Production Logging

roduction Logging evolved within the oil industry as it became necessary for the well operator to obtain detailed knowledge of the nature and behavior of fluids during production cycles. Gradually, many of these tools, techniques and purposes of Production Logging have been adapted to the water industry. Some potential benefits are:

Chapter 9
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n n

n Early Evaluation of Completion Efficiency, n Early Detection of disturbances which are
not clearly revealed by measurements at the surface, Detailed information on zones of production, Detailed information on the extent of contamination within the aquifer(s).

Types of Logs Available
Although Production Logs are often spoken of as a group apart, this functional identification is not complete nor is it absolute. Any log that yields useful information in cased holes can be classified as a Production Log. Although the accuracy of Production Logging measurements is good, it should be understood that the quantitative accuracy of the interpretations is limited. There are variables which cannot be measured and simplifying assumptions should be made in some areas. For example, it would be unrealistic to expect an analysis to yield a clear differentiation between 600 and 610 GPM. Nevertheless, the relative results are excellent. Usually surface measured flow rates are available with which to correlate and refine the PL results. In any event, it is ordinarily the downhole flow pattern that is of primary interest, rather than distinct, absolute flowrates. However, in favorable conditions, the PL interpretation can yield flowrate values of good quantitative accuracy. This accuracy depends largely on the downhole flow regime. To understand the complexity of PL interpretation some discussion is needed of the physical states that exist when water flows through vertical pipes.

upward inside the pipe. However, there are documented cases where the flow upward will not only be within the pipe but also outside in the gravel pack. This phenomenon will greatly affect the velocity logs. An additional anomaly which will give the velocity logs an unusual characteristic is the assumption that the inside diameter of the borehole does not change. Not only will different internal diameters occur; but, also, a screened interval may have a different internal diameter than the main casing string. Although small diameter pipe changes in large casing will not affect the velocity logs drastically, the effect will still be seen and can lead to erroneous interpretation. Additionally, depending on the pumping rate and casing size, the water movement may vary from moderately surging to strong upward flow. As a result, the velocity data may be very erratic or stable. Single phase flow is divided into three broad classes: Laminar, Turbulent, and Transitional Flows.

Laminar Flow
The term ‘laminar’ is applied to a streamline flow pattern in which fluid may be thought to be divided into infinitesimally thin concentric layers, each layer having a uniform velocity parallel to the hole axis. Adjacent layers flow past each other with slightly different velocities. In laminar flow, the fluid next to the surfaces of the pipe is stationary (assuming the fluid wets the surface) and the maximum velocity is at or near the center of the pipe. The profile of velocity across the pipe section is parabolic as shown on in Figure 9 - 1-A.

Turbulent Flow
The term ‘turbulent’ is applied to a flow which is characterized by random, irregular, locally circular currents throughout the fluid column. In turbulent flow,as shown in Figure 9 - 1-B, the fluid next to the surface is again stationary, and a thin layer in laminar flow exits close to the pipe assuming the pipe wall is smooth. However, the velocity profile has a flat flow front as compared to the laminar parabolic flow. As the casing wall changes because of buildup and/or irregular pipe sizes, the turbulent flow pattern may vary widely from moderately to highly turbulent.

Flow in Vertical Pipes
Unlike the oil industry which usually must deal with multiphase flow, we are concerned with only single phase flow, water, and a flow of a single viscosity. This is a distinct advantage, but at the same time we must contend with excessively large diameter pipes that can be highly corroded and/or irregular. Although the downhole flow regime in a producing well will usually be straight forward, you should be aware of potential anomalies which may inhibit the natural flow. It is sometimes incorrect to assume that the flow will be 59

Transitional Flow
It is to be expected that both flow patterns, laminar and turbulent, may exist within a well and, consequently, a transition zone must exist where the flow pattern is changing from that of laminar flow into turbulent flow as the fluid moves up the hole and the velocity increases

