PT.

PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN

COAL HANDLING PLANTS

2. COAL HANDLING PLANTS
2.1 Background
Coal handling plant is one of the important energy consumers in thermal power plants and contains the following energy consuming equipments: • • • • • Crushers Conveyors Feeders Tipplers Stacker-reclaimer

2.2 Steps Involved In Conducting The Energy Audit
The energy audit in coal handling plant should emphasise on evaluating specific energy consumption and capacity utilisation and compare with design/PG values pertaining to following • • • Overall CHP Stage wise Equipment wise which include conveyor belts, paddle feeders, crushers, vibro feeders, belt feeders, wagon tippler, stacker, reclaimer etc.,

The steps involved in conducting energy audit of coal handling plant are: • • Data collection Observations and Analysis of - Drives Speed - Belt tension - Condition of rollers - Condition of belts - Loading of belts with respect to design value. - Loss of energy in the coal lying in stockyard due to auto ignition. - System capacity utilization. (To be pushed back) Exploration for energy conservation measures Report preparation 1

• •

Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan

length of hopper. maximum weight of handling. etc) of the key equipment Track hopper (Number of track hoppers. dust suppression system pumps. number of vibrating feeders.3.3 Data Collection 2. boom conveyor. schematic layout. stacking. bucket wheel. power consumption) Stacker reclaimer (quantity. travel speed. etc) Coal design parameters and sizes Belt conveyers (capacity. type. specific power consumption. Capacity. capacity of each feeder. etc) Wagon tippler details (Number of tipplers. Maximum coal size at the inlet and outlet. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS 2. power. capacity. etc Compile the Design / PG test values for the above mentioned equipments. power consumption. etc) Other equipments – i. slew. capacity. type of crushers. vibrating feeders. tippler time cycle. of crushers. motor rating. speed. etc) Process flow diagram/Schematic diagram of coal handling plant and description of system configuration which includes details about different routes (direct bunkering. capacity of reclaimer. number of clamps. travel speed. number of buckets and length of boom. application. reclaiming route.1 Specification Of Coal Handling Plant Collect the detailed design specifications of coal handling plant. motor rating of each tippler) Crusher specifications (No. capacity. etc) Paddle feeders – Ploughs (No of feeders. motor rating for travel. motor rating. dust extraction fans. power.e.PT. belt feeder. number. pertaining to the following equipments: • • Design details of overall coal handling plant (Capacity. width. • • • • • • • • • The key specification parameters shall be complied as shown below (Refer: Table 2-1) Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 2 .

kW TPH TPH TPH TPH TPH NM /h M /h TPH 3 3 Speed of driven Length Specific Hours of equipment energy (in case operation (rpm or linear) of belts) consumption 2.3. Table 2-2 : Production and operating data Parameter Total coal receipt Total electrical related load Overall operating load Energy consumption of CHP Plant equipment operating hours Plant utilization factor Total gross generation of station Total auxiliary power consumption of the station Unit Lakh tons MW MW kWh Hrs Hrs MU MU Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 3 . PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS Table 2-1 : Key Specification parameters Equipment reference Paddle Feeders Belt conveyors Vibro feeders Grizzly feeders Belt feeders Dust extraction fans Dust suppression system pumps Crusher Stacker reclaimer Other equipment Motor input Capacity power. month wise given in the Table 2-2 and also for day wise for a period of two/ three weeks when plant is under normal operation.2 System data collection Collect last one year data.PT.

PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS Total power consumption by the CHP plant % of power consumption of CHP with respect to total auxiliary power consumption Specific energy consumption.PT. 5. % MU KWh/MT Collect the parameters for coal as given in the Table 2-3. pf.4 Instruments Required The following instruments are required for conducting the energy audit of coal handling system. V. 8.5 accuracy 4 Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan . 4. kVA. 2. • Power Analyzer: for measurement of an electrical parameters such as kW. A and Hz of class 0. 3. 6. 7. Table 2-3 : Coal Parameters Unit Fixed carbon Volatile matter Moisture Ash Grindability Coal calorific value -HHV Size of the coal to mill Total contract fuel fired % % % % HGI Kcal/kg mm tph Design Actual Remarks 2. Equipment wise operating hours 1.

power consumption. Pre visit can be made to get familiarisation with CHP configuration. etc 2. electrical parameters such as kW. stacking mode and reclaiming mode. Voltage. production.6. Power parameters: Measure the power input i. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS • • • Stroboscope: To measure the speed of the driven equipment and motor Tensiometer On line instruments – (calibrated) for coal transfer rates.6 Observations And Analysis 2. particularly different routes such as bunkering mode. comparison with PG test / design. 2. condition.PT.1 System Familiarisation And Operational Details Detailed interactions with the plant personnel have to be carried out to get familiarisation for system detail and operational details.6.5 Measurements & Observation To Be Made While conducting the audit.e. loading. power factor. the following measurements and observations are necessary: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Equipment operations and throughput. for all drives for no load and load conditions Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 5 .2 Measurements & Evaluation a. kVA. etc Power consumption of the equipments Drive speed Belt speed Condition of rollers Condition of belts Loading of belts with respect to the design Loss of energy in the coal in stack yard due to auto ignition Input coal parameters Unit load of the plant Date & time of measurement Instruments used for measurement Frequency of the measurement 2. Current.

