The Rebirth of Myth?: Nietzsche's Eternal Recurrence and Its Romantic Antecedents Author(s): Robert A.

Yelle Source: Numen, Vol. 47, Fasc. 2 (2000), pp. 175-202 Published by: BRILL Stable URL: . Accessed: 18/04/2013 02:51
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ROBERT A. YELLE Summary There is increasing oftheinfluence ofvarious Romantic thinkers onNietevidence Birth with zsche'searlyphilosophy, on The its announcement ofTragedy, especially The prophetic of a rebirth of myth. ThusSpoke Zarathustra, or prediction which with thewords his Nietzsche introduced later "tragedy begins," expresses philosophy, his central of the EternalRecurrence, in symbols, doctrine parables, particularly an attempt thecritical, and and riddles, at mythopoeia. However, ironic, suggesting elements in have its later led to characterization Nietzsche's parodying philosophy This essay demonstrates that as "antimyth." idea and symbolism of the Nietzsche's of Eternal Recurrence as a temporal various forms represented cycle opposites by or its own of thecircle, the ouroborus and associated tail, especially serpent biting with andDionysus, was influenced ofRomantic Zoroaster, Heraclitus, bythetradition Before the of The Birth Nietzsche encountered mythology. publication of Tragedy, of Johann thewritings JakobBachofen and Friedrich wherethecycleof Creuzer, is identified as a specifically idea, whichdevelopedlaterintoa opposites mythic as in the themyth-maker between philosophy, metonymically represented relationship In The Birthof Tragedy, Zoroaster and the philosopher the cycle of Heraclitus. for became Nietzsche a of the of and andthe symbol opposites unity myth philosophy, of theformer from of thelatter. This symbol rebirth theself-overcoming continued his careeras a model forhis own development to serveNietzschethroughout as his a philosopher. The EternalRecurrence to have been own to appears attempt the an unitemyth transformation of Romantic and philosophy, through originally itsopposite, andtheadoption ofa symbolic and"mythic" idea into style mythological ofexpression. 1Thispaperwas originally for written the1996 Brauer Seminar at theUniversity themembers of theseminar, of ChicagoDivinity School.I wouldliketo thank and and Bruce for its Cristiano Grottanelli, Lincoln, Wendy particularly faculty, Doniger, read several comments. Frank Robert Holub their drafts; Reynolds patiently helpful ofthis Heather readan earlier version ofpart Hindman, paper;andMichaelBathgate, a critical intervention to helpme Chris andJeff andMahuaLong performed Lehrich, isolatethethesis. I am grateful tothem all for their valuablesuggestions. BrillNV,Leiden(2000) ? Koninklijke NUMEN,Vol.47

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Beyond Writings KGB: Friedrich Kritische ed. Basic Writings Die Geburt in Kaufmann. Giorgio Nietzsche. trans. 1974) Zur Genealogie derMoral. Kaufmann. MazzinoMontinari Walter de Gruyter. trans. Human. ofTragedy published ("GT'2) (1872). The Birthof Tragedy Basic der Tragddie. de Gruyter. ed. 21-22). Yelle Robert In hisearliest TheBirth work. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1966) Unless otherwise are to sectionrather thanpage numbers. Studienausgabe. MarionFaber.22. Za: Walter ThusSpoke Zarathustra Also sprachZarathustra. Giorgio Colli and Nietzsche. (New York:Penguin.) (Berlin: Gruyter. Wissenschaft. Writings Basic JGB: Jenseits vonGutundBose. Walter Kaufmann (New of Nietzsche York:ModemLibrary.p. 2d. trans." Apart has amountof scholarship mantic"natureof GT3.176 A. Colli andMazzinoMontinari. to the1886edition This content downloaded from 187. Briefwechsel: Gesamtausgabe. York:Vintage. or a of tragedy and Friedrich Nietzsche announces predicts rebirth in a manner that recallsFriedrich myth Schlegel'shope fora "new of the"Rofrom Nietzsche's ownlater confession mythology. an increasing in that workofboth and development demonstrated his appropriation inRomantic andspecific found thinkers theories symbols mythological Friedrich Friedrich and Creuzer. KGW: Friedrich Werke: Kritische ed.andall other given writings translations aremyown. translations from from the editions Nietzsche's are above. Good and Evil in Kaufmann.162. Zeitalter Marianne Cowan. 1968) The Gay Science(New Die friihliche trans. man(Lincoln:University ofNebraska Press.1984) PHG: Die Philosophie imtragischen derGriechen. trans. Walter Colli andMazzinoMontinari de 1975ff. in theTragic 1962) AgeoftheGreeks (Chicago:Henry Philosophy Regnery. (Berlin: 1967ff. (Berlin:Walter 1988) trans.166 on Thu. On theGenealogy ofMoralsin Kaufmann. MA: Menschliches. Schelling. All Too HuAllzumenschliches. Johann including Schlegel. Giorgio Simtliche Nietzsche. trans. Gesamtausgabe. Walter Kaufmann. 3 This self-characterization at a Self-Criticism. 2 The following ofabbreviations is usedtorefer toNietzsche's works: system EH: FW: GM: GT: in Basic Writings Ecce Homo." appearsin Nietzsche's "Attempt addedas a preface ofGT (KSA 1.) KSA: Friedrich Werke: Kritische ed. trans. references indicated.

4 GT explicitly depicts as theagentof the Richard Nietzsche's then-friend mantic."Nietzsche-Studien des Dionysischen durchdie Brtider Niet"Die Auffassung SchlegelundFriedrich in 12 David and Nietzsche-Studien zsche.B. (KSA chronology anyspecific identifying periods is found forsucha periodization on theback of the 11.which edition beginning original a newimageand idealofthe series is "toerect with MA." "Nietzsche balancedtreatment History ofReligions37 "Nietzsche articulation of thedivision." in KGW. earlyRomanticism. Nietzsche-Studien Zarathustra. andriddles. zsche und die Frtihromantische Schule. e. a middleperiod under theinfluence and experimentation.Recurrence Eternal Nietzsche's TheRebirth ofMyth?: 177 As is wellknown. 1-12) (Stuttgart: J. is text thatexpresses a ThusSpoke Zarathustra ("Za"). "Nietzsche-Studien deckung' 7 (1978): 59-87.. without.Ernst "NietNietzsche. fora translation. Behler.5 that abandoned his indicate Nietzsche Such a division might simply thebook inaugurating his late period. "Eagle Serpent 6 240-60. Wagner. see Kaufmann. Additional support announces itself as theconclusion ofa series ofFW. For another 25 (1996): 128-71 at 128."Nietzsche-Studien whichdescribesthe "The Way to Wisdom. insymbols. This content downloaded from 187. see EricVoegelin. and a final. (1983): 335-54." Nietzsche'snotefrom1884 entitled them with three however.ifone maycall itthat ofZarathustra between themyth-creation 4 See." (1977): 5 This standard in his recent and was accepted Grottanelli division by Cristiano of thequestion. in has raised the whether he was engaged Za of question exposition Ernst to showa parallel in mythopoeia. (1997): 3-20. The style ofNietzsche's Recurrence. of rebirth myth. "I wanted Behler's statement. Barbaravon Reibnitz. prophetic his central oftheEternal doctrine his mature particularly philosophy.thegoalofwhich freespirit. idem. in whichhe remained of Wagner and Schopenhauer." Thatcher. another RoJakob Bachofen.26[47]). parables. Ein Kommentar Geburt der Tragddie aus demGeisteder Musik" (Kap. However. Basic Writings This pageis notincluded 30. and Myth.166 on Thu.Max B iumer.g.22. "Die zu Friedrich Nietzsche.1992). Met"Das moderne des Dionysischen undseine'Entzler. late (1876-1882)of independence his positive period(1882-1889)in whichhe articulated philosophy. Phinomen durch 6 (1977): 123-53.162. . 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This divisionfollows and Pascal. and divided his work intothree later Nietzsche repudiated Wagner periods:an earlyperiodlastinguntil1876.

