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# 3.

Euclid
Contribution to maths
Euclid , another name Euclid of Alexandria and also known as Father of Geometry. A Greek mathematician known for the major contribution on geometry. The whole new stream of geometry established by him known as Euclidean Geometry.He also works of Number Theory, Spherical Geometry, Conic Section .

Biography
Euclid

Euclid

## Euclid in Raphael's School of Athens

Born

Unknown

Died

Unknown

Residence

Alexandria, Egypt

Fields

Mathematics

Known for

## Euclidean geometry Euclid's Elements

Euclid (pron.: /jukld/ EWK-lid; Ancient Greek: Eukleids), fl. 300 BC, also known as Euclid of Alexandria, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "Father of Geometry". He was active in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy I (323283 BC). His Elements is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics (especially geometry) from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century.[1][2][3] In the Elements, Euclid deduced the principles of what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set ofaxioms. Euclid also wrote works on perspective, conic sections, spherical geometry,number theory and rigor. "Euclid" is the anglicized version of the Greek name , meaning "Good Glory.

## 4. THALES Contribution to maths

1. A circle is bisected by its diameter. 2. Angles at the base of any isosceles triangle are equal. 3. If two straight lines intersect, the opposite angles formed are equal. 4. If one triangle has two angles and one side equal to another triangle, the two triangles are equal in all respects. (See Congruence) 5. Any angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle. This is known as Thales' Theorem

Biography
Thales

## For other uses, see Thales (disambiguation).

Thales of Miletus

Thales

Born

c. 624 BC

Died

c. 547546 BC

School

Main interests

Notable ideas

## Water is the arche, Thales' theorem, intercept theorem

Influenced by[show]

Influenced[show]

Thales of Miletus (pron.: /eliz/; Greek: ( ), Thals; c. 624 BC c. 546 BC) was a preSocratic Greek philosopher from Miletus in Asia Minor, and one of theSeven Sages of Greece. Many, most notably Aristotle, regard him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition.[1] According to Bertrand Russell, "Western philosophy begins with Thales."[2] Thales attempted to explain natural phenomena without reference to mythologyand was tremendously influential in this respect. Almost all of the other Pre-Socraticphilosophers follow him in attempting to provide an explanation of ultimate substance, change, and the existence of the worldwithout reference to mythology. Those philosophers were also influential, and eventually Thales' rejection of mythological explanations became an essential idea for the scientific revolution. He was also the first to define general principles and set forth hypotheses, and as a result has been dubbed the "Father of Science", though it is argued that Democritus is actually more deserving of this title. [3][4] In mathematics, Thales used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore. He is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem. As a result, he has been hailed as the first true mathematician and is the first known individual to whom a mathematical discovery has been attributed. [5]

5.Archimedes Biography
Archimedes

Born

Died

## c. 212 BC (aged around 75)

Syracuse Residence

Syracuse, Sicily

Fields

Known for

## Archimedes' principle Archimedes' screw hydrostatics levers infinitesimals

Archimedes of Syracuse (Greek: ; c.287 BC c.212 BC) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.[1] Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Among his advances in physics are the foundations of hydrostatics, statics and an explanation of the principle of the lever. He is credited with designing innovative machines, including siege engines and the screw pump that bears his name. Modern experiments have tested claims that Archimedes designed machines capable of lifting attacking ships out of the water and setting ships on fire using an array of mirrors.[2] Archimedes is generally considered to be the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time.[3][4] He used the method of exhaustion to calculate the areaunder the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, and gave a remarkably accurate approximation of pi.[5] He also defined the spiral bearing his name, formulae for the volumes of surfaces of revolution and an ingenious system for expressing very large numbers. Archimedes died during the Siege of Syracuse when he was killed by a Roman soldier despite orders that he should not be harmed. Cicero describes visiting the tomb of Archimedes, which was surmounted by a sphere inscribed within a cylinder. Archimedes had proven that the sphere has two thirds of the volume and

surface area of the cylinder (including the bases of the latter), and regarded this as the greatest of his mathematical achievements. Unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little known in antiquity. Mathematicians from Alexandria read and quoted him, but the first comprehensive compilation was not made until c. 530 AD by Isidore of Miletus, while commentaries on the works of Archimedes written by Eutocius in the sixth century AD opened them to wider readership for the first time. The relatively few copies of Archimedes' written work that survived through the Middle Ages were an influential source of ideas for scientists during the Renaissance,
[6]

while the discovery in 1906 of previously unknown works by Archimedes in the Archimedes Palimpsest has

