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Application Notes
Elastic Modulus Measurement
Measurement on Young's Modulus and Shear Modulus of Elasticity, and Poisson's ratio, in nondispersive isotropic engineering materials.

Young's Modulus of Elasticity is defined as the ratio of stress (force per unit area) to corresponding strain (deformation) in a material under tension or compression. Shear Modulus of Elasticity is similar to the ratio of stress to strain in a material subjected to shear stress. Poisson's Ratio is the ratio of transverse strain to corresponding axial strain on a material stressed along one axis. These basic material properties, which are of interest in many manufacturing and research applications, can be determined through computations based on measured sound velocities and material density. Sound velocity can be easily measured using ultrasonic pulseecho techniques with appropriate equipment. The general procedure outlined below is valid for any nondispersive material and sample geometry (i.e., velocity does not change with frequency). This includes most metals, ceramics, and glasses as long as cross sectional dimensions are not close to the test frequency wavelength. Rubber usually cannot be characterized ultrasonically because of its high dispersion and nonlinear elastic properties. In the case of anisotropic materials, elastic properties vary with direction, and so does longitudinal and/or shear wave sound velocity. Generation of a full matrix of elastic moduli in anisotropic specimens typically requires six different sets of ultrasonic measurements.

The technique requires ultrasonic pulser-receiver such as a 5072PR or 5077PR, an ultrasonic thickness gage such as a Model 35DL or 38DL PLUS, or a flaw detector with velocity measurement capability such as the EPOCH series instruments. It also requires two transducers appropriate to the material being tested, for pulse-echo sound velocity measurement in longitudinal and shear modes, Commonly used transducers include an M112 or V112 broadband longitudinal wave transducer (10 MHz) and a V156 normal incidence shear wave transducer (5 MHz). These work well for many common metal and fired ceramic samples. Different transducers will be required for very thick, thin, or highly attenuating samples. The test sample may be of any geometry that permits clean pulse/echo measurement of sound transit time through a section on thickness. Ideally this would be a sample at least 0.5 in. (12.5 mm) thick, with smooth parallel surfaces and a width or diameter greater than the diameter of the transducer being used. Caution must be used when testing narrow specimens due to possible edge effects that can affect measured pulse transit time.

Measure the longitudinal and shear wave sound velocity of the test piece using the appropriate transducers. A Model 35DL or 38DL PLUS thickness gage can provide a direct readout of material velocity based on an entered sample thickness, and an EPOCh series flaw detector can measure velocity through a velocity calibration procedure. In either case, follow the recommended procedure for velocity measurement as described in the instrument's operating manual. If using a pulser/receiver, simply record the round-trip transit time through an area of known thickness with both longitudinal and shear wave transducers, and compute:

Convert units as necessary to obtain velocities expressed as inches per second or centimeters per second. (Time will usually have been measured in microseconds, so multiply in/uS or cm/uS by 106 to obtain in/S or cm/s.) The velocities thus obtained may be inserted into the following equations.

use the conversion factor 1 psi = 6. Another alternative is to enter velocity in in/S. when calculating in English units it is necessary to multiply the solution of the above equation by a mass/force conversion constant of (1 / Acceleration of Gravity) to obtain modulus in PSI.English (Change) Home About Us Site Map Global Site Inspection & Measurement Systems SEARCH Products Applications Knowledge News Events Support Contact Us Home > Applications > Application Notes Note on units:If sound velocity is expressed in cm/S and density in g/cm3.89 x 104 dynes/cm 2. 5072PR The 5072PR manually controlled ultrasonic pulser-receiver is for both conventional and high frequency applications.0030 in. remember the distinction between "pound" as a unit of force versus a unit of mass. density in g/cm 3. Optimal broadband excitation resulting in superior time domain recovery especially between 15-30 MHz. Wide thickness range from 0.0 in. pp. Heidelberg.). Krautkramer. or multilayer materials. Uses single element transducers for very precise thickness measurements of thin.08 mm to 635.0 mm (0. 319-321.. Advanced NDT Solutions Weld Inspection Solutions Corrosion Inspection Solutions Composite Inspection Solutions Tube Inspection Solutions Industrial Scanners Aerospace Inspection Solutions Thickness Gages Precision Thickness Gages Corrosion Thickness Gages Videoscopes. 2. Products used for this application 35 The pocket-sized 35 is a handheld ultrasonic thickness gage for precision measurements on metal. J. Ultrasonic Testing of Materials. features include THRU-COAT and Echo-to-Echo. use units of cm/S and g/cm 3to obtain modulus in dynes/cm 2or English units of in/S and lbs/in 3and multiply the result by the mass/force conversion constant. Moore. 38DL PLUS The 38DL PLUS is an advanced ultrasonic thickness gage. (ed. plastic. H. Berlin. If English units of in/S and lbs/in3 are used to compute modulus in pounds per square inch (PSI). Uses dual element transducer for internally corroded applications. then Young's modulus will be expressed in units of dynes/cm2.07 x 104 to obtain modulus in PSI. 533534. and composites using single element transducers. glass. Krautkramer. very thick. Again. Bibliography For further information on ultrasonic measurement of elastic modulus. For shear modulus simply multiply the square of the shear wave velocity by the density. 2007. New York 1990 (Fourth Edition). pp. American Society for Nondestructive Testing. and divide by a conversion constant of 1. if the initial calculation is done in metric units. P. Since modulus is expressed as a force per unit area. consult the following: 1. The square wave pulser is particularly advantageous when testing with transducers of 10 MHz or lower. Alternately. 13-14.) Optional live Waveform and Adjust Mode. rubber. Nondestructive Testing Handbook. 5077PR The 5077PR manually controlled ultrasonic pulser-receiver with 35 MHz (-3 dB) bandwidth and square wave pulser-receiver is ideal for maximizing response in scattering materials. to 25. 35 MHz (-3 dB) bandwidth and spike pulser is ideal for general testing. Borescopes Industrial Videoscopes Industrial Fiberscope Industrial Rigid Borescopes Light Sources Turning Tools Applications Application Notes Applications Support Microscope Solutions Laser Confocal Microscopes Opto-digital Microscopes Semiconductor & Flat Panel Display Inspection Microscopes Upright Metallurgical Microscopes Inverted Metallurgical Microscopes Modular Microscopes Polarizing Microscopes Support Service Centers PDF Library Video Gallery Software Downloads Training Academy Obsolete Products ISO Certifications MSDS Datasheets High Speed Video Cameras i-SPEED LT i-SPEED 2 i-SPEED TR i-SPEED 3 i-SPEED FS Flaw Detectors Ultrasonic Flaw Detectors Phased Array Eddy Current Products Eddy Current Array Products . Volume 7.

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