PT.

PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN

AIR CONDITIONING

12. AIR CONDITIONING
12.1 Background
In thermal power plants air conditioning is used to provide comfort and desired working conditions for the control rooms, server/data centre rooms, office space etc. The air conditioning system can be either centralized or decentralized type using vapour compression or vapour absorption techniques. The major energy consuming sections in air conditioning systems are: • • • • • Compressors (Centrifugal/screw/reciprocating) or the plant may be using vapour absorption chiller units Cooling water pumps or condenser pumps/fans Chilled water pumps Air handling units or evaporative cooling units Cooling towers

The energy consumed in air conditioning system is sensitive to ambient conditions, load changes, seasonal variations, operation and maintenance, etc.

12.2 Steps Involved In Conducting the Energy Audit
The steps involved in conducting energy audit of air conditioning system are: i. ii. iii. iv. Data collection Observations and Analysis Exploration for energy conservation measures Report preparation

12.3 Data Collection
While collecting the data, it is suggested to make a schematic diagram comprising compressor, cooling system components (cooling tower, chilled water component (pumps) and air handling units.

Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan

1

PT. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN

AIR CONDITIONING

One typical system is depicted below. While making such schematic system, indicate the ID code and capacity too. Typical air conditioning system

12.4.1 Specification of Refrigeration compressors/vapor absorption chiller units
Collect the specifications for all compressors installed in the plant as shown in the following Table 12-1. Table 12-1: Specifications of the air conditioning compressors Particulars Make ID code Type Model Design evaporator Refrigerant temperature, OC Chiller TR Specific power consumption, kW/TR Refrigerant Type of cooling Suction pressure Discharge pressure Chilled water in let temperature, C
Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan
O

Reciprocating/Screw/Centrifugal

2

automatic controllers. it is suggested to check whether the compressors are installed with VSD. synthetic flat belt. or any other energy saving retrofits. capacity.PT.4. rpm Transmission type Cooling type Year of commissioning Motor kW Motor make Motor voltage Rated current of motor Motor frame Motor rpm Rated motor efficiency Cooling tower TR (In case of water cooled) No of condenser fans and rated kW (in case of air cooled) No of AHUs served and their rated TR Details of cooling water pumps – ID code. capacity. rated kW Details of chilled water pumps – ID code. 12. rated kW While collecting the information. OC Compressor.2 Details of auxiliary equipment Collect the following system details pertaining to: • • • • • Condenser/cooling system (refer (Table 12-2) Cooling tower (refer Table 12-3) Design specifications / /rated parameters of pumps and motors (refer Table 12-4 ) Rated parameters / design specifications of air handling units (refer Table 12-5 ) User area details of AHUS (refer Table 12-6 ) Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 3 . PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING Chilled water out let temperature. waste heat recovery units.

TR (or) Cooling Capacity. C Cooling water out let temperature. m3/h Cooling water in let temperature.PT. OC Cooling water in let pressure Cooling water outlet pressure Pressure drop across condenser Refrigerant side inlet and outlet parameters – pressure. TR Cooling water flow. m3/h 3 Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 4 . temperature No of cooling water pumps installed/operated Cooling tower TR Cooling tower type O Table 12-3: Cooling tower Particulars Make Type Cooling Capacity. kcal/h No of cells Rated water flow. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING Table 12-2: Condensers/cooling system Condenser Type Id code Model Capacity. m /h Fill details No of CT fans CT fan kW per cell No of blades per fan Air flow rate.

% Input kW of the pump Speed of the pump Year of commissioning Motor kW Motor make Motor voltage Rated current of motor Motor rpm Rated motor efficiency 3 Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 5 . C Wet bulb temperature Atmospheric pressure at the plant Range Approach Drift losses O O Table 12-4: Design Specifications of pumps & motors Particulars ID code Location No of pumps installed and operated Make Type of the pump Model Rated pressure.PT. m /h Rated efficiency. C Outlet water temperature. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING Diameter of the blade assembly Blade material (FRP/Al/other) L/G Ratio Inlet water temperature. kg/cm2 Rated flow.

