PT.

PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN

TURBINE

TURBINE
8.1 Background
Steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts to useful mechanical work. The steam turbines are split into three separate stages, High Pressure (HP), Intermediate Pressure (IP) and Low Pressure (LP) stage. After the steam has passed through the HP stage, it is returned to the boiler to be re-heated to its original temperature although the pressure remains greatly reduced. The reheated steam then passes through the IP stage and finally to the LP stage of the turbine.

Figure 8-1. View of the Internals of a Typical Power Station Steam Turbine

Steam turbines are generally configured in many different ways. Several IP or LP stages can be incorporated in to the one steam turbine. A single shaft or several shafts coupled together may
Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan

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Table 8-1: Brief specifications of turbine Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 2 . PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN TURBINE be used. The brief details of typical boiler used in 210 MW thermal power plant is given in the Table 8-1. Turbines are one of the major components of any thermal power plant. generate steam for power generation. the principles are the same for all steam turbines. Either way. co-generation or pure electricity production.PT. The configuration is decided by the use to which the steam turbine is put.

8. The following Table 8-2 gives the list of specifications to be collected for energy audit study in addition to following specific details.3. IP and LP) Number of cylinders No of main and reheat valves Construction details of HP. It is suggested to obtain the comprehensive technical specifications of Turbines and its associated equipment.2 Steps Involved In Conducting the Energy Audit The steps involved in conducting energy audit of turbines are: • • • • Data collection Observations and Analysis Exploration for energy conservation measures Report preparation 8. Turbine Collect the detailed design specifications of the turbine. • • • • • • • • • • • • Type of the turbine Make and model No of stages (for HP.3 Data Collection The following data sheets give brief specifications to be collected. IP LP Turbine extraction systems Control systems Type of governing Type of sealing Year of installation Major modifications carried out during the recent past The design specifications to be collected are given in the following Table 8-2 Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 3 .1 Specification of turbine and associated equipment a. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN TURBINE 8.PT.

4 Instruments Required The following instruments are required for conducting turbine energy audit: • • • • Temperature Indicator & Probe Pressure gauges Flow measuring instrument (steam and water) Ultrasonic leak detector Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 4 . PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN TURBINE Table 8-2: Design Specifications of turbine Particulars Rated output Turbine Heat rate Efficiency of the turbine Steam flow for rated output HP inlet steam pressure HP inlet steam temperature HP exhaust steam pressure HP exhaust steam temperature IP inlet steam pressure IP inlet steam temperature IP exhaust steam pressure IP exhaust steam temperature LP inlet steam pressure LP inlet steam temperature LP exhaust steam pressure LP exhaust steam temperature Condenser vacuum Cooling water inlet temperature to condenser Cooling water outlet temperature to condenser Cooling water flow through the condenser Super heater spray Reheater spray Unit MW Kcal/kWh % tph Kg/cm2 O MCR NCR C 2 Kg/cm O C 2 Kg/cm O C 2 Kg/cm O C Kg/cm2 O C 2 Kg/cm O C mmWC O O C C m /h tph tph 3 8.PT.

the following measurements (temperature and pressure) are necessary • • • • • • Feed water at Inlet & Outlet of Heaters Main steam HP turbine extraction Hot reheat steam. Calibrated on line instruments can also be used for conducting the test 8. The brief details of the entire system have to be given in the report along with the specifications. PG test reports of the turbine and associated equipment data need to be collected. Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 5 .PT.6. operation. the following measurements are required: • • • • • • • Condenser back pressure Cooling water flow and temperatures Generator output Barometric pressure Reheater spray (flow) Superheater spray (flow) Feed water (flow) 8.1 System familiarization and operational details Detailed interactions with the plant personnel have to be carried out to get familiarization for system detail and operational details. measurements of steam flow pressure and temperatures are very essential. During the familiarization on power plant and its operation.6 Observations and Analysis 8. plants observation and past data should be obtained pertaining to the: • Past performance trends on turbine loading. Cold reheat Steam IP extraction IP Exhaust In addition to the above.5 Measurements & Observation Be Made While conducting the audit. The consolidated data sheets need to be given in the report for reference. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN TURBINE While conducting the turbine efficiency test.

etc) Plant side initiatives to improve the performance and efficiency of the Turbine All major observations arrived at during the discussions.2 Turbine heat rate evaluation and efficiency The trials are to establish heat rate (kcal/kWh) and turbine efficiency under. Each section of the turbine must be considered as a separated turbine. which affect the performance and energy efficiency of the turbine. The following gives the data sheet for measurements: The following Table 8-3 gives the data sheet for measurements and observations for conducting as run test for turbine efficiency evaluation Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 6 . PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN TURBINE • • • • • • PLF Major constraint in achieving the high PLF. The efficiency method given in this procedure is the enthalpy drop efficiency method. it is conducted over normal operating load range. load or efficiency Major renovation and modifications carried out in the recent past Operational failures leading to in efficient operation Tripping Performance of associated equipment (condenser. it is suggested to verify the records and history. as run conditions have to be carried out. While conducting the tests. boiler.6. This method determines the ratio of actual enthalpy drop across turbine section to the isentropic enthalpy drop. This method provides a good measure for monitoring purposes.PT. 8. Each section should be tested and results are trended separately. it has to be ensured that.

