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C entral L uzon S tate U niversity

WOMEN IN PUBLIC SERVICE: A QUALITATIVE STUDY ON THE FACTORS OF MOTIVATION OF WOMEN ON THE THREE BRANCHES OF THE GOVERNMENT

JOSEPH NIKOLAI BERMILLO CHIOCO

An undergraduate thesis submitted to the faculty of the Department of Social Sciences,College of Arts and Sciences, Central Luzon State University,Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of

BACHELOR OF ARTS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES

APRIL 2013

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APPROVAL AND ACCEPTANCE SHEET The undergraduate thesis entitled WOMEN IN PUBLIC SERVICE: A QUALITATIVE STUDY ON THE FACTORS OF MOTIVATION OF WOMEN ON THE THREE BRANCHES OF THE GOVERNMENT prepared and submitted by JOSEPH NIKOLAI B. CHIOCO in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF ARTS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES is hereby approved and accepted.

GIAN CARLO E. BUMANLAG Adviser ___________________________ Date

MA. EDITHA N. LIM, Ph.D. Critic ______________________ Date

PEACHY D. ARAZA Department Research Coordinator ____________________________ Date Accepted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

PROF. ALFREDO V. MANANGAN Department Chair __________________________ Date

ROSALIE R. RAFAEL, Ph.D. College Research Coordinator ___________________________ Date

RENATO G. REYES, Ph.D. Dean _______________________ Date

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Personal Information Name Birthdate Address : : : Joseph Nikolai Bermillo Chioco February 6, 1993 83 Romano St. Brgy. Rafael Rueda, San Jose City, Nueva Ecija Joseph Adlai Ramos Chioco Myla Bermillo Chioco

Name of Father : Name of Mother :

Educational Background

Pre-Elementary : Elementary :

Manuel V. Gallego Foundation College Philippine Statesman College Bethany Christian Academy

(1998-2000) (2000-2001) (2001-2005) (2005-2008) (2008-2009)

High School

University Science High School CLSU St. Joseph School of San Jose City

College

AB Social Science (Political Science & History) Central Luzon State University (2009-2013)

Contact Information Cellphone Number Email Address : 09261645617 : josephnikolai@yahoo.com

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researcher worked hard for the success of this study. Though he attributes most of his success on his hard work and perseverance, there are several people who helped him through the course of his study and the conduct of this research. To his family for their support, guidance and inspiration throughout the conduct of this thesis which is emotionally and financially exhausting. To Ms. Precious Khay Hipolito who gave him moral support and inspiration. To Mr. Gian Carlo E. Bumanlag, for the assistance and guidance that he gave from the conceptualization process to the end of this research. To Prof. Ma. Editha N. Lim, the research critic whose opinions and suggestions had contributed in the final structure of this research. To Ms. Peachy D. Araza for her constructive criticisms made for this study and for being considerate in several situations which the researcher had fell into. Moreover, she introduced the interesting and enriching field of Social Science to the researcher. To all the professors and instructors who shared their knowledge with the researcher. They are all instrumental on the accumulation of the researchers knowledge which he used on the conduct of this research and definitely will be used in the future. More importantly, to the participants of this study: Mayor Marivic V. Belena, Councilor Glenda F. Macadangdang, and Executive Judge Cynthia M. Florendo, for their accommodation of my request and sincere cooperation with this research. Thank you very much.

TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF APPENDICES ABSTRACT CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Rationale Statement of the Problem Objectives of the Study Significance of the study Scope and Limitation of the Study 1 3 3 4 4 6 PAGE viii ix x xi

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES History of Women in the Philippine Politics Measurements of Gender Equality Gender Equality in the Philippines Women entering the Politics Motivations Difference motivations to enter public service between men and women 8 10 12 14 15 17

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Channel of Entry into the Politics Deterrents on Entering Politics Social, Political, and Economic roles of Women CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY Conceptual Framework Operational Definition of Terms Research Design Sampling Participants of the Research Locale of the Study Method Instrumentation

