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Guidelines based on the current (April 2010) “Guidelines & Requirements for Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations,” prepared by FSU’s Office of Graduate Studies, and the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, the default style manual for the Department of Art History

Revised August 2012 Copyright Karen A. Bearor


In recent discussions of what they might expect of graduate students by the end of their first semester in our program, the art history faculty considered what research and writing skills students should have. Students cannot satisfactorily advance to the second semester in the program without some command of basic skills in producing a successful research paper.

Students should be able to do the following by the end of their first semester:

*Assemble a research bibliography *Evaluate sources through an annotated bibliography *Assess the state of the literature [see your professor’s prospectus guidelines, appended, for explanation] *Work with primary materials (original artwork, archival documents, period texts, facsimiles) *Write footnotes *Formulate sharp questions that will stimulate interesting research *Produce an outline, a thesis statement, and a focused title for a research project *Construct an argument and support it with evidence *Work with larger theoretical or intellectual questions *Deliver an oral presentation using appropriate technology

This style guide does not address each of these skills, as class assignments and faculty feedback help students develop them. However, this guidebook, if used properly, can help students with issues of formatting and style, including footnotes and bibliography. Equally important, it also suggests tips to improve the clarity and economy of student writing.

Because the guide is based upon the Chicago Manual of Style, the default style manual for the department, in combination with university guidelines for theses and dissertations, it is appropriate for students and seminars at any level.

While art history is about art and history, its means of communication is through the published word. Writing skills are the means to survival in the profession.



1. Overview


2. Your research paper assignment


2.1 Required parts of the research paper


2.2 Format details for the research paper manuscript


3. Style guidelines


3.1. General principles for effective writing




Spelling and word usage


Clarity and precision (including power positions in sentences)


Wordy sentences




“Weasel words”


Empty phrases


Adjectives and adverbs


Denotations and connotations


Misused words and idioms


Top-heavy sentences




Non-discriminatory language


3.2. Setting up your paper


3.3. Writing a thesis statement


3.4. General typographic conventions








Personal titles




3.5. Capitalization


3.6. Abbreviations and acronyms


3.7. Punctuation: Commas and semicolons


3.8. Punctuation: Colons


3.9. Punctuation: Hyphens and dashes


3.10. Punctuation: Apostrophes


3.11. Punctuation: Parentheses and brackets


3.12. Ellipses










Foreign words and phrases






Footnotes, endnotes, and bibliographies


4. Word List



following 55

Grammar Sheet Common Redundancies (i.e., word pairings to avoid) “How to Write Good”—a humorous look at grammar Professor Bearor’s prospectus guidelines for theses and dissertations S. I. Hayakawa’s “ladder of abstraction” Assignment details:

Research Paper Paper Proposal Annotated Bibliography Sample CMS bibliography (not annotated) Abstract Sample abstract Book review example Workshop instructions PowerPoint presentation instructions




1. Overview

What is a style sheet or style guide?

A style sheet summarizes the rules of mechanical editing in preparing a text for submission to a

publisher, a university (theses and dissertations), a department, or your professor. Style sheets help these entities preserve consistency. For example, publishers present style sheets to authors, who revise their manuscripts to conform to the house style. A copy editor may prepare another style sheet unique to a particular manuscript. Such a supplement is essential for multiauthored

works, as individual contributors might otherwise handle common words differently. FSU’s “Guidelines & Requirements for Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations” is a style sheet.

A style sheet imposes uniformity on the mechanics of writing, not on content.

Authors, including graduate students, may also create personal style sheets to maintain consistency while writing anything from research papers to dissertations or book-length manuscripts. Such personal style sheets might cover foreign words or terms used repeatedly, accepted spellings of words from ancient texts, or capitalization, when such capitalization is inconsistent in source materials. (Personal style sheets are also particularly useful in another way: to prevent habitual errors in punctuation or grammar. Kept continuously updated as reminders of what teachers have marked as incorrect in assigned papers, such personal style sheets help students learn to self-edit and keep from repeating mistakes.)

Mechanical editing, or copyediting, checks correctness and consistency in capitalization, spelling, hyphenation, abbreviations, punctuation, citations, handling of numbers, table and illustration formatting, and other matters of a publisher’s style. Mechanical editing also includes attention to the basics of grammar, syntax, and word usage, although editors may return or even reject manuscripts in need of substantive corrections in any of these areas.

Mechanical editing is distinct from developmental editing, which addresses the content of the manuscript and the way the author organizes and presents that content. This is what outside reader-reviewers hired by publishers address. Your professors or thesis committee members also perform this function. A style sheet does not cover developmental editing.

All authors, including graduate students, are responsible for making their manuscripts conform to accepted rules of grammar, punctuation, and style.


This style guide should help students avoid the most common problems found in assigned research papers. The ability to form a meaningful, coherent argument and to write persuasively, with good style and grammar, are the key factors separating arts professionals from arts enthusiasts. Those students wanting to advance their careers in the field should be highly motivated to write well, since writing is the primary means by which they will communicate their findings to other art historians and engage in the discipline’s discourses.

This style guide is based on the current “Guidelines & Requirements for Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations” (August 2010), published by FSU’s Graduate School, and the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), 16th edition, the “house style” for FSU’s Department of Art History.

While this style guide is longer than most publishers’ style sheets, it is not comprehensive. Its contents target graduate students in our graduate program and their needs. Users should consult the CMS for style questions not covered here.

2. Your research paper assignment

2.1 Parts of the research paper:

Instructions regarding the length and content of your research paper appear in the supplemental details in the appendix to this style guide. The guidelines in this section apply generally to all research papers in Dr. Bearor’s graduate seminars.

The research paper consists of the following six required parts:

cover sheet (include author information, date, body text word count, and title) abstract (revised following any feedback on the original assignment) body of the paper endnotes (preferred over footnotes, as publishers no longer use footnotes) bibliography (not annotated) figures

Staple together the various parts of the manuscript in the order listed. Do not use binders or folders.

2.2 Format details for the research paper manuscript:

Use 12 pt. New Times Roman or Times font throughout, except where otherwise indicated. Type the manuscript on standard letter-size white paper, with one inch (1”) margins all around and one-half inch (1/2”) margins for page numbers (this requires the use of headers and footers in most standard word processing software).

For the cover sheet, type your name, course number, semester, date, and word count (body only) in a single-spaced (12 pt. normal or bold) left-justified list in the upper left-hand corner of the page. Type your paper’s title (14 or 16 pt. bold type, centered) in all caps on line 12. The cover sheet should not have a page number.


For the abstract, type the word ABSTRACT in all caps (14 or 16 pt. bold font), centered, on line 6. This is your title for this page, not the title of your paper. Skip three single lines and type an abstract of 500 words, 1.5-spaced and left-justified. Do not right-justify your text. Use a tab indent for the first line of each paragraph. For your professor, this page should not have a page number, although it would have a number in a thesis or dissertation submitted to the university. [See the separate instructions for the content of the abstract in the appendix.]

For the body of the paper, type the title (14 or 16 pt. bold type, centered, matching font of the abstract’s title) on line 6 of your first page. Skip three single lines to begin your text, which should be 1.5-spaced throughout. [Note: This spacing is consistent with the university’s ETD requirements, but publishers—and other faculty members—will likely want double-spaced text.]

Do not use epigraphs on the first page. This is a professor preference. (If you do not know what an epigraph is, please google the word.)

Left-justify all paragraphs. Use a tab indent for the first line of each paragraph.

The first page of the body of your paper should be page 1. The page number should be centered at the bottom of the page, consistent with the university’s thesis requirements. All successive pages (i.e., page two through the end, inclusive of backmatter) should be numbered sequentially in the upper right hand corner of each page. [This may take some fighting with your word processor. An easy fix if your word processor refuses to cooperate even if you are following instructions (yes, this means you, MS Word) is to type the cover sheet and abstract in a separate document, and then begin your text in a new document, use the software’s numbering. You can always integrate all parts together later in a single pdf file, if you have Adobe Acrobat or one of the many free pdf-making programs available online.]

Quotations of eight lines or more, or quotations of more than one paragraph, should be set off as block quotations. Continue using 1.5-spaced text, but use the paragraph indent feature of your word processing software so the entire quotation is indented. For shorter quotations, run them in the normal course of your text. A summary of guidelines for in-text quotations appears below in section 3.14.

Do not use headings and subheadings in your seminar paper. (This is your professor’s preference, and other professors may have different instructions.) However, for theses and dissertations, you may use headings and subheadings, although the university guidelines differ from and supersede those in the CMS. This is, of course, confusing. In this style guide, your professor follows the university’s guidelines, rather than those of the CMS.

Titles should be centered, 14 or 16 pt. bold font, all caps. Main headings should be centered, 14 or 16 pt. bold font, with first letters of major words capitalized (consistent with CMS guidelines for capitalization in titles). Each of the main sections of your paper should have a main heading:

the abstract, body, and bibliography. Second-level headings should be left-aligned, 12 pt. bold font, with the first letters of major words capitalized, as in main headings. Third-level headings, or paragraph headings, are typed in 12 pt. bold font and indented. Only the first word is


capitalized. A period follows the heading, and the regular text follows on the same line. Two 1.5- spaced returns (three single-spaced lines) precede and follow main headings. One return precedes and follows subheadings.

Heading level


Title (centered)


Main heading (centered)


Subheading (left-aligned)

Subsection Titles

Paragraph heading (indented)

Heading. Text follows

For endnotes, begin your list on a separate page following the body of the paper. Follow the CMS format for endnotes. No title is necessary for this page. Use arabic numerals. [Note: The CMS uses lowercase first letters for arabic and roman when referring to numbers.] You may use superscript numerals for endnotes, corresponding to the superscript numerals within the body of the paper, rather than the in-line numerals the CMS recommends.

For the bibliography, type BIBLIOGRAPHY in 14 or 16 pt. bold font (consistent with other titles in your manuscript), all-caps, centered, on line 6 of the page. Skip three single-spaced lines to begin your entries, which should be single-spaced, in flush-left hanging-indent format. An extra line should follow each entry. Otherwise, follow the CMS format for bibliographic entries. Do not number bibliographic entries. [Unlike the annotated bibliography assignment, your paper’s bibliography should not be annotated.]

