Two atoms of hydrogen
(one proton +, one electron -)

One atom of oxygen
(8 protons +, 8 electrons -) They are joined by COVALENT BONDS (the oxygen and hydrogen share electrons)

Both hydrogen atoms are on one side of the water molecule The molecule’s electrons are clustered on the opposite side of the molecule This gives the water molecule POLARITY i.e. one side has a slight positive charge and one side a slight negative charge = DIPOLAR e.g. like a flashlight battery or bar magnet

The positive side of the molecule is attracted to negative charges, e.g. the opposite sides of other water molecules The attraction forms a weak bond = HYDROGEN BOND NB A hydrogen bond is much weaker than a the bond between atoms (covalent bond)


HYDROGEN BONDS Hydrogen bonds help give water some of its properties Including – SURFACE TENSION …the “skin” on glass of water or a pond COHESION …. the xylem of plants Capillarity Surface Tension THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT Water molecules not only stick to other water molecules. Atoms in salt (NaCl) molecules are held together by IONIC BONDS Positive Na+ is strongly attracted to negative Cl= ELECTROSTATIC ATTRACTION When NaCl is put in water the attraction between Na+ and Cl.molecules pulling together to form droplets CAPILARITY The ability to pull molecules behind it up a narrow tube (capillary) e.become separated and the salt crystals dissolve 2 .g.g. but also other polar substances reduced (80 times) →Na+ and Cl.

regular structure (crystalline) and molecules are locked in place LIQUID: Most common state of water. but still interact with each other (some bonds) GAS: Water molecules do not interact with each other except during random collisions and move freely 3 .g. solid) In water – also Hydrogen Bonds THERMAL PROPERTIES OF WATER The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of water by 1oC = THE SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY The SHC of water is very high – it takes more energy to increase the energy of hydrogen—bonded water molecules than molecules just kept together by Van Der Waal’s forces THERMAL PROPERTIES OF WATER Therefore water can absorb a lot of heat before its temperature rises. LIQUID or GAS What need to happen to change the state of a substance? Bonds between molecules must be broken This requires that molecules move faster and move further apart This requires ENERGY = HYDRATION Because water molecules not only interact with other molecules. but can be important when molecules are close together (e.6oC – 45. oil) THERMAL PROPERTIES OF WATER Bonds between molecules include VAN DER WAAL’S FORCES Weak forces of attraction. like other matter.THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT The process by which water molecules surround ions (positively or negatively charged particles) THERMAL PROPERTIES OF WATER Water.g. California sea water: land: 6.e. Molecules move freely about.g. but also with polar substances water can dissolve almost anything = THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT If water cannot dissolve a substance it is because it is not polar (e. Also a lot of energy has to be released to cause water to cool This means that water temperatures change more slowly compared to the land . ICE) water has a rigid.for example e. can exist in three states: SOLID.7oC THERMAL PROPERTIES OF WATER SOLID: When water is solid (i.3oC – 20oC 3.

212 F] o o If energy is removed the gas reverts back into liquid (@CONDENSATION POINT) And more energy removes turns into a solid (@FREEZING POINT) The heat energy needed to turn 1 g of a substance at the boiling point temperature liquid to gas= THE LATENT HEAT OF VAPOURIZATION LATENT HEATS The heat energy needed to BE REMOVED to turn 1 g of a substance at the boiling point temperature from gas to liquid= THE LATENT HEAT OF CONDENSATION (i. the energy require to break bonds) If enough energy is then added it turns into gas (@BOILING POINT) [100 C.THERMAL PROPERTIES OF WATER If enough energy is added to water.e. the energy required be removed to slow molecules down and to allow bonds to reform) The heat energy needed to BE REMOVED to turn 1 g of a substance at the melting point temperature from liquid to solid= THE LATENT HEAT OF FREEZING / FUSION 4 . bonds break and it becomes liquid (@MELTING POINT) [0 C.e. 34 F] o o LATENT HEATS The heat energy needed to turn 1 g of a substance at the melting point temperature from solid to liquid= THE LATENT HEAT OF MELTING (i.

