goggles SCBA (Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus) Coat and pants Boots Hood Gloves Radio Flashlight PASS Device (Personal Alert Safety System) Pocket tools Four Main Types of Automatic Fire Detectors:  Smoke detectors – all fire emits smoke and gases. Housekeeping is primarily concerned with four categories of keys:     Emergency key Master key Storeroom key Guestroom key 53 .g. as the name implies. Differential detectors – is activated by an abnormally rapid rise in room temperature. Heat detectors (thermal contact) – is. affected by heat. Flame detectors – the flame detector is activated when it is hit by the varying infrared or ultraviolet rays from the flames.    Key Control Proper key control procedures are important for guest security and privacy. Key control also protects the property by reducing the possibility of guest and property theft. The alarm is usually activated when the room temperature rises to about 70oC. often long before open flames are visible. The smoke detector can therefore be activated before the actual outbreak of a fire. e.

This type of master key opens rooms in one area of a hotel. An inspector may be issued more that one key of this type because he/she may be required to inspect the work of more than one room attendant. This log should include the date. Master keys can be used in emergency situations when it is vital for an employee to enter some or all areas of a hotel. This type of key opens a single guestroom and. These keys should be kept in a secure place. Guestroom keys are stored at the front desk when not in use. Master keys are kept at the front desk for such emergency purposes. 54 . Key belts. Master keys are separated into three levels of access. The lowest level of master key is the floor key.  The next level of master key is the section master. wrist bands. In large properties. other locked areas such as the pool. Master keys should never be left on top of a housekeeping cart. Distribution and use should occur only in emergency situations such as a fire or when a guest or employee is locked in a room and needs immediate assistance. many times. the executive housekeeper or the front desk may assume this function. The highest level is the grand master. all housekeeping storage rooms. or neck chains are recommended devices for keeping track of master keys. Every time an employee receives or returns a master key.Emergency keys – open all doors in the property – even those that guests have double locked. Most housekeeping personnel do not use emergency keys on a dayto-day basis. in some cases. he/she should be required to initial or sign the log. he/she may need more than one floor key. This key opens every hotel room and. in a guestroom or in an unsecured area. An employee should never loan the key to a guest or to another employee. the linen room attendant distributes and secures the keys for the room attendants. The person issuing the key should also initial or sign the log for each master key transaction. master keys will not open the door. The room attendant who signed for the master key is the employee who is responsible for it and should never leave the property.  Master key – also open more than one guestroom. time and the name of the person who signed for a particular key. If the guest has turned the dead bolt. If the employee has rooms to clean on more than one floor or area. At smaller properties. Guestroom key – are those keys distributed to guests. Employees issued keys should keep the keys on their person at all times. Some properties also keep an emergency key off the premises. a room attendant is given this key to open the rooms he/she is assigned to clean.  Key Control Procedures: A log can be used to monitor the distribution of master keys. Generally. Floor keys typically open the storeroom for that floor – unless the room is specially keyed or is accessed by another master key.

If items are not claimed after 90 days. In these instances. Lost and found items should be stored in an area that is secure and has limited access. It is important to ensure that the lost and found policy of the hotel complies with local laws. Room attendants should respect guest property and should not open guest luggage or packages. If a guest asks an employee to unlock a room. If a room attendant finds a room key in the hallway or public area. the linen room clerk may handle the lost and found procedures. the front desk should be notified immediately. Many hotels donate unclaimed lost and found items to local charities. and by whom. it is up to the management to decide how to dispose of the items properly.Finally. All lost ad found property should be kept for at least 90 days. the housekeeping department handles the lost and found function. The key should be returned to the front desk or placed in the lock box. Other favorite hiding places for guest valuables include the top of closets and under lamps. Guestroom Cleaning: Security in guestroom areas is important to maintain for the safety of the guests and employees. the employee should politely explain the hotel’s policy and direct the guest to the front desk. If room 55 . and secured after they have been turned over to the lost and found. The log should also have space to record if and when the item was recovered by it owner. Lost and Found: Many times. In large hotels. where the item was found. the task may be delegated to the executive housekeeper or front desk personnel. he/ she should immediately turn it over to the lost and found. If no lock box is available. Some hotels even have a policy that forbids room attendants to move guest property. A log should be used to record the date. logged. Room attendants are also responsible for retrieving guestroom keys if the guest leaves the key in the room. In smaller properties. room keys should be kept in a secured area – not on top of the cart – until returned to the front desk. Many hotels provide key lock boxes on the room attendant’s cart to store guestroom keys. Since guests sometimes hide valuables and belongings in pillowcases or between mattresses. a room attendant should never use a master key to open a room for a guest. room attendants must be extra careful when removing linens. Tags may be numbered or used to identify the item. room attendants are instructed to clean around guest objects. One employee per shift should be assigned to handle the lost and found as part of his/her job. time. Items should be tagged. In no instance should lost and found items be left in an unsecured spot such as on top of a room attendant’s cart. snoop in dresser drawers or closets. When an employee finds an item left behind by a guest.

an employee who is alert and careful can contribute to the overall guest’s safe and troublefree stay. After cleaning the room. Again. A room should never be left unattended with the door open. or the front desk:        Guns or weapons of any kind Controlled substances or drugs Unauthorized cooking or unsafe electrical appliances Foul odors Unauthorized pets Ill guests Large amounts of cash or valuable jewelry When cleaning. If the guest does not have a key. A guest should never be allowed to enter a room just to look around. If a guest wants to enter the room while the attendant is cleaning. all windows and sliding glass doors should be locked. they should immediately contact their supervisor. If an employee must leave the room while cleaning. the attendant should politely ask the guest his/her name and ask to see a room key. 56 . the room attendant should always keep the door open and the cart rolled in front of the entrance to block access from the outside. Unfortunately.attendants notice any of the following while cleaning. security. This procedure should be followed even if the employee is out of the room for only a few minutes. This ensures that the room being cleaned is that the guest’s room. he/she should lock the door on the way out. guests often point the finger at the room attendant if an item comes up missing from the guestroom. the attendant should explain that this if the hotel’s policy and is enforced for the guest’s safety and security. For most part. the attendant should tell him/her to contact the front desk. This is just one more reason for room attendants to be considerate of guest property and to protect the guest’s room for many possible thefts. The guestroom door should also be checked to see that it is locked.

VIII. Maximize room’s revenue by being able to monitor availability of rooms. To insure adequate guest service. avoid double booking and assigning of out of order rooms. b. 57 . The fundamental objectives in verifying actual room status are: a. HOUSEKEEPING FORMS REPORTING AND DOCUMENTATION: Housekeeping Room Status Report (167) The housekeeping room status report is used in conjunction with the Front Office Room Status Information to check and confirm the most current status of all hotel guest rooms.

they will record their daily accomplishment in their assigned area. Losses and Damage Report (168) Used to report losses and damages to room amenities in guestrooms. it consists of the status of each room as reported from actual inspection and is compiled and sent to the Front Office where it is compared to their own room status information. head houseman or head of the unit shall acknowledge – sign the report. With this system. Using a prescribed accomplishment form. Any discrepancy is investigated and corrected by both departments. The PM report is important in determining exactly which rooms are available for guests checking into the hotel. actual consumption as compared to budget. certifying that the tasks are indeed accomplished as stated in the report. housemen are more inclined to give serious attention to their cleaning assignments because they know that their accomplishments are being monitored. deficiency in room amenities. the supervisor can monitor room attendant’s productivity and at the same time able to check rooms that have not been made up. The cost of said losses are billed to the account of guest. These reports shall be submitted to the Housekeeping supervisor who will use the same I monitoring productivity of housemen and for giving constructive feedback on unaccomplished responsibilities. Accomplishment Report (45) After accomplishing cleaning assignments. so the proper action can be undertaken. This report should reach the Front desk 58 . After accomplishing the report. It shall be done at the end of their shift before timing out. once in the morning and once in the afternoon. especially when the house is full. housemen assigned in public areas are supposed to prepare and submit an accomplishment and productivity report. Basically. Productivity and Consumption Report (105) Preparing and submitting productivity report is part of the routine tasks of room attendants. etc.The report is completed twice each day. The AM report is most useful in assuring proper room cleaning assignments and cleaning vacant and ready rooms for expected guest arrivals. Through this report. It will also serve as basis for performance evaluation during the annual performance review. laundry cost.