For figures, arrange images neatly on subsequent pages. Each figure should be numbered sequentially with arabic numerals and provided with a caption. For works of art, identify each by artist’s name, title of the work (in italics), date, medium, dimensions (height before width, in inches), and location (collection), where known. In captions, render dimensions in numerals (e.g., 18 x 48 inches).

3. Style Guidelines

3.1 General principles for effective writing:

Grammar: Good grammar is essential for all writers. Most students come to graduate school with basic skills in grammar and expression. All must ratchet their skills up a few notches, though, to compete on the graduate and professional levels. Students with weaker skills will have to spend more time refining their talents than others, but the goal of writing exercises in graduate school is to help all students become effective writers so each may find employment afterwards.

Many professors believe in the assumption voiced by the 17th-century French mathematician- philosopher Blaise Pascal: “To know how to write well is to know how to think well.” Whether or not this correlation is true, the ability to write well does free time to focus on intellectual pursuits.


Many good sources on grammar exist online and in print form. Keep one at your desk or open on your computer when writing. A short grammar guide appears in the appendix of this style manual.

Spelling and word usage: Use standard American English spelling, such as judgment, analyze, defense, canceling, or traveling (not judgement, analyse, defence, cancelling, or travelling). Until recently, publishers’ usual reference for spelling and hyphenization was Webster’s New Third International Dictionary of the English Language. A copy of this is in Strozier’s reference section, at PE1625.W36 2002. Because the Third International has not been updated in decades, most presses now prefer the latest edition of Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. For student work, any good dictionary of American English is acceptable.

The CMS includes useful sections on word usage, including a glossary of troublesome expressions and a list of often-misused words and prepositions. Online, find a long list of such words at The best of the concise and inexpensive usage dictionaries is The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style.

Clarity and precision: “Your job is to make yourself clear to your reader,” as Rutgers University professor Jack Lynch writes. “Let nothing get in the way.” He considers clarity, with grace, as chief among writers’ virtues. Clarity comes from precision in writing. Precision, in turn, stems from choosing words that have exactly the right meaning, using no more words than necessary, and putting words in just the right order to make the point.

Power in writing: Word order is important for sentence power. Lynch argues, under “emphasis,” that the strongest position in a sentence is the end. The next strongest position is the beginning. Do not waste these two power positions with vague or less important words.

In writing paragraphs, the power positions for sentences are analogous to those in word order. That is, the strongest position is the last sentence in a paragraph. The second strongest position is the opening sentence, which is usually the “topic sentence” for the paragraph. One may also carry this concept forward in thinking about the position of paragraphs within the body of the paper. The strongest positions in a paper or chapter are the beginning page or two and the end. Anything your reader needs to know to understand the problem you are going to grapple with in your paper—your thesis statement, for instance—needs to be right up top. Never bury your thesis statement or any of its integral parts in mid-paragraph in the middle of your paper! Tying together all the threads in your paper—to demonstrate you have proven what your thesis statement said you planned to do—concludes your paper.

“Always read your writing as closely as possible, paying attention to every word, and ask yourself whether every word says exactly what you mean.”

Use this quotation as your mantra when revising your text. (Jack Lynch, “Guide to Grammar and Style,”, last accessed 28 August 2011. See his entries on clarity, economy, emphasis, grace, and wasted words.)


Key impediments to clarity and precision in writing are wordy sentences, passive voice, “weasel words,” vague, confused, or misused words, “be” verbs, and “hidden verbs.” The following sections explain these concepts.

Wordy sentences: Improve wordy sentences by eliminating empty phrases, filler words, redundancies, clichés, and unnecessary clauses and phrases, and by replacing “be” verbs with active verbs. [For other tips on “cutting the clutter,” see For common redundancies, see the list in the appendix. For a longer list, see]

(wordy) It is my opinion that the U.S. should sign the treaty. (empty phrase; “be”


(revised) The U.S. should sign the treaty.

(wordy) I am going to the market in order to buy groceries. (empty phrase) (revised) I am going to the market to buy groceries.

(wordy) I am actually very busy proofreading my essay. (filler word) (revised) I am very busy proofreading my essay.

(wordy) My goal, first and foremost, is to finish the paper without distraction. (revised) My goal is to finish the paper without distraction. (empty phrase; cliché)

(wordy) She was in deep thought and contemplation about what happened. (redundancy; “be” verb; “hidden verb”) (revised) She contemplated what happened.

(wordy) Rebecca is a smart and intelligent woman. (redundancy) (revised) Rebecca is a smart woman.

(wordy) We visited Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States. (unnecessary clause; “be” verb) (revised) We visited Washington, D.C., the U.S. capital.

(wordy) John’s stylish boots, made of crocodile skin, cost him an arm and a leg. (unnecessary phrase; cliché) (revised) John’s stylish crocodile-skin boots were expensive.

(wordy) Howard Singer addressed faculty concerns in his assessment of the role of the university in the matter. (revised) Howard Singer addressed faculty concerns in assessing the university’s role in the matter. (unnecessary prepositional phrase)

(wordy) The boy who was in the park was riding a bicycle. (unnecessary clause) (revised) The boy in the park was riding a bicycle.


Verbs: “Verbs are the fuel of writing—they give your sentences power and direction. They liven up your writing and make it more interesting.” Thus says Nick Wright, author of the section on “Hidden Verbs” on “Plain Language,” a website maintained by a group of federal employees who have promoted the use of plain language in government communications since the 1990s. To strengthen your writing and propel the reader through your text, you must use verbs that communicate action. Avoid passive voice and weak verbs, like all forms of to be, and be wary of “hidden verbs.”

Passive voice: What is passive voice? English verbs have two voices: active and passive. “Voice” describes the relationship between the action the verb expresses and the agent causing the action to take place.

In active voice, the subject (agent) of the sentence does the acting. In using passive voice, the subject is the recipient of the action.

(active) The boy kicked the ball. (the subject, boy, is the agent of action) (passive) The ball was kicked by the boy. (the subject, ball, is the recipient of the


(passive) The ball was kicked. (the subject, ball¸ is the recipient of the action, but the agent of the action is undetermined, although the sentence is complete)

The examples above show that passive verbs tend to be wordy, because such verbs always have two parts: a form of the verb to be (is, are, am, was, were, has been, have been, had been, will be, will have been, being) and a past participle. More significant is the fact that the agent of action does not always appear in passive voice. Thus, passive voice sacrifices precision and clarity of thought.

The King was lynched. (By whom?) (revised in active voice) The Parisian mob lynched the King.

The climbers were rescued last week. (By whom?) (revised in active voice) Oregon Mountain Rescue Association volunteers rescued the climbers last week.

Some teachers counsel students to follow a ninety-percent rule: ninety percent of verbs in papers must be in active voice. This percentage is about right.

Yet, passive voice is not grammatically incorrect. When is it appropriate to use passive voice? The decision most often depends upon agency.

Use passive voice:

(a) if you need to emphasize the action rather than the actor (agent).

After long debate, the proposal was endorsed by the faculty.


Despite the controversy, House Bill 1194 was passed before the session adjourned.

(b) if you need to emphasize the recipient of the action rather than the actor.

I was hit by a speeding car. The diamonds were stolen, but not the cash.

(c) to describe a condition in which the actor is unknown, unimportant, or so well known

that naming the actor would be unnecessarily redundant.

The medieval altarpiece was created in Sienna. The Philadelphia Mint was created to help establish a national identity and to meet the needs of commerce in the United States. Every year, thousands of people are diagnosed as having cancer. George Washington was elected in 1789.

(d) to set up anticipation or mystery about the agent.

The Earth found by the crew of the Galactica was scorched and irradiated beyond reclamation.

(e) to create an authoritative tone.

Visitors are not allowed after 9:00 p.m.

(f) to be tactful or (often) evasive in identifying the actor.

The doctor’s prescription was somehow misread. “Mistakes were made” was President Reagan’s response to questions about the Iran-Contra affair.

(g) to facilitate sentence structure

The magic ring had been stolen four times: once by trolls, twice by elves, and once by the fairy princess.

Be verbs: Forms of the verb to be weaken sentences. To be is the main copular verb (linking verb) in English; its sole purpose is to connect the subject with a predicate noun or predicate adjective (these may also be called subject complements), or an adverbial. Replace be verbs with more vivid active verbs. Avoid beginning sentences with it is, it was, there is, or there was, which increase wordiness and contribute little to the sentence’s meaning. Such empty openings, called expletive constructions, waste a power position in the sentence by placing the subject in a subordinate position.

(original) Tom’s facial expression was an indication that he was wrong. (revised) Tom’s face convinced us he was wrong.


(original) It was Smith’s exaggeration that led to the office turmoil. (revised) Smith’s exaggeration led to office turmoil.

Hidden verbs (nominalizations): Related to the problem of be verbs are “hidden verbs.” As Nick Wright of says, “Too often, we hide verbs by turning them into

nouns, making them less effective and using more words than we

go hand in hand with passive verbs and combine to give an officious and longwinded style.” The stronger, more active verb in such sentences is “hidden” by nominalization, being embedded in a noun that usually ends in –tion, -ment, -sion, and -ance. One finds such nouns in sentences with forms of “to be” or “to have,” or such verbs as achieve, effect, give, make, reach, and take. (You have likely seen the use of such words in government documents.) By changing these nouns back to verbs, sentences become more vigorous and less abstract or vague.

Hidden verbs often

(hidden) Please take these guidelines into consideration in writing your papers. (uncovered) Please consider these guidelines in writing your papers.

(hidden) The professor made the determination that the dissertation was unsatisfactory. (uncovered) The professor determined that the dissertation was unsatisfactory.

(hidden) Faculty will provide information to the students. (uncovered) Faculty will inform the students.

