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Dial gauge and Alignment

Taking dial gauge reading for calculation of “TIR” (Total indication run out) is not an easy job. When it comes to practical many EXPERTS get confused. In order to understand alignment /TIR it is essential to know about dial gauge and its working.

Dial gauge A dial gauge or indicator consists of components such as bezel, indicating pointers, tool post and clamp, magnetic tool holder and sensor button. Dial indicators are available in many physical sizes and ranges. For most alignment applications the smaller sized indicators should be used to reduce indicator bar sag. Dial indicators should be chosen that have a range of 0.100 inch and accurate to 0.001 inch. Indicator readings, and many other types of readings, are expressed in several units. A reading of 1/1000" is equivalent to 0.001 inch and is commonly expressed as 1 mil.

Sag must be measured and algebraically subtracted from the dial indicator readings to determine the actual shaft relative positions. or near. This deviation usually consists of a parallel offset and an angle that can be resolved into a single angle that the flexible element sees. Absolute reference allows you to check for sufficient hold-down bolt clearance in all bodies in a train to effect an alignment without disturbing the fixed body. spider.-2. results are shown in Vertical and Horizontal plots in the Graphic Plot .Left side Figure 1). Flexible couplings allow equipment shafts to operate with some deviation from perfect alignment by distorting the flexible elements.SAAS Enterprise Blg powered We are your team members BACK Relative reference displays the current body's centerline referenced to the previous body. weight. or flexes. and gravity. It is the relative position of both bodies at the temperature at which they are being aligned. Example of Target alignment Flexible coupling Figure-2 (centre line of all bodies during operation) 5 Take the case of a Turbine driven Compressor with Gear box as shown in the figure-2. Figure 1 Flexible coupling Since physical adjustments are in the vertical (shim changes) and horizontal (side to side). The centerline of a shaft (or coupling spacer) that operates within this conical region is deemed to be in tolerance. the dial indicators will render false readings. Useful for initial installations. corrected for expected thermal movements. The same two views of the cone appear as triangles on these plots.Right side Figure 1). defines a cone with its apex (point) at the center of each flexible element ( Right side -Figure 1). A coupling Flexible Element can be a disk pack. See example below (Fig. In other words. diaphragm. when rotated through 360 degrees. Because of sag. This angle. Assumptions Ambient temperature=25 deg C . the centerline will lie outside the cone when the two projections are resolved to the true position (Blue line . Relative reference allows you to determine if your alignment is within the desired coupling angular tolerance at Ambient and Operating temperatures. In reality. etc. See example below ( figure-2) Fixture Sag is the measured bending of the alignment fixture due to its stiffness. Angular Tolerance is the maximum angle that the flexible elements are allowed to distort during operation.3) Absolute reference shows the current body's position referenced to the leftmost (fixed) body. the outer edge of both triangles may at first appear acceptable (Red lines . A centerline lying on. the bit that bends. This resolved angle is called the Angular Tolerance. gear. Thermal Movement is the vertical and horizontal shift in the centerline of a body due to the change in temperature from when it was aligned to operating temperature Target alignment is the alignment to which all the shim change and horizontal movement calculations are referenced.

during operation = 55deg.162 mm COMPRESSOR 0.09 . during operation = 70 deg C Gear box shaft height from base =450 mm Gear box shaft brearing area temp. 0.252-0. Green dotted line indicate the shaft centre lines of Compressor .27 mm GEAR BOX 0. C Compressor shaft height from base= 800 mm Compressor shaft brearing area temp.2*450*(55-25)]/ 100000 =0.162 =0.432 mm Increase in height of Gear box shaft during operation =[1.Gear box and Turbine under operating condition .27 0.09 TURBINE Figure-3 (shaft height cold alignment) 0. C Increaseshaft in height of compressor shaft during operation = [1.432-0.2*800*(70-25)] /100000 =0. Gear box and Turbine at ambient temperature.2*700*(55-25)]/ 100000 =0. during operation =55 deg C Calculations for shaft height increase during operation Turbine shaft height from base =700 mm Turbine brearing area temp. Black dotted lines indicate the shaft centre lines of Compressor.162 mm Increase in height of Turbine shaft during operation =[1.2*10¯ per deg.252 mm Based on above calculations the Relative reference of all the three bodies at ambient temperature will be as shown below.Thermal expansion = 1.162 =0.