e. instead of contracting it expands Therefore ice is LESS DENSE than liquid water →ICE FLOATS Why? The density of water increases as it becomes cooler e.g. cold water is heavier than warm water 5 . Energy is moved from hotter regions to cooler regions .Water Phase Changes Sea surface temperatures are usually less than 20oC – nowhere near the boiling point Therefore – how does liquid turn to vapor at the ocean’s surface? To escape the liquid’s surface a water molecule must take enough energy from its neighboring molecules to become a gas Because energy is taken – when evaporation occurs it cools the molecules left behind = THE LATENT HEAT OF EVAPORATION NB: A greater amount of energy than the latent heat of vaporization IMPORTANCE OF LATENT HEATS The huge amount of heat exchanged in the evaporation – condensation cycle allows life to be possible on the earth. warming higher latitudes = MODERATE CLIMATE WATER DENSITY Density = Mass / Volume How heavy something is Density of pure water =1g/cm3 Normally the density of a substance increases as it cools Molecules loose energy→ slow down→ closer together = THERMAL CONTRACTION BUT from 4oC to 0oC the density of water DECREASES i. Water evaporates in warmer regions In the cooler regions the water is release as precipitation (releasing heat) Heat is also release when ice forms.

can live in this slightly warmer water layer SALINITY Salinity = total amount of solid material dissolved in water (including gases) Salinity of seawater = 3. slightly warmer water is often found under ice Fish etc.5% pure water content 220 time saltier than “fresh water” NB salinity does not include particles and sediments FLOATING in water = TURBIDITY SALINITY Salinity is usually measured in parts per thousand 3. 96.e.Below 4oC ice crystals start forming These crystals are large and bulky They take up more volume than liquid water Therefore they are less dense than liquid water When water freezes its volume increase by 9% (this is why pipes burst in winter etc) BUT adding dissolved substances INHIBITS ice crystal formation. so water can become colder before the density starts to increase THERFORE seawater becomes ice at temperature below 0oC Density of water – with and without salt (g/cm3) MARINE BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF WATER DENSITY In warmer water (i.5% i.5% = 3.5 parts per hundred = 35 parts per thousand = 35 o/oo or 35 ppt or 35 g/kg3 6 .e. not as dense) plankton have to be smaller in order to float (higher surface area : volume ratio) Or have structure on their surface to help floatation Ice floats when it freezes In the polar regions a layer of unfrozen.

in the Red Sea salinity = 42 parts per thousand =HYPERSALINE WATER Occurs in areas with high evaporation and limited connection to / circulation with the open ocean THE DEAD SEA = 330 parts per thousand 10 times saltier than sea water 7 .MAJOR COMPONENTS MINOR COMPONENTS TRACE COMPONENTS SALINITY Salinity varies in the oceans from 35 to 38 parts per thousand In coastal areas salinity can be much reduced e.g. only 10 parts per thousand in river estuaries =BRACKISH WATER (fresh water & seawater mixing) SALINITY However.

3 ppt in April & May i.e.1 Miami Beach 34.g. when the Colorado River is at the greatest flow rate to 2.4 ppt in May & June i. mostly fresh water) 8 . when evaporation is high e.e.e.g.2 Astoria.8 ppt in October to 36.g.e. the dry season SOURCES OF SEAWATER COMPONENTS Largest source of seawater components is from streams and runoff But the composition of dissolved substances in stream water is not the same as seawater Why? Because some components have a high RESIDENCE TIME and accumulate high concentrations over years e. Oregon 0.6 ppt in October i.SALINITY Salinity can also vary seasonally e. The entire volume of the ocean may pass through hydrothermal vents every 3 million years = major influence on seawater composition Removal of water content: Evaporation Formation of sea ice (which has only a salinity of 10ppt i. Na+ has a residence time of 260 million years BUT on average rate of salt added = rate of salt removal SOURCES OF SEAWATER COMPONENTS PROCESSES THAT INCREASE SALINITY Sea also enters the crust near hydrothermal vents and picks up minerals etc.

H2O + CO2→ H2CO3 → H+ + HCO3- = CARBONIC ACID So. rivers & runoff ACIDITY AND ALKALINITY ACIDITY AND ALKALINITY H+ and OH. theoretically the ocean should be acidic BUT this is prevented by the CARBONATE BUFFERING SYSTEM 9 . icebergs and glaciers Streams.are always present in small quantities because water molecules dissociate and reform i. hits the land Also living organisms extract minerals from seawater and when they die → biogenous sediment Finally.REMOVAL OF SEAWATER COMPONENTS PROCESSES THAT DECREASE SALINITY In addition to some losses in tectonic boundaries/faults Some salts etc are lost when sea spray etc. H2O ↔ H+ + OH- An ACID is a compound that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water The resulting solution = ACIDIC An ALKALINE or BASE releases OH.e.ions when dissolved in water A stronger acid or alkaline releases more ions In pure water number of H+ ions = number of OHTherefore the solution is neutral (pH =7) The pH scale measure acidity (pH<7) and alkalinity (pH>7) ACIDITY AND ALKALINITY In the ocean CO2 reacts with water and releases hydrogen ions i.e. some components may be absorbed (attach to the surface of) sediments Addition of water content: Precipitation Melting of sea ice.