Former columnist and humorist Russell Baker took aim at academic and bureaucratic writers and their wordy sentences and nominalizations in his famous rewriting of the folktale of Little Red Riding Hood, titled “Little Red Riding Hood Revisited,” originally published in the New York Times Magazine, 13 January 1980. A passage from his “sesquipedalian version” of the story makes his point:

Once upon a point in time, a small person named Little Red Riding Hood initiated plans for the preparation, delivery and transportation of foodstuffs to her grandmother, a senior citizen residing at a place of residence in a wooded area of indeterminate dimension.

In the process of implementing this program, her incursion into the area was in mid- transportation process when it attained interface with an alleged perpetrator. This individual, a wolf, made inquiry as to the whereabouts of Little Red Riding Hood’s goal, as well as inferring that he was desirous of ascertaining the contents of Little Red Riding Hood’s foodstuffs basket, and all that.

“It would be inappropriate to lie to me,” the wolf said, displaying his huge jaw capability. Sensing that he was a mass of repressed hostility intertwined with acute alienation, she indicated.


Verb tense: Refer to actions people did in the past in the past tense. Writers may use present tense for continuing actions, including what a historical person says in printed matter (which continues to reflect that person’s thought). However, what that person says about past occurrences remains in past tense. The easiest solution is to use past tense throughout.

Roland Barthes wrote “Rhetoric of the Image” in 1964. (action completed in the past) In “Rhetoric of the Image,” Roland Barthes argues that connotation can be distinguished from denotation in the analysis of photographs or advertisements. (his argument is ongoing in the book, so present tense is acceptable) OR In “Rhetoric of the Image,” Roland Barthes argued that connotation can be distinguished from denotation in the analysis of photographs or advertisements. (he made his argument in the past, so it is equally appropriate to use past tense)

In her unpublished autobiography, “Eastward Journey,” Irene Rice Pereira described her intellectual and artistic maturation. (action completed in the past)

“Weasel words”: Avoid “weasel words,” words or phrases suggesting the force of authority in a statement without letting the reader decide if the source is reliable. For example, “Tallahassee is the best city in Florida” is clearly a biased statement unsupported by facts. Added weasel words give the illusion of objectivity: “Some people say Tallahassee is the best city in Florida.” The statement remains unenlightening. Who says that? How many? How and when were opinions collected? What biases were inherent in the questionnaire? Why is the statement significant?

Politicians, bureaucrats, and advertisers are skilled in using weasel words to give personal opinion the veil of authority, while effectively avoiding accountability. Such tactics undermine scholarly writing.

Historians agree that Jackson Pollock was fully appreciated by an adoring public. (Which historians? What data supports this contention? Why does the writer care about Pollock’s popularity? Is it plausible to believe that the public appreciated his drip paintings?)

Studies have shown that Crest toothpaste prevents cavities better than other toothpastes. (What studies? How were they conducted? How large was the sampling? Are their conclusions reliable?)

Empty phrases: Cut the following empty phrases: all things being equal, all things considered, as a matter of fact, as far as I am concerned, at the end of the day, at the present time, due to the fact that, for all intents and purposes, for the most part, for the purpose of, in a manner of speaking, in the event of, in the final analysis, it seems that, the point that I am trying to make, type of, what I am trying to say, what I want to make clear.

Also cut phrases like I believe, I feel, or in my opinion. Your feelings are irrelevant in scholarly writing; your analysis is the point. Since you are writing the manuscript, the reader assumes that the text reflects your beliefs or opinions. Saying I believe is thus redundant.


Adjectives and adverbs: Cut most adjectives, especially those that are hyperbolic or matters of taste (beautiful, gorgeous, lovely, ugly, nice, interesting, great, incredible, unbelievable, awesome), and adverbs, especially those that suggest vagueness or indecisiveness (really, perhaps, very, some, somewhat, possibly, quite, rather, a lot, a bit, a few, partly, actually, generally, basically, virtually). Stephen King emphasizes in On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft (2000), “The adverb is not your friend.” Why would he, like many other writers, counsel against using adverbs? Adverbs modify verbs—usually weak verbs. Where possible, use stronger, more specific verbs to communicate action. For example:

The man ran quickly from the room. (wordy, imprecise) (better) The man sprinted from the room. (better) The man bolted from the room. (better) The man fled the room. (better) The man scampered from the room. (better, if more colloquial and idiomatic) The man hightailed it from the room.

Note these more nuanced meanings. Adverbs are unnecessary.

Avoid other vague words, like the nouns thing, idea, situation, impact, aspect, area, consideration, degree, case, concept, factor, manner, type, way, and issue. Substitute more specific or concrete words where possible.

Denotations and connotations: Writers choose words both for their denotations (their dictionary meanings) and their connotations (their emotional or imaginative associations). For example, child, minor, and brat all denote a young person, but they carry very different connotations. Choose words carefully to elicit the appropriate affective response. Beware selecting a synonym from a thesaurus without fully understanding its connotative associations, for you may end up saying something you did not intend.

Misused words and idioms: Most grammar guides have lists of common misused words. Sadly, the people who misuse the words seldom take the time to learn the difference. The following are the words your professor finds commonly misused in graduate papers:




















Learn the proper use of these words!

Ziva, a character in the television series NCIS, adds humor to the show by constantly misusing idiomatic expressions, as in “driving me up the hall” for “driving me up the wall.” Unfortunately, many graduate students add unintentional humor to their papers by misusing idioms. Idioms are phrases that have fixed meanings independent of the words’ individual definitions. While graduate students likely would not make Ziva’s errors, they often confuse idiomatic uses of verbs that govern prepositions. Note the idiomatic differences in the following uses of the verb agree:

Betty does not agree with John. Betty and John do not agree on a restaurant. John cannot agree to this proposal.

Strozier library has dictionaries of idioms and phrasal verbs, and a number of websites for foreign students learning English list some of these. An example is

Top-heavy sentences: Top-heavy sentences are those with long orienting phrases before they get to their subject. Alternately, the subject and verb are separated by numerous clauses, with the verb becoming lost in the verbiage. If you are enamored of your long sentence and cannot consider cutting it into smaller, more manageable pieces, at least make certain you get quickly to your subject, and your verb is somewhere in its vicinity.

(example) On April 30, 2006, during the final meeting of university deans for the 2005–2006 school year, our dean’s proposal to divide the existing college into smaller schools, the departments within which having chairs who answer directly to a new associate dean on issues of governance, garnered the approval of the university administration.

(revised) At the April 30, 2006, meeting of university deans, our dean’s college reorganization proposal garnered the approval of the university administration. As approved, the existing college will be divided into smaller schools. Chairs of departments within each school will answer to a new associate dean on governance issues.

Names: Identify people by their first and last names when they first appear in your text. Subsequently, use surnames. Exceptions to this rule are the names of widely known historical individuals, like Leonardo, Michelangelo, Shakespeare, Kant, Hegel, Freud, and the like. Names of authors mentioned in the text should correspond exactly to their names as given in endnotes.


Add a brief phrase identifying someone when first mentioning his or her name, as well, unless that person is well known. For example, Rosalind Krauss is a famous art critic—known by most arts professionals, not merely those who work on modern art. Erwin Panofsky’s name is equally recognizable to art historians. Beyond such luminaries in the field, or for people working in other areas or disciplines, provide some identifier.

Oxford scholar Martin Kemp, a leading Renaissance expert who wrote a recently reissued biography of Leonardo,

Phyllis Pray Bober, a scholar of Renaissance art and its relationship to classical antiquity, and a pioneering scholar in culinary history,

Renowned feminist art historian Carol Duncan

Pioneering librarian and museum director John Cotton Dana

Psychologist Jean Piaget, who profoundly affected our understanding of children’s intellectual development,

Nondiscriminatory language: Use unbiased and respectful language. Humankind or humanity, for instance, is preferable to mankind. Use synthetic materials rather than man-made materials. One artist show or one person show supplants one man show. Similarly, art historians seldom use masterpiece anymore. Use plurals to avoid some of the problems with gendered pronouns. (A useful source for nondiscriminatory language is Rosalie Maggio’s The Bias-Free Word Finder: A Dictionary of Nondiscriminatory Language.)

Some students introduce grammatical errors in trying to avoid sexist language by using plurals. Do not make a pronoun plural when its antecedent is singular. Make both plural.

(incorrect) By the time a person gets their driver’s license, they should know traffic laws. (pronouns their and they disagree with their antecedent, person) (correct) By the time people get their driver’s licenses, they should know traffic laws.

(incorrect) When a customer enters the shop, employees should talk to them immediately. (pronoun them disagrees with its antecedent customer) (correct) When customers enter the shop, employees should talk to them immediately.

As a coda to this whole section, George Orwell’s often-quoted rules to improve writing, from his “Politics and the English Language” (1946), deserve repetition:

“1. Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.

2. Never use a long word where a short one will do.

3. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.

4. Never use the passive where you can use the active.


English equivalent. 6. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.”

[Notice that English writers, like Orwell, reverse the use of which and that when compared to American usage, so his which in the first line is correct in England, but incorrect in the U.S., where it should be that.]

3.2 Setting up your paper:

Q: Where Do Graduate Student Papers Most Often Go Wrong?

A: In the introduction.

The first two or three paragraphs of graduate student papers are often the most problematic. Sadly, poor opening paragraphs invariably lead to disastrous papers, reader frustration, or both.

Since we are talking about graduate students here, the assumption is that they do not lack intelligence. An individual may lack experience in writing, which is often the case, but he or she may also suffer from muddled thinking. Muddled thinking is not the same as lack of intelligence!

Paper organization is the key to clarity not only in writing but also in thinking through a problem. As the introduction sets up the paper and its organization, these first paragraphs, if well conceived, result in better overall argumentation and problem resolution.

The opening of a research paper must tell the reader four things:

The topic The problem The thesis (argument) The steps necessary to resolve the problem

The first item orients the reader and belongs in the first sentence. The second must appear in the first paragraph. Unless the author must provide extra introductory material to set up the argument, the thesis statement goes at the end of the first paragraph or at the head of the second. The fourth most often resides in the second. The reader should know what the paper is about and where the author is going before reaching the end of the first page of the manuscript.

That said, graduate students sometimes lack a clear understanding of these parts and their differentiation.