Duringhis discussion of calledhimself the"first GT in Ecce Homo ("EH"). (Berkeley: University This content downloaded from 187. 571). Romantic between GT. ofCalifornia Press.thisdoctrine of Zarathustra in the circular courseof things might end have been taught Heraclitus" (KSA 6.Prophets Derrida Foucault.166 on Thu. negative. critical. p.8 a "a of the Eternal of hopes Recurrence."9 that [Romantic] predecessors thisdebate overNietzsche's relation tohisRomantic Complicating are the affirmations of the close relation predecessors philosopher's Za and theearlier. caricaturing parodying very inZarathustra. out of theEternal Recurrence turn.22. Studien 9 Allan Megill. Yelle a newmythology. with reference to the and. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .178 Robert A. It by already a merespeaking is tempting to read thisas an anachronism. 8 EugenBiser. kind antimythic myth. "myth" andinaddition the InZarathustra the not a question ofmyth." of the unconditional and that 'eternal recurrence. following Behler. "counter-myth" specific (Gegen-Mythos).1985).162. the then onecould that onefinds sayjustas welland mythical in whichthe is an antimyth. (KSA aphorism concludes theoriginal edition ofFW. 312-13).' is. infinitely repeated . parody Nietzsche's entertained. 71d." Nietzsche14 (1985): 96-109at 105. does notappearbefore Surely aphorism GT? YetNietzsche 341 ofTheGayScience("FW") (1882). p. Nietzsche tragic then traced hislineage toHeraclitus: "Thedoctrine ofthe philosopher. moretruly: theentire fourth partof Zarathustra as itdeals with is made as far one. in If stand the one and the says strongly foreground." andtheRomantic search for thisstrident provoked from Walter Kaufmann: response inZarathustra itis certainly ina strong then Ifonetakes the term sense.longafter next "Incipit tragoedia" ("tragedy begins")to thevery gave thetitle of introduces Zarathustra time which for the first FW.7 including "quasi-myth" philosophy. Thisaphorism 6 Discussion "Nietzsche unddie Friihromantische Schule"91. Nietzsche.andis 3.6 use of irony and parody are incompatiThe idea that Nietzsche's scholars ble with(true) has led other to suggest similar descripmyth ofhislater tions (Quasi-Mythos). itself. myth laughable. of Extremity: Heidegger.19."Nietzsche als Mythenzersttirer undMythenschipfer.

appropriate inThusSpokeZarathustra TheEternal Recurrence and theOuroborus his central docdescribed as we have seen. doctrine parby his Romantic predecessors. work. might madein GT. of whichrepeats by Za. p.In thesesources as in Za. as "theuncondes Gleichen). thepreface raised and more the once indications forcefully. pose in Za: whether that of Nietzsche's work. "Zoroaster"). he regarded as at mythopoeia.166 on Thu. citation of these as Nietzsche's later sus. by a styleof exposition distinguished tomyth.prefiguring figures precedent Identified as a mythological oftheEternal Recurrence. of that zscheduring his preparation and as a time nature is conceived or cyclical process uniting opposites. Thissuggests that Za andoftherebirth oftheformer in a "rebirth of at least andtheEternal Recurrence myth" represented of certain senses:as theresurfacing tworelated Romantic mythologmature and as his own attempt ical ideas in Nietzsche's philosophy. for hisdoctrine thecycle of opposites.Eternal Recurrence TheRebirth Nietzsche's ofMyth?: 179 in thechronological order works ofNietzsche's followed immediately These theaphorism's contents. forms are identiof thecircle.22. question again. or its own the form of the ouroborus in tail. an attempt tofulfill thepromise ofa rebirth ofmyth is precedent forthesymbolism of the As I will demonstrate. 275) This content downloaded from 187. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . by style exposition already notbe andparticularly thedoctrine of theEternal Recurrence. including mythologists. Same" (ewigeWiederkunft/Wiederkehr of The circle circular course ditional and infinitely things. (in Greek.minimally Nietzsche.162. there Romantic in GT and in the writings of certain Eternal Recurrence and Nietwho influenced Bachofen Creuzer. biting serpent ticularly a symbol of theunity of myth and philosophy becameforNietzsche outofthelatter." repeated is both"the Recurrence: Zarathustra theEternal is inseparable from and "advocate the the of eternal teacher recurrence" (KSA 4. of the forwhichis "theEternal Recurrence the fullformula trine.These symbols symbolized by various andDionyZarathustra fiedwith Heraclitus.

316-338. me. "O Zarathustra. they The name the is that come of inscribed above: together.10Nietzsche's employment imof the Eternal Recurrence back on itself as theprimary symbol as is buta dynamic cycleuniting opposites. gravity. ownstoning butitwillfallbackon yourself. thebeginning of thealchemical work. paths eternally?" "All that dwarf "All truth is is straight the murmured lies. repetition.. either to itsend.Thislonglanestretches backfor here.making lead intomyear. my he whispered mockingly. whilethelatter is the"philosopher's the completion of that stone. 249. eternity.leadenthoughts into lame. You threw yourself up must up so high.farther .162. p.defying drew itdownward theabyss. each face offend other to and itis hereat this face.180 A. This content downloaded from one has yetfollowed an eternity.O Zarathustra.' wouldfollow on andon. a time itself is circle. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Sentenced ." "youphilosothat der You threw but stone stone [Stein Weisheit]! yourself uphigh. 146).. my halfmole.166 on Thu. that is another Andthelonglaneoutthere. TheGreatYearofZarathustra Strategies PressofAmerica. 271).do youbelieve. pliesnotstatic in from Za: this famous explicit passage . Theycontradict each other." crooked. employed Thatcher todepict hisEternal Recurrence.... 10In theinterest references of conserving to Za in PartOne space. syllable by syllable. Upward although archenemy.dripping brain. This temporal unionof opposites by a the more that of and Zarathusbetween union. every pher's is thrown toyourself fall.andidem. (p. thespirit of thespirit that toward Upward he half and sat on devil dwarf. "Analogistic symbols in David Goicoechea. in Zarathustra" ed. giveonly page 11As some authors have previously Nietzsche alchemical recognized. andfarther 'Moment. "Ithas twofaces. Yelle Robert ofthecircleturning ofthecircle"(p. The tra." is strangely work. Richard Perkins. Thenthedwarf dwarf!" I continued. 198-200) In thispassage."Zarathustra intimate with his supposed adversary. (1881-1981)(Lanham. andtoyour far indeed haveyouthrown thestone.Twopaths meet "Beholdthisgateway." fellsilent.the circleunitesthe two opposedpathsof past is complemented and present. thesepaths.22.The former downward." contemptuously.. Spirit Gravity enigmatic while thelatter movesupward. that these each other contradict dwarf. gateway they gateway Butwhoever oneofthem.lame. pulls former is "lead" (cf.thenumerous willhenceforth in the number KSA 4.. MD: University 1983).

