Market Mapping

Going Beyond Basic Data Analysis

Value Added Market Mapping
The value of a marketing research study is often enhanced by not only analyzing the marketing significance of each question and the metrics of each brand attribute but by also going further to provide brand position mapping, including: Market Driver Mapping to answer: •  What attributes specific to a product/service/brand are important?

Delivery versus Expectations Mapping to answer: •  •  How does the brand perform on the important product/service attributes? What needs to be improved first in order to make a brand stand out?

Perceptual Mapping to answer: •  How is the brand perceived in target’s minds relative to competitors?

•  Which competitors are in the brand’s ‘competitive set’ – the most closelyrelated competitors? •  Which attributes best describe each brand and discriminate between brands in target’s minds?


Derived Importance
The market mapping process begins with the calculation of derived importance.
Derived Importance is a statistical measure that relates the overall importance or influence that the individual attributes have on the overall rating or likelihood to purchase a product, service or brand. The statistical procedure used to calculate Derived Importance is called the Pearson Bivariate Correlation. This procedure calculates the simple correlation coefficients between the overall rating and the attribute performance ratings. That is to say, how similar each attribute rating is to the overall rating. This analysis is done on a respondent-by-respondent basis and then combined for interpretation. Derived Importance goes beyond what respondents claim is important to them and uncovers the underlying reasons for making consumer choices. For instance, one might say that cleanliness is important in a restaurant, say that safety is important in a car, say that financial stability is important for a bank, and say that qualified physicians are important in a hospital. This does not necessarily mean that those attributes drive, or contribute, to an overall rating or purchase; in fact, we have ample evidence that this is not necessarily what determines (drives) what brand, product, or service people select. Rather, when consumers are asked how important specific attributes are they are simply giving the 'price of entry' for the category.


Market Driver Mapping
Through calculations of derived importance, the true key indicators that motivate targets to differentiate between competitive product/service offerings are realized. When these derived importance measures are plotted along with the stated importance measures, a four-quadrant map emerges:
Key Drivers – These are the attributes that have a high level of both stated and derived importance. These are the attributes that are truly important, and outstanding performance on them will do the most to distinguish a product, service or brand from the competition. Price of Entry – These attributes have high stated importance levels yet have low derived importance levels. These attributes represent the minimum criteria that must be met in order for a company to be competitive but they are not differentiating factors between brands. Latent Motivators – These attributes are low in stated importance yet high in perceived or derived importance. On the surface, these attributes do not seem to have a great deal of influence on brand identity. Yet these attributes often show a potential to provide a competitive edge in the brand differentiation process. Low Priority – These are attributes that are low in both stated and derived importance. They have only a marginal amount of influence in distinguishing between competitive offerings.

Example Market Driver Map
Derived Importance Index
Key Drivers Latent Motivators

Value for the money Food quality Good restaurant for families with children

Atmosphere inside restaurant Friendly, courteous service

Being competitively priced Menu variety Healthy, good for you food Speed of getting your food Cleanliness
Note, for example, that people SAY healthy food is the most important thing they consider, but that it has very little impact on differentiating brands.

Low Priority

Price of Entry

Stated Importance Index


Delivery versus Expectations Mapping
If all companies were able to perform at 100% on all of the attributes that are important to their customers, then there would be little or no marketplace competition. The reality is that products/services tend to perform well on some attributes and not so well on others and these attributes tend to differ in varying degrees across competitive offerings. Neither the time nor the resources are available to most companies to achieve 100% performance on all attributes that characterize their marketplace. By determining the attributes that are key drivers of a particular brand, we have isolated the things that ‘make the brand what it is’. By analyzing the performance of these attributes and observing them relative to their perceived importance it is possible to target specific attributes that, if given immediate attention, will do the most to further distinguish a brand in consumers’ minds. This information is critical so that resources may be properly allocated to ensure maximum possible brand differentiation.


Delivery versus Expectations Mapping
When the derived importance measures are plotted along with the performance measures, a four-quadrant map will again be produced, yet with different quadrant definitions:
Above average importance/below average performance – These items represent the items that need to be the focus of resource allocations. Improvement in performance on these items will do the most to further distinguish the brand in the minds of targets. Above average importance/above average performance – These attributes are the ones that are currently doing the most to differentiate a product/service offering. These items should be monitored for changes but the priority for improving them should be secondary. Below average importance/above average performance – While the product performs well on these items, they do not weigh in heavily on the brand choice process. Below average importance/below average performance – While the product/service performs poorly on these attributes, they are relatively unimportant when evaluating the brand.


Example Delivery vs. Expectations Map
Derived Importance Index
Above Average Importance/ Below Average Performance
Value for the money Food quality Good restaurant for families with children

Above Average Importance/ Above Average Performance

Atmosphere inside restaurant Friendly, courteous service

Being competitively priced Menu variety Healthy, good for you food Speed of getting your food Cleanliness

Below Average Importance/ Below Average Performance

Below Average Importance/ Above Average Performance

Brand A Performance Index 8

Perceptual Mapping
The preceding analyses have determined how targets perceive a product/ service/brand offering based upon the amount of both explicit and implicit importance placed upon attributes that characterize the marketplace in which it exists. In addition, these attributes have been evaluated on the basis of performance to determine where the product/service is excelling and where it is lacking, and a priority for improvement has been assigned accordingly. The next step in the positioning strategy is to determine how the brand is perceived relative to the existing competitive offerings in the marketplace. This analysis involves observing the position of competing products/services in a perceptual space that is designed to represent how consumers view a particular marketplace in general. This perceptual map makes it is possible to see at a glance:
How a product relates to the competition Who the nearest competitors are (competitive sets) Which product/service attributes best describe each product


Example Perceptual Map


(1) Length of arrow indicates relative importance of attribute in differentiating among restaurants. (2) Position of restaurant shows what attributes best denote restaurant and similarity to other restaurants.


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