The topic is just that. If you are writing about Manet’s Olympia, that is your topic. Your argument is not the topic, although, when asked, you will likely launch into some version of your argument in response to your questioner.

The problem. This is the art historical problem that justifies your writing the paper in the first place. Even if you are taking an interdisciplinary approach to your problem, your problem in art


history must be art historical. It must depend upon art objects (or their conception, as in conceptual art), their production, their display or performance, their material essences, their technical essences, their artists, their patronage, their reception, their relation to socio-historical processes, their interpretation, what they represent (i.e., their subject), what they represent in society (i.e., their exchange value), how they communicate, and the like. Nonetheless, at base, the art historical problem always resembles those in other scholarly disciplines, and it is essentially:

What is the issue or conflict? What tension in our scholarship needs resolution? A gap? A goal? Something unknown, underdeveloped, unresolved, misunderstood, or confused?

What is preventing the conflict from being resolved? To be a problem, there must be some changeable or remediable condition preventing the issue from being resolved.

What is the cost or consequence of not resolving the conflict? What undesirable results follow from the failure to resolve the conflict?

Perhaps the following sentences borrowed from some long-forgotten source targeting undergraduates may help you think about the statement of the problem, although knowledge of the literature on your topic will allow you to come up with much better ones:

1. Most scholars believe that

2. What we know about

3. If we (do not) understand

4. I am analyzing/comparing

, but a closer look will show that

is that

; what we don't know is

, we will (not) understand so that I can explain/understand

The problem in your paper is always related in some way to existing scholarship, because the community of scholars is your target audience, and no scholar writes in a vacuum. We are always building upon, critiquing, or revising the work that came before us in our field and related ones. This is why engaging with existing scholarly literature—creating a dialogue with it— is so critically important in your papers. You are not merely going through your outside sources to cull information from them. You are connecting with them, allowing them to speak to you, to provoke thought. To change metaphors, you walk for a moment in their footsteps to see where they lead, before you elect to follow a different path. At the very least, our arguments are more convincing if we can demonstrate to our readers that we have considered alternate viewpoints before demonstrating that our own, based upon different experiences or more recent knowledge, have greater validity.

3.3 Writing a thesis statement:

A thesis statement is the main argument of an academic research paper or essay question on an

exam. A thesis statement has three characteristics: (a) It must be specific and focused, with one major point to make; (b) it must be debatable—that is, it must be something for which there are alternative viewpoints; and (c) it must be defensible—an author must be able to arrange evidence


support his or her case. A thesis statement is not a statement of opinion.


order to prove a thesis, an author may also need to prove a series of smaller arguments. These


are called subarguments or subtheses.


thesis statement limits the scope, purpose, and direction of the paper. In most academic papers,


is located near the end of the introduction. For most class papers, this means it comes at the

end of the first paragraph, or very close to this. The argument it sets up must be specific enough

to be proven within the allotted length of the paper, and, as supported by subarguments and the

evidence necessary to prove each of these, it provides a framework for the paper.

The thesis statement in the final paper may actually come about as the student author writes a preliminary draft of the paper. This is entirely normal, as one’s thought processes crystallize while writing. Nevertheless, the student must have some working thesis as he or she is finalizing research and planning the paper. The working thesis helps the author plan the paper and determine the paper’s focus. Most important, it becomes a reference point for all the topic sentences in all the paragraphs in the paper. If the topic sentences do not relate to the thesis or its development, then the writer may be straying off point and not proving his or her argument. (If the student’s paragraphs have no topic sentences, to which all the information within the paragraph refers, then there is an even bigger problem in organization.)

A thesis statement is essential for the reader, as well. It provides the “map” for the journey the

reader is about to make. (You do not want the reader to make the wrong turn, do you?) The

thesis statement is a reference point to keep the reader focused on the argument, and it allows the reader to engage with the argument. (Remember, the thesis sentence must be debatable. You want your reader to see your point and be persuaded to your point of view, when he or she might have had a different position at the outset.) In order for the reader to engage with the argument, there must be enough detail in the thesis statement so the argument is clear, rather than muddled

or vague.

So much of the success of the paper hinges on having a strong, clear thesis statement. But how does somebody write one? Here are five useful steps:

1. Picking your topic.

Say you have selected an artist whose work you like, maybe Georgia O’Keeffe.

Obviously, to try to cover all of Georgia O’Keeffe’s life and work would be impossible in a class paper. So you narrow the topic to a series of paintings that interest you or, better still, to a single painting. What about her Radiator Building?

You do your library and internet research on this painting, and now you need to come up with something to say about it.

2. Make a statement about your topic.

Write a sentence about your topic that takes a stand. For example:

“Georgia O’Keeffe chose to reflect the changing skyline of New York City by painting one of its


new skyscrapers in her Radiator Building.

This sentence helps to situate your topic within a social context and limits those aspects of her biography that will be relevant to your paper. Nevertheless, the sentence remains a little broad, as is nearly always the case when one initially tries to write a thesis statement.

3. Make the subject of your sentence more precise.


“Georgia O’Keeffe chose to reflect the changing skyline of New York City by painting one of its new skyscrapers in her Radiator Building.


“Like some of the male artists associated with the Alfred Stieglitz circle, Georgia O’Keeffe chose to reflect the changing skyline of New York City by painting one of its new skyscrapers in her Radiator Building.

Here you have placed other artists within the same social context as you have placed O’Keeffe. You have also done two more things. You have opened up the possibility of doing one of the things art historians always do, to compare and contrast works of art. By virtue of the fact that O’Keeffe became the principal woman artist in Alfred Stieglitz circle in its last years (and you will have learned this in your research), you have also introduced a potential point of tension between her work and that of the male members of the circle.

4. Make the predicate in your sentence more precise.

“Like some of the male artists associated with the Alfred Stieglitz circle, Georgia O’Keeffe chose to reflect the changing skyline of New York City by painting one of its new skyscrapers in her Radiator Building.


“Like some of the male artists associated with the Alfred Stieglitz circle, Georgia O’Keeffe chose to reflect the changing skyline of New York City by painting one of its new skyscrapers in her Radiator Building to compete with her colleagues.”

5. Make sure your thesis answers a why question.

While the issue of competition is certainly a valid one, and it does answer a why question, it does not answer a particularly insightful why question. All artists compete with one another. What makes her competition with her male colleagues more meaningful than ordinary? What is the bigger why?

From your research, you know that Alfred Stieglitz had promoted O’Keeffe as a kind of sensual


earth mother in her earlier abstractions and small flower paintings. While this benefitted O’Keeffe to some extent, she remembered years later having felt pigeon-holed and tied to a kind of painting that could readily be dismissed as “women’s work.” Although she did not abandon flower paintings, she undoubtedly wanted to show her versatility as a painter. What better way to do this than by creating an image of something accepted by critics as a “male” subject? So, you might now refine your thesis statement and argue:

“To distance herself from subjects associated with women, Georgia O’Keeffe chose to compete with the male artists in the Alfred Stieglitz circle by painting one of ‘their’ subjects, one of New York’s newest and most celebrated skyscrapers, in her Radiator Building.”


Now that you have a thesis, you must defend that thesis in your paper. The stronger and more specific your thesis is, the easier it is to organize your paper and to persuade your reader to your point of view.

What's Wrong With These Thesis Statements?

1. Lewis Hine did a series of photographs for the National Child Labor Committee in which he detailed the working conditions of children in factories. This sentence is a statement of fact. Nothing is argued here.

2. Of all his body of work, Lewis Hine’s photographs of children working in factories are the most effective. This sentence offers only the writer’s opinion. The writer does not offer arguable criteria for why these photographs are effective.

3. Lewis Hine’s photographs of children played a significant role in changing the mindset of Americans during the early twentieth century regarding child labor. This thesis makes a claim that the writer likely could not adequately substantiate with available sources within the allotted time and word count for a class paper assignment.

4. Throughout the twentieth century, documentary photographers have focused on society’s ills with the goal of seeking socio-political reform. This subject is much too broad. A more effective thesis would narrow this topic to work by a single photographer.

3.4 General typographic conventions:

Spacing: Use only one space, not two, following any mark of punctuation that ends a sentence. Likewise, use only one space following a colon. (CMS 2.9)

Titles: Italicize titles of books, journals, plays, artwork (including photographs), operas, films, videos, comic strips, blogs, podcasts, and television and radio programs. Set the names of works


of antiquity in roman, along with the names of broadcast networks and websites. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, individual television episodes, songs, sections within a website, and other shorter works are set in roman and enclosed in quotations marks. Titles of unpublished works, like theses, dissertations, manuscripts, speeches, and so forth, are also set in roman type and enclosed in quotation marks. Titles of world’s fairs and other large-scale exhibitions are not italicized, but museum shows and the titles of their catalogues are italicized. Nouns and adjectives designating cultural styles, movements, and schools are capitalized if they are derived from proper nouns (but school remains lowercased). All others are in lowercase, unless its use creates confusion with generic words used in everyday speech, as in New Criticism. Capitalize names of religious movements and their adherents.

His master’s thesis, “Picasso’s Paintings Explained,” was excellent. Mieke Bal’s latest book, The Artemisia Files, is an anthology. MoMA’s exhibition Weimar Cinema, 1919–1933: Daydreams and Nightmares John Keats’ poem “Ode on a Grecian Urn” Doonesbury—a far cry from Peanuts Manet’s Bar at the Folies-Bergère American Gothic, the iconic Depression-era painting by Grant Wood the science-fiction film Serenity “The Body,” an episode from Joss Whedon’s television series Buffy the Vampire


the Venus de Milo the Euphronios krater Alfred Stieglitz’s The Steerage Voice of America MSNBC Facebook Project Gutenberg World’s Columbian Exposition

Emphasis: Italics may be used for emphasis. Use emphasized words sparingly, though, as overuse dilutes their force and tends to annoy readers.

John could not believe that he had been singled out for criticism.

Personal titles and names: For names, omit common personal titles like Mr., Mrs., Ms., Dr., and Rev., but civil and military titles preceding names are acceptable. Each initial in a name should be followed by a period and a single space. An exception is made for those people whose initials alone identify them; no periods or spaces separate the letters.