18 19 20

21 22 24 26 26 27 28 28

CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Profile of the Participants Individual Description of the Profile of the Participants Comparative description of the Profile of the Participants Motivational Factors of the Participants Individual Description of Motivation of the Participants 39 30 36

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Comparative Description of Motivation of the Participants CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Conclusion Recommendation BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES

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65 70 72 75

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Profile of the Participants Table 2: Motivational Factors of the Participants

34 54

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Conceptual Paradigm of Research

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LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix A: Request Letter for Mayor Marivic V. Belena Appendix B: Request Letter for City Councilor Glenda F. Macadangdang Appendix C: Request Letter for Executive Judge Cynthia M. Florendo Appendix D: Guide Questions for Interview Appendix E: Transcription of Interview with Mayor Marivic V. Belena Appendix F: Transcription of Interview with City Councilor Glenda F. Macadangdang 75 76 77 78 79 88

Appendix G: Transcription of Interview with Executive Judge Cynthia Martinez-Florendo 99

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ABSTRACT This study was conducted to identify and describe the profile of the top women public servants in San Jose City, Nueva Ecija from executive, legislative, and judiciary branch of the government and their motivations in their pursuant of public office as well as its similarities and differences depending on their branch of government. Mayor Marivic V. Belena, Councilor Glenda F. Macadangdang, and Executive Judge Cynthia M. Florendo were the participants of this case study who shared their experiences and their motivation. The said elective public officials came from prominent political families in the locality that had been their linkage of entry into politics. It was found out that their personal ambition had been a factor of motivation in their pursuit to public service which can be traced back to their childhood. All of them have ambition for the community but only those from the executive and legislative can realize this ambition through their entry in public service. Each motivational factor is different from one another and so how they view politics. However, their views on public service are just the same as they unanimously cited that the emergence of women in public service is an indicator of the development of gender equality. Moreover, they all agreed that the Philippine Society does not entirely offer equality between men and women. But all of them had agreed that there are still more men who are brilliant in public service. This finding had supported that a public servant does not necessarily be a politician but a politician is automatically a public servant.

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These women in public servant all have high self-esteem due to the nature of their job and they based their morality on religious ideologies. Meanwhile, their motivational factors include the satisfaction of basic needs enumerated by Steven Reiss and Abraham Maslow. Their motivation is a mixture of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as they entered politics for themselves and for other external factors.

Chapter I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Philippines had been one of the top countries which have the least gap on measurement of gender equality between male and female and the most gender equality based on measurements which have concrete criteria on the computation and considers several factors. Asian cultures are notorious on their unfair treatment between men and women. This stereotyping by more liberal cultures from the west resulted on Chinas onechild policy or abortion of female fetus. Other traditions of Asian cultures are the elongation of the necks of their women or the suppression of foot growth or lotus feet among other cultures (Reuters, 2007, par. 4). However, in the Philippines it is different compared to other Eastern cultures; Filipinos give high regard on the women as the other half of population. In fact, global rankings of gender equality ranked the pearl of the orient first on Southeast Asia and 8th worldwide (WEF, 2012). Nueva Ecija, one of the largest provinces in the Philippines, is composed of twentyseven (27) municipalities and five (5) cities. According to the official records of the Commission on Elections, the number of local and national government posts held by women in Nueva Ecija significantly increaserd from five percent (5%) to seventeen (17%) in a span of 10 years. In the recent 2010 national elections, five (5) out of thirtytwo (32) chief executive posts are taken by women; while two (2) out of four (4) districts in Nueva Ecija are represented by women in congress. Meanwhile, thirty

