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SUCCESSION PLANNING

January 1, 2013

Succession planning

School of business and law

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2013

January 1, 2013

SUCCESSION PLANNING

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0. Introduction ................................................................................ 3
1.1. WHAT IS SUCCESS PLANNING? ................................................................. 4

1.0. critical LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................... 5


2.1. Succession planning from 1950-1960s....................................................... 5
2.1.1. Chapman (state of the art) ............................................................................. 6

2.2. Succession planning from 1960-1970 ........................................................ 6 2.3. Succession planning from 1970-1979 ........................................................ 7 2.4. Succession planning from 1980-1990 ........................................................ 7
2.4.1. 2.4.2. 2.5.1. 2.5.2. 2.5.3. 2.6.1. 2.6.2. 2.6.3. 2.6.4. 2.6.5. 2.6.6. 2.6.7. 2.6.8. 2.6.9. Mahlers study (1983) .................................................................................... 8 Freidmans research (1984) ............................................................................. 8 Davis and Harveston (1998) ........................................................................... 10 Agency theory ........................................................................................... 10 Baruch and Peiperl (2000) ............................................................................. 11 Leadership pipeline .................................................................................... Charan study 2001 ...................................................................................... Seven pointed start model ............................................................................ Byham et al (2002) ..................................................................................... Kim 2003 ................................................................................................. Hunte-cox 2004 ......................................................................................... Krauss 2007 .............................................................................................. Mandy Case study ....................................................................................... Cheryl Strategies 2009 ................................................................................. 12 13 13 13 14 14 15 16 16

2.5. Succession planning from 1990s - 2000 .................................................... 9

2.6. Succession planning 2001-till date .......................................................... 11

2.7. IMPORTANCE OF SUCCESSION PLANNING ................................................... 16 2.8. CHALLENTGES TO EFFECTUAL SUCCESSION PLANNING .................................. 19

3.0. CONCLUSION............................................................................... 20 4.0. References ................................................................................ 22

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1.0. INTRODUCTION
Succession planning is, or in simples words preparing and developing the workforce to take charge of higher positions in the company, the integral part of the organizational development. Succession planning helps organizations to train its employees who can in future take the reins of the organization and take lead it success. Job rotation, mentoring and training play very important part in the development of the employees to prepare them for

succession in the future (Buckner and Slavenski, 1994).

Organizations strive to have people who have the potential to fill key positions in the company. As there is probability to lose people on key positions, companies keep looking for suitable people as risk management procedure. It is customary for the organizations to get key positions holders insured as measure to manage risk, so that in case of any calamity the money from the insurance can be used to cope up with the problems provoked till the time a new appointee is arranged (Eastman, 1995).

Succession planning comprises of regularly assessment executives in top positions to assess the competency for the promotion to next level. Same measures are taken to medium level executives. The process of assessment helps to groom senior management. Organizations keep on looking for the candidates who have good potential and capabilities mandatory for top

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positions and create pool of such candidates so that organization is never deprived. Organizations address their concerns and what they need by succession planning.
1.1. WHAT IS SUCCESS PLANNING?

Succession planning can be defined as the activity of identifying promising candidates who could be employed to hold key positions. According to Wendy Hirsh (2000) succession planning is a process by which one or more successors are identified for key post (or group of similar posts), and career moves and/or

development activities are planned for these successors. Successors may be fairly ready to do the job (short-term successors) or seen as having longer-term potential (long-term successors).

Wendy Hirsh (2000) says that succession planning is a small part of succession management which addresses a wide array of processes related to development and resourcing. Succession management also deals human resources planning and management, strategic management of resources, analysis of skill required for a job, filling job positions and development of human resources.

Succession planning is, very rightly, apprehensive effort to incubate and encourage the grooming of employees. So that the important positions of the company are in good hands who are capable of taking the company forward and achieve the set objectives. Normally its been observed that the succession planning turns into an approach for replacement in which one or two employees

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are selected from executive positions, normally on recommendation of their immediate senior, and put on fast track for top positions (Rothwell, 2001). Regardless of this succession planning has developed and evolved into a management process that can be utilized for: Finding and filling up positions on any level specified Identification, assessment and development of employee knowledge, traits, skills in order to meet the requirements of the organization both current and future. Helping employees to develop and explore their potential as a successor for the future.