E. M. Forster Senator Bill Nelson Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates JFK FDR


Ampersands: For company names and titles in which ampersands appear, replace the ampersand with and. The exception to this rule is the use of an ampersand with initialisms.

Lord and Taylor (not Lord & Taylor) Benson and Hedges (not Benson & Hedges) but Florida A&M R&D

3.5 Capitalization:

The general trend today is toward a down style, or the use of fewer capitals.

Civil, military, religious, and professional titles are capitalized when they precede the person’s name, but they are not when they follow a name or substitute for a name.

President Truman the president of the United States Senator Kennedy Teddy Kennedy, former senator from Massachusetts Professor Thomas Brown Thomas Brown, professor of art history Samantha Peterson, chair of the Department of Anthropology Maria Morales has been promoted to associate professor. The new governor, Charles Smith, took the oath of office.

Proper names of specific institutions or departments require capitalization. Words for types of institutions or unofficial references in running text do not. Do not use capitals when the institution or department serves as an adjective rather than a noun.

Carolingian school of manuscript illumination the Reims workshop style the British Museum Salon des Refusés Florida State University the College of Visual Arts, Theatre and Dance the Department of Art History Tallahassee Memorial Hospital geography, anthropology, and ethnic studies departments The college offers degrees in art history, studio art, and design. The chair of the anthropology department submitted her budget.

For capitalization of historical periods or events, see the CMS 8.77–84. Some useful examples appear in the word list at the end of this document.


Regional terms accepted as proper names are capitalized; adjectives and nouns derived from such terms are not.

Northwest Midwest the North North America the West Coast the Middle East Central America the Florida Panhandle but northwestern midwestern northern (but Northern in a Civil War context) northern Europe southeast Asia central Italy panhandle area of Florida westerner

Capitalize the abbreviations of academic degrees but not the spelled-out versions, nor their generic usages.

Michael Knight received a doctor of law degree from FSU. Nguyen family members hold a total of five doctor’s, three master’s, and ten bachelor’s degrees. Julie Smith, Ph.D., earned her bachelor of science degree from Northwestern University.

Capitalize the proper names of deities. Pronouns for a deity are not capitalized.

According to the Bible, God commanded the people to follow him. The Greek pantheon includes the god Zeus, ruler of Olympus, and his daughter Athena, goddess of war and wisdom.

In titles, capitalize the first word, the last word, the first word after a colon, all nouns and verbs, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and subordinating conjunctions (if, because, as, that, while, whenever). Do not capitalize articles (a, an, the), coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor), or prepositions.

On Narrative The Politics of Interpretation Catch Me If You Can Late Modernism: Politics, Fiction, and the Arts between the World Wars No Angel in the Classroom: Teaching through Feminist Discourse


The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory All That Heaven Allows Gertrude Stein: The American Connection “The Work of Art in the Age of Photomechanical Reproduction”

For surnames beginning with particles, i.e., prepositions and articles like d’, da, de, della, den, du, ten, van, or von, capitalize according to general usage or that person’s personal preference, where ascertainable. Consult a biographical dictionary or other authoritative source for help. Alphabetize according to the first part of the surname capitalized. Le, La, and L’ are always capitalized, except when preceded by de. Generally, for European names, the particles are not capitalized when they appear with the first name, and the CMS recommends that the particles appear as in the full name when the surname is used alone, except when used at the beginning of a sentence. Often, Dutch names in English usage capitalize particles when only the surname is used. In anglicized names, the particles are generally capitalized, except by preference of the individual. The following are some examples of accepted capitalization, whether following the rules or not.

Walter De Maria; De Maria Vincent van Gogh; Van Gogh José Ortega y Gasset; Ortega y Gasset Gerard ter Borch; Ter Borch Bartolomé de Las Casas; Las Casas Alexander von Humboldt; Humboldt Ludwig van Beethoven; Beethoven Luca della Robbia; della Robbia Samuel F. du Pont (his usage) Martin Van Buren; Van Buren Alexis de Tocqueville; Tocqueville Charles de Gaulle; de Gaulle Leonardo da Vinci; Leonardo (not da Vinci) Luca Dell'Anna; Dell’Anna Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; Goethe Sir Anthony van Dyck; Van Dyck Rembrandt van Rijn; Rembrandt Jan de Bray; De Bray

Several writers and artists have chosen to present their names in all lowercase letters. Their names in formal writing, however, should follow conventional rules of capitalization.

E. E. Cummings, not e. e. cummings

Bell Hooks, not bell hooks

K. D. Lang, not k.d. lang

3.6 Abbreviations and acronyms:

Abbreviations appear most often in tabular matter, notes, bibliographies, and the like. In running


text, use abbreviations and acronyms sparingly. Limit their usage to situations where, through frequency of use, the spelled-out versions would be cumbersome. Spell out the abbreviation or acronym on the first use and follow this with the abbreviation in parentheses to prepare readers for subsequent uses of the abbreviation.

Our general style reference is the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS). New Deal artists received relief on the Works Progress Administration’s Federal Art Project (WPA/FAP).

Some acronyms, like GPA, SAT, JPG, URL, PDF, BCE, CE, AD, BC, AIDS are not spelled out.

Do not use the ampersand (&) as a replacement for and. Use this symbol only when it is part of an official name of a company, product, or other proper noun.

Do not use etc. in formal writing.

The trend is toward the elimination of periods in acronyms, although there are cases where tradition still reigns.

For academic degrees:

BA, BS, MA, MBA, but Ph.D.

For references to our country:

United States (always spelled out when used as a noun) U.S. (with periods; used as an adjective) USA (with no periods)

Use periods with abbreviations that appear in lowercase letters:

a.m., p.m., e.g., i.e., etc.

For states, spell out the name in running text, rather than abbreviating them:

Texas, Florida, Illinois

3.7 Punctuation: Commas and semicolons:

In series of three or more terms, a serial comma is entered before and. When the elements in the series involve internal punctuation, or when they are long and complex, they should be separated by semicolons.

The still life contained apples, pears, and grapes. The meeting was attended by Dr. Green, a professor of biology; Dr. Smith, a professor of chemistry; and Dr. Wong, the dean of arts and sciences.

Do not use a comma to separate the subject and verb of a sentence when they are next to one another.


incorrect: The art historian, lectures to her class. correct: The art historian lectures to her class. incorrect: The dog wagging his tail, is mine. correct: The dog wagging his tail is mine. incorrect: The relative after whom I was named, is my aunt. correct: The relative after whom I was named is my aunt.

Short introductory phrases can frequently do without commas following them, unless there is a chance of confusion. In the case of introductory phrases involving a date using the month-day- year format, the year continues to be set off in commas. For the year alone, or for dates expressed in the month-year format, no comma is necessary (although many publishers still prefer commas for the month-year format, in particular).

During his lifetime he accomplished many feats. In spring, time slows down. In March 1950 the museum opened to an appreciative audience. On March 1, 1950, the museum opened.

Short compound sentences joined by the coordinating conjunctions and, or, but can do without the comma following the first independent clause.

The child whimpered but nobody heard.

Semicolons may link two independent clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction.

Dr. Jolles will be teaching in France next semester; his schedule, however, is still tentative.

Two independent clauses may be joined with a coordinating conjunction or with a semicolon, which takes the place of the conjunction. When two independent clauses are joined together, and the second clause is introduced by a conjunctive adverb (however, thus, hence, indeed, besides, therefore, nevertheless, nonetheless, consequently, accordingly, likewise, moreover, similarly, still) or by transitional expressions such as that is, the two clauses are joined by a semicolon, and a comma follows the adverb or transitional expression. (Even though conjunctive adverbs help link two independent clauses by functioning as a transition from one clause to the other, they are not true conjunctions. A semicolon is still necessary to replace the missing coordinating conjunction.) The exceptions to this rule are the conjunctive adverbs so* and otherwise, which do not require commas.

The curator removed pieces from the exhibition; however, the catalogue remained unchanged. The sun did not appear during the morning; indeed, it was hidden by clouds all day. Students need to establish priorities; that is, they need to learn to manage their time. but The job candidate missed her flight; so her presentation must be rescheduled. Eliminate extraneous sounds when reading; otherwise you may be distracted.


*Confusingly, so can also be a subordinating conjunction, with the meaning “in order that” or “with the purpose that,” as well as a coordinating conjunction, with the meaning “during the time that.” As a conjunctive adverb, so has the meaning “therefore.”

Note that if the words listed above merely interrupt a sentence, they are no longer conjunctive adverbs. They are set off by commas. Do not be confused.

Either film, however, is worthy of an award. One could argue, therefore, that the most momentous year in Hollywood history is


Commas set off nonrestrictive relative clauses, which one might omit without essential loss of meaning in the sentence. A restrictive relative clause, on the other hand, is essential to the meaning of the sentence, so no commas set it off from the rest of the sentence. Relative pronouns (who, whom, whoever, whomever, which, that) introduce relative clauses. Which most often introduces nonrestrictive clauses, while that introduces restrictive clauses. One may omit that in contexts that are clear without it. Who, whom, whoever, and whomever refer to individuals; which and that refer to places, things, or ideas.

The paper that the student submitted was well documented. (restrictive) The library book [that] I borrowed is due tomorrow. (restrictive) The paper, which the student submitted on time, was well documented. (nonrestrictive) The library book, which I finished yesterday, is due tomorrow. (nonrestrictive) The student who left the umbrella came back to retrieve it. (restrictive) Jennifer, who left class in a rush, returned later to retrieve her purse. (nonrestrictive)

Note that one may use restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses to emphasize different ideas within a sentence. Because restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses are subordinate to the independent clause, the more important idea belongs in the independent clause.

They signed the treaty, which banned nuclear war. (stresses the signing) The treaty [that] they signed banned nuclear war. (stresses the banning)

A word, abbreviation, phrase, or clause in apposition to a noun is set off by commas if it is nonrestrictive, supplemental information inessential to the sentence. No commas appear if the appositive is restrictive.

