I. The Country & the People (..cont) A.

Early Settlers How the Philippines was peopled is not very clear. “Land Bridges Theory” – During the Ice Age, waters around what is now the Philippines fell about 156ft below its level. Because of this, large areas of land came to the surface & became a sort of “land bridges” to the mainland of Asia. → it was said that during this period that the first settlers came to the Philippines. 1962 – a skull of man was discovered in the Tabon caves, Palawan. From this, it was learned that man had been in the Philippines at least 2,000 yrs.

First settlers live in caves, had very little clothing & ate raw food.

MIGRATIONS 1. 25,000-30,000 yrs ago – the ancestors of the PYGMY PEOPLE came to the Philippines by using the land bridges. → They were the ancestors of the present Aetas. → Another Aeta migration occurred a little later, they came by the way of Sulu & Mindanao. They used blow guns & bow & arrow & practice kaingin. → Their clothing consisted of bark trees & their houses were made of leaves & branches of trees. More than 7, 000 yrs ago – the ice of the world melted resulting in the raising of the sea level. The land bridges were submerged & the Philippines became separated fr the mainland Asia. 2. “Indonesian A” – came fr SE Asia by boat; they belong to the Early Stone Age. → They used stool tools, & grass-roofed houses were made of wood. → They were tall & slender, light-skinned & their faces were sharp & thin. 3. “Indonesian B” – came fr Indo-China & South China by using boats. → They built their houses with pyramidal roofs → They practiced dry agriculture & produce yams, rice, & gabi → They were stocky, dark w/ thick lips & large noses → Descendants are Kalinga, Apayaos, Igorots, Ilongots, Bagobos, Manobos, Tiruray, & Tagbanuas 4. 500-800 B.C. – They use copper & bronzed implements. They probably irrigated their rice lands & built the first rice terraces in the Philippines. 5. Malays – 300 or 200 B.C.; came to Luzon by way of Palawan & Mindoro → were said to known irrigation, smelting & manufacture of weapon, tools, utensils & ornaments made of iron & metal

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2nd wave of Malay - more advanced than the previous Malay  They had a sylabbary or alphabet w/c must have come fr India.  Ancestors of the present Christian Filipinos 3rd wave of Malays – 14th century - Muslim Malays who probably came fr Old Malaysia  They laid the foundation of Islam in Sulu & Mindanao.

 These migrations should be considered hypothetical & not actual happenings. The facts are not enough to warrant a definite conclusion. B. The coming of Islam

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Introduced in Old Malaysia (Indonesia, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Philippines) by Arab traders. It is said that an Arab scholar by the name of Mukdum or Mudum introduced & propagated Islam in the Malay Peninsula in the 14 th century then being successful, proceeded to Sulu & propagated Islam there.

As a result men of Banjar settled in Sulu. → His religious activities were continued by Abu Bakr who married Baginda’s daughter Paramisuli. C. Serif Kabungsuan – arrived fr Johore. Java & Sumatra. the Philippines had commercial & trade relations w/ her neighbors. became suspicious of the Banjar. Chinese trade greatly improved.    B. The Barangays » Spaniards were surprised to see that Filipinos having a civilization of their own The name Barangay originated fr balangay . Siam (Thailand) & Tonkin   China tried to regain the trade they had earlier lost to the Muslims During the Ming Dynasty. a Malay word meaning “sailboat. In time. China. Houses and Dwellings → Houses were made of wood and bamboo. Some barangays were quite large. b. as the Sulu people were called. & converted may natives to Islam → The 1st sultan of Mindanao. Champa & Cambodia (French Indo-China) – middle of the 14 th century. → Under the house were kept the rice. Generally consisted of 30-100 families. Good relations resulted fr this marriage & become the basis of Sulu’s prosperity. traders fr Banjarmasin established trading centers in Sulu. Pre-Spanish Life & Culture (Our Early Ancestors) A. a.” Evidently. Bagobos & . Annam. Relations w/ Foreign Countries  Long before the coming of the Spaniards.  The Buranuns.g. one of the rulers of a state in Sumatra went to Sulu & preached Islam to the natives. traded their porcelain wares w/ the Phil. Abu organized his pwers as sultan & organized a gov’t similar to the sultanate of Arabia. Sulu became the trade emporium of the South – Cambodia. but the latter showed good faith by having their queen marry the Buranun leader. Food and Drinks Rice – staple food of the Early Filipinos e. our seafaring ancestor named their villages after their sailboats.still live in boat houses C.  So rapid was the spread of Islam that when the Spaniards first arrived in Luzon in 1570. roofed by nipa palm leaves and were called bahay kubo (nipa hut) → Each house had a bamboo ladder that could be drawn up at night or when the family was out.  II. Borneo – because of Sulu’s rich pearl beds. wares d. Arab traders were very active in bringing Chinese goods to the Philippines  It was during the Sung dynasty of China that Chinese goods began to flow continuously to the Phil. A self-sustaining community ruled by a datu. c. China – began in 19th century. firewood & animals Batalan – where big water jars were kept for bathing & washing purposes → Some ancestors live in tree houses for better protection against enemy Kalingas → Badjaos of the Sulu sea .1390 – Raja Baginda. they found Manila to be a Muslim kingdom.