Unit load % of NCR Frequency Speed Control valve – A Control valve – B Main steam flow Feed water flow HP turbine inlet temperature (left/right) HP turbine inlet Pressure (left/right) IP turbine inlet temperature (left/right) IP turbine inlet Pressure (left/right) LP turbine inlet temperature (left/right) LP turbine inlet Pressure (left/right) Condenser vacuum (A/B) LP gland steam line pressure LP gland steam line temperature Super heater spray Reheater spray Others Ext. to Feed Heaters Temp Symbol Unit h MW % Hz rpm % open % open tph tph O As run data C 2 Kg/cm O C Kg/cm2 O C 2 Kg/cm MWC Kg/cm2 O C tph tph Turbine heat rate is given by: Q1 H1 h2 H3 H2 Q2 Main steam flow Main steam enthalpy Feed water enthalpy Hot reheat enthalpy Cold reheat enthalpy Reheat steam flow Kg/h Kcal/kg Kcal/kg Kcal/kg Kcal/kg Kcal/kg Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 7 . PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN TURBINE Table 8-3: Data sheet for turbine efficiency evaluation Operating parameters Date Duration Avg.PT. to Feed Heaters Pressure Ext.

IP and LP turbines. After evaluating the turbine heat rate and efficiency evaluation.PT. check for the deviation from the design and identify the factors contributing for the deviations. Unit load % of NCR Frequency Speed Main steam parameters Pressure Temperature Enthalpy Entropy Exhaust steam parameters Pressure Temperature Enthalpy Entropy Actual enthalpy drop Isentropic enthalpy drop Cylinder efficiency Unit MW % Hz rpm Kg/cm O 2 Design As run Deviation from design Remarks C O Kcal/kg Kcal/kg/ C kg/cm O 2 C O Kcal/kg Kcal/kg/ C Kcal/kg Kcal/kg % The above table can be used for all stages such as HP. The major factors to be looked into are: • • • • • Main steam and reheat steam inlet parameters Turbine exhaust steam parameters Reheater and super heater spray Passing of high energy draining Loading on the turbine 8 Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan . PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN TURBINE Turbine cylinder efficiency is given by: The following Table 8-4 data sheets given in the can be used for turbine cylinder efficiency evaluation. Table 8-4: Turbine efficiency evaluation data sheet Operating parameters Avg.

PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN TURBINE • • • • • • • • • • • Boiler loading and boiler performance Operations and maintenance constraints Condenser performance and cooling water parameters Silica deposition and its impact on the turbine efficiency Inter stage sealing. Table 8-2: Specifications of HP heaters Unit Heater position (horizontal/vertical) H P heater ID code & number No of zones (De-superheating. drain cooling) No of tubes Surface area Tube size (OD x thickness) Feed water inlet temperature Feed water inlet temperature Extraction steam flow Extraction steam pressure Pressure drop (water side) TTD DCA – Drain cooler approach temperature Temperature raise - HP heater # HP Heater # HP heater # No m2 mm O O C C tph Kg/cm 2 mWC O C C C O O Similarly collect the specifications of LP heaters. condensing. balance drum and gland sealing Sealing fins clearances Nozzle blocks Turbine blade erosion Functioning of the valves Operational status of HP heaters Performance of reheaters 8.PT.3 HP Feed Heaters and LP Feed Heaters Collect the specifications given in the for HP heater Table 8-2. 9 Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan .6.

C kg/cm2g O C 2 kg/cm2 kg/cm ppm kg/cm O 2 C 2 kg/cm While collecting the heater wise parameters. HPH shell press. Feed water diff. if the plant has three HP heaters – HPH-5. HPH drain temp. HPH-6 & HPH-7) Table 8-3: Data sheet for HP heaters Unit O HPH 5 Design Actual HPH 6 Design Actual HPH 7 Design Actual Feed water entering temp. HPH extraction temp. The pressure drop on the feed water side Temperature side across the heater The approach temperature (DCA) Use the following data sheet Table 8-3 for compilation of data of HP heaters (as an example.PT. Drain cooler approach temperature. Feed water leaving press. HPH extraction press. collect the following • • • • • • • • Unit load MW Main steam pressure Main steam temperature Feed water flow Super heater attemperation flow Reheater attemperation flow Boiler feed pump discharge pressure HPH levels Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 10 . Feed water leaving temp. pressure.4 H P Heaters and LP heaters The performance of the feed water heaters can be analyzed by monitoring: • • • • • The terminal temperature difference.6. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN TURBINE 8. Feed water entering press.

tfw out where: Temperature raise TR = tfw in . the above three performance parameters are deviating from the design and actual raise in feed water temperature is low: • • • • Excessive make up Poor water heater performance High terminal temperature difference Excessive venting (worn vents.tfw out where: Drain cooler approach temperature. check for the following.PT. DCA in OC = tdrain . altered set point. vent malfunctioning) Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 11 .tfw out where: While conducting the energy audit of HP heaters. TTD = tsat . evaluate the following • • • Terminal temperature difference – TTD Heater drain cooler approach temperature difference – DCA Temperature rise across – TR Terminal temperature difference. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN TURBINE • • Condenser vacuum Barometric pressure After the collecting the above data.

tubes folded internally) High drain cooler approach temperature Drain cooler inlet not submerged Low water level (improper setting. if the HP heaters performance is poor. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN TURBINE • • • • • • • • • • High water level (tube leaks. excessive FW heater drain bypass – improper setting /bypass valve left open/bypass malfunctioning/bypass valve leaks) Excessive tube bundle pressure drop (excessive number of tubes plugged/tubes folded internally) Feed water heater bypassed FW heater bypass valve leaking Similar approach shall be followed for LP heaters. improper setting) Header partition leaks Non condensable gases on shell side Excessive tube bundle pressure drop (excessive number of tubes plugged. temperature.5 Key observations and Analysis This forms the major component of energy audit system the details should be given in details pertaining to the section mentioned in the earlier sections: • • • • High Reheater Spray Superheater Spray Deviation from Design parameter Main steam Pressure. Based on the above.6.PT. 8. flow Condenser Vacuum. then additional load on economizer can be estimated by using the data sheet. 12 Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan .

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