1.0. CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW


In this part of the assignment the researcher will revisit the previous literature available on succession planning. It is proposed to go through history of succession planning and review various intellectuals theories about the subject the history of succession planning is starting from 1950s till today.
2.1. SUCCESSION PLANNING FROM 1950-1960S

According to Zaich (1986) there were some experimental theories of succession from 1950 to 1960. During this period the focus of most intellectual was development of management or on the succession of CEO. In this period of time the main research done on succession planning are explained below. Christensen (1953) proposed few elements that can be including in process of planning. In accordance to him these dimensions are recognizing the union of possible

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successor, the factual nomination of successor, and the announcement of both nomination of the successor and other main figures.

2.1.1.

Chapman (state of the art)

According to Chapman (1954), he assesses the state of the art and defines five general dimensions in the programs of executive development. These dimensions are fix organization project, established replacement tables, rotation of job, established replacement tables, and so on. Furthermore prior to Chapman in the year 1947, Asbury enquired organization practices and business that include executive level administration. Moreover, his study included 53 businesses and he found out five general dimensions in their project for the development of executive which include analysis of organization, assessment, selection, advancement of talent in executive level. The finding of the above two researches appear too relevant in todays firms.
2.2. SUCCESSION PLANNING FROM 1960-1970

In 1960 Grusky proposed vicious-circle doctrine that portrays the incident of succession as destructive to the firm and the connection amongst the fellow of the organizations. The event of uncertainty thru alteration in plans and practices put forward by the new head is one section of the vicious circle. However the most appropriate research in succession management and planning were completed by Trow (1961) in 1970s. Moreover, he studied the part of succession for top posts in 108 minor companies. While concluding the thoughts he stated that organizations that are ready for succession were probably less to undergo financial trouble during turnover of executive. Furthermore, a robust relationship between profitability of a company and succession plan.

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2.3. SUCCESSION PLANNING FROM 1970-1979

During the course of 1970-1979, The Colemans study is considered to be more relevant to the problem. In 1970 Coleman manifest distinctive approach which

uncovered in planning of manpower, he demonstrate identical factors with the Chapman and Asbury. The common factors amongst aforementioned three studies are: the determination of the a company plans and objective, definition of large manpower, needs for planning, evaluation of in-house abilities, definition of human resources needs to meet company objective, and advancement of a action plan to meet the goal.
2.4. SUCCESSION PLANNING FROM 1980-1990

In 1986 Zaich suggested that succession planning receive much consideration than last years, during this time period of studies. Carnazza in 1982 studied 15 organizations in replacement/succession planning program. He stated that the aim of succession/ replacement planning was to assure the advancement of the appropriate number of workers to fill the top key management positions. The goal of this study was to test how organization attains the goal of succession planning. First aim was filling the position, which regarded of knowing essential posts, secondly in the inclusion of the person who deals with the managing other important management personnel.

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2.4.1.

Mahlers study (1983)

The other research during this period of time was Mahlers study (1983). He reconsiders succession planning in 60 companies. He was the first man who commends the severe need of succession planning. Moreover, he proposed the merits of developing succession planning. Rhodes and Walker in 1984 notify a survey study, known as TPF&C study stand for (Towers, Perrin, Forster and Crosby). In this research 30 corporation were involved. The aim of the study was to test the management succession. They acknowledge four several distinct access to management succession that are integrated, centralized, informal and decentralized. In accordance to Rhodes and walker (1984) the structure of organization and management size and style and the wealth of company, and organization rate of growth, are the elements that are affecting the assortment of the approach. They also acknowledged the six methods that were utilized in executing the plans. These methods are assessment, educational training, involvement of management, development tactics etc.

2.4.2.