Other wines: basi – Ilocano wine brewed fr sugar cane pangasi – Visayan wine made fr rice lambanog – wine taken fr coconut palm tapuy – Igorot wine made fr rice D. he took off his putong. » Whenever the entire family went out. one of the early historians of the country. the mother & daughters walk ahead. When a man & woman walk together. the more men a warrior had killed in battle. gold armlets called kalombigas & gold anklets. Cleanliness and Neatness . It was dyed     blue or black. early Filipinos were dressed  Kangan – collarless. red is for the chief Bahag – a strip of cloth wrapped around the waist & in bet the legs. short-sleeved jacket that reached slightly below the waist. black hair in a graceful knot at the back of their heads. Putong – a piece of cloth wound around the head They had no shoes They had jewels. the more tattooed he was F. to enhance their bodily beauty 2. while the father & son followed behind. birds. they removed their putong as a sign of courtesy  When a person addressed his superior.→ They cooked their foods in earthen pots or bamboo tubes → Ate w/ their fingers using the banana plants as plates & coconut shells as drinking cups → Made fire to cook their food by rubbing 2 pcs of dry wood w/c when heated produced flame. gold bracelets. G. Mode of Dressing » MEN Long before Spaniards came. put it over his left shoulder like a towel & bowed low. the man was always behind a woman.  The women were shown courtesy everywhere.  Went barefoot » Both men & women inserted gold between their teeth as an ornament E. He addressed his superior w/the word “po” w/c is equivalent to “sir” & spoke in polite language. Natural Courtesy & Politeness  When two persons of equal rank met on the road. such as gold necklaces. It was considered impolite for a man to walk ahead of his woman companion. to show their war record. Tattoos » Early Filipinos tattooed their bodies w/ various designs representing animals. flowers & geometric figures 2 purposes: 1. it was a wine of the clarity of water but strong & dry. Tuba – most popular wine taken fr coconut sports → Accdg to Dr. Antonio de Morga. large gold earrings & gold rings  They tied their long. WOMEN  Baro – a wide sleeved jacket  Patadyong – a piece of cotton cloth which they wrapped around their waists & let fall to their feet  Their jewels consisted of gold necklaces.

captivity in war c. » Formed the majority among the inhabitans of every brgy. Slaves – called alipin. Marriage – a slave woman who married a freeman or noble automatically becomes free 2. K. Voluntary action of the master – a slave-owner might emancipate his slave for saving his life in the war or for having served his family faithfully for many years. They filed their teeth to make them even. nobles can become slaves. » They were free-born persons & emancipated slaves. purchase d. were close & strong » Parents took good care of the children Father – head of the family. Society & Social Classes Pre-Spanish society was divided into 3 classes: 1. Filipinos bathed daily. as they are today. a freeman can rise to nobility. Freemen – called timawas. » They owned their property » They could marry without their master’s consent . penalty for crimes committed » In the Phil. the lowest social class Causes of slavery a.  Accdg to Jesuit historian Fr.  They kept their homes clean. They chewed buyo w/c made their teeth colored but strong. 3. Nobles – called maharlikas. including the datu. » Family ties then. Purchase – a slave man could become free by paying his master a certain sum of gold 3. » His word was law to the children Mother – the housekeeper » She enjoyed the privilege of naming the children. Kinds of Slaves 1. The names she chooses for them were usually based on certain circumstances. upon entering takes water fr this vessel & washes his feet esp during rainy seasons H. Family Life Family – basis of society in ancient Phil. constituted the Barangay aristocracy.  They washed their hair regularly w/ gogo & water  They washed their mouths& cleaned their teeth upon waking up in the morning. Francisco Colin : They keep a vessel full of water at the door of every house & every person whether belonging to the house or not. & a slave could become freeman J. Various ways of emancipation: 1. the middle class. his family & relatives & the rich people » Members of this class enjoyed political & social privileges w/c were denied to the freemen & the slaves 2. Their favorite hour for bathing in the river was at sunset when they had finished their daily toil. Aliping namamahay – lived in their own houses. » Maganda – to a girl which showed traces of beauty » Malakas – to a boy who showed signs of physical strength I. Emancipation of Slaves » In pre-Spanish times. highest social class » Composed of the affluent slave-owning families. a Filipino slave could emancipate himself & become a freeman. failure to pay debts e. birth b.