The dissertation director, Jack Freiberg, scheduled the student’s defense. (nonrestrictive) The departmental chair, Rick Emmerson, convened the meeting. (nonrestrictive) My younger sister, Sarah, lives in Canada. (nonrestrictive; I have only one sister) but My younger sister Sarah lives in Canada. (restrictive; I have three younger sisters)


Henry Giroux’s book The Mouse that Roared was published in 1999. (restrictive; Giroux has published several books) Professor Smith’s sole book, The Only Child, was published in 1999. (nonrestrictive) Giroux’s 1999 book, The Mouse that Roared, concerns the Disney empire. (nonrestrictive) Cynthia Hahn, Ph.D., was the keynote speaker at the medievalists’ conference. (nonrestrictive)

3.8 Punctuation: Colons:

A colon introduces a series that illustrates or expands on what preceded the colon. Use the colon after as follows, the following, and similar phrases. Colons may replace a period to introduce a series of short, related sentences, and they also show up in URLs. No colon appears in sentences where a verb or preposition introduces a series, nor does a colon appear after namely, for example, and similar phrases.

The USDA pyramid includes the following food groups: grains, proteins, fats, fruits and vegetables, and dairy products. The whistleblower was faced with a difficult choice: Should he report the workplace abuses to authorities? Or should he remain silent to protect his job? The university’s home page on the Internet is located at but The dissertation dealt with three related mediums, namely, cubist collage, filmic montage, and Dada ready-mades. The completed application includes a cover letter, a writing sample, and three letters of recommendation.

3.9 Punctuation: Hyphens and dashes:

Do not use a hyphen for adverb-participle constructions:

ideally situated building

Do not use a hyphen for simple verb phrases:

She is good at decision making.

Use a hyphen when the phrase modifies a noun:

decision-making process

The following prefixes do not need a hyphen, unless the lack of a hyphen creates confusion in deciphering the word or its meaning:


ante, anti, bi, bio, co, counter, extra, infra, inter, intra, macro, meta, micro, mid, mini, multi, neo, non, over, post, pre, pro, proto, pseudo, semi, socio, sub, super, supra, trans, ultra, un, under

However, if the prefixes above precede capitalized nouns, use a hyphen:



post-Stalin era

Use en dashes instead of hyphens to separate the terms in inclusive dates and numbers (see 3.13– 3.14 below) and to replace the word to in sports scores, directions, and the like. En dashes sometimes occur in the names of universities to replace the at distinguishing one campus from another. [To create an en dash in Microsoft Word, type Ctrl + Num- (the minus key on the number keypad).]

She took the Boston–New York train. Take the east–west route. Read chapters 12–15. FSU beat UF, 13–6. University of Tennessee–Chattanooga The exhibition is on view December 15, 2009–March 15, 2010.

Em dashes are the most common dashes. In academic prose, they most often set off an amplifying or explanatory element. To avoid confusion, no sentence should contain more than two em dashes. [To create an em dash in Microsoft Word, type Ctrl + Alt + Num- (the minus key on the number keypad). Alternatively, most word processors will make an em dash from two hyphens typed together.]

The three Regionalist painters—Benton, Wood, and Curry—celebrated the Midwest. The country mourned the death of Gerald Ford—the only president not to be elected by the American people. The Democrats, after celebrating their election victories, had to devise a new military strategy—one that might secure relative stability in the Middle East.

3.10 Punctuation: Apostrophes:

Form possessives of most singular nouns by adding an apostrophe and an s. Create possessives of plural nouns, except for irregular plurals that do not end in s, by adding an apostrophe only. For irregular plurals not ending in s, form possessives by adding an apostrophe and an s. These general rules include names ending in s, x, or z, in their singular and plural forms, as well as letter and numbers. The rule also applies to company names ending with a punctuation mark.

the horse’s mouth a bass’s stripes


puppies’ paws children’s literature Texas’s legislature Marx’s writings Berlioz’s works Williams’s reputation the Williamses’ new home JFK’s assassination 2004’s tsunami Yahoo!’s CEO

Nouns plural in form but singular in meaning form the possessive by adding an apostrophe only.

the United States’ role in international affairs Highland Hills’ mayor Maclay Gardens’ pagoda

An apostrophe without an s may be used for possessives of singular nouns ending in an unpronounced s.

Descartes’ statement Albert Camus’ novels but Raoul Camus’s anthology (the s is pronounced)

For joint possession of the same thing, only the second noun takes the possessive form; for individual possession of separate things, each noun has its own possessive form.

my aunt and uncle’s house Laura and Rob’s twin beds Jerry and Millie’s neighbors but Laura’s and Millie’s back yards my aunt’s and uncle’s occupations

For compound nouns and noun phrases, the final element usually takes the possessive form. If plural compounds pose problems, use of.

a workbook’s page student assistants’ time cards my son-in-law’s baseball team but the children of both my daughters-in-law

The genitive case survives in expressions of time, distance, or measure. The genitive is formed the same way as the possessive case.


an hour’s delay three days’ time six months’ leave of absence (or a six-month leave of absence) a dollar’s worth five miles’ distance

For most nouns and pronouns preceding a gerund (a verbal noun), use the possessive case, unless doing so sounds particularly awkward, as when modifiers intervene.

Bob’s quitting shock everyone. Britney’s admitting to an affair caused her divorce. The mother worried about her daughter’s going to night classes alone. His retiring left a vacancy in the administration. We resented his leaving. The residents were opposed to the tavern’s staying open all night. but The residents were opposed to the tavern in their neighborhood staying open all


No apostrophe is added to personal pronouns (his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs) or relative pronouns (whose) in the possessive case.

The dog lost its collar. The restaurants lost their liquor licenses His time is his own.

Reciprocal pronouns (each other, one another) form possessives by adding an apostrophe and an

s. Indefinite pronouns (anybody, another, sombody, something, and the like) form possessives by adding an apostrophe and an s, or by adding an apostrophe and an s to the adverb else.

each other’s one another’s another’s somebody’s no one’s no one else’s somebody else’s

Make the plurals of lowercase letters, symbols, and abbreviations with interior periods with an apostrophe and an s. No apostrophe appears in plurals of numerals, initials or abbreviations without interior periods, or words referred to as words.

x’s and y’s Ph.D.’s (but MAs) +’s and –’s




hitting in the .300s the ifs, ands, or buts YWCAs

Do not add an apostrophe to ordinary plural nouns or to verbs ending in s.

The Browns went to the stores. That is not what this passage means. What she says is what she means.

Apostrophes show contractions and other omissions of letters or numerals.

it’s (it is or it has) what’s (what is) who’s (who is) we’re (we are) fishin’ (fishing) class of ’06 (class of 2006)

3.11 Punctuation: Parentheses and brackets:

Parentheses and brackets are always used in pairs. Do not overuse either.

Parentheses set off incidental information, enclose letters or numerals in enumeration, set off references and directions, and provide information or symbols indicating uncertainty.

Senator Nelson (D., Florida) introduced the bill. The painting (donated to the museum in 1995) was the gift of Robert Brown. Students must submit the following parts of the paper: (1) cover sheet, (2) text, (3) bibliography, and (4) appendices. Michelangelo’s sculpture (see figure 3) made him famous in his day. She was born in Georgia in 1890(?) and died in Tennessee in 1950.

Where required by the sentence, commas, semicolons, and periods follow the closing parenthesis in a sentence.

Her longest novel (667 pages), Julia Sings, was also her last. Maria speaks Spanish (her family’s tongue); her husband speaks Russian. Read the information on Leonardo (turn to the index for help).

Question marks or exclamation points go inside the parentheses if they belong to the parenthetical content; otherwise, they belong outside the closing parenthesis.


The book mentions John Robertson (born 1890?). Did the book mention John Roberson (born 1890)? Debbie asked me to lend her money (what nerve!).

Use square brackets for a parenthetical comment within parentheses or to complete missing information.

Mabel Johnson (1889–1924[?]) lived in New York during her childhood. Vasari suggests that in Leonardo’s portion of the painting [Baptism of Christ], the figures were more finely executed than in Verocchio’s.

Square brackets are used by the writer or editor to enclose material that does not belong to the surrounding text. In quoted matter, square brackets enclose editorial interpolations, explanations, translations of foreign terms, or corrections. Sometimes the bracketed material replaces or alters the original word in a quoted passage.

“They [the free-silver Democrats] asserted that the ration could be maintained.” “Many CF [cystic fibrosis] patients have been helped by the new therapy.” Henry Giroux “[looks] at the world’s most influential corporation” in The Mouse that Roared. Freiberg analyses the differences between society [Gesellschaft] and community [Gemeinde]. The paper’s title is “The Civile [sic] War.” [This was written before the discovery of the Gnostic Gospels in 1945.—Ed.]

3. 12 Ellipses:

An ellipsis, the omission of a word, phrase, or more from a quoted passage, is indicated by

ellipsis points. Ellipsis points are three spaced periods (

by other punctuation. These points must always appear on the same line.

), sometimes preceded or followed

“Henry Giroux’s critique of Disney

shows the manipulative side of Disney just as

it understands why Disney attracts us so much.”

When an ellipsis follows the end of a sentence, a period is placed immediately after the last word of the sentence (no space), and this period is followed by a space and then by the ellipsis. This creates four points, but the first point is a period and not a part of the ellipsis.

“The spirit of our American radicalism is destructive and

side, the conservative party

is timid, and merely defensive of property.”

On the other

Other punctuation—commas, semicolons, question marks, or exclamation points—may precede an ellipsis.


“It does not build,

nor cherish the arts, nor foster religion.”

No ellipsis is necessary at the beginning or conclusion of a quotation run into a sentence, or at the beginning or conclusion of a block quotation.

The press release noted that the exhibition will “focus on the spirit of inquiry” that challenged “hierarchies of the fine and applied arts.” (run-in quotation) not

The press release noted that the exhibition will

focus on the spirit of


.” that challenged

hierarchies of the fine and applied arts


The omission of a paragraph from a multiparagraph block quotation is indicated by an ellipsis following the terminal punctuation of the last quoted sentence. If the first part of a paragraph within a block quotation is omitted, a paragraph indentation followed by an ellipsis precedes the quoted passage. See CMS 13.54 for an example.