percent (30%) of the provincial board and twenty two percent (22%) of the vice

mayoralty posts are occupied by women (COMELEC, 2010). Even though the number of women holding public offices could not yet be considered as significant, the increase in their number is somewhat significant given the fact that the Filipino politics is patriarchal in nature (Kritz, 2008, para. 3). Nowadays, 2013 National Elections campaign period just started and in Nueva Ecija alone, at least a dozen of candidates for local and congressional elections are women. However, women emerge in politics not only through elections but through their hard work, intelligence, and education. As a case in point, is the recent appointment of Chief Justice Ma. Lourdes Sereno on the states top judicial post. In San Jose City, a peaceful second class city in the northern part of Nueva Ecija, is dominantly governed by men. However, top government posts are occupied by women on Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Branch of the Government. Of course, it is apparent that men are far different than women from their behaviors, principles, socializing skills, and even political philosophies. In San Jose City, development can easily be noticed since the City Mayor who is a woman assumed the position after winning the elections back in 2007. Local residents of the northern Nueva Ecija City suggest that the good governance of the said Mayor led the City to its progress. Since then, several women had emerged on the public service sector of San Jose City in both legislative and judiciary branches of the government.

This research entitled Women in Public Service: A Qualitative Study on the Factors of Motivation of Women in the Three Branches of the Government determined the motivations of women to enter public service of San Jose City. Rationale Since the researcher is a resident of San Jose City, Nueva Ecija, he observed the emergence of women in the field of public service wherein the top officials of both elective and appointive positions from the three branches of government are women. This interesting phenomenon had caught the interest of the researcher who had high respect to the Filipino women and an advocate of womens rights and gender equality himself. Statement of the Problem The study entitled Women in Public Service: A Qualitative Study on the Factors of Motivation of Women on the Three Branches of the Government identified the characteristics and background of the emergence of women in public service of San Jose City Nueva Ecija. 1. What are the profile of women public servants in terms of: a. Age b. Age when entered public service c. Political Background of Family d. Educational Background e. Number of Children

f. Private Profession/Occupation 2. What are the personal factors that motivated the women in public service 3. What are the economic factors that motivated the women in public service 4. What are the socio-political factors that motivated the women in public service Objectives of the Study 1. To describe the profile of notable women holding the top public offices in the three branches of government in San Jose City Nueva Ecija 2. To determine the factors that motivated the women public servants to enter or pursue public service 3. To enumerate the similarities and differences of the motivations of women on the three branches of government Significance of the study Earlier in this research, the rationale for the conduction of this research was structurally and comprehensibly laid down by the researcher. This study entitled Women in Public Service: A Qualitative Study on the Factors of Motivation of Women in the Three Branches of the Government is beneficial to the following individuals or entities that have issues or relationships regarding the emergence of women in public service and their factors of motivations and political philosophy: Women in Public Service This group of people benefit from this study as they acquired knowledge on the factors of motivation and political philosophies of these most successful

women in public service of San Jose City, Nueva Ecija that they can pattern their own deeds. Government of the Republic of the Philippines This institution benefit from this study as they are able to identify the motivations of the most successful personnel of the government. This enabled them to implement new rules and regulations or programs which may improve the current situation of the government and further empower women. Filipino Women This sector or rather the significant half of the population benefit from this study as several factors of motivation on why women enter public service was revealed. This will inspire many Filipinas to engage on political affairs of the country therefore further empowering them socially, politically, and

economically. Future Researchers This research benefits the future researchers as the knowledge which are compiled and accumulated through this research is useful as references of their future studies. This study will make research on topics relating to women in public service, politics, and motivational factors much easier as the data and the ideas was discussed and became available. This research served as a significant part on the chain of studies regarding gender equality and women empowerment.

Scope and Limitation of the Study The study Women in Public Service: A Qualitative Study on the Factors of Motivation of Women in the Three Branches of the Government studied the factors that urged the three women in the top positions of public service of San Jose City, Nueva Ecija. Though this research was expected to provide information that ranges from personal to political details of these women, the results did not properly represent the factors of motivation of women on public service in the entire Philippines. However, the results of this research described the variables mentioned above on San Jose City, Nueva Ecija since the women who holds the top positions in Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branch of the local government unit of San Jose City were chosen as the participants. The second class city located in the northern part of Nueva Ecija has at least sixty (60) women that involve in public service in either appointed or elected positions. It excludes the women who hold career positions in the government agencies of the city. Majority of them serves as Brgy. Councilors and Captains. However, this research focuses on the factors of motivation of women on the elite positions namely City Mayor, City Councilor, and Executive Judge. Political strategies of these women were not tackled since the study recognized the participants of this study as public servants and not as politicians. Rationale for this decision by the researcher was the very wide scope of the research if the political aspects of their lives were discussed. In addition, not all of the women on public service acquire power through politics by means of elections.