+ H+ → H2CO3 (acidity drops) H+ + CO3 2- If the ocean becomes too alkaline/basic The carbonate ion can then react with calcium ions to form Calcium Carbonate (which precipitates onto the seafloor = hydrogenous sediment) H2CO3 → H+ + HCO3- (acidity increases) Ca2+ + CO32.THE CARBONATE BUFFERING SYSTEM THE CARBONATE BUFFERING SYSTEM The bicarbonate ion can also loose a second hydrogen ion HCO3 → - If the ocean becomes too acidic HCO3.→ CaCO3 This balancing is called BUFFERING ACIDITY IN DEEP WATER In deep.Less evaporation ↓ Tropical regions – little precipitation ↑ Higher temperature – more evaporation ↑ At the Equator – High evaporation but high precipitation – balances out 10 . cold waters more Carbon Dioxide dissolves in seawater (because gas at cooler temperatures dissolves more easily) This should make the deep sea more acidic But when marine organisms that contain Calcium Carbonate (in shells or skeletal) die The Calcium Carbonate they release helps to buffer the acidic conditions The Calcium Carbonate acts like an antacid VARATION IN SALINITY VARATION IN SALINITY Why are there variations in oceanic salinity? High latitudes – increase precipitation & runoff ↓ Polar regions – melting of ice ↓ Cooler temperature .

high density water found in the depths As salinity increases – density increases (addition of more dissolved material) As pressure increases – density increases (pressure compresses materials) Only temperature and salinity effect surface waters Pressure only effects very deep waters (e.g.030 g/cm3 (depending on salinity) SEAWATER DENSITY Several factors effect seawater density As temperature increases – density decreases (thermal expansion) Density has important effects on ocean water Denser bodies of water will sink below less dense bodies of water Therefore – low density water is found at the surface. trenches) (density in greatest depths only 5% more than surface) 11 .DEPTH VARATION IN SALINITY Salinity also varies with depth In low latitudes (near the tropics equator) Salinity at the surface is HIGH As depth increases salinity decreases In high latitudes (temperate & polar) Salinity at the surface is LOW As depth increases salinity increases Most of the factors affecting salinity only alter surface waters DEPTH VARATION IN SALINITY At a depth of 300m to 1000m there is a rapid change in salinity In low latitudes a decrease in salinity In high latitudes an increase in salinity This area of rapid change is called the HALOCLINE Haloclines separate layers of different salinity in the ocean SEAWATER DENSITY In the ocean seawater density varies 1.1.022 .

) Density is high at the surface (because temperature is low) The density below the surface is also high (due to cool temperatures) Therefore the density remains relatively constant whether surface waters or deep waters SEAWATER DENSITY & DEPTH In Low Latitudes the layer of rapid changing density = THE PYCNOCLINE The layer of rapid changing temperature = THE THERMOCLINE They occur between 300m & 1000m The pycnocline acts as a barrier between deep and surface waters preventing mixing Although above the pycnocline the surface waters are well mixed by currents/tides/waves 12 .SEAWATER DENSITY Temperature has the greatest effect on density (temperature varies more than salinity) SEAWATER DENSITY & DEPTH In Low Latitudes (equator/tropics) Seawater density in surface stays the same until a depth of about 300m (due to good mixing of the surface waters) Increases in temperature at higher temperatures cause greater decreases in density than the same number of degrees increased at lower temperatures. Increases in water temperature in low latitudes (tropics and equator) have three times the effect on water density than in high latitudes Below 300m density increases rapidly until a depth of 1000m From 1000m the density remains relatively constant until the ocean floor SEAWATER DENSITY & DEPTH In High Latitudes (temperate etc.

SEAWATER DENSITY & DEPTH Mixed surface layer Thermocline + Pycnocline = Upper water In High Latitudes thermoclines and pycnoclines rarely form (except during very hot sunny periods) The water column in high latitudes = ISOTHERMAL & ISOPYCNAL Deep water = same temperature & density 13 .

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