Nietzsche ("Nietzsche's 216) that opusalchymicum" "Beginning frequently and fairly an inneralchemist.22. sary/double together TheEternal is also depicted as theouroborus." constituting analogistic metaphors something an the was one of sources for Nietzsche's brewed vitae) yourbalsam[Balsam]"(p.some other unmistakable references occurin Za: "Outof your to alchemy poisons. spirit. This content downloaded from 187.166 on Thu. joy pain. Zarathustra alchemical ning form thecircleoftheEternal Recurrence.TheRebirth Eternal Recurrence Nietzsche's ofMyth?: 181 and The actionwithwhichZarathustra is simultaneously threatened with accused crushing thedownward plungeof thestone. moving the While this is of demonstration. confidentially a frankly in a golden nature wonthrough work Zarathustra. sprach meaning images. alchemy certainly symbolism of the EternalRecurrence. directly appears Romantic predecessors. theringof recurrence?" theconiunctio. itstail.identical. orserpent Recurrence has identified an unmistakable bitingits own tail.The explanation ofthedwarf that and his adversary The Zarathustra are. and eventhegreatest lastfoaming and after thenuptial over:Oh. figures. exception symbolism of his use of theouroborus. my poured themostwickedto themostgracious. a symbol and which whichis notconfined to alchemy andalso.Cf. biting and all the the within Zarathustra. foaming things spice. Apartfromthe passages pointedout by Perkinsand the "philosopher's stone"and "lead" of the passage discussedhere. boththe beginstoneunited including philosopher's and his adverand the end of the work. RichardPerkins "Nietzsche'sopus alchymicum.162. theopposites. The topicof theagent which common namefor effected salt.another with Nietzsche's use ofalchemical will not be treated the here.p. 289: "IfeverI drank agent in which all are if drafts from that and well-blended. Perkinspointsout in 1882. in euphoric notebook insistently poses as privately infrantic letters andpublicly inAlsosprach toFranzOverbeck. is "thebasicconception orserpent ofAlso symbolized bytheouroborus. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." 327) that Strategies" ("Analogistic process.miris rorstheleadenbehavior on some sense.blend-mug the fire and and hand ever the farthest to and to to nearest. 43)." Seminar23 (1987): 216-26. The "balsam"or "balsamof life"(balsamum was another namefor full thealchemical as panacea. symbols. culminating chrysopoetic andargues thealchemical transmutation. howshouldI notlustafter ring eternity The "salt"referred to can onlybe thealchemical of rings. shown in someofhis inNietzsche's earlier works below. ifI myself am a grainof that salt redeeming whichmakesall things is a saltthat blendwellin theblend-mug forthere unites evil is worthy of beingused as spice forthe good withevil.

162. 11[196]).166 on Thu.turn sting against carries a caduceus. 43). hung for shekept herself wound around hisneck"(p.ButI bitoff itsheadandspewed it hisadversary with on hisback out"(p. 97).. "Analogistic Strategies" This content downloaded from 187. the of the which unites the The ouroborus. Cited in Perkins. KSA 9. notlikeprey butlikea friend: circles. TheimageofZarathustra is thusassimilated to theouroborus. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Zarathustra pion. 12"Analogistic 327. as is theimageof Zarathustra's twoanimals:"Andbehold!An eagle soaredthrough theskyin wide and on him there a serpent. justas theSpirit clings toZarathustra. 49). and Zarathustra later reveals that he himself was theshepherd: "that monster crawled downmythroat andsuffocated me. 273). Yelle reference to theouroborus as theEternal Recurrence in Nietzsche's notes the from time ofZa: Do notbe afraid ofthestream ofthings: thisstream turns backon itself: itruns from itself not twice. all that and in wicked me cried out of me a with good single cry"(p. The serpent clings totheeagle. and "The sunofrecognition stands once againat noon: . one will in theend. The shepherd with a blackserpent in histhroat. completes image thescorby theflame one's poisonous oneself'(p. recallsthe"black"Spirit of Gravity serpent (p. Zarathustra's " 'Bite!Biteitsheadoff! command totheshepherd. whom Zarathustra observes after hisencounter with shortly hisadversary. KSA 1883.KSA 10.itstraditional ofGravity adversary. and coiled [geringelt] lies theserpent of eternity in its light you brothers of afternoon!" 1881. 35.. 10. 27)."'3 Za. is Bite!' .it is yourtime. (November past everything 1882-February 4[85])12 At least two other notesrefer to a circular named"eterserpent In the references to the ouroborus are less "Surnity.22. Strategies" 13"Does theserpent calledeternity circleitself [sichringeln] (Sommeralready?" Herbst1882. "a staff witha goldenhandleon whicha serpent coiledaround thesun"(p. a "dual"or"compound" forms ouroborus. 201-02). explicit: rounded ofjealousy.2[9]).182 Robert A. "it was" becomes an "it is." The away only Every again bites future in the tail. (Friihjahr-Herbst 336 n. andThatcher 255.

the (Ubermensch). being Gravity fallsonhimself. Nietzsche borrowed the third volume theUniver14VonReibnitz 62. dung(p. Such verbalformulas therepetition of a keyterm. Especially Thebook. clock). English a synonym is schliingeln. forms theouroborus.22.' der altenV61ker. was extremely influential andwent through from several editions.a compendium ofmythological diftheGreeks"). for winden from SelbstSchlange. "serpent. 134). 146) is usuallytranslated "self-overcoming." a is therefore of ("self-overwinding") description precise iiberwindung thebehavior oftheouroboros. despisehimself.Niettherepetitive behavior of theouroborus such as zsche also employed numerous phrases. ideasfrom ferent cultures andtimes. through and reflexive or circle. Behold. man is that time ofthemost he is no ableto despicable coming. has precedent in certain including Romantic influenced the ofGT. "goingunder"(unwhichalludeto theshape and "Overman" tergehen) (Obermensch). This content downloaded from 187. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . who Nietzsche time mythologists by Creuzer Friedrich the founder of "so-called'Romantic Creuzer. longer I showyouthelastman"(p.166 on Thu. His ouroboric is what behavior distinguishes theOverman from hisopposite: Zarathustra." with German verbwinden is cognate "to wind" a (e. "Alas. and movement of thecircle. depict. Symbolik andMythology ofAncient Griechen ("Symbolism Peoples. Romantic Precursors Recurrence oftheEternal Nietzsche'sconception of the EternalRecurrence as the cycle of timeor nature the and uniting opposites represented by various of thecircle. Zarathustra asserts: thestrangler that "I evenstrangled is called 'sin'" (p.g.162. Mythol"14 published in 1810-12thefourvolumesof his mostimporogy. The Spirit of of the accuses Zarathustra of such stone that behavior. 278).His famous conceptof Selbstiiberwinthe However. 19). tant undMythologie besonders der work.Eternal Recurrence Nietzsche's TheRebirth ofMyth?: 183 that behavAlso suggestive arevarious define "ouroboric" phrases ior: "Spirit is thelifethat itself cutsintolife"(p.

"thelifeof theserpent of a circle." 73. besonders Creuzer. Martin whichedition Nietzsche borrowed. The Symbolik includes numerous or timeas a ofnature depictions or Father "the who withdrawn is Time.15 library edition of theSymbothatat some laterpointhe acquiredthethird as oneofNietzsche's sources for the lik. cycle. Prof. 410.184 Robert A.166 on Thu. 3 has June 142 another of which is a misprint: cites edition Andler has June 1871 18. Thatcher. 18Vorlesungen 1870-71. Karlfried Discussionfollowing PeterHeller. 20Id.givesthemonths these ofNietzsche's loans. edition. Verbesserte Ausgabe.Chronos god [zuriickinto is other himself. 1819-23. 18. 3: 59.20 nature in thethree seasonscyclically [cykdevelopsitself returning 15Martin undDionysisch GustavBosse. 1872.Citations to theSymbolik hereare instead which is theone Nietzsche later in his library.Appolinisch (Regensburg: 97 confirms the first date. Behler. 1: 404 n. in theform In a myth of Zeus. (1870-71). KGW 11." Nietzsche-Studien passim. Schule.22.italso listsmuchofthecontents daysfor library. CharlesAndler.whilestill sity working show and againon August Records of his personal 9. 17Baiumer "Nietzsche unddieFrtihromantische 139.4: 79. Symbolik Mythologie 4 3. p. (Leipzig und Darmstadt. cf. 8. Oehler10. 3. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . possessed 16Andler 1: 404 n. 19Friedrich und der der alten VdIlker. among represented symbols.See Creuzer 4: 116ff. suggests than was more superficial.16 Creuzer has beenidentified and Dionysian" and other categories symbols. 1966). Carl Wilhelm Griechen."Despite "Apollinian himonly in Creuzer.18 during on Nietzsche that his influence of Creuzer's work. of theUniversity ofBasel Library has graciously informed itwas Steinmann me that to thethird thesecondedition. However. schenPessimismus. Leske. however. All references aretothis edition. 1871. 1872. Vogel. 1958).162. 3: 58. "Nietzsches Bibliothek" der Gesellschaft forthefirst Jahresgabe 14 (Weimar: des Nietzsche-Archivs butnotthe der Freunde 1942). Kampfmitdem romanti7 (1978): 51. 1871 and August9. This content downloaded from 187. Bd. Oehler."19 gezogen] by.1837-42). Sa Vie et Sa Pensie (Paris: Nietzsche: this Gallimard. Biumer date.3. to have mentioned hisinterest Nietzsche appears A perusal hisearly Basel lectures oncein writing."Nietzsches Grainder. personal Noneof thesesourcesindicates Dr. Yelle ofBasel library onceon June on GT.M.