The method of data gathering is purely qualitative since this research requires a detailed description of the variables. The profile of the participants was not treated statistically due to their very small quantity.

Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Several studies had been published throughout the Philippines and around with regards to the emergence of women on the political arena. These studies were the basis for the conceptual framework of the study as well as theories which could be used for the formulation of the research structure. Different techniques in sampling, data gathering, and writing styles were gathered from these studies. This chapter provided for the compilation of the published literature and studies used in this study. History of Women in the Philippine Politics In the Philippines, the political arena is dominated by the male population because of the fact that women are given political rights much later than the men who claimed to have established the government. Since the granting of the political rights of women in 1935, only few government posts have been handled by women even though the Philippines is known world-wide as a country which promulgates the equal rights of men and women. According to Patria C. Agustin, during the pre-colonial era, Filipino women are given high government posts with high self-esteem. However, colonial masters have limited women in the culture of silence. A century ago from the Philippines independence on the chauvinistic Spanish colonial masters, the Filipinas are now emerging from the culture of silence which the 377 years in convent (Constantino, 1966) have inculcated in their minds.

Twenty Seven (27) years ago, a social movement of the Filipino ousted the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos who is very popular and powerful. This historic moment that inspired other people from all parts of the world to fight for their rights and freedom without shedding blood instilled a woman on the top executive position of the country. This marks the restoration of democracy and promulgation of women empowerment. The late-president Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, the widow of the assassinated Ninoy, became the icon of democracy not only on the Philippines but to the rest of the world. In fact, she was named by the highly prestigious Time magazine as the person of the year. She is one of the few women who held the position that was once called as man of the year. More than a decade later, another revolution occurred on the same spot mimicking the event that happened Fifteen (15) years earlier. This time, an actorpolitician was ousted from presidency due to charges of graft and corruption. Another woman, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo assumed the office after the Supreme Court acknowledged her eligibility to be the president. Unlike the presidency of Mrs. Aquino, Arroyos administration was filled with controversies that include corruption, election fraud, human rights violation, etc. As an economist, this daughter of a former president led the country to economic development despite the global financial crisis. All in all, the presidency of these two women on the history of the Republic on the South East Asia gave way to other women in the Philippines to pursue public service on the Philippine government.

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From patriarchal to a gender sensitized nation, the Philippines have transformed in accordance with their 21st century colonial master. This country could even exceed the Gender equality of the United States. Measurements of Gender Equality Women are given the right to vote, laws are legislated for their protection, and they enjoy almost equal economic opportunity with their male counterparts. It is noticeable that women have been empowered throughout the past century due to their emergence or rather an uprising on the social, economic, and political barriers. However, this empowerment does not apply on all the parts of the globe. Due to calls for equality for womens rights on many parts of the globe, it is important to promulgate the equality that free countries like the United States, Canada, Philippines, United Kingdom, etc. enjoy. The first step to that promulgation is identification of countries with least gender equality. As a solution, social watch formulated a ranking system wherein several indicators of gender equality are considered. The non-profit organization has been developing this computation of gender equality since 2007. Since then, it can be observed from the rankings that women from European countries enjoy most rights while women from the Middle Eastern countries enjoy the least rights and privileges. They also suffer most from gender inequality. In the 2012 rankings of the system, the Philippines outranked the United States of America, a country which prides themselves with equality and freedom among all races and gender. The fast developing country has a computed GEI of Seventy Six (76) while the great country from the west has only Seventy Two