Freidmans research (1984)

In 1984 Friedmans research was the first study carried on succession planning that considered succession planning as a framework and enquired its connection to firms performance. Moreover Friedman proposed the following involvement grounded on second, human resource revision is vital process in system of succession. Third was the internal members role in

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succession is very necessary. Personnel must involve in background work, coordination, however not leadership. Fourth, a well framework of talented managers is very important for effective and efficient succession system. Last but not the least human resource tactics and business tactics must be united.
2.5. SUCCESSION PLANNING FROM 1990S - 2000

From 1990s most firms found out the need of succession planning and execution of effectual planning that is fixing with their own firms. In early years of this decennary, Zajac in 1990s carried a study on the selection, compensation, succession of CEO and organization performance. While concluding the thought he said that organizations in which CEO had a particular successor in mind can be more profitable than the organization in which the Chief Executive officer did not have a particular legatee. In 1995, Eastman suggested the below list of effective exercises. A succession plan must. Get a good support from the top management. Must be supported by staff. Should be smart and simple to firms need. Should not be rigid but flexible with the business plan. Should be grounded on well advanced competencies and aim of nominees Unite personnel input. Must be a part of vast management advancement Endeavour. Plans for advancement assignments. Laid emphasis on responsibility and proceed behind.

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2.5.1.

Davis and Harveston (1998)

In 1998 Davis and Harveston employed Christensens factors (1953) as inconstant and built a model which found out the connection between group-level variable and individual-level traits and means on succession planning. Davis and Harvestons individual level model consist of demographic traits of manager that supervise organizational procedure. The company level of the model examines the organizational characteristics for instance formality and size. That could affect the companys planning process. Capital or Resources was the conclusive level of the model. The findings of Davis and Harvestons model indicated succession was not an incident yet a procedure which was affected by many inconstant in and out of the organization.

2.5.2.

Agency theory

Agency Theory was also very famous theory of this age which and explains succession dealt with

companys planning.

attitude This

theory

collaborative connection which advanced when once person in economic exchange give power to other to operate on his or her behalf, and the well-being of the cardinal influenced by the judgment of the representative. The main focus of this doctrine was that the well being of the chief may not be increase as the chief and the representative has different goals and objectives as well as conflicting tendency towards hazard (Arrow, 1985).

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2.5.3.

Baruch and Peiperl (2000)

Baruch and Peiperl (2000) in their measure of 194 companies base in UK expound that management succession is a key trait of effectual management career. Baruch and Peiperl explain succession management as lively planning with reviews of performance, advising by managers and HR. in their assay, they remark that the lively planning procedure were strongly linked with dynamics, proactive and open climates and were particularly connected with companies that lean on internet labor markets on internet.
2.6. SUCCESSION PLANNING 2001-TILL DATE

Huang researched in 2001 about management succession systems and HR results. The aims of the research was to figure out that whether the regional organizations with more refine plan of succession attained more encouraging HR results than those that have less refined plans. He discovered, that there was not a notable variance in human resource findings betweens organizations who embrace succession planning and the organization that did not. Howsoever, in detailed outcomes, he discussed that there was an essential connection between sophistication and HR results. Furthermore he determined that low level manager entanglement, reliability of succession planning, effectual information systems, reviews and feedbacks were some traits, which influence the human resource performance Lynn (2001) concentrated on four dimensions as very essential factors of succession. These factors are show in the figure below.

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T variable Former succession the succession Event Succession outcomes

2.6.1.

Leadership pipeline

Leadership Pipeline is a conception in a model brought by Mahler (1984), who works to a greater extent for HR planning and succession plans. The center of leadership pipeline pattern is on advancement rather than succession planning and management. His approach put down the foundation for modern succession planning. The pipe line should not be considered as upright cylinder however it bent in six points. Every passage demonstrates firms situation a different degree and complicacy of leadership where main twist should be done. The main focus of these twists is alterations in job needs, requiring new proficiency and work value.

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2.6.2.

Charan study 2001

Charan et al in 2001 proposed an alternating determination for succession planning for the pipeline model. In his definition, succession planning is preserving the business by recruiting high performance people to ensure that each command level has a plenty of these actors to drag from both future and now.

2.6.3.

Seven pointed start model

In 2001 Rothwell built a seven-pointed star model to attain methodical succession planning and management. In this model the seven points are evaluate the people needs, assess individual performance, make the committal, evaluate future work needs, analyze the potential of individual, close the gap of development, finally assess the management program and succession planning.

2.6.4. Byham et al (2002)

Byham et al in (2002) implies a diverse approach to growing executive aptitude. Rather than aiming one or two personally selected people for every executive post, This model emphasize the quicken progress of united members extend jobs and assignments which tender and adequate learning, instructing, mentoring, and particular advancement activities for instance visibility opportunities, administrative programs in university, learning session in organization. Byham expound the procedure of the acceleration pool in 5 phases which are

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Recognize elevated potentials. Identifying growth chances. Dictating settlements to growth opportunities. Assuring that growth takes place Assessing the development and new allocations.

