Rāja yoga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Raja Yoga) Rāja yoga ("royal yoga", "royal union", also known as Classical yoga and aṣṭānga yoga) is one of the six schools of Dharmic (astika) Hindu philosophy. Its principal text is the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Raja Yoga is concerned principally with the cultivation of the viewer's (ṛṣih) mind using a succession of steps, such as meditation (dhyāna, dhyana) and contemplation (samādhi, samadhi). Its object is to further one's acquaintance with reality (viveka), achieve awakening (moksha) and eventually enlightenment, kaivalya. Rāja yoga was first described as an eightfold or eight-limbed (aṣṭānga, ashtanga) path in the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali, and is part of the Samkhya tradition.[1] As a result, it has also been known as Sesvara Samkhya, and Patanjali Samkhya.[2] In the context of Hindu philosophy Rāja Yoga is known simply as yoga and forms an integral part of the spiritual practices of many Hindu traditions. The term Rāja Yoga is a retronym, introduced in the 15th-century Hatha Yoga Pradipika to distinguish the school based on the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali from the more current school of hatha yoga expounded by yogi Swatmarama.

1 Concept 2 Practice 3 Eight limbs of Ashtanga Yoga 3.1 Yama 3.2 Niyama 3.3 Asana 3.4 Prāṇāyāma 3.5 Pratyahara 3.6 Dharana 3.7 Dhyana 3.8 Samadhi 4 Other uses 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

Rāja yoga is concerned with the mind (citta) and its fluctuations (vṛttis, vortexes, variations) and how to quiet or master the mind's fluctuations. Humans have all sorts of addictions and obsessions and these preclude the attainment of tranquil abiding (meditation). Through restraint (yama) such as celibacy, abstaining from intoxicants, and careful attention to one's actions (niyama) of body, speech and mind, the human being becomes more fit to practice meditation. This yoke that one puts upon oneself (discipline) is another meaning of the word yoga. Every thought, feeling, perception, or memory you may have causes a modification, or ripple, in the mind. It distorts and colors the mental mirror. If you can restrain the mind from forming into modifications, there will be no distortion, and you will experience your true Self.

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the meditator experiences only the consciousness of existence and achieves Self Realization. In the Jangama dhyana technique of Rāja yoga. They go on to detail the ways in which mind can create false ideations. the Praṇava. greater than the empiricist. the meaning. —[4] The eight limbs of Ashtanga Yoga are: Yama – code of conduct. this is one method of achieving the initial concentration (dharana: Yoga Sutras.2). in all circumstances be a yogi" (Bg. Lord Kṛṣṇa describes the yogi as follows: "A yogi is greater than the ascetic. towards that point. such as study and devotion Āsana – integration of mind and body through physical activity Pranayama – regulation of breath leading to integration of mind and body Pratyahara – abstraction of the senses. the Way is found. Therefore.27 it is stated that the word of Īśvara is OM. nirvāṇa or kaivalya. schools of yoga that label themselves "rāja" offer students a structure of yogic practices and a solid viewpoint on dharma. Swami Vivekananda describes the process in the following way: When the mind has been trained to remain fixed on a certain internal or external location.Rāja yoga . commitments to practice. and greater than the fruitive worker. that state is called Samādhi. taṇhā) of the senses. This process. In Samādhi Pada I. According to Patanjali. III: 2). the yogi concentrates the mind and sight between the eyebrows.wikipedia. Thus rāja yoga encompasses and differentiates itself from other forms of yoga by encouraging the mind to avoid the sort of absorption in obsessional practice (including some traditional practices) that can create false mental objects. This state is called dhyana. In deeper practice of the Jangama dhyana technique. III: 1) necessary for the mind to go introverted in meditation (dhyana: Yoga Sutras. In this sense rāja yoga is called the "king among yogas": all honest yogic practices are seen as tools in the quest to cleanse karma and obtain mokṣa.[3] Patañjali's Yoga Sutras begin with the statement yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ (1. as it were. O Arjuna. vairāgya. dedicated meditation on real objects or subjects. withdrawal of the senses of perception from their objects 2 of 6 6/13/2013 6:58 PM . it is said. Rāja yoga aims at controlling all thought-waves or mental modifications. 6. When one has so intensified the power of dhyana as to be able to reject the external part of perception and remain meditating only on the internal part. in which there is mastery over the thirst (tṛṣṇā.org/wiki/Raja_Yoga —Swami Satchidananda Rāja yoga is traditionally referred to as aṣṭānga (eight-limbed) yoga because there are eight aspects to the path to which one must attend. Historically. Through the sounding of the Word and through reflection upon its meaning. "Yoga limits the oscillations of the mind". and advocate arduous.Wikipedia. Eventually. there comes to it the power of flowing in an unbroken current. In his classic Raja Yoga.46). the free encyclopedia http://en. A rāja yogi starts his sādhanā with the mind as well as a certain minimum of āsana and prāṇāyāma usually included as a preparation for the meditation and concentration. leads to a state of quiet detachment. Practices that serve to maintain for the individual the ability to access this state may be considered rāja yoga practices. the mind concentrated between the eyebrows begins to automatically lose all location and focus on the watching itself. self-restraint Niyama – religious observances.