clerk/Cashier upon check out of guest. leaking faucet. Maintenance Order or Service Request (169) This is accomplished for the purpose of requesting the Engineering or Building Maintenance Unit to do repair or trouble shooting of defective facilities or amenities like TV. the Requesting supervisor should be informed immediately so that he should take appropriate action. this form is used to record the turnover and return of keys from one shift to another. If possible no guest will be allowed to go out of the hotel until he is cleared of possible losses in the room. Key Endorsement Form (169) For control purposes. etc. The report should be acknowledged-received and signed by the secretary or whoever receives it at the Engineering Office. Control Form for Borrowed Items (106) Mini-Bar Requisition (109) Mini-Bar Sales Voucher (109) Daily Sales Summary Report (112) Mini-Bar Spoilage Report (113) Mini-Bar Losses and Damages Report (113) Inventory Count Sheet (189) Storeroom Bin Card (190) Stock Inventory Variance Report (191) Laundry Voucher (126) Inspection Checklist (175) Housekeeping Audit Form (179) Stock Requisition and Issuance Form (187) Laundry Department Damage Advice Form (124) 59 . the guest is advised to wait. the best action is to transfer the guest to another room. If the Engineering section cannot immediately attend to the service request. If the defect is minor. aircon. This form shall be accomplished by the supervisor once he receives complaints or reports of defective in guestrooms and in other parts of his assigned area. If the defect is somewhat serious. The shift engineer shall assign a technician to check and validate the report and then submit status report to Housekeeping.

good for two persons. occupied by two or more persons. 60 . 4. 2. Triple room – a room that can accommodate three people either in one double bed and one roll away bed or two single beds and one roll away bed. and is sold to only one person.IX. Double-double (also twin double) – a room with two double beds or two queen beds. 3. 5. Single room – a room with a single bed. Twin room – a room with two single beds. CLASSIFICATION OF GUESTROOMS A. Double room – a room occupied by two persons with one double bed. According to Number of Beds: 1.

serving as function room or a parlor. 4. television and other amenities. 7.6. equipped with standard facilities and amenities like air con. bed. It is also called a mini suite. 61 . usually short of standard facilities like air con. Types of Suites: a. Hospitality suites (for “hospos” as they are often called) are intended to entertain groups of people. It may have two twin beds or two double beds. Adjacent or adjoining rooms – rooms located side by side that do not necessarily have a connecting door. with facilities and amenities of superior quality. 2. Junior suite – a room with a bed and a sitting area (usually a small lounge). 7. d. e. equipped with luxury amenities. Hospitality suite – a suite used for entertaining visitors. Intended to be more than a sleeping room. Standard – a room sold at moderate rate. 5. According to price. B. night table etc. It may also be called an executive room. Suite – a room with a parlor or living room connected to one or more full sized bedrooms. separate bed connected to the living room or parlor. Large tables make them conducive for small group meals or meetings. b. TV. Economy – a room for an economical rate. which can be converted into a bed. Penthouse suite – a suite usually located on top floor of the property. 8. toiletries. There maybe a small. Corner suite – a suite that is located in the corner of the hotel building itself. sold a much higher price than standard rooms. c. Family room – a room with at least one double bed. This suite often takes up the same area that two standard rooms would. Executive suite – a suite designed for a top executive. layout and facilities: 1. maybe occupied by one or two people or one small family. Studio – a room with a studio bed. They may include a kitchen and/or bar area. designed to accommodate one small family. King room – a room with a king-sized bed. Deluxe – a more luxurious and spacious with amenities of superior quality. Quadruple room – a room that can be occupied by four people. 3. Connecting room – two or more rooms with entrance doors from the outside door between them through which guests can get through each bedroom without going out of their rooms. 6. The rooms themselves may take up the square footage of three or more standard rooms. and one or more single beds.

they take up the vertical area of two rooms. King bed – an extra long. e. about 60 inches by 80 inches in size. It must be the largest room and typically has all the best amenities and services the hotel can offer. Double bed – a bed that can accommodate a couple or two individuals. Presidential suite – sometimes called the “Chairman suite” or the “Royal suite. extra wide bed.f. d. List of Room Amenities: A. b.. c. but this suite is a very effective upgrade. Very Important Person (VVIP) – a highly renowned person who deserves special treatment like dignitaries. g. who warrants a special treatment. Single bed – a bed approximately 36 inches by 75 inches. Bi-level suite – also takes up more square footage than standard rooms. Bedroom Amenities:     DND Sign Make Up Sign Closet with at least 6 hangers Beds:  Single bed 36” x 75”  Double bed 54” x 75” 62 . Various Types of Guests: a. c. Type of beds: a. b. d. Very. Queen bed – an extra long. These suites span two floors or more to create very high ceilings. Very Important Person (VIP) – a well renowned gust like highranking officials. Instead of taking the horizontal square footage of the corner suite. etc.” This suite is understood to be the best room in the hotel. It will always carry the highest room rate in the hotel as well. extra wide bed. Roll-away bed – a portable bed with or without wheels also called extra bed. Joiner – person joining another guest in the same room. Free Independent Travelers or Foreign Individual Tourist (FIT)) – tourists or travelers traveling alone not joining any tour group. etc. executives. It is approximately 54 inches by 75 inches in size. ambassadors. about 78 inches by 80 inches in size.

Contains envelope. post card.  Queen bed King bed 60” x 80” 78” x 80”  Bed linen Bed skirting or flounch Bed pad Bed sheet  Size: allocate an allowance of 20-25 inches over bed size (on all sides). ashtray and match on top of the table Floor lamp Service tray with thermo jug filled with cold water. stationery. guest comment survey. Dresser chair Coffee table and two easy chairs. Bathroom Amenities: Bathroom linen (two towels per room for one set. room service menu. one towel per occupant)  Bath towel 25” x 54” 500 gm  Hand towel 18” x 33” 150 gm  Face towel 13” x 13” 60 gm  Bath mat 20” x 30” 450 gm  Hair shampoo and conditioner  Shower cap  Soap (must be sealed) one soap per occupant  63 .  Bed cover  Pillow with a pillow slip and a pillow case one per occupant two for double and matrimonial beds                    Shoehorn and shoe cloth Luggage rack Dresser table with vanity mirror and dresser lamp TV set Night table with night table lamp. and small note pad. This depends on the mattress. directory of hotel services. under the table is a safety and security booklet and bible Guest folder or compendium. two covered glasses Side table Room service menu House rules Telephone with in-house telephone directory Safety handbook containing safety tips during emergencies Fire exit directional signs B. On top of the table is a telephone. ball pen. in-house telephone directory.

Luxury Amenities (for deluxe rooms):          Bubble bath gel (if tub is installed) Bath robe Slipper Sewing kit Water heater with two cups and saucer and sachet of coffee.        Toilet tissue Facial tissue Garbage can. OCC – Occupied HL –Heavy Luggage 64 . then prepares the housekeeping room status report and endorses it in triplicate copy. creamer and sugar Hand and body lotion and cologne Body scrub Fruit basket Hair dryer A. Room Status Codes: During room checking. as their reference in assigning rooms. One for the Front desk. one for the linen room and another copy left on the floor for easy mapping. underlined with plastic liner Laundry bag Pressing/ Laundry List Morning kit (small package of toothbrush and toothpaste) Shaving kit (contains shaver and shaving cream) Sanitary bag C. the housekeeper checks the status of each room using the following codes. tea.

and keys. Here too. Preparing to Clean GUESTROOM CLEANING In most properties. receives room assignments. The linen room is often considered the headquarters of the housekeeping department. It is here that the employee reports for work.VC – Vacant and Cleaned VD – Vacant and Dirty OR – Occupied and Ready OC – Occupied and Clean OD – Occupied and Dirty CO – Check-out OOO – Out of Order DND – Do Not Disturb V/ O or O/ V – Status unclear LO – lock Out DO – Due Out DNCO – Did not checked out VCI – Vacant. room status reports. the room attendant’s workday begins in the linen room. Cleaned and Inspected LL – Light Luggage NL – No Luggage DL –Double Lock CL – Chain Lock HU – House Use NCI – Newly Checked-In NS – No Show SO – Slept Out BLO – Blocked V .Vacant MUR – Make Up Room VR – Vacant and Ready X. and checks out at the end of his/ her shift. the room attendant 65 .

these tools come in the form of the various cleaning supplies and equipment. the room attendant cart could be regarded as a giant tool box stocked with everything necessary to do an effective job. Stocking the cart: Carts are typically stored in the linen room along with the housekeeping supplies. For the professional room attendant. Items conveniently stocked in the hand caddy include: • • • • All-purpose cleaner Spray window and glass cleaner Bowl brush Dusting solution 66 . supplies are often centralized in a particular area and issued to room attendants each morning. room accessories. This way. soiled. or stolen in the course of cleaning. In a sense. It enables the room attendant to avoid wasting time looking for a cleaning item or making trips back to the linen room for more supplies. of course. The specific amounts of items loaded onto a cart vary according to the types of rooms being cleaned. the amenities offered by the property. Most carts have three shelves – the lower two for linen and the top for supplies. as it is not to understock. and. and amenities that are necessary for preparing a guest’s room. the room attendant does not have to bring the entire cart into the room in order to have easy access to supplies. Overstocking increase the risk that some items will be damaged. A well-organized and well-stoked cart is a key to efficiency. A room attendant’s cart is generally spacious enough to carry all supplies needed for a half-day’s room assignments. linens. all the cleaning supplies for the guestroom and bathroom are positioned in a hand caddy on top of the cart.prepares for the workday by assembling and organizing the supplies that are necessary for cleaning. Assembling Supplies: A room attendant requires a special tool to do his/her job. In large properties. pillowcases. and mattress pads Clean towels and washcloths Clean bath mats Toilet and facial tissue Fresh drinking glasses Soap bars Clean ashtrays and matches In most cases. the size of the cart itself. Items typically found on a room attendant’s cart include: • • • • • • • Clean sheets. It is just as important not to overstock a cart.