2.6.5.

Kim 2003

Kim in 2003 in his research deduced that succession planning exercises must underscore worker self-improvement by boosting cross-sector job allocations, administrative instructing and counseling. Furthermore, this year, Fulmer and Conger (2003) exemplify five norms for succession management. Firstly succession planning and management must be pliant towards growth activities. This is the basic rule on which other norms are based. The center of second norm is on linchpin positions. Positions that is very important for the organization in long term. Creating succession management clear, not a puzzle, determined as a third norm. The fourth rule is the regular measure of development, moving far away from the alternate mentality of succession management, keep it pliant is the definitive rule.

2.6.6.

Hunte-cox 2004

Hunte-cox (2004) tests the connection between administrative succession planning and collaborative learning capability. The outcome of the quantitative study demonstrated that companys who gain high marks in administrative succession planning actually gain high marks in organizational learning. Particularly, administrative succession plans have remarkable and positive interrelation with the organizational learning capability. Dingman in 2006 carried out a

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case study on leadership servant role in the succession planning. He found a positive correlation between leadership and servant rules and the succession procedure was demonstrated thru test of the succession process in a servant-led company.

2.6.7.

Krauss 2007

In 2007 Krauss investigated in talent management and succession planning, he counsel to lessen workforce and get ready for elderly group of population. As an upshot of this research, the consultation to his targeted organization was executing a pre decided succession plan. Which differentiate the significance of building ownership of succession management and arranging the external branding with internal culture of an organization? However, these consultations included recognizing, appraising and building elevated potential in the company. Moreover, once elevated potential are picked out, their growth plan requires to comprise a rotation program, formal counseling/ instructing program, employing 360 feedback tools and getting an adequate remuneration for performance. Furthermore Groves (2007) carried out a study with the objective of introduce a best exercise model for a good advancement of leadership pipeline a set of handy counsels for company. He deduced that the best way to effectually unite leadership growth and succession management system by entirely employing the management personnel in advancing the firms advisor web. Recognizing and interpreting elevated potential personnel, building high potential thru learning practices and manager relieve workshops, building a plant and liquidize succession planning procedure, making medium to reveal elevated talented employees to manifold stakeholders, and building a good organizational civilization. He also presented six elements as the best leadership development methods. These elements are: Administrative coaching, counseling, 360-degree feedback, networking, and action learning.

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2.6.8.

Mandy Case study

According to Mandy (2008) a case research was carried out and demonstrated some index for succession planning which involve: recognizing fresh leader, developing those leaders, financial success, cherishing a positive organization civilization, Sustaining long-term capability, maintaining core capability, beginning change management. Furthermore (Levitz, 2008) researched about leadership development and succession planning. He discussed that succession planning and leadership development should be place at the top of strategic planning. Moreover, (Kasper, 2008) analyzed the affect of organization communication in the execution of the succession planning. As a consequence he proposed that organization require carrying out critical inner examinations of their strategies.

2.6.9.

Cheryl Strategies 2009

Cheryl in 2009 suggested few strategies for executing willful and purposeful succession plans in academic thru a study in higher institutes. These mega plans comprise. Mission and vision, constructing communication plans more carefully, ranging the institutional culture to succession plan to encompass talent growth without concluding title. And regular assessment of both successions planning and people.
2.7. IMPORTANCE OF SUCCESSION PLANNING

It is generally accepted that succession planning is the utmost essential section while doing business, however it is very easy to hold back the planning when you see that everything is going well. Moreover intellectual reached to a consensus that this is the age of succession planning

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below are some reason that why organization must focused on succession planning (Hall and Siebert, 1991).

2.7.1. No one plan to be destroyed Regardless how efficient are you and your staff member in generating revenue or economic predictions there is no one who plan for destruction. Whether it is natural disaster, or CEOs decision to retire, the motive of succession plan is endless before its required.

2.7.2. Succession planning avail the organization.

As business approaches are developed over the course of years, succession planning also changed and developed. It is no more an idea that can be examined when there is a change in leadership however, it can utilized prior to its real aim is necessary. Moreover, it can be employed to establish strong leadership, urge administrative to inspect and reconsider the organizations objectives.