joints and nerve system) psychological (developing emotional balance and stability. "without effort"). the free encyclopedia http://en. Ahimsa is perfect harmlessness.org/wiki/Raja_Yoga Dharana – concentration. Tapas (austerity). it is considered that the physical postures and pranayama serve to prepare the body and mind for the following steps: pratyahara. meditation. Satya (truthfulness). memory) consciousness (purifying and clarifying consciousness/awareness) From the rāja yoga perspective. as some sources say. Prāṇāyāma 3 of 6 6/13/2013 6:58 PM . of which the highest are Shirshasan (headstand) and Padmasan (lotus). Yama Main article: Yamas Yama (restraints) consists of five parts: Ahimsa (non-violence).[5] Niyama Main article: Niyama Niyama is observance of five canons: Shaucha (internal and external purity). and state of expanded or transcendental consciousness. and Aparigraha (non-covetousness). while the upper ones—from pratyahara to samadhi—being specific for the rāja yoga. superconscious(?) state. staying relaxed and with normal (calm) breathing (or. the Sanskrit word asana means "seat". contemplation. 84 asanas are considered to be the main postures.Wikipedia. inner organs. The practice of asanas affects the following aspects or planes of the human being: physical (blood circulation. Asana Main article: Asana Asana in the sense of a posture that one can hold for a period of time. dharana. the place where one sits. Svadhyaya (study of religious books and repetitions of Mantras). Brahmacharya meaning sexual abstinence. dhyana and samādhi (withdrawal of the senses.wikipedia. or posture. and Ishvarapranidhana (selfsurrender to God. unlike Yama. one-pointedness of mind Dhyana – meditation (quiet activity that leads to samadhi) Samādhi – the quiet state of blissful awareness. The upper three limbs practiced simultaneously constitute the Samyama. glands. as well as positive love. harmony) mental (improved ability to concentrate. Asteya (non-stealing). Santosha (contentment). Niyama. The five directives of Yama lay down behavioral norms as prerequisites for elimination of fear. the lower ones—from yama to pranayama—being parallel to the lower limbs of Hatha Yoga. Attained when yogi constantly sees Paramatma in his (jivaatma) heart. position of the body (any position). They are sometimes divided into the lower and the upper four limbs. and His worship).Rāja yoga . and contribute to a tranquil mind. muscles. where the activity of the mind ceases and "The Knower and The Object of Knowledge Become One"). prescribes mental exercises to train the mind to control emotions. In English. Asanas (in the sense of Yoga "posture") are said to derive from the various positions of animals' bodies (whence are derived most of the names of the positions).

