Frequency-hopping spread spectrum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Frequency-hopping spread spectrum
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Frequency-hopping CDMA) Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) is a method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels, using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver. It is utilized as a multiple access method in the frequencyhopping code division multiple access (FH-CDMA) scheme. A spread-spectrum transmission offers three main advantages over a fixed-frequency transmission: Modulation techniques Analog modulation AM · SSB · QAM · FM · PM · SM Digital modulation FSK · ASK · OOK · PSK · QAM MSK · CPM · PPM · TCM · OFDM Spread spectrum CSS · DSSS · FHSS · THSS See also: Demodulation, modem
1. Spread-spectrum signals are highly resistant to narrowband interference. The process of re-collecting a spread signal spreads out the interfering signal, causing it to recede into the background. 2. Spread-spectrum signals are difficult to intercept. An FHSS signal simply appears as an increase in the background noise to a narrowband receiver. An eavesdropper would only be able to intercept the transmission if they knew the pseudorandom sequence. 3.
TDM · FDM · WDM Polarization multiplexing Spatial multiplexing (MIMO) Statistical multiplexing
Packet mode · Dynamic TDM FHSS · DSSS · OFDMA Related topics Channel access methods Media Access Control (MAC)
Spread-spectrum transmissions can share a frequency band with many types of conventional transmissions with minimal interference. The spread-spectrum signals add minimal noise to the narrow-frequency communications, and vice versa. As a result, bandwidth can be utilized more efficiently.
1 Basic algorithm 2 Military use 3 Technical considerations 4 Multiple inventors 5 Variations of FHSS 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links
The overall bandwidth required for frequency hopping is much wider than that required to transmit the same information using only one carrier frequency. The initiating party uses the number as a variable in a predefined algorithm.Wikipedia. Military radios use cryptographic techniques to generate the channel sequence under the control of a secret Transmission Security Key (TRANSEC) that the sender and receiver share. the transmitter can send its current location in the table. However. The initiating party sends a request via a predefined frequency or control channel.wikipedia. which calculates the sequence of frequencies that must be used. Most often the period of the frequency change is predefined. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) prescribes a minimum number of channels and a maximum dwell time for each channel. the free encyclopedia
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Typically. unless the adversary has knowledge of the spreading characteristics. In some uses. On each channel segment. The receiving party sends a number. and after completing the first step the procedure is continued from number 5. the frequencyhopping approach does reduce the degradation caused by narrowband interferers. 3.org/wiki/Frequency-hopping_CDMA
. One approach is to have a guarantee that the transmitter will use all the channels in a fixed period of time.
Spread-spectrum signals are highly resistant to deliberate jamming. FCC part 15 on unlicensed system in the 900MHz and 2. Whilst providing no extra protection against wideband thermal noise. The receiver can then find the transmitter by picking a random channel and listening for valid data on that channel. The limit is increased from 1 milliwatt to 1 watt or a thousand times increase. The communication begins.S. a predefined frequency-hopping sequence is negotiated. To get around this weakness most modern military frequency hopping radios often employ separate encryption devices such as the KY-57. U. because transmission occurs only on a small portion of this bandwidth at any given time. most often military. The initiating party sends a synchronization signal via the first frequency in the calculated sequence. 5. Both frequency hopping and direct sequence systems can transmit at 1 Watt. as to allow a single base station to serve multiple connections. The transmitter's data is identified by a special sequence of data that is unlikely to occur over the segment of data for this channel and the segment can have a checksum for integrity and further identification. thus acknowledging to the receiving party it has correctly calculated the sequence. By itself.Frequency-hopping spread spectrum . known as a seed. 4. In a real multipoint radio system. frequency hopping provides only limited protection against eavesdropping and jamming.4GHz bands permits more power than non-spread spectrum systems. the initiation of an FHSS communication is as follows 1. military radios that use frequency hopping include HAVE QUICK and SINCGARS. space allows multiple transmissions on the same frequency to be
http://en. One of the challenges of frequency-hopping systems is to synchronize the transmitter and receiver. the effective interference bandwidth is really the same. and both the receiving and the sending party change their frequencies along the calculated order. In the US. 2. The transmitter and receiver can use fixed tables of channel sequences so that once synchronized they can maintain communication by following the table. starting at the same point in time.
The patent was rediscovered in the 1950s during patent searches when private companies independently developed Code Division Multiple Access. U.
In this case.