which Therefore swallows schwung] Dionysus takesin. 2: 657ff.. whokilledNysa. 131.23 occasionally is "thebirdof thegreat of thenewtime yearor therebirth phoenix in determinate The cycleof timeis connected withHeracycles."24 and other but with and cles25 gods."21 Thereare numerous references to thecycle ofreincarnation or metempsychosis of thePythagoreans and Order Seele). 4: 96ff.29 forthe symbolism of the Eternal Apartfromtheseprecedents Creuzer's of Recurrence. 2: 165. inZa I.. 29Id.Nysa.Recurrence TheRebirth Eternal Nietzsche's ofMyth?: 185 lischwiederkehrenden].27 passage particular in itsdepictions as a compound ouroborus: especially a Bacchus. 24Id. 1.22and to theanalogousIndian phics(Kreislauf/Riickkehr with theGreek. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . which Creuzer confuses The doctrine. this is thesun. 4: 24 n.22.Creuzer this"revolution of connects timesand things der und and Zeiten [Umkreis Dinge]".134ff. is thereversal Ciceromentioned [Umat theendoftime.. 25Id. 26Id. "On Nietzsche thesymbol ofthephoenix employed theWayoftheCreator" (KSA 4.. [verzehrt] whokillstheKampe(thecycleoftime). devours his ownchildren. description Magianismcloselyresembles Nietzsche's: 21Id. Dionysus26 Dionysus especially in the One Eternal resembles Recurrence. Zagreus.. 2: 658. 630-31. 1: 434-36. This content downloaded from 187. 28 (emphasis original) In a footnote to thispassage. 1: 138."withthemovement of the chariots aroundthe in the Roman which were marked circus. as Saturn [verschlingt].445. 28Id. 1: 25. 22 d. 27Id. and thesameis also theLibyanDionysus.166 on Thu. 163ff.3: 777. cf.disposesof [abthut] thecircleoftime in itself. p. especially theaforementioned on the [Umkehr] Kampeas the"pointof return courseof the sun. 4: 23. 4: 125.. turning-points bytwopillars (Umlenkungss iule). 23Id.. 82).162.

night. there which. and with withtheidea of a cycleuniting of Magianism opposites. 1: 199. especially of and the use thedark dwarf on Zarathustra's back. 34Ginter Wohlfart. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ..162. He proceeded.. an the ethical tually inversion rigid was no positive valorization ofconunlike in Heraclitus.166 on Thu. Id.33 The first association." Nietzsche Nietzsche's Zarathustra 30Id. In thesetheories of in themixture of opposites subsist Magians:All things ..34 Wohlfart clituswithZoroaster concluded sparked vigorous in the to factopPre-Socratic's be that Nietzsche. sides. idea 195. itself..... Without theintention Heraclitus madethe thelight. subsists [Kehre]of the through thatdeathitself the insight balancedthrough contraries. Nietzsches Heraklit-Rezeption (Freiburg: 35Id. Yelle Robert theopposition of oftheworld. "Also sprach Herakleitos:HeraklitsFragment B 52 und KarlAlber. This content downloaded from 187. falling. thedarkness follows the he understood themainthesis ofhis system. differentiation.. 32Creuzer Akherene with theMagiangodZeruane Chronos andthe also associated a time. example rising... cycle "great year" 33Cf. from contradiction as thefoundation likethePersians. as aclitusis an Anti-Zoroaster. for day.."35 However. and of Heraclitus have a of the famous doctrines we source Magianism truly ofthesystem ofEmpedocles. teaching good light . unity.. 2: 595-96.30 of finite is thefoundation to [higher things. enmity Magianism]. fundamental and of darkness.Andfurthermore..314-16. 1: 293.. Heraassociation of As Wohlfart Creuzer's tradiction.31 as Heraclitus showsfrom must exist. spatial metaphors More significant is Creuzer'sassociation to describe the opposites.186 A. opposites precisely The unity ofthings. In thisturning called acHeraclitus. chose is also an "Anti-Zoroaster.. 316.Id.. through theproblem [T]heMagiansconceived of the Hence the and evil. According thatis. liketheshadowtheperson. 31Id.32 whichenablesthesecond.1991)..22.. 2: 595-96. debate. teaching knowing Hersided againstCreuzer:"Nietzsche's posed to Magian dualism. samething so. Giinter noted. followsthethesis. which thesymbol resembles nal Recurrence. the antithesis of the creator. 1: 3: of or eternal of 169ff. many Eterforeshadow features ofCreuzer's the Several ofthe Magianism oftheshadow. in of dualismof Zoroastrianism. Wohlfart acknowledged.

saying of KSA 6. origin amongothers. This association (EH. p. by theDionysus cult. however." 6. 806-07)(first thought. morality. pastsinsidentify for heldresponsible whois elsewhere creating goodandevil(Za III. exhibited sidebyside:Zoroaster andtheir Greek disciples notmind toEleatics..Eternal Recurrence Nietzsche's TheRebirth ofMyth?: 187 beRecurrence of theEternal as theexponent Zarathustra precisely that doctrine causeofthehistorical goodandevilareeternally figure's of good and thefight consider was the first to "Zarathustra separate: created of things. 248). As tothegeneral next it. and.37 36Zarathustra's theSpirit of himonce again withhis nemesis. consequently.we should was thusmerely that us withtheir conclusion did notburden imported philosophy in a soil natural andnative there and than Greecerather into having grown developed for the than to claiman autochthonous wouldbe sillier toit." 37Furthermore. Nietzsche Zoroaster." ofphilosophic mine) emphasis and Thus. developed in GT As vonReibnitz notes(97. Nietzsche in theearly in theTragic Age oftheGreeks. account resembles Creuzer's Heraclitus closely ifnotactually andmodified. "It has beenpointed true that and itis doubtless find andlearnabroadin theOrient.ifonlyitsexponents idea. Nietzsche itseems mayhaveappropriated accepted. This content downloaded from 187." and with of contradiction a valorization both with Zarathustra positive which ofMagianism. they living invariably they was thearchetypes invented (PHG 1. 27).KSA 1.p. Nothing development cultures . they pickedup much from theOrient to see theallegedteachers It is a strange muchtheGreeks outassiduously. p.. most Yeshe contradicts.NietzscheacceptedthattheGreekphilosophers mayhave appropriated have borrowed that Heraclitus Oriental ideas.Zarathustra wheelin themachinery evilthevery he must also be thefirst calamitous this error.. KSA4. p.. KSA I Am a torecognize it"(EH. "Thus Spoke Zarathustra.. Hindus next toHeraclitus..22. 343). may by implication. from something of Oriental for an Creuzer advanced the also accepted thesis.162.. n. "Why By conDestiny. "On Old Gravity. Philosophy ofZoroaster andHeraclitus: thepossible connection didnotreject wereable to to be sure. andNewTablets. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . absorbed Greeks.166 on Thu. esp. this "Inevery word ofopposites: as the union intoa newunity" areblended inhimall opposites ofall spirits. [W]hat other On thecontrary. spectacle.36 Recurrence theEternal teaches reformed Zarathustra Nietzsche's trast. 367)..

Bachofen themortuary that argued symbolismoftheancient and Romansexpressed Greeks theidea that nature ofa continual consists of twoantagonistic (identistruggle principles fied as goodandevil. all thelifeof tellurian returns everagainon itself andin creation. point. 41Bliumer 153. like white and eternally intoone another. egg.In thismanner. association.188 Bachofen A.22. 2. and oldercolleagueand friend of Nietzsche. lifeanddeath. Boas' preface andMother trans. frequentlyguest Bachofen'sVersuch Nietzscheborrowed iiberdie Grdbersymbolik derAlten(1859) ("Investigation intotheMortuary ofthe Symbolism from ofBasel library theUniversity on June 18. 1871(the Ancients") at thetimeof composing Creuzer's very dayhe borrowed Symbolik). meaning appears It derives thissymbolic use from thepeculiarity of thecircular like line. This content downloaded from 187.162.merge ball.J. onprimitive a groundbreaking treatise was a Basel resident matriarchy.39 Basel. disc.. Right: (Princeton: Writings of Bachofen. The original to which theremaining ones however. 419 n. 40Id.4? In hisGrdibersymbolik. Press.which twoopposedpolesunited tute a by cyclical process: ofindubitable On monuments thecircle as a signofapotheosis. [zuriickkehrt] theprogression from thestarting It thus like the both encloses. Bollingen xxff.. University 39Andler 1: 419. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . whichcreation between movesto and fro.1967).. Religion. Selected Series 84 Princeton J.dayandnight. return ofcreation toitself that comestoviewinthe circular [ewige Zuriickkehren] 38See George toRalphManheim. a black. All of these associations ofthecircle anditsdifferent haveconcurrently truth representations andjustification.and circleobtain definite with thephysical of nature's association bearers power. poles.38 In his first yearsat was a at Nietzsche the Bachofen residence. connect.41 to have of GT approved GT.finally. Yelle Robert Johann Jakob thelawyer-cum-mythologist andauthor of Bachofen.166 on Thu. Bachofen is said in turn. constietc. and which. Myth.which. themeaning ofthemysteries is noneother than eternal that and.)...

162. 3 Philo). [zuriickkehrt] an serpent. [S]he is immortal of two Bachofen's the depictions opposedpowerscloselyprefigure theimageof Zarathustra withthedarkdwarf on his back: weighing 42Johann ed. eternal return witha number of symbols laterassociatedwiththe Eternal the including caduceus. themselves.42 Like Creuzer before associated thiscycleof oppohim. 168.45 andthe Recurrence.. resolved[aufgelist] intoherself after the of a set again completion and turns back on herself. 1954).The completion [Riickkehr] at and in each distancing from thestarting there lies the same timea repoint to the same. Karl Jakob Johann Jakob Gesammelte Bachofen. 270. (quoting This content downloaded from 187. power tellurian lifeeternally moves. 175 n. likethecircular loses itself One line.166 on Thu.Bachofen thecourse ofthechariots siteswith attheRomancircus: In thedeparture of movement theteamreturns everagain to its starting point. 43Id. 44Id. straight ofeach existence is a return to order to the and then to traverse the same space again point [zuriickkehren] starting anew." [zuriickkehrend] 46Id. thecompletion in thebeginning. Werke. 134. speed. 45Thephoenix with ever is connected "theidea of a great cosmicyearandoftime in to Id. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . fixed returning periods self-rejuvenation.44 which a "has back from turns life.. all becomes offate ruling life. In thismanner.. again.151-53. thecircle line."46 Severalof span.vol. Two directions are in just such approaching [Wiederanndherung] like two an unexplainable to each the for other.Eternal Recurrence Nietzsche's TheRebirth ofMyth?: 189 in each other. Versuch Co. long old one intoa youth and gainsnew and greater untilshe is powers.ofwhich ofthepowers drives while the other turns and leads back round ahead.that reposeofendandbeginning an expression orofthehighest law ofnature.22.43 tothesame idea ofan eternal Bachofen's return (ewigeZuriickkehr) the Eternal the cycle of opposites pointthrough closelyresembles Recurrence Bachofen associated his (ewigeWiederkunft/Wiederkehr).. wayjoined powers in The result their combined is the which all of they correspond.The imageof thiscycleis therevolutions of the whichflyaround themetaewiththehighest to return chariots. 175ff. cycle. Bachofens derAlten(Basel: BennoSchwabe& die Grdbersymbolik iUber Meuli.

religions. following passage: is a lifeeternally nature initself. a kind ofcircle.431..5. 269. 269. 352-485. 3. Ausgabe. of thesesymbols are encompassed within and expressed by theone master ofthecircle.. 51Id. light.especially. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .terminology. 23ff. Jr. 54Thiswork in 1811. 39.47 mythical Dionysus Melanaigis. reprint This content downloaded from 187.49These symbols compound oftheouroborus form found in Za. Recurrence. wearsa blackgoatskin his victim.. appearsto be a likely symandconcepts ofNietzsche's Eternal as bols. onlyafter Schelling's See Frederick de Wolfe Friedrich TheAgesoftheWorld. alternately 47Id.48 and appearsbehind and Ocnus. trans. 30. 14ff.. thepenitent in Hades whoweavesa ropethat is continually devoured fortheatypical are precedent by an ass. Schelling. 52Id.162. (New York:AMS Press. Schelling Friedrich Weltalter54 another imWorld"). 48Id. oftheDionysian and its The religion mysteries. 49Id. 27. Yelle Robert thetwopowers in opposite directions at thechariot race. lower.1967). 59 (citing 4: 152). wellas for theassociation with ofthese Dionysus. contained.166 on Thu.355. 437. Symbolik.53 source forsomeof thespecific therefore. ed.forms theinnermost content unity. Bolman.22."50 including Dionysus: "Thiseternal return sundered of the to [stete Riickkehr] potencies theoriginal as it was in theegg. symbol Bachofen identified his eternal return as "thefoundation of all ancient that ofHeraclituss51 and. Schelling's ("Agesofthe work of Romantic contains the portant mythology. 56. 28."52 Dionysian religion inpurer theessence ofall other form.because higher andtheother an incessant theone is higher there is only lower. 53Id. Bachofen.. 50Id. religion.435.butpublished was begun death in 1854. the pulling twins of and dark who dioscuri. Of course [P]rimal revolving thedistinction between lower andhigher is continually annulled in this continual circular there a truly is neither nora truly movement.190 A. wheel.463. ForBachofen all as for Nietzsche. Creuzer..

1870-71. His symbolism of thecycle itself and alwaysgiving birth to itself of "time.H.. Eternal association significantSchelling's Perhaps andthe"ancient oftheeternal with both Heraclitus cycleofopposites we encountered also wisdom" an association (i. rotating in of annulled this These are and end is rotation. Beck.Eternal Recurrence TheRebirth Nietzsche's ofMyth?: 191 is no distinction.56 Schelling'scircleof "eternal theEternal Recuring" (ewigesWiederbeginnen) strikingly parallels rence(ewige Wiederkunft/Wiederkehr). as something which tooneoftheprophets returning upon andagaingoingforward.. Theantithesis eternally devouring and the in orderto be consumed begetsitself again and again by the unity. eternally becoming. always and alwaysgiving birth to itself itself again. again concept beginning birth to and itself the powersof thatinnerlifeincessantly giving consuming feardivinesas whatis hiddenin everything. eternally beginning... antithesis is eternally consumed to revive bytheunity itself thehearth of the lifewhichis continually in its This is thecenter. Manfred Werke. 410.162..e. byretrogression andofthat fire inaccordance with doctrine Magianwisdom. in order everanew. 55Id. lawgiver is a consuming fire". 606. perishing and rejuvenating itself from theash. 56Vorlesungen KGW 11.I have supplied from theGerman ed. I. objectoftheancient which theJewish also left hispeoplethissaying: "The Lord. 82. 1958). alwaysdevouring in own flames itself its and again. Magian in Bachofen andespecially Creuzer. p. This is theundying own flames fire. was shown ina vision. always mainspring it is time which is clockwork.55 (emphasis mine) there is no direct evidencethatNietzsche read WeltalAlthough in he did refer to connection with Creuzer once durter. movement in whichthere Even the a never resting. Schelling recommencing his Basel lectures. Zoroaster). again.22. 57KSA4. everrepeating Thisis the itself itself... into the it is the constant inner and (id quodsubstat). (Miinchen: Schroiter. by of which. abiding. continually perishing rejuvenating andphoenix57 that the from theash" evokestheouroborus symbolize most is Recurrence. Schellings 4 vol.166 on Thu. p. although up andhas outwardly By return to thebeginning andtheeternal that continual [das ewige recommencing that lifemakesitself in thereal senseof theword substance Wiederbeginnen]. theuniverse thesmothering as Heraclitus was created.3. 116-17. and asserted.your God.. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .whichman not without itis nowcovered assumedstableproperties. series C. This content downloaded from 187.

mythic ancient valuenotonlyon thecontent peoples. fromwhicheven the most abstract andprosaic[niichternste] cannot extract spirit itself.162.Theyplacedthehighest ofthis also but on the form ofitsexpression. 60Id. widepathoftheconcept. Herehe also citedPausanias'observation that thewisest Greeks spokein riddles.. andleadsus onlyallowsofbutevenencourages from thetruths ofphysical lifetothoseofa higher order.60 58Bachofen18ff.."59 than other Or. never-ending twoopposite ourfullest attention becauseof itsinner poles.. Mannheim). itsgoal immediately meets in theimage. 4: 527. a necessity. truth. from death tolife.Mannheim): is the of the It unfolds in a seriesof outwardly connected "Myth exegesis symbol.166 on Thu.. This content downloaded from 187.192 TheRebirth ofMyth? A..Humanlanguage is toofeeble toconvey all thethoughts aroused by thealternation oflifeanddeath andthesublime hopesoftheinitiate. The greatest philosophers fully sublime andrichness ofthesymbol reside in thefact that it not dignity precisely different levelsofinterpretation. actions whatthesymbol in a unity..." myth higher 59Creuzer 4: 483."[W]hatwe call symbolic [Bildliches].( This idea deserves butwe mustalso admire thesimpleexpression The mere of thesymbol.. of opposites was a specifically the distilled wisdom of idea. embodies It resembles a discursive philosophical treatise inso far as itsplits theideainto a number ofconnected leaves imagesandthen ittothereader to drawtheultimate To expound inference. Bachofen61-63 (trans. mythic symbolic as Bachofen explains: The alternation of light and darkcolor expresses thecontinuous passagefrom darkness tolight.It showsus tellurian creation as theresult of eternal and eternal as a movement between becoming passing away. [is] nothing the stampof our thought. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Onlythesymbol andtherelated can meet this need. Yelle Robert Forseveral ofNietzsche's Romantic theeternal cycle predecessors.. themystery in doctrine wordswouldbe a sacrilege the it in law.22.58 spiritual Creuzer concurred intheconviction that wasa form ofthought myth to then is "What more than superior philosophy: impressive theimage ofa wholesome wouldbe lostonthe which [Bild]?Thetruth teaching. can onlybe represented against supreme terms ofmyth... doctrine. of lightand darkcolor concretizes a profound whichthe opposition thought ofancient seemedunableto express inwords.

enough philosophized he taught liketheancient of teacher of the Star Gold.. manner Thisdevelopment was represented symbolic in of the the Zoroaster with relationship myth-maker metonymically Heraclitus thephilosopher: theEphesian.. thecontent for He hadtaken of hischiaroscuro Bilder]. spirit 62Id.. [Philosophemen]: .as Heraclitus and in thecharacter himself said.22. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .thesesymbols of theNear East. theactivity ofthespirit for andits example. nothing. 4: 520ff. 2: 599-601.. Creuzer developed at times." Whether nothing. movesina circle. death and life.62 Zerethoschtro. choseprecisely dissonance. [helldunkele lyre pictures from oftheOrient. These propositions of Magianteaching.. it."says hides hints this Heraclitus wroteone but instead. great light While claiming thatphilosophy out of myth. suggestive. from he tookhisimages histeachings thelight-theories there of ancient as well. compared spirit through a of a of the said to that the line. [ofthebooksattributed to] testimony remains is he indifferent.TheRebirth Eternal Recurrence Nietzsche's ofMyth?: 193 of Creuzer'ssuggests. the from with hissharp. 63Id. This content downloaded from 187..thiswas reserved . thesemyths and festival the ancient and fire-temples light.n.63 perioda return ofmyth: of [both] The return andreestablishment and symbolism mysticism [Riickkehr] in mythology.. in keeping withhis valuation of myth. theprincipal Heraclitus inorder torepresent ofhisphilosophy. andthetotalandpermanent ofboth. expressed the a relation the to and to itself circular thislast statement theoriginally idea of the cycle of mythic appropriated philosophy in and even abstract the form.. the ofall things. which to thedistinction ofmyth as "false" contributed in theAlexandrian Therewas subsequently speech. continued.166 on Thu.. 1: 43. On Plato'suse ofother myths. hymns profound philosopher Ephesus impressed deep intoa system ofphilosophemes andexpanded them not spirit. At the same time. ofitsexpression." Id.or not. It that that quite Zoroastrically. 663. The thoupredominance 61"PlatoandthePlatonists.162. characterized this a in the as decline about brought development partthrough agency of philosophy. as would have later Zoroaster. movement.. ofcosmicharmony as thefoundation through dogmaofopposition oflight thebow and anddarkness.butrather forPlatolater dialectical priestly. sensuality straight see 4: 563-64. oftheDelphickingwho. 1.spoke [Umlauf] revolving spirit. increasingly opposites61....

p.. terms as roughly equivalent. par parmythical posites appears and oftheopposites a symbol oftheunity myth philosophy. form image. a sum of humanrelations whichwere poeticallyand rhetorically and after and adorned. 880-8167). aboutwhichit has beenforgotten to a nation.canonical.. transferred.162. 64Id. Such illusion-creating ofthephilosopher or or "concepts" to the"truths" sionweresuperior in an andLying in theessay"On Truth scientist. within.Carole Blair. eds. andoftherebirth which he identified on myth65.KSA 1. and tragedy.1989). 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Friedrich on Rhetoric and Language(New York:Oxford Nietzsche Press. This content downloaded from 187.194 A.. amongthem. amongother of music thus of symbol. ticularly.which in Gleichnis[or"metaphors:" knowledge symbols presses Dionysian forms ofexpressen]" (GT 16. Mythtookthe things.KSA 1." mythical 66In GT. (KSA 1. impact. Truths are illusions and binding worn-out without that are illusions..." argued: of metaphors. employs use of these Whilea detailed of Nietzsche's in meaning. in short. heightened.166 on Thu. 65See GT 23.and metaphor:66 "thecapacity exthetragic to myth.22. 145:"[W]ithout natural culture losesthe healthy every myth andunifies a whole a horizon ofitscreativity: defined bymyths completes only power lawsthan the no more unwritten ..64 [aufsich seemto have viewof mythology of thisRomantic Severalstrands in GT. study anycleardistinction in meaning wouldbe necessary fora full and anydistinctions terms. in whichtheeternal been taken cycleof opup by Nietzsche more excellence the doctrine as and. 107).. we maytakeall ofthese forourpurposes ofNietzsche's understanding Sprachlehre. enriched.Metapher) (Symbol. inthat work Nietzsche oftheformer outofthelatter. Whatis truth? A mobilearmy metonyms.. longuse seem solid. sensory metaphors they p.poetry. Nietzsche without all of theseterms Bild. Onlyone yearlater.andparticularly to givebirth myth. spirit observation returns selbst and zuriick] [kehrt hingewiesen]. Yelle Robert backon itself is pointed andstriving human sandfold stimulated. 4: 666.p. Extra-Moral he Sense.and David Parent. University 246-57at 250. anthropomorphisms. Eventhestate knows cultural movement powerful and itsgrowth from with that itsconnection foundation religion mythical guarantees notions. 67Translated in SanderGilman. placed thehighest possiblevaluation withmusic.