A broom and vacuum are also positioned on either end of the cart for easy access. The room attendant uses the room assignment sheet to prioritize the workday and to report the condition of each assigned room at the end of the shift. It is important to follow certain procedures when entering the guestrooms that show respect for the guest’s privacy. Tidy and air out the room. After reviewing the assignment sheet. a room attendant will have a sense where he/she should begin cleaning. Room assignments are generally listed according to room number and room status on a standardized form. When approaching a guestroom. If either condition exists. personal items and room keys should not be stored on the cart. the room attendant is ready to begin cleaning guestrooms. Strip the bed Make the bed Dust the guestroom Clean the bathroom Vacuum Make the final check Close the door and make sure it is locked Note room status on assignment sheet and proceed to next room Entering the Guestroom: Guestroom cleaning begins the moment the room attendant approaches the guestroom door. Room Assignments: After assembling supplies.• • Cloths and sponges Rubber gloves A laundry bag for dirty linens is usually found at one end of the cart and a trash bag at the other. first observe whether the guest has placed a “Do Not Disturb” sign on the door knob. Also. be sure to check that the door is not doublelocked from the inside. The order in which he/she cleans rooms will be determined by the room status report. For safety and security reasons. respect the guest’s wishes and return 67 . A floor or shift supervisor uses information from the room status report to draw up room assignments for housekeeping personnel. The number of rooms assigned for a room attendant is based upon the property’s work standards for specific types of rooms and cleaning tasks. Cleaning the Guestroom: General Sequence for Guestroom Cleaning: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 : : : : : : : : : : Enter the guestroom Begin cleaning.

Make note of any damaged or missing items such as linens or wastebaskets. If the guest does return while you are cleaning. Doing so serves a triplicate purpose: it gives you easy access to your supplies. 68 . be sure to replenish matches. After entering the room. If a guest answers. Next take a good look at the condition of the room. Sometimes. Never throw out anything in an occupied room unless it is in the wastebasket. straighten any newspapers and magazines. the guest may be sleeping or in the bathroom.” Never use a key to knock since it can damage the surface of the door. When you do finally enter. just because a guest doesn’t answer. blocks the entrance to intruders. This is done for security purposes to prevent unauthorized persons from entering the room. dishes. In rooms where the guest has checked out. As you replace the ashtrays. If no answer is heard. explain that you can come back later. or cans that might be scattered around the room. alerts returning guests of your presence. and repeat “Housekeeping. knock on the door and announce “Housekeeping. excuse yourself. you should leave quietly and close the door. bottles. Also. which may have been left behind. If this is the case. discreetly close the door. If anything of value is gone or if something needs repair. offer to finish your work later. Should the guest be awake. Report these items to your supervisor.” If the guest does not respond after this third announcement. Draw back the draperies and check the cords and hooks for any damage. Beginning Tasks: Most room attendants begin their system of cleaning by airing out and tidying up the guestroom. Follow your property’s procedures for taking care of these items properly. you can be fairly certain that the room is empty and can begin to enter. Some properties have room attendants set these items neatly in the hallway and call room service for pickup. notify your supervisor. position your cart in front of the open door with the open section facing the room. open the door slightly and repeat “Housekeeping. However. by checking his. If this is not the case.” If there is still no answer. or hand them in to the lost and found depending on the hotel’s policy. knock again. wait a moment. visually scan the room and check the dresser drawers for personal items. the guest’s room. make sure it is. doesn’t always guarantee that a guest is not in the room.later to clean the room. In occupied rooms. and proceed to the next room. and in the case of stayovers. Collect any service trays. Remove or replace dirty ashtrays and glasses. Note the time on your room status sheet or schedule. helps you se what you are doing. Open the windows so the air conditioning and heater to make sure they are working properly and are set according to property standards. Empty trash and replace any wastebasket liners. Always make sure that cigarettes are fully extinguished before dumping them in the appropriate container. introduce yourself and ask what time would be convenient to clean the room. and allows you to check for light bulbs which need to be replaced./her room key. This makes the room more cheerful. turn on all the lights. in fact.

there should be equal amounts of sheet hangover each side of the bed. Step 9: Place the blanket on top of the second sheet about 6 to 8 inches. Step 7: Miter the bottom sheet at the lower corner of the bed. Step 6: Miter the bottom sheet at the upper corner of the bed. second sheet and blanket along the sides of the bed. Step 12: Miter the top sheet. wrong side up. Step 5: Center the bottom sheet right side-up on the mattress.Making the Bed: Step 1: Strip the bed Step 2: Check the mattress pad for stains and damage. Make sure the seams and patterns of the spread are straight. Step 14: Make sure the second sheet. 69 . two inches over the blanket. Step 15: Center the bedspread. Tuck the sheets on the sides. and then fold the two inches inside the blanket to have a neat look appearance. leaving enough room to cover the pillows. Step 10: Place the top sheet. Step 11: Turn the second sheet over the top sheet and blanket. second sheet and blanket at the lower corners of the bed. blanket and top sheet are tucked in neatly along the sides and foot of the bed. Step 16: Fold the bedspread down from the head. Step 3: Change the mattress pad if necessary:  Lay a fresh pad on the bed  Unfold pad right-side up and spread it evenly over the center of the bed  Smooth out any wrinkles Step 4: Notify your supervisor if you note stains or damage to the mattress. Step 17: Slip the cases over the pillows. Step 13: Tuck in top sheet. place the second sheet on the bed. Step 8: At the head of the bed.

Tuck in the bedspread beneath the pillows. and then turn it off.  Polish the knobs and remove any smudges around the knob area. Smooth out any wrinkles. beginning at the top and working your way down the legs. Step 19: Take a moment to check the bed for smoothness both up close and from a distance. Start with the top surface and work your way down the sides to the legs or base. Step 6: Dust the nightstand. Step 7: Clean and dust the telephone.Step 18: Place the pillows at the head of the bed and bring the bedspread over them. Step 8: Dust the top and sides of the television set and the stand it rests on. Step 2: Dust and polish mirrors. Step 3: Check the windows carefully. Step 5: Dust and polish the dresser. Step 12: Clean both sides of the connecting door to an adjoining guestroom. Dusting: Step 1: Using a cloth sprayed with dusting solution. Step 11: Dust wood or chrome surfaces on chairs. Step 9: Clean the front of the television set with glass cleaner. Step 4: Dust the windowsill. Work clockwise around the room.  Wipe from top down. make sure the door is closed and locked. Use spray disinfectant on the mouthpiece and earphone (optional).  When finished. beginning with top surface and working your way down to the base and legs. Turn on the set to make sure it works properly. 70 . Spray glass cleaner on a clean cloth and wipe down the mirror. Clean with glass cleaner if necessary. dust items located on walls or high off the floor. if applicable. Open the drawers and dust the inside surfaces. Step 10: Dust any tables. Check proper operation by picking up the receiver and listening for the dial tone.