2.7.3. Succession planning gives your colleagues a voice.

If operating a family business, the procedure of succession planning will provide family member a chance to voice their concerns and needs. Providing them that expression will assist a sense of accountability in the organization which is very crucial for prosperous succession planning. Withstand the seduction to merely carry the whole weight of making and maintain a plan.

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2.7.4. A succession plan can assist maintain income and uphold expenditures.

Speaking about money must be precedence. People usually are not willing to work for free. A succession plan can give the answers for what the staff will require for futurity. Moreover, what type of expenditure you might undergo when step off of the leadership position. Ask question from yourself about the yearling income and other profits comprising dental insurance for your dependents and for you, premiums that are paid by the organization for your life insurance etc

2.7.5. Succession planning provides the bigger picture.

Few organizations by mistake concentrate merely on substituting high-level administrative. A prosperous succession plan can go farther, howsoever, and enforce you to test all stages of employees. As you grow you project, combine all levels of management and their immediate reports.

2.7.6. Succession planning fortify departmental connections

When continuous intercourse comes about between departments probably you will experience synergy, which bring up a civilization of might. Be confident that you connect you succession planning operations which HR and HR deals with people. By comprising HR in succession planning, you can combine factors such as the employee-appraisal process, which many assist when deciding whether to fill up void with internal applicants

2.7.7. Succession planning maintains the temper cheerful.

Alter main element of succession plan is excitement which may be unanticipated remunerations. Yet alteration could be a mean of immense stress, particularly when sustenance of people is on

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gamble. When putting succession plan jointly, it must take in to account its positive influence on business. Planning for forthcoming is stirring and if it is done in correct manner it may impress workers and maintain loyalty to organization. Its more than true that a plan is always built to avoid disaster. Change a major component of a succession plan is exciting and can bring a company unforeseen rewards. Still, change can be a source of tremendous stress, especially when technology changes rapidly.
2.8. CHALLENTGES TO EFFECTUAL SUCCESSION PLANNING

Size of the Company:

There are some nonprofits organization that have few positions which compel them restrain to present chances for development, As a consequences employees with the potential and the will to progress in their careers can shift to bigger company.

Limited financial resources:

Workers may resign for better benefits and salaries offered in other companies.

The nature of funding:

The more dependence of organization on core funding the fewer of staff member accessible to fill up posts in company.

The employees working on particular project come and go and cannot be perceive as part of capable group of workers accessible to the company.

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In some situations, top leaders remain on in their posts, in spite of the truth that the skills required for the position are not enough in other words those guys are no more useful and creative for the organization.

The random recruitment of the workers in succession plan comprising those who are not interested, incapable, and dishonest to progress.

Inappropriate coaching and promoting those employees who are not really prompt to be promoted.

A design that do not develop managers in a timely manner, leading the successful leaders to leave the company and discover new opportunities.

Poor connections result in confusion in the company as employees ponder about what the succession planning all about (Langford, Vakii, and Lindquist, 2000)

3.0. CONCLUSION
In the current troublesome business environment it is very important for the managers to review the succession plan of the organization before they down size. Succession planning is a management process and system; hence there is no singular approach which can suit all organizations. That is why different organizations have different succession plans according to their situations. Succession planning has a wide spectrum of models and approaches. Organizations adopt the one model which suits their organization and fits best. The core of the idea is that succession planning process is overlooked by the representatives of the stakeholders. In succession planning there are areas which need to observe carefully. On the top of the list is to observe the people who are selected for succession, to analyze how these people are doing now. The first priority is the performance of the business. Performance of the

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business is preceded by the people who are working for the organization. These are the people who bring success to the company. Managers need to use performance management skills very carefully, so that they a clear picture about the current performance. Additionally for succession planning managers need to assess the current performance of the potential candidates. Managers need to keep a close eye on the performance and a satisfactory performance management system otherwise business cannot be managed in an effective manner. Performance management is a very important part of overall succession planning process. Since it helps us to monitor and analyse the performance of the individuals.