3.13 Numbers:

Write out whole numbers from one to one hundred, round numbers, and any numbers beginning a sentence. Common sense and convention dictate some exceptions, however.

The temperature dropped fifteen degrees within twenty minutes. The population is more than two hundred thousand. Use three-by-five-inch index cards for notes. He is five feet ten inches in height. but She wore a size 6 dress. Use a 40-watt bulb in that fixture.

Hyphenate twenty-one through twenty-nine, thirty-one through thirty-nine, and so forth.

The painting is thirty-five by forty-eight inches in size.

Write out whole numbers through ninety-nine followed by hundred, thousand, million, and so forth. Common sense and convention dictate some exceptions, however.

twenty-nine hundred soldiers but a combined GRE score of 1300

Ordinals should be treated the same way as cardinal numbers.

the eighth inning the forty-fifth floor the three hundred millionth baby born in the U.S.


but the 125th day of the year

Write out simple fractions.





Use en dashes to separate terms in inclusive numbers, such as chapter or page ranges, football scores, voting results, and so forth.

The Seminoles beat the Gators 21–14. Students are responsible for reading pages 145–152. Legislators voted 102–36 to adopt the resolution. Consult CMS sections 15.45–46 for abbreviations and symbols used in scholarship.

3.14 Dates:

A comma follows the year when a date appears within a sentence:

She was born on November 4, 1960, in Dallas, Texas.

There is no punctuation separating the month and year when no specific day appears:

The painter completed the first piece in August 1970 in New York.

For inclusive dates, type only the last two years in the second date. If the inclusive dates include a change in century, or when the date is BCE, type the entire year for each date. Use an en dash

to separate the terms. If from or between precedes the first of the pair of numbers, no dash is

used. Instead, from should be followed by to or through, and between by and.





327–321 BCE (a six-year span) 327–21 (a 306-year span) from 1998 through 2006 between 1950 and 1976

For ancient dates in the West, use the secularized BCE (“before the common era”) and CE (“common era”), rather than BC and AD. Remember that ranges of inclusive dates before the


common era should begin with the larger number, as in 800–600 BCE. Both BCE and CE follow the date or the date range.

Spell out particular centuries in lower case. Spell out decades, if the century is clear, or express them in numerals. No apostrophe appears between the year and the s. Adding a prefix to a century necessitates the use of a hyphen. Hyphens come between the ordinal number and the word “century” in adjectival usage.

the twentieth century the twenty-first century the eighth and ninth centuries the eighteen hundreds the late nineteenth century the mid-nineteenth century the mid- to late nineteenth century early twentieth-century art mid-nineteenth-century debates mid- to late-nineteenth-century fashions the nineties the 1950s mid-decade but mid-century or midcentury

Dates as descriptive adjectives are more common these days, when the construction does not obstruct the flow of the sentence. No hyphen or comma is necessary when using a month-and- year or month-and-day form as an adjective. Use commas before and after the year for the month-day-year form. Avoid this awkward construction, however.

the December 25 holiday the April 2005 tax statement but the October 8, 2004, birthday party

3.15 Foreign words and phrases:

Italicize foreign words and phrases if they are likely to be unfamiliar to readers; romanize those that are familiar. Foreign proper nouns are not italicized.

annus mirabillis bête noire cri de coeur repoussoir mise en abyme ukiyo-e





ex officio

cum laude

in vitro


hor d’oeuvres

trompe l’oeil

Foreign words with accented letters and other alphabetical forms not occurring in English should be spelled with the appropriate diacritical marks, unless the word has been transliterated (romanized) and absorbed into English. Accented letters used in European languages, such as the acute accent (é), grave accent (è), circumflex (ê), cedilla (ç), dieresis or umlaut (ü), tilde (ñ), macron (ē), or breve (ĕ), are included in common word-processing software.

bête noire cause célèbre doppelgänger agapē (in Greek) erōs (in Greek) but agape (in English) eros (in English)

3.16 Quotations and quotation marks:

Brief quotations are preceded by a comma, unless they are introduced by that, whether, or a similar conjunction, in which case no comma is required. Longer quotations are preceded by a colon.

Emerson wrote, "Blessed are those who have no talent." Phoebe asked, “What are you going to wear to the party?” Was it Stevenson who said that "the cruelest lies are often told in silence"? W. J. T. Mitchell wrote: “The Romantic conception of art as ‘the activity of self- directed men,’ free from institutions and social restraints, is a powerful fiction that has served as the prevailing ideology in Western capitalist democracies for the last 200 years.”

Syntax is important in incorporating quotation fragments into a text. Phrase the surrounding sentence in such a way that quoted words fit into it logically and grammatically. Quote only as much of the original text as is necessary. Integrate tenses and pronouns into the new context. Place necessary adjustments in brackets. For run-in quotations, where the quotation is syntactically part of the sentence, the quoted portion begins with a lowercase letter. If the quoted passage in the original begins with a capital letter, the writer may signal the change in capitalization with brackets, should there be some question about misleading the reader. (This most often applies to legal documents.) The reverse is also true; one may capitalize a passage


excerpted from the original, where it began with a lowercase letter, if context demands. Otherwise, all quotations should agree exactly with the originals in wording, spelling, interior capitalization, and interior punctuation. For more information, see CMS 13:13, “Changing capitalization to suit syntax,” and 13:14, “Initial capital or lowercase—run-in quotations.”

[Original] The Romantic conception of art as ‘the activity of self-directed men,’ free from institutions and social restraints, is a powerful fiction that has served as the prevailing ideology in Western capitalist democracies for the last 200 years. It has never passed unchallenged in the actual production and consumption of art, either in the West or elsewhere.

[As quoted] According to W. J. T Mitchell, the “Romantic conception of art as ‘the activity of self-directed men,’” is a “powerful fiction” that has persisted in the West for two centuries.

[As quoted] W. J. T. Mitchell has indicated that the “powerful fiction” of the independent artist, free from social or institutional restraints, persists despite the fact that “it has never passed unchallenged in the actual production and consumption of art” in the West.

or [As quoted] W. J. T. Mitchell has indicated that the “powerful fiction” of the independent artist, free from social or institutional restraints, persists despite the fact that “[i]t has never passed unchallenged in the actual production and consumption of art” in the West.

[As quoted] “Never pass[ing] unchallenged in the actual production and consumption of art,” the fiction of the independent artist, unrestrained by social convention, has persisted for 200 years, according to W. J. T. Mitchell. or [As quoted] “[N]ever pass[ing] unchallenged in the actual production and consumption of art,” the fiction of the independent artist, unrestrained by social convention, has persisted for 200 years, according to W. J. T. Mitchell.

Use the block style for prose quotations of eight lines or more, or for quotations of more than one paragraph. In the case of poetry, see the CMS.

Format block quotations by indenting the entire quotation five spaces from the left margin using the paragraph indent feature of your word processing software. Paragraphs should reflect the source. However, if the first paragraph quoted includes the beginning of a paragraph, it need not begin with a paragraph indentation; align it flush left. Indent subsequent paragraphs in the quotation as in the original. A blank line should precede and follow the quoted passage. If the text following the block quotation is a continuation of the paragraph that introduced the quotation, align the text flush left. If the resuming text begins a new paragraph, use a normal tab indent. Do not set off block quotations with quotation marks.

The following example shows a block quotation inserted just after the introductory sentence of a


paragraph (thus the sentence is indented). The paragraph continues after the quotation.

In his 1999 book on Disney and the end of innocence, Henry A. Giroux wrote:

Education is never innocent, because it always presupposes a particular view of citizenship, culture, and society. And yet it is this very appeal to innocence, bleached of any semblance of politics, that has become a defining feature of Disney culture and pedagogy. The Walt Disney Company’s attachment to the appeal of innocence provides a rationale for Disney both to reaffirm its commitment to children’s pleasure and to downplay any critical assessments of the role Disney plays as a benevolent corporate power in sentimentalizing childhood innocence as it simultaneously commodifies it.

Giroux continues that Disney strips the concept of innocence of its historical and social constructions to create an ideal, ahistorical space, an ideal it markets to parents.

See 3.12 in this guidebook for how to handle omitted text in a block quotation.

Use double quotation marks to set off quoted words, phrases, or sentences run into the text. Single quotation marks enclose quotations within quotations, and double quotation marks enclose quotations within these. [In British English, this pattern is reversed.]

Kathy said, “Read the ‘Graduate Handbook’ for further information.”

In closing punctuation, periods and commas precede closing quotation marks, whether single or double. On the other hand, colons, semicolons, question marks, and exclamation points follow closing quotation marks, unless a question mark or exclamation point is part of the quoted passage.

Take, for example, the first line of “To a Skylark”: “Hail to thee, blithe spirit!” Which of Shakespeare’s characters said, “All the world’s a stage”? “Where do you live?” “Watch your step!”

Words enclosed in so-called “scare quotes” indicate to the reader that the writer is using the word in a nonstandard, ironic, or other special sense. The quotation marks imply the author’s distance from the “scary” term. If used too frequently, scare quotes lose their impact and irritate readers. Generally, if the author repeats the scary term, quotation marks are not necessary, as the reader should understand the author’s intent after the first usage. (See CMS 7.58)

Picasso embraced “primitivism” in African sculpture in developing his cubist style. (the word primitivism as applied to African sculpture is now considered inappropriate, although the word was accepted for such usage in Picasso’s time—so scare quotes signals the author’s understanding of that distinction) Feminists in the 1970s challenged the use of “master”-pieces in art history because of its sexist implications.


When using a word as a word—that is, when the word is not used functionally but as the word itself—use italics or quotations marks. Italics are preferred, but there are situations where quotation marks make the meaning more clear. (See CMS 7.62) When using a letter as a letter, use italics.

The word abstract should be centered and capitalized as the title of your abstract. We no longer use the word Orient to refer to Asia, but we still use the word Orientalism to refer to the imitation or depiction of aspects of Eastern cultures in the West by nineteenth-century writers, designers and artists. We form the plural of nouns in English by adding s or es.