Polish dry to remove water spots. Clean both sides of the shower curtain or shower door. Step 2: Remove used towels. Step 6: Clean the vanity and sink area: 71 . and bath mat. Apply all-purpose cleaner around and under the lip of the bowl. Let it stand while you attend to other cleaning tasks. Remove any smudges on the surfaces. Step 4: Flush the toilet. Step 3: Empty trash and wipe container. Step 15: Clean both sides of the guestroom door. Cleaning the Bathroom: Step 1: Turn on lights and fan. Scrub the bathtub with all-purpose cleaner.  Clean and dust both sides of the closet door. Rinse the tub or shower walls and soap dishes with sponge. Remove and clean the drain trap. Wipe dry. Step 14: Wipe down light switches and clean any smudges on surrounding wall area. Pay special attention to the bottom where mildew may accumulate. Reposition shower curtain or shower door to the center of the tub. Replace any burned out light bulbs. Check condition of walls as you clean.Step 13: Clean the closet:  Dust both the top and underside of the closet shelf. Hang clean bath mat over edge of the tub. washcloths.  Wash the tub or shower walls and soap dishes using a damp cloth and all       purpose cleaner. Step 16: Restock the room with guest supplies. Clean shower curtain rod or clean the tracks and frame of the shower door. Step 5: Clean the shower area:  Check the shower head to make sure it is positioned correctly. Check fan for proper operation. Clean bathtub fixtures.  Dust hangers and hooks.  Wipe down the closet rod.

 Dust all exposed piping. the lid. Remove drain trap and clean. Clean the sink. Step 7: Clean the toilet:  Scrub the insides of the toilet and under the lip with the bowl brush. Step 9: Restock bathroom supplies:  Replenish the towels. Visually scan all the areas of the bathroom for areas you may have overlooked. Flush.  Replenish toilet and facial tissue supplies. Vacuuming and Cleaning Baseboards: 72 . the tank. scrub the floor and wipe baseboards. Add the correct amount of all-purpose      cleaner. and the outside of the bowl. Wipe dry the countertop area of the vanity. Step 11: Make the final check.  Close the lid. paying close attention to the surrounding wall area. Run some warm water into the sink.  Using cleaning solution and a cloth.  Replenish guest amenities. Clean sink fixtures. clean the top of the seat. Step 10: Clean the floor:  Spray bathroom floor and baseboards with all-purpose cleaning solution.  Clean both sides of the bathroom door.  Wipe dry all the outside surfaces. Clean the countertop area of the vanity. Polish dry to remove water spots.  Wipe and polish towel bars.  Using a clean damp cloth. Clean mirror with glass cleaner.  Wipe down all electrical outlets and light switches. spot-clean fingerprints and smudges. Step 8: Clean bathroom walls and fixtures:  Dust light fixtures. Turn off the lights and the fan.  Starting with the farthest corner and working your way toward the door.

cover all exposed areas of the carpet you can reach including under tables and chairs. Set neatly aside on the dresser or a chair. Step 4: Vacuum your way back to the door. report them to your supervisor. and check to see that it is locked. Step 3: Take the vacuum to the farthest corner in the guestroom. Smell the air for any unusual odors. Step 2: Take a vacuum sweeper or broom to sweep large dirt. Vacuum side to side.Step 1: Clean the baseboards. you may discover something you overlooked or that was difficult to spot on the first cleaning. It makes the difference between just cleaning the room and doing a professional job. By doing so. Begin in the closet area and work your way around the room. Turndown Service: Step 1: See procedure for entering the guestroom. Step 5: Close windows and turn off lights along the way. When you are satisfied that the guestroom is neat and thoroughly cleaned. Spray air freshener if needed. Remember that your last look is the guest’s first impression. behind the door. When announcing your presence. If you detect any unpleasant smells. Look for little things like making sure the lampshades are straight and their seams are turned toward the back. close the door. take a few moments to give the room a careful look from the guest’s perspective. Make sure that all the furnishings are back in their proper places. 73 . Take care not to bump furnitures or even dragging the vacuum over its cord. After reloading your vacuum and cleaning supplies on your cart. Begin vacuuming. Note the condition and status of the room on your assignment sheet. and in the closet. turn off the lights. This way the dirt that cannot be reached by the vacuum will be picked up immediately and/or center the dirt so to possibly reach by the vacuum. Start at one point from one point in the room and trail your eyes in a circular fashion from one corner to the next until you have visually inspected each item. Sweep also sides of the room and under furnitures to where vacuum cannot reach.” Step 2: Remove any guest items from the bed. and proceed to the next room on your schedule. Final Check: The final check is a critical step in guestroom cleaning. Wipe all exposed area of the baseboard to remove surface dust and dirt. substitute “Turndown Service” for “Housekeeping.

Check to be sure it is locked. Step 5: Place the amenity on the pillow. Dry and polish fixtures. Step 15: Close the drapes. turn down the sheets on both sides. Step 19: Leave the room and close the door. Replenish matches. turn down the sheets on one side only. Step 8: Collect any food service trays and dishes. 74 . Step 16: Turn on bedside lamp. beginning at one point in the room and working your way back to the beginning point. Attend to any turndown task you may have overlooked.  For a bed sleeping one guest. be sure to leave amenity on both pillows. Step 10: Straighten newspapers and magazines. Step 18: Visually scan the guestroom. Adjust to a low volume. Replenish if necessary. Step 14: Check toilet and facial tissue supply. Step 12: Straighten and wipe down vanity area. Step 6: Remove and replace dirty ashtrays. For beds sleeping two. Step 4: Pull back the sheets. Step 13: Straighten and wipe down tub area if necessary.  Set items neatly outside the door. Step 7: Remove and replace dirty glasses. Step 17: Turn radio to recommended easy listening station. Restock with fresh linen.  Call room service for pickup. Step 9: Empty the trash and replace wastebasket liners. usually the side near the night stand or phone.Step 3: Pull back the bedspread so 15 to 18 inches hangs over the foot of the bed. Dry and polish fixtures.  For a bed sleeping two. Step 11: Remove dirty linen in bathroom. Bring this slack part of the spread back over the fold so the fabric faces right side-up.

75 .XI. including guest’s laundry and employee uniforms. LINEN AND LAUNDRY SERVICE The linen and laundry section is responsible for the processing of all requests for laundry service.

monitors and controls all activities covering linen and laundry service. Checks and maintains par stock requirements. classifies and labels laundry items. Ensures the proper use. Reports losses and damages and takes corrective action against reckless use of equipment. conducts appraisal interview.does the recording. Duties and Responsibilities:  Checks quality of laundry service.picks ups and delivers guest laundry. Conducts performance evaluation of his subordinates.performs steam pressing.responsible for washing and drying laundry items. . Sees to it that laundered items are delivered on time.does mending of guest laundry or employees uniforms. . . storage. Looks after their preventive maintenance through periodic cleaning and repair when necessary. Distribution of Laundry Responsibilities: Linen and Laundry Supervisor Basic Function: Directs. . . . Linen Attendant/ Custodian 76 .does the ironing. ensures that laundry standards are complied          with and that garments are protected from damages. and maintenance of linen and laundry equipment. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior. Attends to complaints regarding linen and laundry service. Checks equipment regularly for their condition. coaches and supervises his staff.The laundry section is usually managed by a Laundry Manager or supervisor and is manned with the following personnel:         Valet Runner Sorter/ marker Linen attendant Washer Flat Ironer Steam Presser Dry Cleaner-spotter Seamstress . Trains. leads.assigned to do dry cleaning and spot removal. . storage and issuance of linen. Makes requisition whenever needed. tools and supplies. Initiates and supervises weekly inventory of laundry supplies and other items allocated to his unit.sorts.

 Responsible for the proper arrangement and storage of linen.Basic Function: Stocks. Delivers processed guests’ laundry making reference to tag number and room number and makes sure these items are delivered on time. cleaning materials. endorses soiled linens to laundry section for laundry. Duties and Responsibilities:  Picks up guests’ items for laundry and endorses them to sorter/marker for proper      classification. Performs other related duties as may be assigned by superior. breakages and damaged items in the linen room. Duties and Responsibilities:  Responsible for the issuance of uniforms as well as guestroom. restaurant and banquet linens. Informs the sorter/marker about the special instructions of guests regarding the latter’s laundry items. linens. supplies as well as guestroom amenities. uniforms and general supplies in the linen room. general supplies and uniforms. Helps in sorting finished laundry items that are ready for delivery. 77 .    Performs side duties like mending. Checks laundry items for possible damages and immediately informs guests about it. checks if they are complete and in good condition. stores and issues employees’ uniforms. repair of uniforms and baby-sitting. Also indicates noted damages in the endorsement record. Coordinates with the rooms keeping supervisor for the delivery of all processed items when guests are not in their rooms. cleaning supplies. Receives all surrendered linen items. guestroom. ensures that all issued items are properly recorded and accounted for.  Assists the supervisor in conducting inventories of linen. Valet Runner Basic Function: Responsible for pick up and delivery of laundry items of guests and those for house use.  Reports to the Supervisor missing articles. losses. and public area amenities.