A and Hz Temperature Indicator & Probe: To measure air & water inlet & outlet temperatures of inter-cooler and after-coolers 6 Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan . rated flow and capacity of AHU Type of controls installed Major heat load and their details Type of ceiling Other details 3 12. Height No of AHU used. m /h Areas served Desired conditions at user end Type of control User area dimensions Energy saving retrofit is installed.4. pf. kVA. if any Major heat loads at user areas Table 12-6: User area details of AHUs Particulars User Area Name Activity carried out at user areas Operating hours User dimensions – Length.PT. Width.3 Instruments Required The following instruments are required for conducting the compressed air energy audit • • Power Analyser: Used for measuring electrical parameters such as kW. V. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING Table 12-5: Design Specifications of Air Handling Units Particulars ID code Location Rated TR Air flow.

AHU fans. chilled water pumps. Kwh Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 7 . cooling water pumps. daily consumption during the audit period). Obtain operating hours of all equipment – compressor.2 Energy consumption Pattern If the plant is monitoring the energy consumption. daily consumption for about a week for different seasons. The brief details of the entire system have to be given in the report. Work out the total consumption of air conditioning system to arrive at percentage to the total consumption of the auxiliary consumption. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING • • • • • • Pressure Gauge: To measure operating pressure and pressure drop in the system Stroboscope: To measure the speed of the compressor and motor Ultrasonic flow meter Anemometer Digital thermo hygrometer Psychrometer 12. cooling tower fans.1 System familiarization and operational details Detailed interactions with the plant personnel have to be carried out to get familiarization of system and operational details. etc.4.4 Measurements & Observation to Be Made 12.4. 12. If the energy meters are not installed. based on the loading pattern and the daily consumption can be worked out (as shown in Table 12-7) Table 12-7: Energy consumption pattern Equipment Air Conditioning Compressors Condenser pumps Chilled water pumps Air Handling units Cooling tower Total The energy consumption of air conditioning system: kWh/day Total auxiliary power consumption: kWh/Day Instantaneous Daily consumption. it is suggested to record the energy consumption data and monitor the daily and monthly consumption pattern. Collect the past energy consumption data if available (month wise for at least 12 months. instantaneous measurements can be carried out.PT.

power drawn and temperature settings Compressors operating hours and operating schedule Condenser parameters Evaporator parameters Compressor speed Motor speed Operating hours of all equipment – compressor. Cooling tower parameters to be monitored • • • • • Inlet temperature Outlet temperature Dry bulb temperature Wet bulb temperature or relative humidity Water flow to cooling tower Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 8 . etc. cooling water pumps.PT. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING 12. condensers. Pump operating parameters to be measured/monitored for each pump are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Discharge Head (suction & discharge) Valve position Temperature Load variation Power parameters of pumps Pumps operating hours and operating schedule Pressure drop in the system (between discharge and user point) Pressure drop and temperatures across the users (heat exchangers.) Cooling water flow rate to users Pump /Motor speed Actual pressure at the user end User area pressure of operation and requirement b. chilled water pumps.4.3 Measurements While conducting the audit. a. fans and associated equipment (complete system) Motor electrical parameters of individual drives Compressor loading pattern. AHU fans. cooling tower fans. the following measurements and observations are necessary • • • • • • • • • Energy consumption pattern of compressors. etc. pumps.

the water temperature difference. kcal/kg OC Tin = chilled water temperature at evaporator inlet OC Tout = chilled water temperature at evaporator outlet OC Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 9 . Temperature difference between entering and leaving water The heat removed from the chilled water is equal to the product of the chilled water flow rate. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING • • • • • • Air flow rate of cooling tower Range. OC Fan speed. m /hr 3 Cp = specific heat.4 Evaluation of Net refrigeration capacity and specific energy consumption The test shall include a measurement of the net heat removed from the water as it passes through the evaporator by determination of the following: i. OC L/G ratio Approach. and the specific heat of the water is defined as follows The net refrigeration capacity in tons shall be obtained by the following equation: m x cp x (tin-tout) Net refrigeration capacity (TR) = 3024 where: m = mass flow rate of chilled water. Water flow rate ii. rpm Fan power consumption (kW/cell) c.PT. AHU details • • • • • Air flow rates Suction & discharge air temperature and RH Filter pressure drop AHU Fan power consumption Suction and discharge pressure of AHU fans d. User area details at various locations • Temperature • RH All the above parameters need to be tabulated and compared with the design/best achievable values 12.4.

In this case the following methodology can be followed. Indirect estimation of Net Refrigeration Effect in evaporator by measurements on Condenser side can be used when measurement or estimation of cooled fluid flow rate in the evaporator is not possible or inconvenient. i. Measurement/Estimation of Electrical Power input. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING The accurate temperature measurement is very vital in refrigeration and air conditioning and least count should be at least one decimal. which would give reading directly in kW. Noninvasive method would require a well calibrated ultrasonic flow meter using which the flow can be measured without disturbing the system If the waterside pressure drops are close to the design values. iii. For water flow measurements: In the absence of an on-line flow meter the chilled water flow can be measured by the following methods: i. the specific energy consumption can be arrived at by measuring power consumption. kW input to the motor Specific power consumption. Shaft Power or Thermal Power input to the Refrigeration machine. Other specific energy parameters are: Refrigeration effect in kW Coefficient of performance COP = Motor input power Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 10 . iii. Estimation of Specific Power/Fuel/Steam Consumption . ii. Estimation of Heat Rejection Rate in the Condenser ii. kW/TR = Net refrigeration effect in TR The compressor power can be measured by a portable power analyzer. In case where hot well and cold well are available. the flow can be measured from the tank level dip or rise by switching off the secondary pump. it can be assumed that the water flow of pump is same as the design rated flow. iv. but measurement of cooling water or cooling airflow rate in the condenser is possible.COP and EER After arriving at net refrigerating capacity.PT. Estimation of Refrigeration Effect in the Evaporator by the difference of Heat Rejection in the Condenser and the Refrigeration Effect.

estimations can be tabulated as shown in the (Table 12-8): Table 12-8: Performance evaluation of Refrigeration units Unit ID code Make Type Ambient temperature and RH Compressor Refrigerant suction pressure/ temperature Refrigerant discharge pressure/ temperature Motor Input parameters KW KVA Pf A V Hz Loading % Compressor rpm Motor rpm Condenser Cooling water inlet/outlet temperature Cooling water inlet/outlet pressure Cooling water pressure drop Raise in cooling water temperature. these specific parameters can be selected There after the information.PT. kW Evaporator Design/rated Actual Remarks Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 11 . data. OC Cooling water flow Power consumption of condenser/ cooling water pumps. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING refrigeration effect in btu/h Energy efficiency ratio EER = Motor input power Depending up on the terms used by the plant.

C Chilled water flow Power consumption of chilled water pumps Performance parameters Specific energy consumption – kW/TR Coefficient of performance Energy efficiency ratio EER O It is suggested to compare with the best achieved values/design values to arrive at suitable measures. kW/TR Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan Unit 12 . fans and blowers Tabulate the measured parameters Evaluate specific energy consumption • Compare above measurement with respective design/best achieved values. kW Compressors Chilled water pumps Cooling water pumps AHUs Cooling tower fans Total power consumption Specific power consumption. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING Chilled water inlet/outlet temperature Chilled water inlet/outlet pressure Chilled water pressure drop Drop in chilled water temperature.PT. The following (Table 12-9) gives the typical tabulation of power consumption of auxiliaries and compressors Table 12-9: Power consumption of auxiliaries & compressors Particulars Rated TR Actual TR Power consumption. Power consumption of auxiliaries: • • • Measure all electrical parameters of air conditioning auxiliaries such as pumps.

• • • • Compare actual with design value Compare actual value with latest compressors and latest auxiliaries of same type or other different type Arrive at options to reduce the gap between the design and actual value with detailed techno-economics The above will also help in working scheduling of the compressors for lowest power consumption 12. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING After arriving at the specific power consumption. Table 12-10: Performance parameters for water pumps Particulars Pump ID code Pump application Fluid pumped No of stages Suction head Discharge head Total head developed by pump Water flow Speed of the pump/ motor Hydraulic kW Unit Design/Rated value Actual Remarks Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 13 . The parameters to be studied in detailed are: • • • • • Water flow rates and pressures of pumps / headers Velocity in the main headers (to verify the lines sizes and headers are adequately sized) Power consumption of pumps (for estimating the operating efficiency of the pumps) Monitor present flow control system and frequency of control valve operation if any (for application of variable speed drives) Fill up the following data sheet for every pump The following (Table 12-10) gives the list of parameters to be considered for performance evaluation.5 Operating efficiency and performance evaluation of the pumps All pumps need to be studied for its operating efficiency (As run performance test) with the aid of sophisticated energy audit instruments in addition to online valid calibrated instruments to identify the energy saving measures.PT.4.

Based on the actual operating parameters. 14 • Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan . enlist recommendations for action to be taken for improvement. if applicable such as Replacement of pumps Impeller replacement Variable speed drive application. • • • The investigations for abnormality are to be carried out for problematic area. However combined parameters of flow and head need to be verified with Performance curve for parallel operation. Compare the actual values with the design/rated/performance curve values if any deviation is found.PT. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING Input kW to the motor Combined efficiency Motor efficiency (Refer to motor performance curve) Pump efficiency Type of discharge flow control mechanism Discharge throttle valve position (% open) Flow control frequency and duration if any % load of pump on flow % load of pump on head % load on motor Hydraulic power can be calculated by using the following: where: If the pumps are operating in parallel. it is advised to measure all above parameter for every pump separately to evaluate the pump performance. list the factors with the details and suggestions to overcome. Enlist scope of improvement with extensive physical checks/observations. etc Cost analysis with savings potential for taking improvement measures.

Calculate range.6 Performance of cooling towers Cooling tower performance can be evaluated by measuring and monitoring the following in the (Table 12-11) for each cell of the cooling tower: Table 12-11: Performance of a cooling tower Unit Cooling water flow Cooling water inlet. temp.T.Wet bulb temp. Dry bulb temperature Wet bulb temperature Air flow rate L/G ratio No. approach.T. Cooling water outlet. L/G (Liquid to gas) ratio and effectiveness for design and operating conditions for each tower C. of fans operated Power consumption of fan Fan speed Range Approach TR Evaporation losses Make up water requirement • 1 2 Actual 3 4 Avrg Remarks While conducting the cooling tower.PT. Approach = Water Outlet temperature Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 15 . temp.4.Range = Water inlet temperature .Water outlet temp. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING 12. • • C. . visual observations need to be made with respect to: Adequate water level in the trough Cross flow air from other cooling towers (which are under maintenance) Nozzle condition and operation Fill condition Change of blade angles during change of seasons The CT airflow shall be measured using an anemometer and compared with calculated airflow derived from fan characteristic curves of CT fans with actual power measurements.

Table 12-12: Power consumption of fans CT Fan # Blade angle setting KW Drawn Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 16 .4. Once in the mid-day and once in the mid night time and a record duly maintained.7 Power consumption of CT fans All fans power consumption (Table 12-12) to be measured and to be compared with the airflow and blade angles. winter & monsoon period. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING Fan airflow actual (NM / hr.PT. 12.)/cell = 3 Air mass flow/cell = flow x density of air The above readings may be taken on daily basis for three days on different atmospheric conditions say during mid-summer.

where: m – mass hin – enthalpy of inlet air at AHU.PT. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING 12. kJ/kg flow rate of air. kg/hr Heat load can also be calculated theoretically by estimating the various heat loads. The difference between these two indicates the losses by way of leakages. heat ingress etc.8 Performance evaluation of air handling units Performance of air handling units need to be evaluated for the following: • • • • • TR of AHU (Heat load) No of air changes Fresh air supply Air flow rate Operating parameters For centralized air conditioning systems the airflow at the air-handling unit (AHU) can be measured with an anemometer.4. kJ/kg hout – enthalpy of outlet air at AHU. The data can be used along with a psychrometric chart (now a days software is available) to determine the enthalpy (heat content of air at the AHU inlet and outlet). both sensible and latent. Table 12-13: Air handling unit Parameter ID code Application Rated TR Rated air flow Actual air flow Inlet air parameters Temperature Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 17 . The measured and evaluated parameters can to be tabulated as shown in the (Table 12-13). unwanted loads. The dry bulb and RH can be measured at the AHU inlet and outlet by using thermal hygrometer. in the air-conditioned room (refer standard air conditioning handbooks).

5 with a least count of 0.4. Now a day’s economical data loggers are available where the parameters can be logged for considerable time. Digital hygrometers can also be used. The dry/wet bulb temperature shall be measured by sling psychrometer which will have accuracy of 0. OC Wet bulb temperature.5 C. By using these measurements can be carried out for 24 hours continuously and readings will be taken every two hours. 12. The following Table 12-14 gives typical data sheet: PARTICULAR Time and date of measurement User area AHUs served Ambient parameters Dry bulb temperature.9 Room Condition / User location parameters Room condition test shall consist of taking the readings of dry and RH (wet bulb temperature) at different location points which are air conditioned by respective system/plant. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING RH Heat content Outlet air parameters Temperature RH Heat content Pressure drop across the filter Fresh air supply quantity Recirculation air supply quantity TR of AHU Room dimensions No of air changes Type of controls The actual parameters shall be compared with desired / best achieved values for improvements. OC USER AREA Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 18 .PT.

The following Table 12-15 gives the typical pressure drop data sheet. The following Table 12-16 gives the typical pressure drop data sheet.PT. OC Temperature at the user end of user.10 Pressure drop and insulation survey of chilled water lines Pressure drop and insulation survey need to be carried out on chilled water lines to assess the losses. kg/cm2 Pressure drop.4. kg/cm2 Ideal drop. OC Temperature raise. RH Room parameters Dry bulb temperature. OC Relative humidity 12. kg/cm2 Similarly the temperature raise in the line shall be measured by carrying out simultaneous measurement of chilled water temperature at supply end and at AHU inlet. OC Wet bulb temperature. OC Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 19 . PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING Major heat loads in rooms with details Ambient Relative humidity. Table 12-15: Pressure drop in the system Location Distance from Chiller house Actual pressure. Table 12-16: Temperature raise in the system Location Distance from Chiller house Temperature at supply end.

evaporator with regard to • • • Pressure drop Flow Temperature profile 12. the following need to be explored in detail. the use of high efficiency motors improves energy efficiency.PT. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING 12. • Improvement of drives: use of high efficiency motors.11 Performance of condensers and evaporators Check the performance of condenser. depending on load characteristics. as a function of specific end use applications: A large number of alternative technologies exist: Opting for vapour absorption chiller in case where waste heat is available Improvement of compressor technology / energy efficient compressors. (Na) by tachometer/ Stroboscope.4.4. Measure actual motor (drive) speed N1 and (with the help of tachometer). D2. • • • Optimal choice of the type of compressor. integration of variable speed drives into compressors. Calculate theoretical value of driven rpm (N2) N1D1=N2D2 • • • Measure actual compressor rpm. Calculate slip (N2-Na) Measure belt tension & recommend accordingly. Measure the diameter of drive & driven pulley D1.12 Belt tension and drive speed • • • • Compare base load power for all compressors.4.13 Exploration of energy conservation possibilities While conducting the energy audit of the air conditioning system. The integration of adjustable speed drives (ASD) into compressors could lead to energy efficiency improvements. 12. Use of multi-stage compressors Opting for centrifugal or latest energy efficient compressors Water cooled compressors Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 20 .

PT. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN AIR CONDITIONING • • • • • Reduction of heat gains and heat ingress at users Centralised or decentralised systems Measuring and tracking system performance: Measuring air use and energy consumption is essential in determining whether changes in maintenance practices or investment in equipment could be cost effective. Use of evaporative cooling systems where ever applicable Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 21 .

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