seclusion. Dharana Main article: Dharana Real Yoga starts from concentration. The awakening of kundalini energy (also described as the awakening of divine consciousness or wisdom). The mind can thus be easily controlled. which appears as: antara kumbhak (withholding the breath after inhalation) bahar kumbhak (withholding the breath after exhalation) keval kumbhak (spontaneous withholding of the breath) There are numerous techniques of Pranayama. The awareness comes to rest deep in the inner space. etc. and during this time the yogi's breath will be temporarily suspended. Pratyahara cannot be achieved without achievement of the preceding limbs (pranayama. According to Rāja yoga. niyama.org/wiki/Raja_Yoga Main article: Pranayama Prāṇāyāma is made out of two Sanskrit words (prāṇa = life energy. stadia) of pranayama: purak (inhalation) rechak (exhalation) kumbhak (holding the breath). and not mixing much with people are all aids to concentration. one learns to control prana. silence. Concentration merges into meditation. Retention of breath. Breathing is the medium used to achieve this goal. the free encyclopedia http://en.Rāja yoga . etc. Through regulating the breathing and practicing awareness on it. ayāma = control or modification). free from the senses and external world. Concentration on Bhrakuti (the space between the two eyebrows) with closed eyes is preferred. The awareness is far removed from the five senses. there are three main types (phases. Satsanga (being in the company of a guru). The Goal of Pratyahara is not to disrupt the communication from the sense organ to the brain. Meditation ends in Samadhi.). units.Wikipedia. Satvic (pure) food. and its ascent to the crown chakra is the final goal of rāja yoga. It is a yogic practice that takes on adequacy with the prior 8 limbs as prerequisites. Pratyahara Main article: Pratyahara Pratyahara is bringing the awareness to reside deep within oneself. Pratyahara should not just be likened to concentration or meditation. Brahmacharya.wikipedia. The main techniques are: surya bhedan candra bhedan nadi shodhan (anuloma viloma) bhastrika kapalabhati ujjaji plavini (bhujangini) bhramari sheetkari sheetali combination of sheetkari and sheetali murccha All pranayama practice ultimately works toward purification of the nadis (energy channels) and the awakening of kundalini shakti at the muladhara chakra. as this is 4 of 6 6/13/2013 6:58 PM . The mind and life force are correlated to the breath. each with their specific goals.

do not use your will force in driving them. the free encyclopedia http://en. do not concentrate. He becomes adept. Do not take heavy food at night. tossing of mind. You will have progress in Yoga. and Nirvikalpa. Avidya (ignorance). He attains Asamprajnata Samadhi or Kaivalya. Asmita (egoism).[citation needed] Dhyana Main article: Dhyana in Hinduism "Sleep. Samadhi is of two kinds: Savikalpa. enlightenment. known and knowledge). Asamprajnata or Nirbija. Rajas and Tamas." — Swami Sivananda from Amrita Gita Samadhi Main article: Samadhi Meditation on OM with Bhava removes obstacles in Sadhana and helps to attain Samadhi. You will attain Samadhi. Do not sleep much. You must have Para Vairagya or Theevra Vairagya.Wikipedia. Kshipta (wandering). By controlling the thoughts the Sadhaka attains great Siddhis.wikipedia. kaivalya. gluttony are all obstacles in meditation.34). Patañjali says the soul reaches its end in liberation. The term is used by the Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University and Prajapita Brahma Kumaris to describe their entirely unrelated meditation practices and should not to be confused with the Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga of K. Destroy these afflictions. They will bring about your downfall. the more the evil thoughts will return with redoubled force. The mind passes into many conditions or states as it is made up of three qualities: Sattva. Samprajnata or Sabija. Sasmita and Saananda are the different forms of Savikalpa Samadhi. Do not eat much. Nirbija Samadhi or Asamprajnata Samadhi there is no triad. Be indifferent. A Raja Yogi practices Samyama or the combined practice of Dharana. Vikshipta (gathering). In Nirvikalpa Samadhi. Vairagya thins out the mind. Savitarka. Pattabhi Jois. The greater the efforts you make. laziness. Become a witness of those thoughts. Abhinivesha (clinging to mundane life) are the five Kleshas or afflictions. Mudha (ignorant). When the mind is tired. Savichara. Control the mind by Abhyasa (practice) and Vairagya (dispassion). Never miss a day in meditation. In Savikalpa or Sabija. lack of Brahmacharya. Do not mix much. Raga-Dvesha (likes and dislikes). Cultivate dispassion. Do not use any violent efforts at concentration. Dull Vairagya will not help you in attaining perfection in Yoga.Rāja yoga . Nirvichara. You will tax your will. attachment to objects. Any practice that steadies the mind and makes it one-pointed is Abhyasa. intense dispassion. Reduce your wants. there is Triputi or the triad (knower. Do not run after Siddhis. You will lose your energy.org/wiki/Raja_Yoga the seat for the mind. Nirvitarka. and Nirodha (contrary) are the five states of the mind. Do not talk much. Never wrestle with the mind during meditation. subtle desires and cravings. You will fatigue yourself. Siddhis are great temptations. Dhyana and Samadhi at one and the same time. 5 of 6 6/13/2013 6:58 PM . They will pass away. If evil thoughts enter your mind. In the last sutra (4. Do not exert much. Regularity is of paramount importance. Ekagra (one-pointed).