 Sorts and classifies items according to kind. counts and classifies them.  Folds duly accomplished items. Cleans work areas and machine. Duties and Responsibilities:  Receives laundry items of guests from the sorter-marker. Duties and Responsibilities:  Sorts all items by classification before running them through the machine.  Performs pressing and ironing.  Helps in keeping the laundry area clean. Flatwork Ironer / Wrangler Basic Function: Performs ironing of linen items in the flatwork machine following the standard procedures.  Performs other related duties as may be assigned by his/her superior.  Inspects items for damages and stains and reports any damage to the laundry supervisor. Refers them to supervisor for proper action.  Coordinates with front office/housekeeping regarding information on room changes to avoid wrong delivery. Washer (Guest Items) Basic Function: Attends the washing and extracting. Informs the laundry office of his whereabouts in case there is any call for pick up and immediate delivery. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by supervisor from time to time. straightens edges and smoothly presses wrinkles. starts and stops machine according to prescribed procedures. 78 . color. drying of all guests laundry and FOC (free of charge) items.     Prepares and keeps records of accomplishments.  Inspects and sorts out stains and damaged linens. Reports malfunction of machine to superior. and degree of dirt.

 Manually cleans with detergent the badly soiled portion of the guests items prior      to machine washing.  Sorts all dirty linens like tablecloths. etc. pillow slips and pillow cases. bed sheets. Performs daily cleaning of his area and the machine he is operating. Unloads extracted items and forwards them either mangling or pressing section. and also linen used for dining and banquet functions. Duties and Responsibilities:  Sorts all dirty linens and towels brought into the laundry section. Seamstress Basic Function: Performs sewing or mending of guest room linens as well as those used for banquet and food service operations. Washer (Linens) Basic Function: Attends to the washing. Constantly checks the cleanliness and maintenance of the equipments and reports the defects to his supervisor. Loads guests items into the washing machine and performs washing according to standard washing procedures. Performs other duties as may be assigned by his/ her superior. Loads items into the washing machine and performs washing in accordance with standard washing procedures. informs sorter or supervisor regarding irremovable stains for the latter to bring it to attention of the guest.. Duties and Responsibilities:  Response for mending and repair of guest garments as well as uniforms and linens for house use. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by his/her superior. 79 . Loads the extracted items to the drying machine for completion. extracting and drying of all housekeeping linens such as towels. Unloads washed items and transfer them to the laundry cart. Inspects and sorts dried items and forwards them to the pressing section for pressing or ironing. napkins and cocktail napkins received from     different food outlets.

washing. etc.  Items for washing are endorsed to washer for processing. Sequence of Guest Laundry Service:  Guest shall fill up the laundry list and may request for pick-up either through the Housekeeping or Laundry office guest phone. Assisting linen attendant in the issuance of guest room linens and banquet linen during peak season. 80 . Upon receipt of the items. If the item is to be hand washed. he checks it in the presence of a floor guard or room boy/ supervisor who will be serving as witness for damages or valuables. The guest shall acknowledge receipt of said notification by signing his name. the attending staff checks items on the list in front of the guest if he is around.  If the pick-up request is coursed through the laundry clerk. If the item is for dry cleaning (color code it with blue tag) If the item is for machine-washing.   The laundry list and laundry items are picked up by concerned staff. the guest is also notified thru the same notification form. Maintains the cleanliness and condition of the sewing machine. Maintains a stock of sewing kit and looks after their safekeeping. valet runner or room boy for eh pick-up of the linen. then place the appropriate tag. washer should hand wash with care. (color code it with pink tag) – – Hotel has the option to make their own coding system. If the guest is not around. If the item is not suited for the requested processing method (dry cleaning. This notification is brought to the guest by the room boy or bellboy.). through the Front desk or any room supervisor or room attendant.      Mends and repairs torn or damaged curtains. Upon pick-up of the laundry items. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by his/ her superior. indicating therein the recommended method in processing the item. the washer shall count and double check items against the laundry list. the latter logs down the guest’s instructions for the processing of items and calls the linen attendant. skirting of guest rooms. If stains or damage are found in the item. the valet runner or room attendant who picks up the laundry will fill up the guest notification form to notify the guest of noted damage or any discrepancy. bed cover. sort and classify them. Reports to the supervisor any malfunctioning of the sewing equipment.

Utility presser – for trousers. attaches the laundry list to the bag and endorses it to the presser or linen attendant. Payment must be made upon delivery of the items. trousers and related items. collects altogether laundry items of each guest in a garment bag. the linen attendant or valet runner sorts them against the laundry list. The processed items will now be delivered to the guest. skirt and long dresses. he is asked to sign in the delivery logbook for acknowledgement. Undelivered linens brought back to the laundry area to be redelivered upon the arrival of guest.     If the items is for other forms of processing. ironer or presser) for further processing.   If the guest is not around. If the guest is on cash basis. Then the bill is presented to him for settlement. If the room is on “Do Not Disturb” sign and said item is on special service. prepares a voucher to be attached to the item for billing. (another copy to the front office) notifying him that an attempt to deliver his laundry was made while he is on DND. Hand ironer – for normal shirts. a notification is placed in the guest’s room through the door. it is endorsed to other laundry staff. – The attending staff shall double check each items upon receiving them. and takes note of discrepancies in quantity and damaged parts. dresses. laundry clerk. Summary of the basic wash steps: 81 . it is placed inside the pigeon box (if any) according to tag. the housekeeping supervisor acknowledges by signing in the logbook. If the guest is around.   If the item needs no further processing.e.After washing the laundry items. If the item is ready for delivery. the washer endorses the finished items to the other laundry staff (i. namely: Presser – for blouse.

– Time: 5 to 8 minutes Rinse – rids the linen of detergent and soil. – Time: 30 seconds to 2 minutes     –    82 . dry weight). usually after the first rinse step. Usually 3 to 5 steps are utilized at highwater level temperature usually dripping with subsequent rinses. – Time: 1 to 3 minutes Sour and soft step – is the final conditioning of the linen using fabric softener and sour (wild acid). lowwater level and hot water is used. This id performed at low-water level. medium to hot water. with a highly-alkaline-break product is added to break loose soils. Low-water level. – Time: 1 to 3 minutes Suds – involves actual washing step. A high-speed is used. Usually low-water level and hot water is used. Time: 3 to 5 minutes Extract – processing of reducing the moisture content of linen by 50% (100 lbs. Interdictor extract – this process spins soil-laden detergent solution out of linen. – Time: 3 to 7 minutes. This process reduces the required number of deep-water rinses. This is done using chlorinated bleach added to the wheel. Always flush at high-water level and medium-temperature water. Flush – the linen is wet to dissolve water-soluble soil and to reduce soil load in the following suds steps. linen will retail 50 lbs water after extraction. medium temperature water. – Time: 1 to 12 minutes Break – performed before the suds step. – Time: 5to 8 minutes Bleach – elimination of stains that could be removed by the detergent. where detergent is added to the wheel.

FLOOR TYPES AND THEIR CARE A. but they can be sealed and finished for some interior applications. Hard Floors (Non-resilient floors) Flooring materials that do not “give” to any degree underfoot. Types of Hard Floors (Non-resilient Floors): a. spilled grease and oil will be absorbed into the brick and will be very hard to remove. Dents are not a problem with these types of floors. but the mortar between the bricks can deteriorate rapidly if it is not properly maintained. However. They are extremely tiring to those who must stand on them for any length of time. Unglazed bricks are highly porous material. Their hardness ensures their durability. the hardness of these types of floors is also a major drawback. b. d. a.XII. the surface of the brick will have this oil and water mixture. Since an unglazed brick is very porous. c. Another caution is not to use bricks where there may be grease spills. making for a very slippery surface. Brick floors are normally left in their natural unglazed state and color. fairly slip-resistant floor. Deteriorating mortar and loose bricks can quickly become a serious hazard for slip-fall accidents. If the floor then becomes wet. 83 . except to convey a rustic theme. and they provide a highly durable. Brick Ceramic and Terra Cotta Tiles Concrete Stone Floors Terrazzo Brick Brick is not commonly used as a flooring material for interiors. e.

and light scrubbing when needed. Cleaning procedures might include dust mopping. they will cause cotton mop heads to fray. ceramic tile differs from brick in that a coating is applied to one side of the tile and the tile is then fired in a kiln. Care must be taken when selecting ceramic tile because certain solid colors will show dirt quite easily. Cleaning Procedures: 84 . as well as on interior and exterior floors. typically six inches square. Concrete The concrete floor is employed for its utility. resemble bricks because they are left in their natural color. Cleaning Procedures: The tiles must be cleaned frequently to remove dust and grit that could damage the glaze on the tile. b. Also. If the bricks are the speciallymade type of slip-resistant brick. Ceramic tile comes in a multitude of colors and can have either a matte or glossy surface. unglazed bricks tend to become very dusty. and they do not have the glaze coat that is commonly applied to ceramic tile. Ceramic tile also appears on walls and countertops. and sand. Terra cotta tiles. because these surfaces will quickly shred a traditional mop head. rocks.Cleaning Procedures: Brick floors create special problems in cleaning. Ceramic and Terra Cotta Tiles Like brick. damp mopping. The color of terra cotta is traditionally a reddish-brown. One variety of terra cotta is often used in kitchen floor application because it is marked with a rough surface that makes it slip resistant in greasy conditions. The best approach to cleaning a brick floor is to vacuum it with a brush and. Scrubbing should be done with brushes and the water should be picked up with a wet/ dry vacuum. use a bristle brush in combination with a wet/dry vacuum. not for its attractiveness or its resiliency. A concrete floor is composed of cement. to which is water is added to initiate a chemical reaction that changes the ingredients into a stone like material. c. creating a surface that is almost totally impervious to soil and liquids. ceramic and terra cotta tiles are made from clay that s fired in a kiln. Cotton mop heads should not be used on tiles that contain slip-resistant surfaces. when mopping. However.