In addition. 1908. The German military made limited use of frequency hopping for communication between fixed command points in World War I to prevent eavesdropping by British forces.
http://en. so its existence did not become known until the 1980s. Beam steering and directional antennas also facilitate increased system performance by providing isolation between remote radios. For example.387 for their "Secret Communications System.S.Wikipedia. This sort of adaptive transmission is easier to implement with FHSS than with DSSS. Patent 1. although Zenneck himself states that Telefunken had already tried it. Such a situation can often happen in the scenarios that use unlicensed spectrum. if there are several colocated frequency-hopping networks (as Bluetooth Piconet). Therefore.  A Polish engineer. who in 1942 received U. Leonard Danilewicz. then they are mutually interfering and the strategy of AFH fails to avoid this interference. 2. The key idea behind AFH is to use only the “good” frequencies.wikipedia. or perhaps some third party is trying to communicate on those bands. AFH should be complemented by a mechanism for detecting good/bad channels. However. and was intended to make radio-guided torpedoes harder for enemies to detect or to jam.S. which incorporated spread spectrum in a single frequency context. During World War II. Several other patents were taken out in the 1930s.
Variations of FHSS
Adaptive Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (AFH) (as used in Bluetooth) improves resistance to radio frequency interference by avoiding using crowded frequencies in the hopping sequence. Spread spectrum systems rely on excess signal to noise ratios for sharing of spectrum. This creates the possibility of system data rates that are higher than the Shannon limit for a single channel. who did not have the technology to follow the sequence. there is a need to use strategies for dynamic adaptation of the frequency hopping pattern. However.Frequency-hopping spread spectrum . English translation McGraw Hill. a civilian form of spread-spectrum." This early version of frequency hopping used a piano-roll to change between 88 frequencies. 1915).292. the free encyclopedia
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possible using multiple radios in a geographic area. including one by Willem Broertjes (Germany 1929. the US Army Signal Corp was inventing a communication system called SIGSALY.perhaps those "bad" frequency channels are experiencing frequency selective fading. This property is also seen in MIMO and DSSS systems. then the strategy of “bad channel removal”.
Perhaps the earliest mention of frequency hopping in the open literature is in radio pioneer Johannes Zenneck's book Wireless Telegraphy (German.org/wiki/Frequency-hopping_CDMA
. Spread spectrum systems do not violate the Shannon limit.659 (issued Aug. if the radio frequency interference is itself dynamic. or perhaps those bands are being actively jammed. applied in AFH might not work well. dynamic radio frequency interference is expected to occur in the scenarios related to cognitive radio. came up with the idea in 1929. where the networks and the devices should exhibit frequency-agile operation. Patent 2. 1932)). The most celebrated invention of frequency hopping was that of actress Hedy Lamarr and composer George Antheil. SIGSALY was a top-secret communications system. by avoiding the "bad" frequency channels -.869.
University Publications of America. however.
Direct-sequence spread spectrum Maximum length sequence Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing Dynamic frequency hopping Spread spectrum List of multiple discoveries
1. while considering the issues of radio etiquette and compliance with FCC Part 15 Rules Retrieved from "http://en. see fit to grant me 5. MD. p. edited and translated by Christopher Kasparek.000 złotych for executing a model and as encouragement to further work.wikipedia. 1984.A Reassessment 2.
More FHSS Information FCC Part 15 Rules that cover frequency hopping Frequency hopping in unlicensed spectrum describes strategies for adaptive hopping in crowded spectrum. ^ STRATEGIES_FOR_ADAPTIVE_FREQUENCY_HOPPING_IN_THE_UNLICENSED_BANDS. as it was a truly barbaric idea consisting in constant changes of transmitter frequency." Cited in Władysław Kozaczuk. 1984.wikipedia.Frequency-hopping spread spectrum . and How It Was Read by the Allies in World War Two. Retrieved 2008-03-02.
Władysław Kozaczuk. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.dk/~petarp/papers/DAFH-AFR.org/wiki/Frequency-hopping_spread_spectrum" Categories: Channel access methods | Applications of cryptography | Multiplexing | Radio frequency propagation | Radio modulation modes | Radio resource management This page was last modified on 22 October 2009 at 16:06. http://kom.pdf. ISBN 0-89093-547-5. a non-profit organization.
http://en. Enigma: How the German Machine Cipher Was Broken. 3.aau. 27. Haig's Command .. Enigma: How the German Machine Cipher Was Broken.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency-hopping_CDMA
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Chirp modulation can be seen as a form of frequency-hopping that simply scans through the available frequencies in consecutive order. ^ Danilewicz later recalled: "In 1929 we proposed to the General Staff a device of my design for secret radio telegraphy which fortunately did not win acceptance. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Frederick. Inc. and How It Was Read by the Allies in World War II. The commission did. IEEE Wireless Communications.