## provided new insights into how he obtained mathematical results. [7]

Contribution to maths
Discovered how to find the volume of a sphere and determined the exact value of Pi.

he invented calculus, found the value of pi, solved the problem of buoyancy, established the law of the lever, defined the spiral, used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area of the arc of a parabola (dno wat that is), found an ingenious system for expressing large numbers, and devised a method of displacement volumes (also known as the Eureka formula).
A formula to find the area under a curve, the amount of space that is enclosed by a curve. Source(s):

Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler

Born

Died

## 18 September 1783(aged 76)

[OS: 7 September 1783]

Nationality

Swiss

Fields

## Mathematics and physics

Institutions

Alma mater

University of Basel

Johann Bernoulli

Doctoral students

## See full list

Signature

Notes He is the father of the mathematician Johann Euler. He is listed by an academic genealogy as the equivalent to the doctoral advisor of Joseph Louis Lagrange. [1]

## listen), local pronunciation: [lr] (

listen);

15 April

1707 18 September 1783) was a pioneering Swissmathematician and physicist. He made important discoveries in fields as diverse asinfinitesimal calculus and graph theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function.[3] He is also renowned for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, and astronomy. Euler spent most of his adult life in St. Petersburg,Russia, and in Berlin, Prussia. He is considered to be the pre-eminent mathematician of the 18th century, and one of the greatest mathematicians ever to have lived. He is also one of the most prolific mathematicians ever; his collected works fill 60 80 quarto volumes.[4] A statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Euler's influence on mathematics: "Read Euler, read Euler, he is the master of us all." [5]

Life
Early years

## Old Swiss 10 Franc banknote honoring Euler

Euler was born on April 15, 1707, in Basel to Paul Euler, a pastor of the Reformed Church, and Marguerite Brucker, a pastor's daughter. He had two younger sisters named Anna Maria and Maria Magdalena. Soon after the birth of Leonhard, the Eulers moved from Basel to the town of Riehen, where Euler spent most of his childhood. Paul Euler was a friend of the Bernoulli familyJohann Bernoulli, who was then regarded as Europe's foremostmathematician, would eventually be the most important influence on young Leonhard. Euler's early formal education started in Basel, where he was sent to live with his maternal grandmother. At the age of thirteen he enrolled at the University of Basel, and in 1723, received his Master of Philosophy with a dissertation that compared the philosophies ofDescartes and Newton. At this time, he was receiving Saturday afternoon lessons from Johann Bernoulli, who quickly discovered his new pupil's incredible talent for mathematics.[6]Euler was at this point studying theology, Greek, and Hebrew at his father's urging, in order to become a pastor, but Bernoulli convinced Paul Euler that Leonhard was destined to become a great mathematician. In 1726, Euler completed a dissertation on the propagation of sound with the title De Sono.[7] At that time, he was pursuing an (ultimately unsuccessful) attempt to obtain a position at the University of Basel. In 1727, he first entered the Paris Academy Prize Problem competition; the problem that year was to find the best way to place the masts on a ship. Pierre Bouguer, a man who became known as "the father of naval architecture" won, and Euler took second place. Euler later won this annual prize twelve times. [8]

Contribution to maths
his primary contribution to the field is with the introductoin of matheatical notaion including the concept of the function(and how it is written as f(x)),shorthand trigonometric functions,the 'e' for the base of the natural logarithm(the euler constant),the greek letter sigma for summation and letter '/i' for imaginary units,as well as the simbol pi for the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter