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“The food of Gods”
Student: Petrescu Eveline Coordinator: Asist.univ.drd. Neacşu Nicoleta Andreea Faculty: Economic science and Business administration Series: Business administration Year: 2nd Group: 8812
12 6.Chocolate CONTENTS 1.….4 3. How chocolate is made? ……………………………………………………………………….……4 4.14 7. Etymology………………………………………………………………………………………….. Definition…………………………………………………………………………………………………4 2. Types of chocolate………………………………………………………………………………. History of chocolate………………………………………………………………………….7 5. Health and chocolate……………………………………………………………………………16 Page 2 . The world`s chocolate producers……………………………………………………….
chocolate is always present in our lives. But what are the tiny bits and pieces that hold together this incredible invention? What changes and development have the chocolate industry taken throughout the years? All these and many more were in my mind when choosing this topic. I hope I managed to capture and expose a relevant glimpse of what chocolate means in today’s world.Chocolate Why did I choose this topic? From the vital piece of energy given by a chocolate bar in the break of a sports activity to the most exquisite fine dark chocolate topping on a gourmet desert. Page 3 .
the Olmec were doing so. priests. How the word come into Spanish is less certain. who first sampled its joys. but the most cited explanation is that chocolate comes from Nahualt. Called xocoatl by the Mayas and cacahuatl by the Aztecs. “xocolatl” which is the nahuatl word. stimulated potency and fertility. Note the reference to drinking vessels: Chocolate has been a beverage for most of its history.Chocolate 1. they ultimately found that grinding and mixing the seeds with water produced an even greater treat. While the sweet white fruit of the cacao pod was initially sought by the Amazonian natives. a tomato. Cacao trees. 3. the tree was worshipped as a symbol of fertility and life. The amount and types of cocoa solids and fat that the term implies is a matter of controversy. chocolate was a ritual beverage on the Yucatan. the language of Aztecs. and perhaps as early as 1200 B. reserved for the nobility. as you’ll discover shortly. warriors and rich traders. Knapp ‘’INDIAN GIVERS – How the Indians of the Americans transformed the world’’ – Jack Weatherford Page 4 .    Online Etymology Dictionary ‘’Cocoa and Chocolate – Their history from plantation to consumer’’ – Arthur H. Cacao beans were so precious. The Maya believed that the cacao tree its fruit were a gift of the gods. which originated in the Amazon region.E. who believed it to have restorative and aphrodisiac powers. The Aztec developed a taste for chocolate after trading with their Mayan neighbors to the south. high officials. Manufacturers have an incentive to use the term for variations that are cheaper to produce. around 1520. History of chocolate The words cacao and chocolate come from our ancient neighbors in Central America. Mankind has been enjoying chocolate for millennia: We know that more than 2500 years the Maya were making the cacao beverage. Montezuma used it as a medicinal revitalizer. They were cultivated by the native Olmecs and the Mayas who followed them. 2. and abetted longevity. 3 beans. comes possibly from xocolia “ to make bitter” plus alt which means “water”. containing less cocoa and cocoa substitutes. although these variations might not taste as good. believing it nourished strength. Elaborately decorated drinking vessels almost 2000 years old have been found illustrating chocolate ceremonies—and still containing traces of chocolate. they were used as currency: a turkey cost 200 beans. Definition Chocolate is a product based on cocoa solid and/or cocoa fat. Etymology The word “chocolate” was first used in Spanish language.C. grew wild in the rainforests of ancient Mexico.
The invention of labor-saving machines meant faster. there were inexpensive transportation and lower taxes. he brought only a few beans back to Spain. In England. They sweetened the chocolate beverage. The Spanish knew how to cook. They added cinnamon. but chocolate remained costly and out of reach long after coffee and tea became affordable indulgences. In Dorchester. James Baker. he removed the roughness of natural chocolate. Thinking the product abominable. And chocolate was a huge hit. chili pepper. No wonder it took almost 150 years from the first arrival of the beans for the beverage to be transformed into a solid food. Dr. They also kept a monopoly by prohibiting export (although by 1615 it had managed to migrate to France and Italy). like a tea salon) opened in 1657. But solid chocolate was not yet the smooth. Hernan Cortés understood its value. although people developed a taste for it. Finally. Christopher Columbus and his officers. Cocoa powder enabled the quick preparation of beverages and easy combination with other ingredients. vanilla. unsweetened drink—beans crushed into a paste and whipped until foamy with pepper. egg yolks and Madeira. Van Houten mixed the cocoa butter with sugar and cocoa powder to create the first chocolate candies. built one of the first chocolate manufacturing plants to produce cakes of ground cacao bean paste for drinking chocolate. By adding alkali to reduce the acidity. found the bitter concoction unpalatable and couldn’t even choke it down. xocoatl was served as a cold. first with honey and then with cane sugar. Chocolate was so popular that the government decided to keep it as a pleasure of the rich and powerful by imposing very high taxes. velvety confection that we know today. musk and cornmeal. With the industrial revolution of the latter 18th and early 19th centuries. and chocolate from South America arrived in seventeenth century Europe at roughly the same time. The first commercial eating chocolate was made and sold in blocks by François-Louis Cailler in 1819. plus almonds or hazelnuts. They served it with a side of fried bread. It took more than 25 years for Dutch chemist Coenrad Van Houten and others to solve that problem. They used boiling water instead of cold water to create a hot drink. cloves.Chocolate Hardly the sweet treat we know today. an Irish importer of cacao beans. offered the elixir as a great honor. Knapp Page 5 . it was fatty and bitter. Still. drunk night and day instead of water or wine. John Hannon. Today’s descendants of the Maya and Aztec still prepare cacao and corn-based drinks that are similar to those enjoyed by their ancestors. cheaper production. One labor-saver ground cacao nibs into paste. In 1828 Van Houten received a patent for his method of pressing about half the cocoa butter out of ground cacao nibs with hydraulic pressure. the foam was considered to be the best part. H e had no idea the locals were offering him their most valuable goods for trade. creating hard cakes called “dutch cocoa” which wer e pulverized into cocoa powder. Massachusetts. chocolate could be experienced by people other than nobles. chocolate became more accessible to everyman. tea from China. Seventeen years later. They replaced the Aztec spices with anise seed and orange blossom water. In until 1674 chocolate was made into both pudding and pastilles. coffee from Africa via the Middle East trade routes. cinnamon. It had a rough flavor. and American. London’s first chocolate shop (for drinking and socializing.  ‘’Cocoa and Chocolate – Their history from plantation to consumer’’ – Arthur H. and promoted plantations run by Europeans.
saffron. chocolate bars in myriad varieties. which increased their availability and variety (including the inspired addition of nuts). Continued industrial inventions enabled an expansion in efficient production of chocolate bars. bonbons with fillings. molded and sculpted chocolates of every description. Switzerland in 1913.  ‘’Cocoa and Chocolate – Their history from plantation to consumer’’ – Arthur H. which also are impacted by the harvest’s particular weather conditions.” The century ended with the celebration of “nouvelle” chocola tes. and some are even designated by their harvest years. lavender. The first filled chocolates were created by Séchaud Fils in Montreaux. As Americans have developed their preferences for wine beyond “red” and “white” . so too are chocolate lovers educating themselves beyond “dark” and “milk. anise. the soil and microclimate of each plantation or growing area provide distinct flavors and aromas. and the chocolate bar—then called “eating chocolate” to distinguish it from “drinking chocolate” was born. Knapp Page 6 . By the 20th century. peppercorns and Ancho chili—proving that everything old is new again. Cocoa powder enabled the addition of chocolate to recipes: In 1866 chocolate cream desserts and cookies appeared in British shops. paprika. The first white chocolate was manufactured by Nestlé in the 1930s. He pressed the mixture into a mold. In 1984 the first chocolate bars to designate the region of origin of the bean were introduced. Fry had purchased a Watts steam engine to grind cacao. Switzerland. chocolatiers had mastered the transformation of chocolate into the sophisticated repertoire we enjoy today. Truffles. With the complexity of flavors and aromas in fine chocolates (as many as 400 different aromas and flavors have been identified). As with vineyards. curry. Chocolatiers have provided chocolate-lovers with combinations beyond the traditional additions of fruits and nuts. who finally solved the problem that had vexed many by mixing chocolate with powdered milk instead of whole milk or cream. chocolate connoisseurship now can be equated to wine connoisseurship on several levels. ganache (mixed cream and chocolate).Chocolate The first chocolate bars date to 1847 to Joseph Fry & Son in Bristol. Now the best bars of some fine manufacturers are designated by their specific plantations (“pure origin”). In 1789. there you can have both couverture and fillings infused with international flavors like wasabi. filled the chocolate shops of the world. Now. chocolate-covered specialties from glazed fruit to coffee beans. England. but it wasn’t until 58 years later that his great-grandson thought to see what happened if he mixed some of the pressed cocoa butter back along with some sugar back into the dutch cocoa cakes. Milk chocolate was invented in 1875 by Daniel Peter of Vevey.
A consistent high temperature.Cacao can be harvested throughout the year. Harvesting . The football-shaped pods. but its main seasons are November to January and May to July. also called cabosses are handharvested by machete. in baskets. more chocolately flavor. In the chocolate manufacturing process. How chocolate is made? Unlike grinding a roasted coffee bean and brewing it into a cup of coffee. The fruit itself is sweet and tart. The pods are cut from the trees and sliced open manually using machetes. which is generally harvested before and after the rainy season. after many processing steps. In the case of milk chocolate. because of the varying sizes of the fruit and because of potential damage to the tree. Cacao trees grow worldwide in the warm and wet tropical belt that stretches 20 degrees above and below the equator. The trees produce fruit twice a year. gives the brown color to the bean and breaks down the remaining pulp. The whitish beans (the seeds of the fruit) which are surrounded by milky.Next. in the manner of passionfruit. chocolate liquor is mixed with cocoa butter and sugar to create a bar. and are turned often to make sure that they dry evenly and do not stick together. sensitive cacao trees. sweetened condensed or powdered whole milk is added. often on bamboo mats. The beans are innocuous. Valrhona spends five days just conching its grand cru chocolates. the fermented beans are spread out in the sun to dry.Chocolate 4. they will produce something as wonderful as chocolate. sticky. during which time the moisture content of the bean is substantially reduced. and give no indication that. Fermentation . Drying can take place for 5 to 12 days. Fermentation is a reaction between yeast and the sticky pulp. which is continuously producing new flowers and fruit. fresh. each pod contains 30 to 40 seeds.Fermentation of the beans takes place according to different methods in different countries: wrapped under large banana (plantain) leaves. in wooden boxes or in cylinders stored away from light. plentiful rainfall. About 80% of the world cacao harvest is grown in 1. When ripe.David Lebovitz Page 7 . Drying . sweet tasting pulp (the fruit) are removed. The fermentation process lasts from 3 days for some Criollo varietals to 6 or 7 days for other varietals. It impossible to use machines for harvesting. the right soil nutrients. there’s a lot that goes into making a chocolate bar. Growing The Beans . depending on the individual manufacturer’s formula and manufacturing methods. Fermentation reduces the bitter taste. It can take five days of work from the time the bean arrives at the production facility until the average chocolate bar is ready for your consumption. Once the yeast has done its work the result is a sweeter. depending on the humidity.  ‘’The great book of chocolate’’. The trees can reach 30 to 45 feet in height but are usually cut to 18 to 20 feet to make harvesting easier. eliminating the impurities and creating a silky-smooth mouthfeel. The cacao tree takes 4 to 5 years to produce its first crop but needs 10 years to produce really good fruit. but small farm production. and manylarge shade trees to protect them from the sun and the wind (known as mother trees) are required to nurture delicate.to 2-hectare estates: It’s not big agribusiness. It is during fermentation that the cacao beans start to develop the typical cacao flavors.
54 kg). while cocoa processors favor roasting the shelled nib. rotating roasting ovens. they are first inspected and approved by Quality Control. A special machine uses air suction. The producer has the option of roasting them before the shell is removed. magnetic separators and brushes to remove foreign matter such as jute fibers from the bags.Chocolate Drying can be done by the sun or by artificial techniques. The cleaning process involves blowers. and some new compounds which are developed during roasting. chocolate manufacturers prefer to roast the beans before shelling them. It is a preference of the producer. Roasting the entire bean in its shell allows for more variety in the degree of roast and development of flavor (i. Chocolatier Jacques Torres. Once dry. and sieves that eliminate items that are too small or too big. sticks. After the beans are roasted. The bagged beans are stored in warehouses prior to being transported for sale at the nearest port or other trading point. It’s food chemistry at its finest: the aroma of roasted cacao is made of a combination of some compounds resulting from fermentation and not involved in roasting. Roasting develops the color and is the second stage in the development of the chocolate flavor that began during the fermentation on the estates. It is a very critical process that must be closely monitored.e. it will preserve the fruitiness of the cacao bean —you’ll notice a red fruit quality in the chocolate flavor. the producer can choose a light roast or a dark roast depending on the desired flavor outcome). Each type of bean is roasted separately. If the beans are treated to a darker roast —higher temperatures and for a longer time—nuttier flavors will develop.Once the beans are cleaned. but requires beans of a uniform size. as well as the characteristic of the bean. for example. The roasting is necessary for the development of the cacao flavor and aroma. a machine called a cooler rotates the beans and circulates air to cool the hot roasted beans. it retains more cocoa butter since cocoa butte r can’t migrate from the bean into the shell during the roasting process (chocolate manufacturers can always add in more cocoa butter later in the manufacturing process). Roasting . and cleaned and roasted before they are made into chocolate.When the beans arrive at the factory. These dry beans are referred to as raw cacao. If the beans are roasted at a low temperature and for a brief time. just like coffee beans. some compounds resulting from fermentation and increased by roasting. Cleaning . metal and fragments from closures used in bagging and tagging. Sunlight drying. A rotating drum tosses the beans about so they will roast evenly. Growers of bulk beans use hot air or heat from burning wood to dry the beans. that dictates the roast. which remove items that are lighter or heavier than cocoa beans. The beans are inspected. Next they will be roasted in large. the beans are hand-sorted. or of removing the shell first. although this will varies widely based on the producers and the type of beans. stones and sand. they are ready to begin their transformation into chocolate.. which is used for better beans. they are inspected and thoroughly cleaned of all extraneous matter as well as any broken beans. Then they are then sorted by country of origin and type of bean. takes several days but produces better results. and then selected by the buyer or agent of the chocolate producer and are shipped to a chocolate manufacturing facility or warehouse anywhere in the world. roasts his beans at 160°F for 30 minutes. This is fast. Page 8 . The beans are roasted at a wide range of temperatures and times—we have seen ranges given from less than 200° to 300°F and from 10 minutes to 2 hours. but imparts an undesirable. somewhat smoky permanent flavor. In general. When the beans have been received at the processing location. graded and packed into jute bags weighing about 138 pounds (62.
Large commercial producers like Hershey and Nestlé use up to 12 different varieties of beans from all over the world to achieve a consistency of flavor. the beans are sorted and blended to produce a distinctive flavor. The nib is the heart of the bean (also called the kernel or the meat). grain is still winnowed by hand). it also is called unsweetened baking chocolate. chocolate liquor is also called cocoa or cacao liquor.If cocoa powder is being made. is applied to drain off the clear. That which will be made into cocoa powder goes to Pressing. They move to a machine called the winnower. from which the chocolate is made.David Lebovitz Page 9 . The press cake that is left is cooled. golden liquid cocoa butter.Winnowing means shelling. Grinding / Mélangeur . and sorts the remaining nibs by size. Nibs (photo above) contain about 400 different chemical compounds responsible for the flavor of the final chocolate product. The latter is a confusing name to anyone outside the industry. Blending or “Mélangeur” . hence the name “chocolate liquor. Once further refined. chocolate mass. Chocolate liquor is the main ingredient in chocolate. The heat and friction generated by the grinding metal plates causes the cocoa butter in the nib to melt into a fluid mass (photo at right).There are usually two stages of grinding in the manufacture of fine chocolate. which still gets the job done for the Grenada Chocolate Company.” The chocolate liquor is not yet officially chocolate. the appropriate amount of sugar is added (except for 100% cacao bars).  ‘’The great book of chocolate’’. Since cacao beans are more than half fat. this was a manual process (in many third world counties. the flavor of the product will vary from crop to crop according to the growing conditions. In the first stage. it is known simply as chocolate.At this stage the chocolate liquor and other ingredients are kneaded together according to the kind and quality of the chocolate being made. To add to the confusion. After the beans have been roasted and cooled. As with any agricultural product.Chocolate Winnowing . Thus. The chocolate liquor or mass is put into hydraulic presses and extremely high pressure. as it is neither liquid nor contains any alcohol. cocoa mass. The size of the particles in the chocolate mass is now about 100 microns. different varieties of beans from different growing regions have different qualities and flavors. Pressing (For Cocoa Powder) . Most chocolate is a blend of beans. To avoid a grainy taste in the finished chocolate. or pâté de cacao (cocoa paste or chocolate paste). unless a single origin chocolate is being produced to highlight a specific theory. pulverized and sifted into cocoa powder. and prior to the Industrial Revolution. which cracks open the shells. their shells are thin and brittle. but it smells like it! For eating chocolate. called the chocolate liquor . And. 6000 pounds per square inch. the chocolate liquor is further processed into “press cake” or pressed cake. and cocoa butter. selected to achieve a specific consistent taste from year to year. Air blows away the cracked outer shell and the husk. cocoa solid. the nibs (photo above) are ground into a thick paste similar to fresh-ground peanut butter. another grinding takes place to reduce the particle size to about 18 microns (the tongue can sense grains of 18 microns or larger). In the United States Food Standards of Identity. the chocolate liquor is made up of rich cocoa butter (53% to 60% depending on the varietal) with fine cocoa particles suspended in it. Modern factories no longer use old-fashioned equipment like the antique at the right. Chocolate liquor destined to be made into chocolate candy and confections then goes to be blended (Step 10).
eliminates undesirable odors. batter-like chocolate. the smoother it will be. extra cocoa butter is added to the chocolate liquor for a smoother. The process may last for a few hours to three full days. This step reduces the particle size to of the cocoa mass to 25 to 30 microns. “crumb”). These are “secret” recipes. conching is another part of the “top secret” of each chocolate makers. but everyone knows what goes into the recipe: For milk chocolate. The smoother the chocolate desired. cocoa butter and chocolate liquor are combined in varying proportions. Jivara Lait. Caraïbe. assuming the same machine. fully evolves the desirable flavors and aromas and further smoothes the particles. the cocoa mass is poured into a stirring and milling machine. Each producer desires to create a distinctive product that no competitor can copy. New machines conch much Page 10 . The chocolate can now be cooled and tempered. more voluptuous mouth feel. Dark chocolate uses the same process but without milk. White chocolate is made with cocoa butter. Refining or Fine Grinding . along with the sources and proportions of the beans*. silky texture. smooth. turned and aired at a temperature of about 180°F. The goal of refining is to make the thick chocolate crumb into a silky chocolate. the more rolling! Conching . Soy lecithin is also added to stabilize the chocolate. The temperature. During conching. During the conching process. sugar and full cream milk (generally condensed milk) are added. The rollers can produce different degrees of agitation and aeration in order to develop and modify the chocolate flavors.The second grinding produces a liquid. Guanaja and Manjari. It travels through a series of five heavy steel refining rollers set at different intervals and different speeds. The gaps between the final rollers are so small that the chocolate components are ground into a thick fluid mass which is then run off. both in the chocolate liquor and the sugar. In some cases. contributing to the smooth taste of the finished chocolate. a key differentiator is the age of the conch.Now the chocolate is “beaten” and refined by rollers to give it a finished. Generally speaking. but it is still gritty (hence. while roasting and blending of the different beans are part of the house recipe. up to six days. vanilla is added.Chocolate At this stage of production. are conched for about 5 days! However. It is rolled. mixing regimes and length of conching vary according to formulas that create different outcomes in the chocolate. The exact proportions may be proprietary. and in the case of coatings. The ingredients can be churned together for hours. the resulting is dried to form a crumb which is ground with more cocoa butter in the next phase. milk and sugar and does not contain chocolate liquor. different types of beans are blended in different proportions according to particular recipes. Extra cocoa butter is sometimes added to give the chocolate a better mouthfeel. This causes further “polishing” of the cacao particles. friction between the sugar and the cacao particles occurs. Conching is a process which removes moisture and acidity from the chocolate. the longer chocolate is conched. In fact. the manufacturers’ proprietary formulas. and milk (if milk chocolate). The time depends on the bean and the preference of the producer — Valrhona’s grand cru chocolates. But it must be kneaded and churned one more time —this time in the conching machine.
Well-tempered chocolate melts better in the mouth and has a long shelf life.There are different methods for producing chocolates: enrobing. Molding . The layer-and-cut procedure is used for chocolates consisting of various layers such as marzipan. that are often partially or entirely covered with chocolate. Chocolate that isn’t properly tempered will turn grey and crumbly as it hardens. it is done by hand: the classic tempering method is to melt the chocolate until it is lump-free. layer-and-cutting and molding. This chocolate is then added back to the remaining 2/3 of the melted chocolate and stirred.. marzipan.David Lebovitz Page 11 . a delicate process that involves slowly heating and cooling the chocolate repeatedly to temperatures between 105°F and 85°F. The term “conching” refers to the shell-like paddles that were originally used (today they are generally rollers. Without tempering. Molding is the simples: solid shapes like bars and hearts are poured into molds. and after cooling cut into bite-sized pieces. nougat. candied violets. e. the molds are then rotated so that the excess chocolate can drain away. shiny texture.Chocolate faster than older machines. as shown at the right. creme. In larger operations. In an artisan’s shop. The hollow figure process is used for hollow chocolates (like Easter bunnies) and for chocolates with liquid and semi-liquid fillings. this is done in large tempering machines. pleasant mouthfeel and a sharp “snap” when a piece is broken off. the chocolate would have a gritty texture and a dull appearance and/or the cocoa butter would separate out (as cream separates from milk) creating a greyish-white bloom on the surface.There’s one more critical step le ft before chocolate for consumption can be made: the chocolate must be tempered. If not tempered properly the finished chocolate will be dull and streaky with a tendency to bloom. spread and worked back and forth with a metal spatula until it becomes thick and reaches a temperature of about 80°F. This stabilizes the product and achieves the smooth. croquant or fruits. how long one company conches its chocolate compared to another. the centers are placed on a moving wire mesh belt which takes them to a coating machine. you can’t compare apples to oranges.g.  ‘’The great book of chocolate’’. A shower of chocolate falls down to cover the centers in chocolate. croquant. A filling is then dispensed into the mold and covered with another thin layer of chocolate mass. Fine chocolate should melt in your mouth without any grainy feeling on the tongue. as shown in the photo). After the conching and before being molded into bars or made into filled chocolates. cocoa butter transfer designs or other flourishes on top. nuts. hollow figure. Liquid chocolate couverture is poured into molds. The solid or semi-solid masses are laid on top of another. nougat. So. The thin chocolate layer that sticks to the mold is solidified by cooling. In an industrial situation. nuts et al) can be hand-dipped by artisan chocolatiers and further ornamented with fruit pieces. Tempering . Chocolate is not shiny and smooth by nature. large crystals would form. The technique was invented* in 1879 in Switzerland by Rodolphe Lindt to make chocolate more blendable and smooth. Then 1/3 of the chocolate is poured onto a marble slab. This is a complicated procedu re because the various fats in cocoa butter have different melting and congealing points. The enrobing process (photo below) is the oldest method for producing chocolates: pre-shaped chocolates centers (caramel. the chocolate paste must be tempered.
We order it all the time and it arrives in pristine condition (as does ice cream!).” It’s also why one shouldn’t keep chocolate in the sunlight. it should be stored at a temperature between 54°F and 65°F with a relative humidity between 55% and 60%. It has a high percentage of cocoa butter which gives the finished product a high gloss. have a cocoa liquor percentage listed. The lifelong quest for chocolate lovers is to research the world of chocolate to find their favorite types of chocolate – taste testing for a chocoholic is never a problem. With overnight shipping and gel packs. take good are of it. the entire manufacturing process occurs without a human hand touching the chocolates.The finished chocolates solidify in a cooling tunnel. call the chocolatier. It must be tempered to show off its premium qualities.This is the premium form of chocolate.Pierre Hermé Page 12 . which is body temperature and why chocolate simply “melts in your mouth. In a large operation. It is more expensive than the other forms of chocolate and requires more skill to use. dark. chocolates with nuts and other additives have less of a shelf life because the additives will break down or go rancid. but most fine chocolates are made preservative-free. filled chocolates are hand-placed onto trays or into boxed assortments. but will stay fresh for a year or more under these conditions. Commercial companies will use preservatives to extend the shelf-life. sugar or milk products. Each manufacturer develops their own special blend giving each brand their own identity. 5. the sooner the better. a conveyor belt transports the chocolates to the packing machines or packing lines. dry place. You will find that most chocolate. everything is touched by the chocolatier. Dark. milk and white couverture are available in block and button form. The fine fillings. cocoa butter. and purees with which they are made deteriorate quickly: to enjoy them they should be eaten soon after they are made. it’s easy (if not inexpensive) to ship chocolate during the summer months. The ideal place that meets these requirements is a wine refrigerator! Chocolate melts at about 98ºF. in a hot room.Chocolate Packaging the Chocolate . A box of fine filled chocolates or truffles should be consumed within two weeks. bars are wrapped with small mechanical wrapping machines. near a stove et al. If you have a question about the shelf-life.  ‘’Chocolate Desserts’’. If you’re not going to eat the chocolate within a few days. Types of chocolate Different types of chocolate are primarily determined by their levels of cocoa liquor. especially the dark ones. Couverture chocolate . In an artisanal chocolate shop. Filled chocolates. Think back to Step 12: tempering —chocolate is very sensitive to temperature extremes. creams. The higher the percentage the more bitter and intense the flavor. Dark chocolate bars can be kept for two years or more if stored properly: well wrapped in foil in a cool. Now that you know all of the work that goes into making your chocolate bar or box of chocolates. Milk and white chocolate have a more limited storage time. It is made from the finest ingredients and used by professional chocolate makers and bakers.
Due to its intense flavor and dark color dark chocolate is the recommended chocolate in baking. easy to work with and does not need tempering. White chocolate must be handled with care and does not withstand heating as well as other chocolate.The first thing that everyone says about white chocolate is that it is not actually chocolate. powdered or condensed milk and vanilla. I think however that if you find a good quality cooking chocolate its positives out way the negatives. Again the cocoa liquor content varies greatly in the dark and milk varieties. paler in color and has a less intense flavor. The milk solids content should be a minimum of 12 percent. sugar. The confusion comes when you compare brands as there is no clear definition of what level of cocoa liquor determines if a chocolate is bitter or semi sweet. White chocolate . The higher the cocoa liquor percentage on the packaging the more bitter and intense in flavor the chocolate will be. It can also contain an emulsifying agent usually lecithin. sugar. Buy the best quality you can. Milk chocolate contains cocoa liquor. The key is to find a variety that is labeled cooking chocolate and not just cheap compound chocolate. Milk chocolate is the most popular eating chocolate. These types of chocolate make them ideal for chocolate chip cookies.As the name suggests this chocolate has the addition of milk solids in the form of powdered or condensed milk. What is important is that dark.These types of chocolate all fall into the same category with their differences determined by the cocoa liquor and sugar levels. Most professionals would not even consider using these types of chocolate in their baking.It can also contain an emulsifying agent usually lecithin. The differences in its composition to dark chocolate means that milk chocolate is sweeter. As the name suggests bittersweet chocolate is less sweet than semisweet chocolate. cocoa butter. The cocoa liquor content can vary between 35 – 90 percent. bitter and semi are interchangeable so you now have the perfect excuse to try them all to find your favorite! Milk chocolate . The substitution of some of the cocoa butter with cheaper vegetables means that the intensity of the chocolate flavor is reduced.Pierre Hermé Page 13 . powdered or condensed milk and vanilla. White chocolate does not contain cocoa liquor this ingredient is what determines a type of chocolate.Sometimes known as cooking chocolate. Bittersweet and Semisweet chocolate . More taste testing I’m afraid until you find the perfect one! Chocolate chips are designed specifically to hold their shaped during baking. Flavor is important here as you will bite into the chocolate pieces. Instead it contains cocoa butter. This is technically correct but everyone knows it as chocolate. They are interchangeable in baking and really it is your taste preference that determines your choice. brownies and muffins. The cocoa liquor is lower and therefore the sugar content higher. Compound chocolate .  ‘’Chocolate Desserts’’. White chocolate is sweet with a smooth creamy texture and its flavor relies on the quantity and quality of cocoa butter used.Chocolate Dark. Compound chocolate is less expensive.
less bitter and milder taste. but not all countries are able to enjoy the sweet taste of chocolate equally.Pierre Hermé ‘’Top chocolate manufacturers in the world’’ – Natali Lekka. The cocoa liquor is roasted/heated then compressed to remove the cocoa butter. Dutch-process cocoa powder is treated with an alkali during processing to reduce the acidity. There are two basic types of cocoa powder natural and Dutch-process. Natural cocoa powder is the more common of the two. 6. Chopped chocolate however can be used to replace chocolate chips. This results in a cocoa powder with a darker color.Chocolate A successful chocolate chip cookie is measured on the taste of its chocolate chips not just how many it has. all but one of the top twenty countries that consume chocolate are considered 'well-developed' or 'advanced'. Chocolate melts do vary in quality so it is important to find the best you can. There is a profound dichotomy between those nations that extract the raw materials and those who indulge in the finished product. Good chocolate is produced in many places. They are chocolate buttons that are easily melted and are good for dipping and piping. Cocoa powder . Confectionery coating would be a similar product. Cocoa powder is the most economical way of adding the flavor of chocolate to your baking. As it is shown in the maps available. www. How long the liquor is compressed determines the fat content of the cocoa powder. The world`s chocolate producers Chocolate is manufactured in the majority of countries on earth. It is also known as non-alkalised. Chocolate melts . Neither one is better than the other they are just different in color and taste. Brazil is the only country involved on the list that actually considers chocolate to be a natural resource.com Page 14 .Cocoa powder is cocoa liquor with most of the cocoa butter extracted. Chocolate chips should not be used to replace other forms of chocolate in recipes.They are a compound chocolate that comes in dark. It is lighter in colour.   ‘’Chocolate Desserts’’.suite101. Commercially cocoa powder is sold as either alkalised or non-alkalised with a fat content of 10-12 percent or 20-22 percent. The word Dutch has nothing to do with the cocoa powders origins but in fact after the origin of the man that invented it. The vegetable oil content is higher which makes this chocolate easy to handle. milk and white. Chocolate chips can also be known as chocolate bits. more bitter (acidic) and has a deeper chocolate flavor. The flavor of this chocolate is not of a high standard but serves a purpose. Cocoa powder should always be sifted before adding to a recipe as it is always lumpy.
LU. Europeans alone consume around 40% of the world's cocoa per year. Today. in 1916 where it still has its headquarters. Boost. The Hershey Company was founded in 1894 by Milton Snavely Hershey. 3. Although. Its famous products include Hello Panda and Yan Yan. Meiji Seika Kaisha is listed on the 1st section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange. is ranked as the 6th largest privately held company in the US by Forbes and was founded by Frank Mars in Washington in 1911. Oreo. Kraft Foods bought Cadbury on February 2. However. 5. in Hershey. Mon Chéri.  ‘’Top chocolate manufacturers in the world’’ – Natali Lekka. Snickers.Chocolate The reality exists that the processing and consumption of chocolate products is Western World dominated. Today Cadbury belongs to Kraft Foods. Its famous chocolate products include: Mars. 100 Grand Bar. Brunch Bar. www. Kit Kat. tariff escalation continues to me a major problem. in 1903 by Canadian-born James L. It was founded by John Cadbury in Birmingham. 70% of the worldwide profit from chocolate sales is concentrated in these countries. Kraft. Crunchie. in 1946 and based in Pino Torinese. including Nestle. Twix. Switzerland. chocolate doesn’t exactly come to mind with Kraft . Skittles. Giotto. Switzerland. 2010. Nestlé SA was founded by Henri Nestlé in Vevey. Ferrero SpA is an Italian chocolate manufacturer founded by Pietro Ferrero. and the job has taken off since then. the company is in fact the colossus behind Milka. etc. In 1923. Pocket Coffee. 6. Pennsylvania. Crispy Crunch. Nabisco. Confetteria Raffaello.suite101. Kinder Surprise. Milky Way. the company is headquartered in Chicago and has its European headquarters just outside Zurich. in Italy. it has its headquarters in Uxbridge. Nestlé Crunch and Rolo. Top chocolate manufacturers in the world 1. Today. was founded in Tokyo. of German origin. Fiesta Ferrero. whilst the Mars Bar was launched in the UK. The Hershey’s Chocolate Bars are among its famous chocolate products. The firm was known as Cadbury Schweppes from 1969 until 2008. UK. Its famous chocolate products include Aero.com Page 15 . Jacob’s. in 1824 and today. 2. Galaxy. 80% of the world chocolate market is accounted for by just six transnational companies. Its famous chocolate products include Cadbury. 7. in 1932. 4. Fry’s. Cadbury plc is a British confectionary and beverage company. it has got its headquarters in Alba. There have recently been efforts to initiate a fair-trade movement. M&Ms. 85% of which is imported from West Africa. in 1903. where it still has its headquarters. Kraft Foods Inc was founded in Chicago. which acts to drive chocolate consumers and cocoa exporters further apart. and the Kinder Chocolate series. Green & Black’s. Dove. which would encourage the purchase of cocoa from developing country producers at a fair price. in 1866. Bounty. Piemonte. in Pennsylvania. Milky Way was introduced. Its famous chocolate products include: Ferrero Rocher. Today. Meiji Seika Kaisha Ltd. Milton Hershey began planting cocoa trees in his hometown Derry Church. Mars Inc. Mars and Cadbury. its best-selling candy bar.
in 1929. stearic acid appears to not increase cholesterol. In recent years however this idea has been challenged by numerous studies examining the health effects of chocolate. which gives it its bitterness.mint. As chocolate is a complex substance. Many chocolate products have come out of this company: Pretz. Daniel J Page 16 .DeNoon. Health and chocolate Traditionally chocolate is not thought of as healthy -. It is a stimulant. There is also some evidence that flavonoids may reduce the risk of cancer. was founded by Toshikazu Ezaki in Osaka. Thus the fat in chocolate is not as harmful as one might think. However. Today. Unlike other saturated fats however.   ‘’Top chocolate manufacturers in the world’’ – Natali Lekka. it has its headquarters in Kilchberg. a healthy chocolate which contains higher levels of polyphenol antioxidants than any other chocolate. Barry Callebaut introduced ACTICOA. in 1845. Lindt & Sprüngli AG is more commonly known as Lindt. Callebaut began as a brewery which started producing chocolate bars in 1911. Johann Rudolf.amounts which are likely to cause other problems outweighing the benefits! Stearic Acid is a saturated fat. 7. which also does not increase cholesterol. 10. Theobromine is the defining chemical component of cocoa. Japan. 9.Schwarz and his son Rudolf Sprüngli. Lindor is a famous chocolate type produced by Lindt. Bisco.Chocolate 8. Barry Callebaut is the result of a merger that took place in 1996 between the Belgian Callebaut and the French Cacao Barry. A further third of chocolate fat comes in the form of a monounsaturated fat called oleic acid. Pocky. Caffeine is also present in chocolate. Papico.com "Dark Chocolate Is Healthy Chocolate" . Switzerland. since they act as anti-oxidants and thus reduce cholesterol levels. Cacao Barry was founded by Charles Barry in 1842 and Callebaut by Eugenius Callebaut in 1850. but one would have to eat a couple of 100g bars of very dark chocolate to get anywhere near the amount of caffeine present in one cup of coffee. son of Rudolf Sprüngli acquired Rodolphe Lindt’s chocolate factory in 1899 and the business thus changed its name to incorporate both family names. www. and makes up one third of the fat in chocolate. etc. It was founded by David Sprüngli.Ammann in Zurich. its constituents can affect the body in many different ways: Flavonoids such as epicatechin have been shown to reduce the risk of heart disease. Another study pointed to a reduction of blood pressure.suite101. They are also responsible for the health benefits attributed to the consumption of tea and red wine. only in dark chocolate (> 70% cocoa content) flavonoids are present in sufficient quantities for these effects to be felt. Kiss.after all it is mostly (cocoa) fat and sugar. Ezaki Glico Co. but only when consuming 100g of chocolate per day -. but not as strong as caffeine. In 2005.
are once again very small.perhaps 10 or 20g a day -. If chocolate is consumed in moderation -.it targets the same regions of the brain as cannabis. it is not certain whether the levels of phenylethylamine are sufficient for a definite physiological effect.the beneficial compounds such as flavonoids outweigh the negative effects of the sugar and fat. and indeed was subject of a report commissioned. As with tryptophan however. chocolate has also been linked to acne and hyperactivity. among others. Anandamide is a cannabinoid -. but it certainly deserves a better reputation than it has had in the past. making it possible that milk chocolate might cause acne. Phenylethylamine is an amphetamine. Daniel J Page 17 . there is little scientific evidence to support these beliefs. by the World Health Organization in 2003 which recommended a low intake of sugar. The adverse effects of sugar are damage to the teeth and high calorie content.  "Dark Chocolate Is Healthy Chocolate" . However it is not clear whether the amounts of tryptophan present in chocolate can really be said to cause a measurable change in mood. Sugar does not have many health benefits. In both cases however. Hence a 70% bar can be thought of as 30% sugar. Popularly. This holds particularly for dark chocolate. High levels of serotonin are usually associated with an elevated mood. so that one is much more likely to be sick than high after consuming enough chocolate for anandamide to have an effect! Sugar is the other main ingredient of non-milk chocolate besides cocoa. and is responsible for chocolate's reputation as an aphrodisiac. Describing chocolate as a ``health food'' would go too far.DeNoon. The quantities involved however.Chocolate Tryptophan is an amino acid from which the body makes serotonin. a messenger in the brain. The connection between chocolate and acne might partially be explained by an observed correlation between acne and milk consumption.
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