Cleaning Procedures: To prevent the staining of stone floors. and spalling. A pH neutral detergent is recommended to clean all natural stone floors. Dusting should be carried out on a daily basis because grit. a terrazzo floor will hold its original luster and will last indefinitely. and especially unsealed concrete. and other abrasives that are tracked onto a stone floor will quickly mar the floor’s finish. slate. Some acids are present naturally in the stone. Terrazzo A terrazzo floor is a mosaic flooring composed of Portland cement that has been embedded with marble and/or granite chips. Highly alkaline cleaners as well as acidic compounds will damage stone floors. d. Oils and grease can permanently stain untreated stone floors because these floors are extremely porous. creating a variety of colorful and attractive floors. Acids and moisture can have disastrous effects on natural stone. is so porous. Since concrete. When mopping stone floors do not let water or chemicals remain on the floor. causing pitting. A final rinse of clean water should be applied and then immediately picked up with a mop or a wet/ dry vacuum. These floors need to have moisture-permeable sealers applied so moisture and acids do not build up under the sealer and destroy the floor’s surface. Stone Floors Common types of natural stone flooring includes marbles. but improper maintenance.The cleaning procedures that may be used on a concrete floor range from a daily dust mopping. but even the acid from spilled orange juice can have a deleterious effect on stone floors. e. Cleaning Procedures: 85 . The chips used in terrazzo floor can differ both in sizes and color. an immediate effort must be made to clean up spilled liquids before they are absorbed into the concrete and cause unsightly stains. the dust mops should be free of all oilbased dusting compounds. All natural stone products share certain properties that must be taken into consideration by the professional housekeeper to ensure the proper care of this type of flooring. granite. to heavy scrubbing to remove grease and soils. travertine. to a damp mopping. Natural stone flooring may look impervious to the elements. serpentine. With proper care. sand. but it is decidedly not as resistant to damage as it looks. and sandstone. What destroys most terrazzo is not use. cracking.

and scrubbing will maintain and preserve the asphalt floor. Resilient Floors Resilient floors have various degrees of “give” to their surfaces. damp mopping. f. a resilient floor will eventually rebound wholly or partially to its origin form. It will. They are called resilient because they are elastic and buoyant underfoot. Always rinse a freshly scrubbed floor and do not allow water or cleaners to remain on the floor surface. When selecting detergents and cleaners for terrazzo floors. it is one of the most mar resistant of all floorings in regard to cigarette burns. They are also non porous. b. abrasives and scrubbing powders. d. a. wet mopping is to never let water stand 86 . c. particularly when the ambient temperature is above 80 0 Fahrenheit. stay away from acid cleaners. and it is quite durable under most normal conditions. but dust mops should not be treated with oil dressings because oil is the archenemy of a terrazzo floor. it is virtually impossible to remove. Asphalt Tile Cork Linoleum Rubber Vinyl Wood Carpet Asphalt Tile Asphalt tile is one of the lowest-cost resilient floor coverings available. e. Asphalt tile is also fire resistant. When dented. in fact. g. however. Steel wool should not be used on the surface of a terrazzo because the steel wool may put rust stains on the marble chips. Once oil or grease penetrates a terrazzo floor. One important item to remember. Types of Resilient Floors: a. B.Terrazzo should be dusted daily to remove harmful grit and sand that can wear down the surface. become brittle when exposed to prolonged periods of low temperature and will also dent when heavy objects are present on its surface. Cleaning Procedures: Dust mopping. and preparations that have an alkalinity above pH 10.

b. Contemporary cork tiles for floors usually have a top layer of clear vinyl applied to them. was resistant to oil and grease. but on occasion. 87 . causing it to lose its abrasion resistance and become more susceptible to indentation. The flooring can also be dry mopped using a pH neutral cleaner. the use of vinyl has replaced linoleum. it should be allowed to dry completely before foot traffic is allowed upon it. Linoleum was composed of oxidized linseed oil. such as solid vinyl flooring. resins. The cork is ground into large granules. Next to cork and rubber. Linoleum In modern buildings. One reason is that cork is susceptible to staining because it is one of the most porous of all floor coverings. which are then cut into tiles. and gravel tracked on to a cork floor will severely shorten its life span. and pressed into sheets. and do not shrink.for any length of time on an asphalt tile floor. sand. Standing water will attack the adhesive cement and will cause tiles to curl and loosen. Its properties included in a remarkable degree of resiliency. Cork Tile Cork tile is made from the outer bark of cork oak trees grown in Spain and Portugal. linoleum floors can still be found in older facilities. The negative aspects of linoleum was that it is highly susceptible to water. embedded cork. linoleum is considered to have the greatest degree of resiliency. Cork tiles traditionally have had limited application in industrial or institutional settings. it is expensive. mixed with synthetic resins. The linoleum would absorb water and would then soften. it is highly susceptible to abrasion. padded carpeting. and of course. Cinders. c. Harsh abrasives and scouring powders should be avoided and water or detergent solutions should not be left in contact with the floor for any length of time. Linoleum was quite durable. Linoleum was once so pervasive that many still use the term linoleum to indicate any continuous flooring material. Cleaning Procedures: Frequent dusting is essential to the preservation of linoleum. and wood flour with pigments pressed on a backing. When the floor is mopped. Even high humidity would have a negative effect upon this material. Another limitation is that it is not durable. Finally. This vinyl layer protects the cork from staining and wear. Cork rivals ceramic tiles in cost and does not have nearly the useful life of ceramic tile.

Improper cleaning of vinyl asbestos tile can release deadly asbestos fibers into the air and present a very real health hazard. especially if liquids are frequently spilled on the surface. The major varieties include vinyl asbestos tiles. e. vinyl composition tiles contain mineral fillers such as asphalt and pigments. Rubber floors are fairly easy to maintain. Cleaning Procedures: Highly alkaline cleaning solution should be avoided. it is best to use pH neutral detergents whenever possible. It is practically unaffected by moisture. solvents. Rubber tiles often have knobs n the surface or will have a tread pattern to improve traction. waterproof surfaces. 88 . Rubber flooring is susceptible to alkalines. a rubber floor will often become tacky and soft. The low initial cost may be deceiving. Vinyl asbestos tiles are no longer made and have been removed from numerous commercial and residential settings because the asbestos in the tile is a known carcinogen. Rubber floors are nonporous. the floor will have to be replaced. ultraviolet light. grease. and chemical solvents. however.d. and laminated vinyl flooring. One major advantage is that they are quite resilient and will remain resilient over a considerable temperature range. Rubber Floors All modern rubber floors are made from synthetic rubber. vinyl composition tiles. homogeneous or flexible vinyl tiles. It will then become brittle and begin to crack and powder. Homogeneous vinyl tiles may either be flexible or solid. Rubber tiles are cured or vulcanized by the application of heat. such as styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). When attacked by these components. Cleaning solvents such as naphtha and turpentine should never be used on a rubber floor. The cost of laminated vinyl flooring will vary in proportion to the thickness of the top vinyl wear layer. oils. Some laminated floorings are only guaranteed for three years with moderate use. and it has become the preferred standard for resilient tile flooring. Vinyl Floors There are several types of vinyl floorings and tiles. In addition to the vinyl resins. and ozone in the air. oils. for once the top wear layer is worn through. Laminated vinyl flooring is less expensive to manufacture than vinyl composition or homogeneous vinyl floors. Daily dust mopping and an occasional damp mopping are all that is needed to maintain the floor.