The Yoga Tradition.google. ^ See Swami Vivekenanda on dhyana and samādhi in rāja yoga here.wikipedia. How to Know God (http://www. Georg. ISBN 978-81-208-1923-8. Swami (1980).com /?id=aANjt2mn27MC&printsec=frontcover). Rider and Company. as taught by Paramahansa Yogananda. ISBN 0-911206-23-X.a translation and commentary by Yogacharya Shivaji Mizner" 4. Ancient and Modern. 6 of 6 6/13/2013 6:58 PM . Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. ISBN 978-81-7824-130-2. p. The Art and Science of Raja Yoga. Vedanta Press & Bookshop. Ernest (1951). (2006). the free encyclopedia http://en. ^ "The Yoga Sutras of Maharishi Patanjali . Gordon W. ^ Swami Kriyananda. Ken Wilber (2002). additional terms may apply. ^ P. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. pp. Raja Yoga (http://www. Allport (1999). By using this site.com /How-Know-God-Aphorisms-Patanjali/dp/0874810418).amazon. Swami.100 Sen.com/Raja-Yoga-Swami-Vivekananda /dp/091120623X). Orient Blackswan. Prabhavananda. Being a New.com /?id=Yy5s2EHXFwAC&pg=PA37). ISBN 978-0-203-00266-7. Feuerstein. Hindu Psychology (http://books. J.google. ISBN 978-0-87481-041-7. "Raja Yoga: The Science of Self-Realization" (http://books. Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center. Inc. "The Wheel of Yoga" (http://books. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Amiya P. a non-profit organization.M1).wikipedia. Wood.amazon. 142 A Dictionary of Theosophy By Theodore Besterman 3. Bhakti Yoga Jnana Yoga Karma Yoga Meditation Shin Shin Tōitsu-dō .org/wiki/Raja_Yoga However. Routledge. Swami. Akhilananda. 5.Japanese Yoga Yoga Cittabhumi 1.google. 4. 219–227. p. Christopher Isherwood. Practical Yoga.com /?id=OjwwJcdKEy8C&printsec=frontcover#PPA219. Independent Translation of Patanjali's Yoga Aphorisms. 2. the Kriya Yoga.Rāja yoga . Text "Patajali " ignored (help) Retrieved from "http://en. Donald Walters. Vivekananda. is thought to be closely related.org/w/index.php?title=Rāja_yoga&oldid=557916417" Categories: Yoga Yoga styles Hindu philosophical concepts Indian philosophy Philosophical traditions Ancient philosophical schools and traditions Philosophical schools and traditions This page was last modified on 2 June 2013 at 02:58. ^ K A Jacobsen & G J Larson Theory And Practice of Yoga: Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson.Wikipedia. The Indispensable Vivekananda.. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.

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