p. fied"(GT 5. Nietzsche's valuation ofmyth is thusencompassed within a radicalmonism in which"itis onlyas an aesthetic that existence andtheworld areeternally phenomenon justiThis which is KSA as 1. abolished and inverted Plato's even is a neously hierarchy: philosophy form ofmyth.every order. Whenthey horror see totheir howlogiccoilsupat these boundaries bitesitsown andfinally tail. The death of myth couldbe traced butdynamic backto Socrates and Euripides. Nietzsche andpoetry and devaluation simulta(or myth).166 on Thu.22. 47). and cyclical. all things moveina doubleorbit" (GT 19. concealed Forthe shipwreck.deeplymoved. [German music]is the and which and from toward which. suchboundary reach. purifying as intheteaching ofthegreat Heraclitus ofEphesus.. (GT 9. tragic insight to be needs art a and as endured.. Thisrebirth is symbolized overcoming by thecirclein several most in the Section endofthe 15. ofthecircle ofscience hasaninfinite number the gates of present and future: will this"turning" lead to ever-new of geniusand ["Umschlagen"] configurations 68".KSA 1. mennevertheless e'er half their time andinevitably. rightfully regarded one of Nietzsche's mostradicaldoctrines.suffers where itsoptimism. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . therebirth of myth wouldoccurthrough the of and would at the same the selftime. fire-spirit pure. 128). produce circleofeffects a newworld which found on theruins oftheold onethat has magical amid all our culture beenoverthrown" KSA ". agency Wagner. 1.162. ofphilosophy. every his eventhemoral world his actions also a higher mayperish through actions. Here we knock... idea.TheRebirth Eternal Recurrence Nietzsche's ofMyth?: 195 to Plato'sdistinction GT is an explicit between riposte philosophy ofthelatter. p. 65). represent. [S]cience. merely protection remedy.p. of insight which.spurred by itspowerful speedsirresistibly intheessenceoflogic. echoes someof Creuzer's contentions the and of theimage concerning superiority inevitability (Bild) as a basisfor thought.suddenly thenewform breaksthrough. passages.. For Nietzsche. This content downloaded from 187.68 notably original book: its limits toward illusion. really onlygenuine. thisunity of myth and philosophy was notstatic. andwhilethere periphery is no telling howthiscircle couldeverbe surveyed nobleandgifted completely. albeita debasedform.. theprofound to tellus: though natural poet wants law. points on theperiphery from which onegazes intowhat defies illumination.

symbol depicted edge ofwisdom turns the wise" KSA and 1.p. fully-formed from hisbrain in an instant.196 A. Thisis what is terrible for I in that find man ruins and scattered as over myeyes. especially myth Dionysus Zagreus' andlater reunification andrebirth. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . at of and future" the foreshadows " 'turning' ['Kehre'] gates present thefamous of Zarathustra encounter withtheSpirit of Gravity. a battlefield or a butcher-field. Athena-like.162. (GT against p.22. In myownselfandwhat ofmyself has long finally been in strange landsand scattered all accidents" and among things (KSA 4. KSA 1. that works. that I createand carry into One what is and riddle and dreadful together fragment accident. 9. 178-79.KSA 1. Yelle Robert oftheSocrates whopractices music? (GT 15. tragedy between and theEternal ReDo we then currence. 248) These associations lendsubstance to Nietzsche's lateraffirmations oftheclose relation GT andZa. p. Nietzsche's depiction . what myth comeshometome. 193). (p. conclude that Nietzsche thedoctrine developed of theEternal Recurrence before its arrival in FW 341? long explicit This characterization wouldbe as unjustified as theopposite conclusionnowappears: that there is no precedent theEternal for Recurrence in Nietzsche's earlier it sprang. prefigured in a notefrom late 1870: "The highest sign of the will: thebelief in illusionand theoretical in thetail"(KSA 7. bitesitself pessimism oftheself-overcoming ofphilosophy as a 5[68]). when thepaths ofpastandfuture meetat a gateway inscribed "Moment.. Verily. without relation toexisting currents in his 69See note. 73).166 on Thu. which Nietzsche calls the"mystery doctrine oftragedy" (GT 10. he alludesto this in connection with theEternal Recurrence: "Whatreturns.. myfriends. 101-02)(first especially mine) emphasis The rebirth is oftragedy theself-overcoming ofphilosophy through as the a in "the also hinted thephrase ouroborus.. and: I walkamong menas among thefragments andlimbs ofmen..p. And thisis all mycreating and striving." The rebirth of tragedy is associatedwithbothHeraclitus69 and the of dismemberment Dionysus. 67). preceding This content downloaded from 187.

whichNietzscheintroduced withthe words"tragedy the rebirth of myth a symbol of his middle sophical project skeptical period byHuman. potentially.TheRebirth Eternal Recurrence Nietzsche's ofMyth?: 197 IfNietzsche's roots inRomanticism extended had than thought."represented in GT. acceptedvalues. He relies onNietrejection of his ownphilosophy intothree zsche's division (described periods theearly Romantic is separated from themaabove).22. elements in hismature which somehavetherefore labeled philosophy. Whatare we to make of such a resurfacing of Romantic ideas in Nietzsche'smature in his most Za book philosophy. a such is conclusion However. ora complete ofmyth.theWillto Power. predicted simplistic complicated contradicted and parodying and.166 on Thu. I wouldhasten interpretation to pointout that Nietzsche the eternal employed cycleof opposites. This content downloaded from 187.In thepreface to the1886 edition. Nietzsche 70Grottanelli 18. oftheRomantic idea of a profound truth embodied in nature. Such a division a simple greatest precludes of Romanticism. which himoriginally was for a mythic forthephiloidea. inaugurated All TooHuman("MA"). itis also thecase that roots those nourished previously thefurthest leavesandbranches ofhisphilosophy. deeper beenobserved. by the critical. implying the refusal of all ethical.70 Grottanelli we avoidtheextremes that of suggestwiselysuggests mature either a straightforNietzsche's ingthat philosophy represented ward return tomyth. Nietzsche's continuity Whileendorsing this inbroadoutline. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .162. affirmed and theEternal Return as guidelines Life. categories. and philosophical This is the religious. which period ture a middle in which the his period by period expressed philosopher scientism and skepticism. opposite religious intuited the Volk and in and by expressed symbol myth. important and centraldoctrine of the EternalRecurrence? It is tempting to concludethatthe EternalRecurrence." Theparadoxical ofNietzsche's use ofmythical andimagesduring names quality his third in lies the fact that the German used suchnames period philosopher and symbolsto indicatehis stancethatdeniedthe possibility of reaching a or attacked and reversed and philosophical religioustruth. Cristiano has framed Grottanelli theproblem well: "antimythic.

themost"despised"(verachteten) of producing gold outof precisely evenoutofexcrement. myth as merehindbe dismissed of course. 325-26.and"Nietzsche's This content downloaded from 187. KSA2.5. p. p.thenI am lost. p. even with the conclusion ifthis end asked:"What that. [verachteten] thenewart"chemturn to takea scientific zscheappears by terming in the much closer to alchemical sounds his work. chemistry might from colorsare extracted themostglorious base. p." fearful Through repetition goddessand mater Nietzsche to theouroborus. 16[43]. Thisouroboric (MAVorrede curls round "Loneliness surrounds ther him. Nietzschearguedthatit is necessary assessment of metaphysics and to move beyonda merely negative 71Letter to Franz to GeorgBrandes.KGB 111. evendespised here.71 substances. heart-constricting.dung.KGW VII. andKGW VII. to his earlier attachment and from himself myth. opusalchymicum".3. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions makegold even out of this. and an allusion ofhomonyms placedMA ifNietzsche in MA This suggests thecycleof opposites." aesthetic a "chemistry of moral. 23-24). andrecreate he was torejoin later. Such an interpretation may." description base substances) are reconciled. destroyed separated inZa.166 on Thu. as theart of alchemy whichrevealhis concept his notesand letters. p. may a sortof hidden to myth" in mind. [um[umringt] specified: that ever more him. 1882.162. havehad a "return agenda. ("If art. 17). letter I 312 don't discover the alchemist's December 25. intothree division of his philosophy Nietzsche's However. Also in Part One of MA. 301. jectedtheabsolute and ideas and feelings. p. apart thought: is furbehavior ihnreizt) 3. strangling. 318-19. 297." him" was what attracts "He tears earlier (Er zerreisst. ringelt] the saeva cupidinum. Yelle in which he turned on his that book as a "great described separation. within that. and lead (or other whichopposites is several This confirmed into turned gleaming by passagesin gold.KGB III. NietKSA substances?" 2. Overbeck. p. 218-19. May 23.p. istry. all citedin Perkins. 1888. Although (MA 1.198 Robert A. timeof writing MA.1. that Nietzsche are indications And there riodsis also hindsight. threatening."). "Analogistic Strategies". In theveryfirst aphorism that we need between distinction argued opposites. 7[155]. the he reof thatwork.22.1.

as we have seen.22. have taken Nietzsche symbol may specific oftheretrograde movement ofthechariot from orespecially Creuzer forwhom.162. represented union ofopposites. rather the theseelements harmonize with. in continue to mark Nietzsche's as philosophy originating Romantic ideasofmyth. withmyth. themost idea of thecycleof opposites. mature contains Nietzsche's critical. Whatdoes remainconsistent." elements be described justly might certainly the Bachofen. Bewegung] [riickldiufige 41): p. As we a form (Umwertung This content downloaded from 187. in whichNietzsche theone from including appearsto attack myth. remain consistent. in manypassages Moreover. finest todate.TheRebirth Eternal Recurrence Nietzsche's ofMyth?: 199 of their value. howmankind's camefrom He must advancement recognize greatest [metaphysiifonedidnottakethis onewouldrobhimself cal ideas]andhow. He described to a positive this religion appreciation a movement" as "retrograde (MA 20. metaphysics. KSA 2. is hisrejection couldbe any throughout and his use the to this absolute of circle symbolize rejection. MAjustquoted.. ofhisowndevelopment as a philosopher. constitutes of thiscycle. Nietzsche thus thecycleofopposites to employed of the the content his but also form not symbolize merely philosophy. certainly philosophy andparodying that as "antimythic. in some Christianity.166 on Thu. religion. KSA 5. KSA 2. fromGT onward oftheideathat there hiscareer. religion. 41-42) (MA 20. he is actually the "faith in values" attacking opposite he associated with (JGB2. opposites. and as well as. endofthetrack. However. ironic.the "Revaluation aller Werte).. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . A brief showsthat analysis of All Values" nihilistic idea of the late period. itis necessary as inthehippodrome. especially does not Nietzsche'susage of the term"myth" cases. totakea turn atthe superiority. even whenseparated from the category of "myth. 16) which variously philosophy. it is essential to keep in mindthat. p. p. Thosewhoaremost ofmankind's accomplishments enlightened ofmetaphysics and lookbackon itwith can go onlyas faras to free themselves whilehere. completely rejecting the theEternal Recurrence." These features. in metaphysics whatis positive and The movement reintegrating after first follows thepattern of them. retrograde step.

Nietzscheemployed verbalformulas whichdepictthe Eternal Recurrence the of a term.. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." inan attempt a newmyth. 15). In this he tried accomto par excellence."Attempt KSA 1. this'new soul' . "tragedy begins. KSA 1. (GT 16. withNietzscheZarathustra is playedby role thatin the earlywritings playingthe remythifying Wagner.p.166 on Thu..KSA 1. 111).the formula the word"value" (Wert).72 tocreate He later criticized GT on agency thesegrounds: "It should havesung.more "about." generally.200 Robert A.. birth andlookedto Wagner for thefulfillment of this predicinZa. p." my name or the word"Zarathustra" The entire of thedithyrambic is a picture artist of thepre-existent picture poet 721. way. must thetragic to express idea prophet employ symbols the Eternal Recurrence. Nietzsche to his earlyWagner refers in (1876): Bayreuth decisiveplaces. 60).Megill 81: "The motif of a 'return to myth'.162. whereas therephilosophy predicted of myth.. (GT 8. one need nothesitate to putdown [I]n all psychologically wherethe texthas the word"Wagner." (GT. encodestherepetition and reflexivity that are identifying of thecircle. 107) himself. where Nietzsche calledonhisownpoetic tion.and precisely .p. If thecontent ofNietzsche's remained conphilosophy remarkably it maybe suggested thatthemoredistinctive feature of his sistent. In theessayon GT in EH. mature in GT he hadonly is that. For the"genuine in described is GT. and to becomehimself the"Socrateswho practices music"(GT 15..f. in his own later work the reconciliation of and plish poetry philosophy.toobad that notspoken! WhatI hadto saythen I didnotdaresayit as a poet:perhaps I hadtheability" ata Self-Criticism.expresses Dionysian in KSA is that Nietzsche the 1.The phrasecarries markers even richer of nuancesin theGerman because theprefix whichsignifies "um-"." or. "inversion. "metaphor poet" nota rhetorical buta vicarious he actually beholds in figure imagethat of a The KSA of Niet1. Yelle have seen.GT persists."through a play on "Revaluation way. 101-02. edge symbols" ofDionysus. p.p." "around. place concept" consequence zsche'sargument that "thetragic knowlmyth.22.. In thesame through repetition key of All Values." This content downloaded from 187.

Boththecontent andtheform of expression ofNietzsche's Eternal Recurrence from theRomantic ideaofthecyborrowed mythological cle ofopposites. 314) The section in question claimsthat in visibleand "thinks Wagner sensible notin concepts.that processes [Vorgiingen].. this. people [Volk] alwaysthought." sources." ofthecontraries. which is to say." A morefit"myth" of Nietzsche's than either of these terms is tingdescription project Creuzer's notion of a Heraclitus who "philosophizes Zoroastrically.162. 340. recognizehowandwhy Nietzsche claimed with that. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p. "tragedy begins:" itis a symbol for hismature as theapotheosis ofhisearlier. developing intothecentral of his mature doctrine The transmutation philosophy. withabysmalprofundity sketched and without even touching fora moment theWagnerian At the of section 9 the reality.74 Without that theEternal usingsymbols concluding Recurrence a rebirth of we can now representedsimple myth. 73Cf.." we learn thestyle that ofZarathustra is noneother than themythic. It matters little whether progression we label theEternal Recurrence or "antimyth." (KSA p.22. 344. not a thought... style beginning of Zarathustra is described withincisive and anticipated. [myth] [verkiinstelten] a thinking "Zarathustra" I. unaesthetic culture butrather itself is suppose. conception Thatcher 248 n. mythological spite onward ofthecycleofopposites. 28. he thinks as the have At mythically. 485)73 Substituting for"Wagner. certainty p.. ofa Romantic almost in ofitself. This content downloaded from 187.. Nietzsche his Romantic Although rejected explicitly thisdoes notseemto havekepthimfrom thisidea roots.(KSA 6. [Denken].Nietzsche's later on thestyle ofZarathustra comments in EH. suits the doctrine.166 on Thu.TheRebirth Eternal Recurrence Nietzsche's ofMyth?: 201 of Zarathustra." appears thesamepassagefrom justgiven. philosophy Romantic self. KSA 6. 74WhenNietzsche came acrossthe(false) etymology of Zarathustra as "Starof which in Creuzer as thephrase but Gold. also inother he claimed to discover init "theentire ofhiswork. of myth the foundation as the children of an lies.

Yelle ROBERT A.162.22.202 Robert A. The Divinity School This content downloaded from 187. 18 Apr 2013 02:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . YELLE TheUniversity ofChicago USA IL 60637. Chicago.166 on Thu.

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