slaves or anything else of value. kuilay-kuilay – Tinggian wine song g. They could own & inherit property If they were daughters of datus who had no sons they could inherit the chieftaincy Famous women: Sibabae – the legendary first woman in the world Lubluban – legendary lawgiver of the Visayans Lalahon – Visayan goddess of fire & volcanoes Kalangitan – sultana of the Pasig & Lakan Dula’s mother M. kumintang – Tagalog love dance b. Tribal laws & customs recognized them as equal. Cruelty e. Childlessness P. ayeg-klu – Igorot serenade song d. » They held banquets to celebrate a good harvest. Before marriage. land. tadek – Tinggian love dance e. wrestling. Music » Filipinos had various musical instruments & numerous dances & songs for diff occasions. dal-lot – Ilocano ballad song f. a religious sacrifice & a victory in war. tudob – Agusan harvest song Musical Instruments a. a freeman to marry a freeman. the groom had to do work in the house of the girl for a certain period. singing & dancing » They had games such as carabao races. Desertion on the part of the husband c. fencing. tagumpay – Tagalog song of victory b. Aliping saguiguilid . & a slaveman to marry a slaveman. Grounds for divorce: a. Kalaleng – nose flute c. Early Filipinos practiced divorce. However. bactal – Tagbanua death song O. Woman’s position in Early Society » » » Women occupied a high position in ancient Phil. that is for a nobleman to marry a noblewoman. It consisted of gold. Loss of affection d. Tultogan – Visayan bamboo drum e. Insanity f.» They could not be sold 2. drinking. Amusements » The early Filipinos were not always busy fighting or working. Barangay Government . These banquets were celebrated with much eating.owned no property » » » They lived in their master’s house They could not marry without his consent They could be sold anytime L. boat races & stone throwing contests. Suracan – Subanun cymbal d. there was no strict prohibition against intermarriages. Marriage Customs » » » » » It was customary among the ancient Filipinos to marry within their rank. dandansoy – Visayan tuba dance Songs a. dallu – Negritos religious songs c. mahinhin – Tagalog courtship dance c. Silbay – Ilocano reed flute f. they also had leisure time. Adultery on the part of the wife b. N. Kudyapi – Tagalog guitar b. the groom gave a dowry to the family of the bride called bigaykaya. kinnoton – Ilocano ant’s dance e. Kulintang – Muslim xylophone Folk Dances a. d. Aside from this dowry. a wedding. panjalay – Muslim wedding dance f.

» Bec of the destruction of ancient Filipino writings by Spanish colonizers & by the ravages of time. In time of war. crushed with weights. Baranganic Relations » » Relations existed bet brgy. weighed w/ stones. the lawgiver in Pre-spanish Phil was a woman named Lubluban. beating to death. laceration w/ thorns. cut to pieces. He obtained position by inheritance. alliances were concluded bet brgys for mutual protection against a common enemy. legislator & judge of brgy. or being burned. Alliances was sealed through a process called SANDUGUAN OR BLOOD COMPACT. » Disputes are settled by a court of justice composed of the chieftain as judge & the elders of the brgy as members of the “jury” . despite his great powers. he was the commander of the brgy warriors. boiled. In matters of importance.» » » » » » Each brgy was ruled by a chieftain or king called DATU The rulers of bigger brgy kingdoms assumed the title of RAHA. In case the datu dies w/o legitimate son or daughter. In time of peace. drowning.” Laws » Both oral and written laws Oral – were their customs which had been handed down orally fr generation to generation » accdg to legend. The brgy govt contained the seeds of democracy. swimming for 3 hours. stoned. The datu. » Code of Kalantiaw – set of ancient laws said to have been promulgated by Datu Kalantiaw of Aklan Catalogue of punishment: Plunging the hand into boiling water 3x. cutting the fingers. or thrown to crocodiles. the great granddaughter of the first man & first woman in the world Written – were promulgated by datus w/ the help of the elders & announced to the people by a brgy crier known as umalohokan. Contract parties then became “blood brothers. There was a trade bet them Sometimes. HARI or LAKAN The datu exercised great powers. exposure to ants. he was the chief executive. the datu had to consult the brgy elders & obtain their approval. we do not have an authentic example of early Filipino laws. was not an absolute ruler. the people of the brgy choose their new datu.

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