PT. Actual kW / Rated kW) Also make a table (as shown in Table 2-4). V. operating hours. Average capacity ………tph. specific energy consumption. operational controls for energy efficiency.) Equipment Rated kW A No load kW A Average load kW Specific Energy Consumption No load kW /MT Average kW /MT Rated kW /MT Remarks on throughput. It is also desired to study time-motion study. Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 6 . Obtain operating hours Operational constrains to achieve the optimum loading Table 2-4 : Power Consumption & Throughput Direct Bunkering (Rated capacity …….e. hour operation …. PF. power consumption.tph. Evaluation of equipment loading and specific energy consumption • • • • Determine equipment wise % loading (i. Also provide remarks and calculations. actual TPH / rated TPH) as well as the motor % loading (i. A. operational constrains etc. c. Note the coal throughput using coal totalisers or other alternative methods.e. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS b. for each of the euipment and their actual & design electrical parameters like KW. Coal throughput rate: Study track hopper management/coal unloading. condition.

Calculation of Specific Energy Consumption • • • Calculate kW /MT for existing operations i. Average capacity ………tph. specific energy consumption.tph. operational constrains etc. calculate month wise kWh / MT for last one year. operational controls for energy efficiency. operating hours. Based on energy meter reading & coal receipt data. Average capacity ………tph. power consumption. operating hours.e. operating hours …. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS Reclaiming (Rated capacity …….) Equipment Rated kW A No load kW A Average load kW Specific Energy Consumption No load kW /MT Average kW /MT Rated kW /MT Remarks on throughput. specific energy consumption. and reclaiming both activity wise & equipment wise for last one year for each CHP. condition.tph. hour operation …. stacking. bunkering. operational controls for energy efficiency. Plot kWh/MT on Y-axis & months on X-axis. condition.) Equipment Rated kW A No load kW A Average load kW Specific Energy Consumption No load kW /MT Average kW /MT Rated kW /MT Remarks on throughput.PT. Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 7 . d. power consumption. Stacking (Rated capacity ……. operational constrains etc.

Performance of Crushers • • Observe and compare the operation of crushers and its throughput. Calculation theoretical value of g. Get the sample analysed. Measure drive speed N1 (with the help of tachometer).PT. Diameter of drive and driven pulley (D1 and D2. recommend for complete oil change or inspection of bearings / Gear internals. hours of operation. etc Carryout the sieve analysis and compare with the design or optimum values Sieve size (mm) Crusher output of. f. Coal Sample Analysis Send 2-3 samples of coal taken from the belts feeding to the crushers for sieve analysis to determine extent of coal particles below 20 mm size. h. Calculate liner speed of the belt (Sb) Sb = p D2N2 Measure actual linear speed of belt (Sa) Calculate slip = Sb -Sa Tolerances of slips should be < 4% for conveyor belts. power consumption. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS e. Lub Oil Inspection • • • Collect the lube oil sample. Drive Speed Analysis & Belt Tension • • driven rpm (N2) : N1D1 = N2D2 • • • • • • • Measure actual driven rpm (Na) by tachometer. Recommendations may be made accordingly. If the metal traces are found beyond permissible limits. -20 mm -25 mm + 25 mm Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 8 .

crushers etc. Power factor correction possibility: Induction motors are characterized by power factors less than unity. are often partially loaded & also there is frequent starts /stops. the following need to be explored in detail to arrive at an appropriate energy conservation measures. leading to lower overall efficiency (and higher overall operating cost) associated with a plant’s electrical system. The details of feeding circuits of coal handling system to be given in the report along with the specifications and schematic layout indicating equipments. and an increase in the overall efficiency of the plant electrical system.Modifications and changes in coal feeding circuits .6. conveyors. reduced voltage drop in cables (leading to improved voltage regulation).Increase the loading . 2. which indicates scope for energy conservation. reduced I2R losses in cable upstream of capacitor (and hence reduced energy charges).4 Exploration of energy conservation possibilities While conducting the energy audit of the CHP. (Conveyor belt etc. The merit order studies for energy consumption of various paths.3 Study of coal feeding circuits Study the different coal feeding circuits routes.Reduce the idling time .PT. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS 2. Capacitors connected in parallel with the motor are typically used to improve the power factor.e.Need for automation and controls Explore Installation of power saver device in major LT motors. need to be identified.6. • • Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 9 . • Performance improvement options: . The impacts of PF correction include KVA demand (and hence reduced utility demand charges).): Major HT /LT motors i.Possibilities in Improving the throughput . The measured and calculated specific energy consumption data for these circuits need to be compiled and compared. Explore the possibility of providing power saver devices (soft starters) in major motors. Comparative study of various coal feeding circuits has to be made.

unloading. PLN (PERSERO) PUSAT PENDIDIKAN DAN PELATIHAN COAL HANDLING PLANTS • Explore the possibility of using chemicals for reduced water spray: Mixing of chemical compounds in water for suppression of dust provides much better atomization of water spray. Thus for the given application of dust suppression. This will eliminate frequent starting and stopping of the CHP • • Berbagi dan Menyebarkan Ilmu Pengetahuan Serta Nilai-Nilai Perusahaan 10 . stacking and reclaiming and the selection of machinery is to be made in such a way that all the handling operations are accomplished without the use of semi mechanized means like bulldozers which are more energy intensive equipments.PT. Maximum Mechanical Handling: Minimum Bulldozing: Sequence of coal handling operations like receipt. However Principal of “FIRST IN FIRST OUT” is to be adopted for coal receipt & consumption and at any time coal need not to be stocked in yard for more than incubation period (duration between coal mined and getting self ignited) Reduced Number of Fillings: Live storage capacity of raw coal bunkers and the filling pattern of bunkers is so planned that 24 hours coal requirement of the generating units is met by not more than two fillings per day. lesser quantity of water is sprayed which also results into lesser wastage of latent heat in the steam generator. by way of reduction in surface tension of water.

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