1.2.B. Therefore. the density of the fluid will always be one gm/cc and the viscosity of the fluid will always be one centipoise. and the average velocity of the fluid.section of the pipe v= B: N Re = vd 60 . but it is both easier and more economical to obtain data from non pumping tests. water. There is a definite lower limit to the value of N below which turbulence will not occur. In non pumping logging the pump has been removed from the well. A: Reynolds Number Experience has shown there is a distinct relationship between the density of the fluid.2. Also. B can be calculated by Formula ‘A’ in Figure 9 . and the PL tools are inserted directly into the well bore. Experiments show this relationship can be expressed as a Reynolds Number and 4q q 2 = pd A where. the equation can be simplified to Formula ‘B’ in Figure 9 . Often the well is not “static” as presumed.1-A. Data such as interzonal communication and rates can be detected along with the zones that may be contaminated. of course. then where. Because we are only concerned with single phase flow.2 between the patterns shown in Figure 9 . It is possible you will experience data which decreases then increases then decreases again as the tool moves pvd N Re = through the area of m transitional flow. The flow pattern will be somewhere Reynolds Number Formula Figure 9 . Laminar and Turbulent Flow Patterns because additional water is entering the flowstream.Chapter 9 Figure 9 . if it does exist. q is volumetric flowrate A is the internal cross . the turbulent flow will d is the diameter of the pipe occur up the hole in the v is the average velocity of the fluid from: highest fluid velocity. viscosity of the fluid. valuable data can be obtained from non pumping testing as well as from the pumping tests. Usually the flow is fully turbulent for a value to 4000. Not only that. diameter of the pipe. and consequently.1. that value is about 2000. Whether turbulence appears for a value above 2000 depends upon the degree to which fluid is free of disturbances. if turbulent flow occurs. p is the density of the fluid laminar flow will be toward m is the viscosity the bottom of the hole and. This transitional zone may cause erratic velocity measurements and as a result it is important that the Reynolds Number be calculated to learn the exact extent of that area. A. Non Pumping Measurements Contrary to popular belief. it is possible to formulate certain conclusions as shown in Table 9 .

the entire pump string has been removed. The pump is then reassembled in the hole. It is possible any time to insert any type of device into the well under pumping conditions without ever shutting down and pulling the pump. The advantage to this method is obvious. After the survey. Table 9 . The turbine pump methods should be discussed throughly with the pump or drilling company to establish the most economical method of surveying the well when using a turbine pump. C r o s s f l o wf r om contamina ted aquif e r s ro fl ow rom contaminated aquife rs behind blank casing can be detected. more geotechnical companies have realized the potential benefits from a relatively new method of placing well casings. cro fl ow may calculat d. The pump base must be blocked up in some manner to allow free movement of 61 . Although the initial cost will probably be quite high. This design will allow for the free access of multiple PL tools and for the unrestricted logging below the pump string while the pump is in operation. Horizontal movement in an aquifer may b ed e t e r m i n e d . and the tool inserted into the well below the bowl settings. Uusually the turbine pump must be lifted to allow access of each individual logging tool. This method will require that the logging tool and truck be on site for as long as three days. an external access pipe varying in diameter from 4 to 10 inches. Sometimes this is the only course open to the well owner.a reas well contaminat d. Amounts of cr o s s f l o w ma y be calcula t e d . When the well is first completed. This is no more than a long slot (preferably over 5') onto which the access pipe is welded. This entry is below the bowls of the pump string. h i g 4. Several different mechanical arrangements are used for logging with a pump and pump string in the hole. is put into place simultaneously with the casing. 2 . I ft h ew ell is contamina t e d . h TDS v alues ma yb ed i s c o ve r e d . 5 . the pump assembly is removed and the logging tool is retrieved from the well bore. Preferred Turbine Pump Method Although this method is in its infancy. Turbine Pump This method of entry into a well under pumping conditions is probably the least desirable of all methods. In these cases. Ve r o s s f l o w betw een pr oducing rt ro fl ow between producing t i c a l c r aquifers can be determined. The access pipe is tied into the casing string with a ‘Y’ assembly. considerable time and money will be saved. There have been cases where the annulus size has been so small that the logging tool does not have enough clearance for access to the bottom. The biggest drawback from this method is that the time to make multiple logging tool runs will be excessive and another alternative is usually sought. over the long term. The most preferable method while pumping occurs when an access pipe is placed in the borehole along with the submersible pumpstring and extends just below the intake.1 1 . r eas with 3 . values may ov re d.Chapter 9 the logging cable.


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