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PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN
Different types of electrical motors are used in thermal power plant to drive the various equipment like: • • • • • • • • Pumps Fans Blowers Material handling equipment Crushers Mills Compressors Several others
These motors & connected equipment consume significant amount of energy, which is also called auxiliary consumption (excluding lighting and electrical heating). The auxiliary power consumption (APC) varies from 6-14% (depending on the size of the plant), use of Turbine Driven Boiler Feed Water Pumps (TDBFP) and age of the plant etc. The 500 MW units register the least APC, largely due to the incorporation of TDBFP. In some of the old 110 MW plants APC consumption of 14% is also observed. Energy audit in a vast thermal power station (TPS) is better tackled when the thermal power plant operations are segregated into different sub-areas like: main plant auxiliaries, draft system (consisting of ID/FD/PA fans), feed water system [consisting of Boiler Fed Pumps (BFPs)/ Condensate Extraction Pumps (CEPs), Circulating Water (CW) system-including Cooling Tower (CTs)], and off sites (consisting of coal handling plants, ash handling plants, air compressors, AC plants, station lightings etc.).
11.2 Steps Involved In Conducting Energy Audit
The steps involved in conducting energy audit electrical motors systems are: • •
Data collection Measurements & observations Exploration for energy conservation measures Report preparation 1
Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan
3 Data Collection 11. Hence it is suggested to cover motors of certain rating and above.. In case. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN MOTORS Since thermal power plant have several motors ranging from fraction kW. 11. the driven equipment operational details to be noted. where one drive motor analysis can be reasoned as representative for the population. hours of operation with preference given to continuously operated drive motors.PT.3. etc. where multiple motors of low rating are used for a common operation then a sample study can be made. and it is difficult to covers all motors in energy audit. It is very important to study the motors simultaneously along with the driven equipment is studied. While making the measurements and observations on electrical motor. Table 11-1: Specifications of motors Particulars ID code Application Make Brief details of driven equipment Type of the Motor Motor kW Motor make Motor voltage Rated current of motor Motor frame Motor rpm Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 2 . where drive motors with inefficient capacity controls on the machine side. Towards the objective of selecting representative LT motor drives among the motor population. Conservation potential basis. the criteria considered are: • • • Utilization factor i. for analysis.. are looked into. Sample representative basis.1 Motor details Collect the list of the motors planned be studied and their specifications.e. fluctuating load drive systems. The following Table 111 gives the list of specifications to be collected.
V. V. kVA. Pf. A and Hz Infrared pyrometer (In case any heating of cable or motor is suspected) Stroboscope: To measure the speed of the driven equipment and motor The above instruments can be used in addition to the calibrated online/plant instruments 11. A. THD) for individual motors Equipment operational details While conducting the measurement or performance evaluation any system simultaneously the following need to be noted Unit load of the plant Date & time of measurement Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 3 . PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN MOTORS Rated power factor Frame size Duty Rated motor efficiency Type of transmission Year Type of starter Major modifications carried out Operating hours Energy meter installed or Not Type of energy monitoring system No of times the motor is rewound Collect the above information for all motors to be covered in the energy audit. Collect the motor efficiency curves 11. Hz.PT.2 Instruments Required The following instruments are required for conducting the compressed air energy audit • • • • Power Analyzer: Used for measuring electrical parameters such as kW.3. pf. the following measurements and observations are necessary • • • • • Energy consumption pattern of motors (daily/monthly/yearly consumption if available) Motor electrical parameters (kW.3.3 Parameters to be measured While conducting the audit. kVA.
PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN MOTORS Instruments used for measurement Frequency of the measurement 11.1 System details Detailed interactions with the plant personnel have to be carried out to get familiarization for electrical motors and operational details.4 Observations and Measurements 11. auxiliary units of. based on the loading pattern the daily consumption can be worked out. (Refer Table 11-2). If the energy meters are not installed to motors.2 Energy consumption Pattern If the plant is monitoring the energy consumption. it is suggested to record the data and monitor the daily and monthly consumption pattern.4.PT. 11. kW % of total generation % of total APC Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 4 . MWH Actual load.4. instantaneous measurements can be carried out. Work out the total consumption of electrical motors to arrive at % to the total consumption of the auxiliary consumption. The brief details of the system have to be given in the report. Table 11-2: Energy consumption of Electrical motors Boiler feed pump Condensate extraction pumps CW pumps ID fans FD fans PA fans Mills CT fans Air compressors Ash handling plant Coal handling plant Raw water pumps DM water pumps Air conditioning systems Annual consumption.
kVA. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN MOTORS Others Total The energy consumption of electrical motors Total auxiliary power consumption : : kWh/day kWh/day 11.4.3 Motor loading survey Studies on selected LT motors involve measurement of electrical load parameters namely voltage. current. speed. can be measured and these parameters can be tabulated (Table 11-3 :). kW drawn.PT. power factor. frequency. Table 11-3: Motor Loading Pattern Motor A Motor ID code Application Driven equipment details Rated kW Rated Efficiency Rated Speed Measured parameters Voltage Current Power factor kVA KW drawn Frequency Harmonics Motor speed Driven equipment Driven equipment Operational Transmission % loading on the Rated kW Motor ID # 1 Motor ID # 2 Motor ID # 3 Motor ID # 4 Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 5 .
Identified motors with low voltage/power factor/voltage imbalance for needed improvement measures. idle operations. energy meters for monitoring is also looked into for each case.PT. whether it is a rewound motor. 50 – 75 % loading. flow. metering provisions. Scope for improving monitoring systems Scope areas for energy conservation with related cost benefits and source information The findings/recommendations may include: Identified motors with less than 50 % loading. etc. etc. over 100 % loading. Voltage. temperature. Identified motors with machine side losses/inefficiencies like idle operations. machine side conditions like load/unload condition. observations on machine side parameters such as speed. Unbalance Typically occurs as a result of supplying single-phase loads disproportionately from one of the phases. damper / throttle operation. Motor load on kW basis and estimated energy consumption. (as relevant) are also taken.. pressure. throttling/damper operations for avenues like automatic controls/interlocks. power factor. Remarks on voltage unbalance if any: The condition where the voltages in the three phases are not equal. 75 – 100 % loading. Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 6 . PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN MOTORS Motor loading can be estimated by: Input kW to motor x 100 %Loading = Name plate kW /Name plate full load motor efficiency While conducting motor load survey. load. etc. variable speed drives. Availability of online instruments for routine measurements. It can also result from the use of different sizes of cables in the distribution system. temperature. frequency. availability of tail-end capacitors for PF correction. current. can be still more detrimental to motor performance and motor life. Analysis of observations motors and connected drives is carried out towards following: Loading pattern -% loading on kW Comments of power supply quality: The BIS standards specify that a motor should be capable of delivering its rated output with a voltage variation of ± 6 % and frequency variation of ±3 %. pressure.
The impacts of PF correction include reduced kVA drawned . For example. driven machine and controller if any.4.4. The margins in motor efficiency may be less than 10 % of consumption often. comparison of no load current and stator resistance per phase of a rewound motor with the original no-load current and stator resistance at the same voltage can be one of the indicators to assess the efficacy of rewinding. reduced voltage drop in the cables (leading to improved voltage regulation). as a means to check combined efficiency of the motor. 11.4. 11. insulation performance. Rewinding can affect a number of factors that contribute to deteriorated motor efficiency: winding and slot design. and operating temperature. winding material. Capacitors connected in parallel (shunted) with the motor are typically used to improve the power factor. reduce transformer losses and an increase in the overall efficiency of the plant electrical system. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN MOTORS Motor load survey is aimed not only as a measure to identify motor efficiency areas but equally importantly. The selection of motors for efficiency can be based on • • Rewinding history Population of motors 7 Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan .PT. but in most cases. which can give significant energy savings. 11. The impact of rewinding on motor efficiency and power factor can be easily assessed if the noload losses of a motor are known before and after rewinding. leading to lower overall efficiency (and higher overall operating cost) associated with a plant's electrical system. reduced I2R losses in cables upstream of the capacitor (). Careful rewinding can sometimes maintain motor efficiency at previous levels. losses in efficiency result.4 Power Factor Correction Induction motors are characterized by power factors less than unity. Maintaining documentation of noload losses and no load speed from the time of purchase of each motor can facilitate assessing this impact. but the load survey would help to bring out savings in driven machines systems.6 Efficiency Evaluation of Sample Motors Selected LT motors can be studied for efficiency evaluation. Hence it is suggested to survey for power factor and improvement options.5 Motor Rewinding History It is common practice in industry to rewind burnt-out motors.
The voltage compensated load can be calculated as shown. be inserted into the slip load equation. The accuracy of the slip method. Given a 40 rpm “correct” slip. is limited. the slip method relies on the difference between full-load nameplate and synchronous speeds. Slip also varies inversely with respect to the motor terminal voltage squared. Manufacturers generally round their reported full-load speed values to some multiple of 5 rpm is but a small percent of the full-load speed and may be considered as insignificant. the following need to be explored in detail for • Replacement/sizing of motors Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 8 . A voltage correction factor can.4. The largest uncertainty relates to the accuracy with which manufacturers report the nameplate full-load speed.Measured speed in rpm Synchronous speed in rpm Nameplate full-load speed RMS voltage. a seemingly minor 5 rpm disparity causes a 12% change in calculated load. mean line to line of 3 phases Nameplate rated voltage 11. where: - Load Slip S Sr V Vr = = = = = = Output power as a % of red power Synchronous speed . This method also does not give the exact loading on the motors.7 Exploration of energy conservation possibilities While conducting the energy audit of the motors. the slip method can be used which requires a tachometer. however.PT. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN MOTORS Slip Method In the absence of a power meter. also.
PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN MOTORS • • • • • • • Opting for energy efficient motors Use of high efficiency motors Integration of variable speed drives On and off controllers Use of energy efficient transmission Replacement of pulleys Direct coupling Measuring and tracking system performance: Measuring energy consumption is essential in determining whether changes in maintenance practices or investment in equipment could be cost effective. Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 9 .PT. detailed techno-economic evaluation has to be carried out. After the identification of energy conservation measures.
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