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4.0. REFERENCES
A.M. Levitz. Succession Planning Leadership Development. Wilmington: Wilmington University, 2008. Doctoral dissertation. A.R. Mandi. A Case Study Exploring Succession Planning. Washington DC: George Washington University, 2008. Doctoral Dissertation. Buckner, M. and Slavenski, L. (1994). Succession planning. In W.R. Tracey, (ed.) Human Resources Management and Development Handbook, (2nd edition), New York: AMACO, pp. 561- 575. D. W. Rhodes, J. W. Walker. Management Succession and Development Planning. Human Resource Planning. 1984, 17: 157-173. D.B. Lynn. Succession Management Strategies in Public Sector Organizations: Building Leadership Capital. Review of Public Personnel Administration. 2001, 21(2): 114-132. D.E. Hunte-Cox. Executive Succession Planning and the Organizational Learning Capacity. Washington DC: George Washington Uneversity, 2004. Unpublished Doctoral Dissetation. E.J. Zajac.CEO Selection, Succession, Compensation and Firm performance: a Theoritical Integeration and Empirical Analysis. Strategic Management Journal. 1990, 11(3): 217-230. Eastman, L. J. (1995). Succession Planning: An annotated bibliography and summary of commonly reported organizational practices. Greensboro,NC: Center for Creative Leadership. Hall, D. T. and Siebert, K.W. (1991). Strategic management development: Linking organizational strategy, succession planning, and managerial learning. In D.H. Montross and C.J. Shinkman (eds.) Career Development: Theory and Practice. Springfield Il: Charles C. Thomas. HIRSH, W. (2000) Succession planning demystified. Brighton: Institute for Employment Studies J. Conger, R. Fulmer. Developing Your Leadership Pipeline. Harvard Business Review. 2003, 81(12): 76-85. J.A. Krauss. Succession Planning and Talent Management Recommendation to Reduce Workforce Attrition and Preparation for an Aging Population. Wilmington: Wilmington University, 2007. Doctoral Dissertation.

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J.P. Carnazza. Succession/replacement planning programs and practices: A report: Center for Research in Career Development. New York: Columbia University Graduate School of Business, 1982. K. J. Arrow. The Economics of Agency. In Principals and Agents: The Structure of American Business. Boston : Harvard Business School Press, 1985 K.S. Groves. Integrating Leadership Development and Succession Planning Best Practices. Journal of Management Development. 2007, 26(3): 239-260. L. Zaich. Executive succession planning in select financial institute. s.l.: Pepperdine University, 1986. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Langford, J., Vakii, T., and Lindquist, E.A. (2000). Tough challenges and practical solutions, A Report on Conference Proceedings. Victoria: School of Public Administration, University of Victoria. O. Grusky. Administrative succession in formal organizations. Social Forces. 1960, 39: 105-115. P. S. Davis, P. D. Harveston. The Iinfluence of Family on the Family Business Succession Process: A Multigenerational Perspective. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 1998: 31-53. R. Charan, et al. The Leadership Pipeline: How to Build the Leadership-Powered Company. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. R. Cheryl. A new Paradigm: Strategies for Succession Planning in Higher Education. meneapolis, USA : Capella University, 2009. Doctoral Dissertation. S. Kim. Linking Employee Assessments to Succession Planning. Public Personnel Management. 2003, 32(4): 533- 548. S.D. Friedman. Succession Systems and Organizational Performance in Large Corporation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1984. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. S.M. Kasper. Preparation for Leadership Transition: An Examination of the Impact of Organizational Communication in the Administration of Succession Planning. California: Marshal Goldsmith School of Management, Fresno Campus, 2008. Doctoral dissertation. T. Huang. Succession Planning Systems and Human Resorce Outcomes. International Journal of Manpower. 2001, 22 (7/8): 736-747. W. Mahler, F. Graines. Succession Planning in Leading Companies. Midland Park, NJ: Mahler Publishing Company, 1983.

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W.C. Byham, et al. Grow Your Own Leader: How to Identify, Develop, and Retain Leadership Talent. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 2002. W.J. Rothwell. Effective Succession Planning: Ensuring Leadership Continuity and Building Talent from Within. New York: AMACOM, 2005. W.W. Dingman. Servant Leaderships Role in the Succession Planning Process: A Case Study. Virginia Beach: Regent University School of Leadership Studies, 2006. Doctoral Dissertation. Y. Baruch, Peiperl. Career Management Practices: An Empirical Survey and Implications. Human Resource Management. 2000, 39(4): 347-366.

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