PT.

PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN

LIGHTING

13. LIGHTING
13.1 BACKGROUND
The major objectives of energy audit in lighting system include: • • • • • • Measurement and comparison of illumination levels at various locations Measurement of total power consumption of all lighting feeders Calculate the installed load efficacy in terms of lux/watt/m² (existing vs design) for general lighting installation. Compare calculated value with the norms for specific types of interior installations for assessing improvement options. To suggest ways and means to optimize the illumination levels and to optimize the power consumption at different locations. To identify energy saving measures and quantifies the energy and cost savings.

13.2 STEPS INVOLVED IN CONDUCTING THE ENERGY AUDIT
The steps involved in conducting energy audit of lighting plant are: • • • • Data collection Observations, measurement and Analysis Exploration for calculations energy conservation measures with detailed techno-economic

Report preparation

13.3 DATA COLLECTION
Collect the single line diagram of electrical drawing pertaining to lighting Obtain the lighting fixture details for each section Typical format for data collection of lighting details is given Table 13-1

Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan

1

sensors. photocopiers. • • • • • • If the plant has separate transformers for lighting circuit. where recommended illumination values as per IS: 3646 (Part-1) –1992 for various areas in power stations are provided.PT. In the above table under “other energy consumers” column provide the details of fans. etc which are connected to lighting circuit to be given. computers. timers. kVA. A and Hz of class 0. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN LIGHTING Table 13-1: Typical Data parameters Fixture Wattage Section/ Type & of each Department ballast type fitting Total Other energy No of Room Feeder Illumines Consumer connected fixtures dimensions required details wattage details Remarks In case if the details are not available it is suggested to conduct a survey and obtain the above details.4 Instrument Required The following instruments are required for conducting the energy audit of lighting system • • • • • Power Analyzer: Used for measuring electrical parameters such as kW. provide the details of transformer Details of energy saving retrofits installed in the plant (such as voltage controllers. V. air conditioners. controllers.5 accuracy Lux meters Measuring tape On line energy meter instruments – (calibrated) Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 2 .1. etc) Details of on & off mechanism of lighting circuits Details of energy meters provided in the lighting circuit and sections served by these meters Details of energy consumption monitoring of lighting systems Energy consumption of lighting circuit 13. pf. For illumination level required refer Annexure-13.

Current. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN LIGHTING 13.PT. harmonics. frequency of all feeders Room dimensions Counting of installed fixtures Vs number of fixtures in operation Maintenance practices – for cleaning. power factor.2 Measurements & Evaluation The summary of lighting measurements and calculations are shown Table 13-2.5 Measurements & Observation to Be Made While conducting the audit carryout a detailed survey for the following • • • • • • Monitor the condition of lighting fixtures Lux measurements at various places (Number of measurement to be carried out is given in the following sections) Measurement of power parameters kW.6 Observations And Analysis 13. etc 13. Voltage.6. Table 13-2: Summary of lighting measurements and calculations Location/ Room No Type of lamps Measured Average Lux level Standard Lux level (as per I S 3646) Measured Power (kW) Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 3 .1 System familiarization and operational details Detailed interactions with the plant personnel have to be carried out to get familiarization for system detail and operational details.6. Pre visit to the plant can be made to get familiarization of lighting system 13. kVA. replacement.

Providing individual / group controls for lighting for energy efficiency such as: On / off type voltage regulation type (for illuminance control) Group control switches / units 4 • • • • • • Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan . Select interior colours for light reflection. Assess scope for delamping Assess scope for re-arrangement of lighting fixtures Modify layout for optimum lighting. Derive way to improve natural lighting during the day time In the case of industrial lighting. with due consideration to life and power factor apart from watt loss.3 Exploration of energy conservation possibilities While conducting the energy audit explore for various energy conservation measures such as • • • • • Look for natural lighting opportunities through windows and other openings. lux level as well as expected life comparison. etc.6. with due consideration to luminaries. explore the scope for introducing translucent sheets Use of energy efficient lighting methods / products / equipment / retrofits Maximize sunlight use through use of transparent roof sheets. Replace conventional magnetic ballasts by more energy efficient ballasts. north light roof.PT. Examine scope for replacements of lamps by more energy efficient lamps. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN LIGHTING Observations on housekeeping and maintenance practices Interactions and surveys to be carried out on • • • • • • • • • • • House keeping measures in up keeping of luminaries Failure rate of lamps and ballasts Replacement procedure of failed lamps Procurement options Maintenance practices Operational practices (on / off controls) If any energy saving retrofits are installed in the plant then the operational status of the retrofits can be assessed Identify the areas where poor illumination and excess illumination is provided Assess the various alternate lamps / luminaries applicable for various sections Type of panel lamps or sign lamps used – to explore possibility of using LED lamps Observations on other loads which are connected to the lighting circuit and their energy consumption 13. color rendering index.

Installation of High Pressure Sodium Vapour (HPSV) lamps for applications where colour rendering is not critical Installation of LED panel indicator lamps in place of filament lamps. fluctuations are expected. Replace energy efficient displays like LED's in place of lamp type displays in control panels / instrumentation areas. cable galleries etc which sites / locations are rarely visited. Installation of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL's) in place of incandescent lamps. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN LIGHTING Occupancy sensors Photocell controls Timer operated controls Modify switches / electrical circuit • • • • • Install input voltage regulators / controllers for energy efficiency as well as longer life expectancy for lamps where higher voltages.PT. lighting circuits may be modified in such a way that keeping 25% to 30% lights always “ON” and remaining lights controlled by simple ON /OFF switch provided at the entrance of the room / hall Opportunities to reduce the power consumption/ improve the energy efficiency of other loads which are connected to the lighting circuit • Some good practices in lighting are: • • • • • • Installation of energy efficient fluorescent lamps in place of "Conventional" fluorescent lamps. etc. locations like HT/LT switchgear rooms. Light Control Grouping of lighting system. Installation of metal halide lamps in place of mercury / sodium vapour lamps. to provide greater flexibility in lighting control Installation of microprocessor based controllers Optimum usage of day lighting Installation of "exclusive" transformer for lighting Installation of servo stabilizer for lighting feeder Installation of high frequency (HF) electronic ballasts in place of conventional ballasts Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 5 . Opt for better reflector in lighting Cleaning of reflector at regular interval In power plant.

PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN LIGHTING 13.4 Recommendations Each energy conservation measure should discuss • • • • • • • • • The back ground Analysis and suggestion Energy savings evaluation (Estimated – before and after) Impact on energy consumption after implementation Economic feasibility Investment required and payback period Monitoring and verification of energy savings after implementation Efforts and resources required for sustainability of energy savings The vendors/ suppliers/ manufactures details Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 6 .PT.6.

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