beech. Wood floors are particularly susceptible to metal or hard plastic rollers and to those small metal domes that are often found on the legs of office furnitures Cleaning Procedures: Preventive maintenance is the key to attractive and durable wood floors. Too much moisture will cause a wood floor to warp. vacuuming. Modern vinyl is unaffected by alkaline detergents. Since there is a degree of resiliency in even the hardest of hardwood floors. Wood Floors There is nothing quite as attractive as the warmth and richness of wood floors.Cleaning Procedures: Modern homogeneous vinyl needs only to be dusted and damp mopped to restore its luster. The oil from the mop head may darken or stain the floor. and of course. Unfinished woods are susceptible to dirt lodging in the grains. Carpet Floors 89 . abrasions caused by normal foot traffic. a light damp mopping is all that is necessary to maintain a wood floor on a daily basis. while too little humidity will cause wood floors to shrink and crack. Unfinished wood floors will quickly deteriorate under even light use. Daily dusting to remove sand and grit is extremely important to the care of vinyl because most types will scratch under heavy foot traffic. as wood is an extremely porous material. Dusting. and. precautions should be taken to protect the floor from furniture legs that may dent the flooring. teak. consequently. Water is one of the most deleterious substances to a wood floor. splintering of the wood fibers. most wood floors made today receive factory applied finish. Tung oil and carnuba wax are then applied to seal the wood. f. To help forestall damage. Some tiles are specially treated with a scratch resistant seat that is applied at the factory. hickory. and walnut. hardwood floors are extremely durable if they are properly finished and maintained. buffing. In some instances the wood is heated to open the pores of the wood. One of the best prevention techniques is to use walk-off mats at exterior entrances and use rugs and carpet runners in high-traffic areas. but other popular woods include ash. moisture. maple. but pH neutral detergents are recommended over heavy alkaline products. it should not be used to clean most wood floors. on limited occasion. birch. g. Most hardwood floors are made from oak. but do not use an oily dust mop on wood floor. the bane of wood floors. Wood floors should be dusted. In addition to its attractiveness.

b. on the other hand. b. are often used to accentuate a tile or wood floor. the better the carpet. and it is the most resilient of all floor coverings. it has acoustical properties that can effectively lower noise levels. Test of Pile Quality: a. longer fibers are better than shorter fibers. Pile Primary Backing Secondary Backing Padding 90 . it secures the tufts of pile and gives additional strength and stability to the carpet. a. In areas where there is heavy foot traffic. c. the higher the quality. rugs can be used to equalize wear and help prevent tracking onto other floor coverings. The greater the face weight. Carpet with greater pile density hold their shape longer and are more resistant to dirt and stains. d. Carpet prevents slipping. the better the carpet. the greater the density of pile. One common test of density is to bend a piece of carpet. which is a major benefit to individuals who must remain on their feet for extended periods. it provides an additional source of insulation. Rugs. Pile density. Carpet Components: a. b. the carpet is of an inferior quality. Most carpets have a double backing. Backing The backing is on the underside of the carpet.Carpet is typically installed wall-to-wall to eliminate the maintenance of hard flooring surfaces around the edge of a carpet. Carpet offers a number of benefits over hard and resilient flooring materials. is the weight of the carpet’s surface fibers in ounces or grams per square yard. A layer of latex adhesive is sandwiched between the two layers to seal the pile tufts to the primary backing. the tighter the twist. c. d. Face weight. a primary backing to which the yarn is attached and an outer backing called the secondary backing. Height of the pile. The fibers can either be synthetic or natural in composition. Amount of twist the pile fibers have receives. and if the backing can readily be seen. Pile Pile is the yarn that we see and can readily touch.

Carpet squares or tiles – 18 square inches. Padding Padding can be placed under carpet to provide extra insulation. Weaved – is the traditional way of making carpet on a loom. Carpet runners – 2 feet to 9 feet in width. c. deaden sound. Jute.” Types of Padding: a. Needle punched carpets – are produced by a manufacturing method that punches the fibers into a structural backing and then compresses the fibers into a felt-like fabric. a natural fiber imported from India and Bangladesh. Natural materials such as jute and hair blends. b. d. through the primary backing (usually polypropylene) to form tufts. c. Carpet Construction: a. b. c. b. Flocked carpets – are produced by electrostatically embedding short carpet fibers into a backing. Foam rubber. add comfort. a synthetic thermoplastic resin.Types of Backing: a. producing a velvety-look cut pile surface. c. Carpet Maintenance: a. Tufted carpet – produced by forcing needles. Polypropylene. and extend the life of the carpet by serving as a “shock absorber. Foam rubber b. Urethane foam c. e. threaded with pile yarn. and the stitching yarns. Knitted carpets – are produced by a method that uses a specialized knitting machine with different sets of needles to loop together the pile. but can be ordered up to 15 feet in width. Sizes of Carpets: a. backing. It is used mainly in indoor-outdoor carpets. Inspection and Prevention 91 . Broadloom carpets – 12 feet in width.

b. c. Inspection and Prevention: The most frequent activity. and spot stain removal. Interim carpet care is absolutely necessary to remove gritty soil and spots before these elements become embedded in the carpet. track-off mats. Pile distortion 92 . d. Restorative Cleaning Methods: Interim cleaning methods do not remove the gummy. Interim Cleaning Method: Interim cleaning methods include carpet sweeping. bonnet cleaning. Restorative Cleaning Method d. causing the pile to wear prematurely. many substances can permanently stain a carpet. Prevention includes the use of mats to absorb dirt and spills around food preparation areas and the use of grates. which should occur on a continual basis. Four Restorative Carpet Cleaning Systems: a. vacuuming. Spot Cleaning Spot and spills call for immediate action. Carpets need to be inspected for spills and stains. If allowed to set. sticky residues and the dry particulates that have become stuck to them. Spot Cleaning a. Carpet Problems: a. c. which are far easier to remove if they are treated before they have a chance to set. especially one that is made of nylon or wool. b. Water extraction Dry foam Dry powder Rotary shampoo d. and carpet runners to absorb dirt and grit and control wear at entrances and in high-foot-traffic locations. b. Deep cleaning methods must be employed to restore the carpet to a near original condition. Interim Cleaning Method c.

crushed. Fading: Every carpet will fade with time. d. Pile distortion occurs when the carpet receives heavy foot or equipment traffic. f. Shading Fading Wicking Mildew Shedding / pilling a. c. Shading is normal feature of almost all carpets/Vacuuming or pile lifting the carpet in one direction can help to reduce a shading problem. or flared and matted. but all carpets should be kept dry and/or treated with an antibacterial to prevent the problem. Improper cleaning or spot removal can actually do more damage than some permanent stains. e. wear. but will probably not eliminate it. Improper cleaning methods can also cause pile distortion. c. Always pretests carpets before using aggressive spot-removal techniques. Mildew can cause staining. and rotting. Premature fading may occur if the carpet is improperly cleaned. f. Fibers can become twisted. Mildew: Mildew forms when moisture allows molds in the carpet to grow. Wicking: Wicking (sometimes called browning) occurs when the backing of the carpet becomes wet and the face yarns draw or wick the moisture and color of the backing to the surface of the carpet. Shedding / Pilling: 93 . Shading: Shading occurs when the pile in a carpet is brushed in two different directions so that dark and light areas appear. Wicking can often be prevented by promptly attending to spills and by following proper cleaning procedures that avoid over wetting the carpet. cleaning. Natural fibers are especially prone to mildew. pilled. d. Proper cleaning procedures that avoid over wetting the carpet can help prevent mildew from forming. Pile Distortion: A general term for a number of problems with the carpet’s face fibers. e. b. and natural aging can combine to accelerate color loss.b. Sunlight. odor.

or shapes. The Principles of Design: a. using varying degrees of flower and foliage textures within an arrangement may create another striking contrast. Emphasis: Emphasis is achieved in a floral design by creating an accented area or a focal point. As the new carpet is walked upon. least-open flowers are placed at the perimeter of the arrangement and the large. Balance: 94 . Generally. colors. An accent will exist whenever contrast is present in a design. these pieces work themselves to the surface of the carpet and can make a new carpet look littered and unkempt. b. with less vibrant tones or tints used as the flowers approach the perimeter of the design. The focal point is the area of an arrangement that will draw the most attention and will direct the eye of a viewer to a specific location within the design. frequent vacuuming will prevent the carpet from looking littered. The flowers. f. This contrast may be in the form of flower sizes. Shedding will eventually top. e. Emphasis can mostly easily be achieved in a design when the smallest. c. textures. however. they should appear loose and natural. Flowers with unique shapes also attract attention. should never be crowded to form a tightened mass of blossoms. with some foliage protruding between the petals. it will not be necessary to allow individual blooms to touch each other. d. The purpose of the focal flowers is to draw visually all elements of the design to a single location. An accessory such as ribbons or bow is often used by retail florists to create emphasis in bouquets and corsages. Emphasis Balance Proportion and Scale Rhythm Harmony Unity a. Pilling. rather. The most striking contrast in a design is created by use of brightly colored flowers at the center of interest. The contrast in texture or color will place the emphasis at the lip of the container. b. In the meantime. Coarser textures will appear to have more visual weight so they will be best used at the focal point. the center of interest. often the result of cleaning can be removed by heavy vacuuming or by gently cutting loose fibers from the carpet with scissors.Short pieces of face fibers are often trapped in the carpet when it is manufactured. THE PRINCIPLES AND ELEMENTS OF FLORAL DESIGN A. fully developed flowers are located at the focal point.