3.17 Footnotes, Endnotes, and Bibliography

The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems, the humanities style (notes and bibliography) and the author-date system. The humanities style is preferred by many in literature, history, and the arts, and this is true for FSU’s Department of Art History. The following formats for notes (N) and bibliographies (B) are taken from the CMS online “Citation Quick Guide,” at Included are short forms of the titles for repeat notes. Appended to these examples are guidelines for handling repeated citations.

The numbers in the examples below are examples of footnote numbers. In your own footnotes, these numbers should reflect the placement in your own document.

NOTE: For website URLs, you should include no underlining, because the link does not remain active in print. Have your computer remove the hyperlink underlining, if it automatically makes the link active, before printing your bibliography or footnotes.

Book—One Author



Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 65.


Doniger, Splitting, 66.


Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Book—Two Authors



Guy Cowlishaw and Robin Dunbar, Primate Conservation Biology (Chicago: University of

Chicago Press, 2000), 104–7.


Cowlishaw and Dunbar, Primate, 110.


Cowlishaw, Guy, and Robin Dunbar. Primate Conservation Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Book—Three Authors



Richard Tansey, Fred S. Kleiner, and Horst De La Croix, Gardner's Art Through the Ages,

10th Reiss ed. (Ft. Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1995), 43.



Tansey, Richard, Fred S. Kleiner, and Horst De La Croix. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages. 10th Reiss ed. Ft. Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1995.

Book—Four or More Authors



Edward O. Laumann et al., The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the

United States (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 262.


Laumann et al., Social Organization, 262.


Laumann, Edward O., John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Book—Editor, Translator, or Compiler Instead of Author



Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,

1951), 91–92.


Lattimore, Iliad, 96.


Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Book—Editor, Translator, or Compiler in Addition to Author



Yves Bonnefoy, New and Selected Poems, ed. John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf (Chicago:

University of Chicago Press, 1995), 22.


Bonnefoy, Yves. New and Selected Poems. Edited by John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Book—Group or Corporate Author



International Monetary Fund, Surveys of African Economies, vol. 7, Algeria, Mali, Morocco,

Tunisia (Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 1977), 98.



International Monetary Fund. Surveys of African Economies. vol. 7, Algeria, Mali, Morocco, Tunisia. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 1977.



Lowe Art Museum, Coral Gables, FL, Lowe Art Museum Selected Works: Handbook of the

Permanent Collection (Coral Gables, FL: Lowe Art Museum, 1996), 41.

6. Lowe Art Museum, Selected Works, 43.

Lowe Art Museum, Coral Gables, FL. Lowe Art Museum Selected Works: Handbook of the Permanent Collection. Coral Gables, FL: Lowe Art Museum, 1996.

Book—Reprint, Facsimile, or Modern Editions

Some books are reissued in paperback by the original publisher or in paperback or hardcover by another company. If the original publication details—particularly the date—are relevant, include them. (In most cases in art history, the original publication date is important.) If page numbers are mentioned, give the date of the edition cited unless pagination is the same. The availability of an alternate version, including an electronic version, the addition of new material, or other such matters may be added as needed.



Ernest Gowers, The Complete Plain Words, 3rd ed. (London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1986;

Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1987), 26. Citations refer to the Penguin edition.


Gowers, Complete, 29.


Gowers, Ernest. The Complete Plain Words. 3rd ed. London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1986; Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books, 1987. Page numbers refer to the Penguin edition.



Gunnar Myrdal, Population: A Problem for Democracy (Cambridge: Harvard University

Press, 1940; reprint, Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1956), 9.


Myrdal, Population, 22.


Myrdal, Gunnar. Population: A Problem for Democracy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1940. Reprint, Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1956.



Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nature, 1836. Facsimile of the first edition, with an introduction by



Emerson, Nature, 37.


Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Nature. 1836. Facsimile of the first edition, with an introduction by Jaroslav Pelikan. Boston: Beacon, 1985.



F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby (New York: Scribner, 1925). Reprinted with preface and

notes by Matthew J. Bruccoli (New York: Collier Books, 1992), 44. Citations refer to the 1992 edition.


Fitzgerald, Great Gatsby, 45.


Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Scribner, 1925. Reprinted with preface and notes by Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York: Collier Books, 1992. Page references are to the 1992 edition.



National Reconnaissance Office, The KH-4B Camera System (Washington, DC: National

Photographic Interpretation Center, 1967), 14. Now declassified and also available online,


National Reconnaissance Office, KH-4B, 16.


National Reconnaissance Office. The KH-4B Camera System. Washington, DC: National Photographic Interpretation Center, 1967. Now declassified and also available online,

Chapter or Essay in Book (e.g., an Anthology) or Exhibition Catalogue



Andrew Wiese, “‘The House I Live In’: Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams

in the Postwar United States,” in The New Suburban History, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 101–2.


Wiese, Andrew. “‘The House I Live In’: Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States.” In The New Suburban History, edited by Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.


Chapter of an Edited Volume Originally Published Elsewhere



Quintus Tullius Cicero. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship,” in Rome: Late

Republic and Principate, ed. Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White, vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner (Chicago:

University of Chicago Press, 1986), 35.


Cicero, Quintus Tullius. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship.” In Rome: Late Republic and Principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, edited by John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The Letters of Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).

Preface, Foreword, Introduction, or Similar Part of a Book


17. James Rieger, introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), xx–xxi. B:

Rieger, James. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Book Published Electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. You may also list the other formats, as in the first bibliographic example below. Include an access date parenthetically at the end of the citation. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.



Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of

Chicago Press, 1987), (accessed June 27, 2006).


Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. (accessed June 27, 2006). Also available in print form and as a CD-ROM.



Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), Kindle edition.


Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle edition.



Do not list the Bible the bibliography.



2 Kings 11:8 (King James version)

Article in a Print Journal

In a note, list the specific page numbers consulted. In the bibliography, list the page range for the whole article.

For journals with pages numbered consecutively throughout a volume or year:



John Maynard Smith, “The Origin of Altruism,” Nature 393 (1998): 639.


Smith, “Altruism,” 637.


Smith, John Maynard. “The Origin of Altruism.” Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.

For journals with pagination beginning with each issue:



Stephen Kerber, “Florida and the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893,” Florida

Historical Quarterly, 66, no. 1 (July 1987): 25–26.


Kerber, “Florida,” 28.


Kerber, Stephen. “Florida and the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893.” Florida Historical Quarterly 66, no. 1 (July 1987): 25–49.

For journals issued as numbers, not volumes:



Rosalind Krauss, “Sculpture in the Expanded Field,” October 8 (Spring 1979): 30.


Krauss, “Sculpture,” 35.


Krauss, Rosalind. “Sculpture in the Expanded Field.” October 8 (Spring 1979): 30–44


Article in an Online Journal

Include an access date parenthetically at the end of the citation.

If an online service (like JSTOR) scans the original printed source, such that the pagination remains intact, treat the source as a print source. No URL or date of access is required in this circumstance.



Mark A. Hlatky et al., "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal

Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial," Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (2002), (accessed January 7,



Hlatky, “Quality-of-Life.”


Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial." Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6, 2002), (accessed January 7, 2004).

Popular Magazine Article

A popular magazine is a magazine targeting a mass audience, as opposed to professionals or scholars. Articles in popular magazines are often written by staff writers or journalists, while in scholarly journals, the authors are usually specialists in their respective fields, with their credentials specified. Examples of popular magazines would be Time, Newsweek, National Geographic, People, TV Guide, New Yorker, Popular Mechanics, Vanity Fair, and the like.



Steve Martin, “Sports-Interview Shocker,” New Yorker, May 6, 2002, 84.


Martin, Steve. “Sports-Interview Shocker.” New Yorker, May 6, 2002.

Newspaper Article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text (“As William Niederkorn noted in a New York

. bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

Times article on June 20, 2002 ,

.”) instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a




William S. Niederkorn, “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery,” New York

Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.


Niederkorn, “Scholar Recants.”


Niederkorn, William S. “A Scholar Recants on His ‘Shakespeare’ Discovery.” New York Times, June 20, 2002, Arts section, Midwest edition.

Book Review



James Gorman, “Endangered Species,” review of The Last American Man, by Elizabeth

Gilbert, New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002, 16.


Gorman, “Endangered Species,” 16.


Gorman, James. “Endangered Species.” Review of The Last American Man, by Elizabeth Gilbert. New York Times Book Review, June 2, 2002.

Thesis or Dissertation



M. Amundin, “Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Harbour

Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena” (PhD diss., Stockholm University, 1991), 22–29, 35.


Amundin, M. “Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena.” PhD diss., Stockholm University, 1991.

Paper Presented at a Meeting or Conference



Brian Doyle, “Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59” (paper presented at

the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June

19–22, 2002).


Doyle, “Howling Like Dogs.”


Doyle, Brian. “Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59.” Paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19–22,




Because website content is subject to change, include an access date and, if available, a date that the site was last modified.



“Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach,” Evanston

Public Library Board of Trustees, (accessed June 1, 2005).


“Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000–2010.”


Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000– 2010: A Decade of Outreach.” Evanston Public Library. plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).



“Google Privacy Policy,” last modified March 11, 2009, (accessed August 2, 2010)


“Google Privacy Policy.”


Google. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11, 2009. (accessed August 2, 2010).

Weblog Entry or Comment



Jack, February 25, 2010 (7:03 p.m.), comment on Richard Posner, “Double Exports in Five

Years?,” The Becker-Posner Blog, February 21, 2010,



Jack, comment on Posner, “Double Exports.”


Becker-Posner Blog, The.

Email Message

Email messages should not be listed in the bibliography.




John Doe, e-mail message to author, October 31, 2005.

Item in Online Database

For items retrieved from a commercial database, add the name of the database and an accession number following the facts of publication.



Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, ed. John Bostock and H. T. Riley, in the Perseus Digital

Library, (accessed November 17, 2005).


Perseus Digital Library. (accessed November 17, 2005).



Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty”

(PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008), 56, ProQuest (ATT 3300426)