Proportion and Scale: A floral arrangement appears best when all the component flowers are related in size. The design should have the flowers distributed properly so that the containers will support them. size and spacing. Proportion in an arrangement is accomplished by scaling flowers toward the focal point. texture. texture. A visual line is left uncompleted with the void balanced by flowers to create the curved line of the design. The size relationship of flower stems. This means that the smallest buds are placed farthest from the visual center of the design. flat containers. as each flower is placed closer to the front of the arrangement. plant material should be at least one and one-half to two times the height of the vase. The use of negative spaces or voids within the arrangement is equally as important as sizes of flowers in creating a pleasing proportion. This is accomplished by the convergence of lines at the focal point. This gives the appearance of a more natural design and allows the arranger more originality in his or her work. Many floral design styles are arranged with asymmetrical balance. and color density must be considered in this type of balance. An arrangement should possess both mechanical and visual balance. color. For low. An arrangement may be composed of symmetrical or asymmetrical balance. A symmetrical design will appear to be the same on each side of a vertical centerline. Balance is maintained by grading flowers by color. The absence of flowers in these areas adds interests and proportion within the design. Flowers are arranged from the back of the container toward the front and sides. Spaces without flowers are purposely left to allow each bloom to be viewed singly. The scale of a design is dictated by the size of arrangement and its relationship to its surroundings. Mechanical balance is achieved when the container is the proper size and weight for the size of flowers being used with it.A well-designed arrangement will appear to be stable and self-supporting. distance from the focal point. Flowers are placed at the same heights within the design will fight for equal attention. c. Good proportion in an arrangement is created by establishing a pleasing scale relationship of the flowers to the container. This gives the arrangement a feeling of depth and support. Depth and visual balance are created in the design when the rear flower stems tip backward slightly. and shape. and the focal flower is placed well in front of the lip of the container. the height of an 95 . The flowers are then graduated in size by the placement of increasingly larger flowers in the arrangement until the center of interest is reached. The flower and foliage stems should appear to arise from a single central location in the container. A formal balance is created when the focal point is centered in the container. Flower heights are gradually lowered. A generally accepted rule of floral design states that for a tall container.

textures. through the focal area. 96 . From the center to the outer edges of the arrangement. These opposing flowers create a balance in the design that naturally leads the eye from one point. An arrangement that would exceed these height limitations would be one where very visually lightweight foliage and flowers are used. or flower shapes. repetition. The height of this type of design would be drastically reduced from the designated rules. Harmony: When an arrangement possesses harmony. the intensity or tone of the color is graded to be more subdued. This eye movement is the result of the visual motion within the design. This could be interpreted to mean that the idea or theme of the design has been successfully created.arrangement is at least one and one-half to two times the width. Here. textures. or transition. Rhythm: Rhythm is the apparent flow of lines. and sizes. Motion is created most easily in a design having a curved line. The repetition of the same flower types throughout an arrangement ties all the parts into a single unit. When flowers are placed with their stems originating at the focal point. A similar use of texture-quality transition will be effective in creating motion within the design that leads the eye to the center of interest in the arrangement. e. and on to the other side of the design. The darkest or brightest color may be placed at the focal point. or form are placed at opposing points away from the focal point. or colors that expresses a feeling of motion rather than confusion in an arrangement. A transition in color and texture or the gradation of scaled flower sizes can also be used to create motion in a design. d. This radiation from a single point will create an emphasis at the center of interest and will provide a visual movement as well. delicate-appealing design. Balance and proportion are easily maintained in a tall. The viewer will see the entire design through a repeated use of the same colors. Rhythm may be achieved in several ways – through opposition. they will appear to radiate from the center of the design. the center of interest. textures. the center of interest is emphasized. A horizontal style design will have its primary axis running along its width. colors. texture. When flowers having the same color. This rule is not ironclad and may be altered provided that good proportion in the design is maintained. In order for harmony to be achieved all the component parts of the design must be in an appealing relationship. all the design parts will fit together into a pleasing composition of flower shapes. the viewer is attracted gently from the top of the arrangement along the curving elements of line or texture or color through to its focal point.

Line: Line in a flower arrangement is the visual path the eye travel as it passes through the arrangement. b. colors. Texture: Texture refers to such tactile or surface qualities of flowers and foliage as smoothness glossiness. Flower and foliage shapes add a visual quality that is important in developing harmony. c. and roughness.f. Although each flower or area of the arrangement may be distinctive. and textures throughout the design. Line Form Texture Pattern Color Space a. b. the way something feels. Unity: Unity is created when all the design parts blend together without a noticeable separation. Unity is best achieved by repeating related flower types. which is then experienced visually. Form is also expressed by the geometric shape that creates the outline of the design. A horizontal line is more relaxing or informal. Pattern: 97 . When one color or type of flower is used only at the perimeter of the arrangement and another at the center. The line establishes the skeleton of the design particularly when linear flowers or foliages are used. foliages and containers used in flower arrangements have various shapes or forms. so is used most often for table arrangements. c. the viewer of the design will feel a lack of unity. all elements must visually blend together. This quality of texture may be expressed either as a physical or a visual characteristic of the plant material. The Elements of Design: a. d. d. e. f. Basically it involves the sense of touch. A vertical line gives the arrangement an appearance of strength. This helps to pull the components together with the focal point as the center of interest. B. This element produces the underlying framework of the arrangement that holds the composition together. Form: The flowers. creating rhythm and establishing a focal point. A curved line adds gentleness or gracefulness and gives the impression of motion.

if we mark off space or enclose it. but it will be confused if assorted flowers are randomly spotted causing the eye to jump about. Factors in the Selection of Containers: In flower arrangement. Color: Probably the most important factor in the compatibility of materials is their color. In a design. modern. as traditional. a container transcends its practical purpose and becomes an artistic component of design. open. bold. Decoratively a container may be of little interest or it may make a positive contribution through color. In floral work. Pattern is monotonous if placements are uniform and forms unvaried.Pattern applies to the contour of a composition and the grouping of materials within it. it must have an opening adequate for a number of stems and a quantity of flowers and foliage as well as enough water to sustain them. 98 . Except in modern design where it may be featured. then space assumes shape. jar or crate. dense. be equally formal or casual. and irregular. because color commands the most attention. and be related in color but not so intense or varied in hue. Arrangement and container must be in proportion. an integral part of it. or texture. oriental. highly glazed or patterned that it competes. or if we cut out sections in a solid and leave them open. causes the strongest reaction. Thus two factors – size and decorative qualities – determine the suitability of a container to a design. a container should share the characteristics of a design. The pattern of a design and that of the individual materials influence each other. and often accounts for success or failure. Space: It is difficult to think of space as a positive element of design. or naturalistic. . form. A container must be sturdy enough to balance the weight and breadth of a quantity of material. f. Pattern relates to continuity. Patterns are different kinds – intricate. As the first requirement is to hold materials. The pattern of the materials often identifies the style. In any case. box. can. a container is usually of less importance than plant material. the container neither so large that it overpowers the arrangement nor so small that the design dwarfs the vase. regular. e. since the distribution of lines and forms can proceed either logically or in a disjointed way that disrupts unity. a container has connotation beyond the dictionary definition of “a thing that contains”. Usually we regard it as emptiness without limits or definition. it encompasses more than a vases and bowls.

container and design correspondingly traditional. be guided also by the dimensions and shape of the area and furniture that will be use for their display and for the type of arrangements to make. In collecting containers. or oriental. naturalistic.Compatibility also depends on similarity of style and shape. and style of a container should be in keeping with the setting or mood of an occasion. and have the same degree of elegance or informality. 99 . modern. the same air of gaiety or restraint. The color. texture.

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