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(72). The Philippines level of gender equality does not trail by too much on the worlds number one on gender equality, Norway which has a GEI of Eighty Nine (89). Even after the decade of the ousting of the extreme sexist Taliban by bringing in of democracy by the United States, Afghanistan is considered to be the worst place to be for a woman. It only has equity points of Fifteen (15): an outlier on the array of low ranking countries. Social watchs Gender Equity Index (GEI) considered several factors on their computation. This includes the 3Es of gender equality which is Education, Economic activity, and Empowerment. In this regard, the Philippines got One Hundred (100) on Education, Sixty Seven (67) on economic activities, and Sixty One (61) on Empowerment. Unfortunately, the results showed that no country really showed equality among men and women as the gap on their equalities does not reach the acceptable level. Another ranking system had been made by World Economic Forum in Geneva Switzerland for the year 2012. This system computed the gaps between the equality of men and women on One Hundred Thrity Five (135) major economies. This Global Gender Gap report ranked Philippines 8th worldwide ahead from other European and North American countries. Several national attributes such as Economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, political empowerment, and health and survival. In these two measurements of Gender Equality, it is found out that the economic progress of a country does not affect the treatment between men and women.

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Gender Equality in the Philippines Since a structured measurement of gender equality was established by both the Social Watch and the Global Economic convention through the Gender Equity Index (GEI) and Global Gender Gap Report, it is now easier to describe the situation of women on each country. However, like most statistical data, these figures that were presented by these two systems cannot be considered as One Hundred Percent (100%) accurate due to insufficient number of samples or observations made and any other forms of data gaps. The researcher would like to describe the current situation of women on the barometers of gender equality both quantitatively and qualitatively. Education is one of the determining variables used by the GEI. On their rankings, the Philippines gathered One Hundred (100) equity points on this category. National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) of the Philippines released a data stating that Eighty Eight point Sevent (88.7%) of women have functional literacy. It is higher than the functional literacy rate of men which is Eighty Four point Two (84.2%). It is astonishing how women dominated this list despite the patriarchal practice of Filipino families to prioritize the education of the male members. During the early 90s, Filipino women swarmed into the healthcare industry particularly in nursing to seek opportunities abroad to have social mobility in the capitalist society. Most women became the bread-winners of the family due to their education which could have played a major role on the empowerment of women.

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Nowadays, the number of the Male college dropouts continues to rise while women dominate the stage during graduation rites. It could mean a further development on the empowerment of women on the near future. Economically, women are almost as equal as empowered by men. Not that they are on the disadvantaged part of the inequality but they actually is on the top. The same statistical data by NSCB for the year 2012 showed that women are more powerful economically than male. A Filipina averages Php. 230,000 annually while her male counterpart averages only Php. 200,000. Despite all of these details, men still hold the role of the head of the family. Politically, majority of the members of the Philippine civil service are women. This made them empowered enough to voice out their problems as women since they virtually control more than the governmental processes. However, only Eighteen point Four (18.4%) of the Philippines elective positions are held by women. Despite of these obvious advantages that women enjoy towards Filipino men, they are still victimized by several abuses where most of the assailants are male. Fortunately, the Philippine legislation where most prominent members include Miriam-Defensor Santiago, have established a legal support for women by making the Violence against Women and Children (VAWC) into law.

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Women entering the Politics More than half of the world population is eligible to run for public office. However, only few have attempted to pursue these offices. In fact, only Four point Seven (4.7) percent of the countries are led by women worldwide. Inter-Parliamentary Union (2008) had stated that there are many factors that affect a potential candidates decision to contest and election or join a parliament. The body enumerated these factors such as motivational factors, personal ambition, financial commitment, the likelihood of winning and access to political power. It also stated that the friendliness of the environment to a certain political candidate affects his/her decision on pursuing a public office. Filipina women are highly regarded by the society due to the latters matriarchal orientation instilled in the mind since they were children. Filipinos respect their mother too much unlike their western counterparts; Filipina mothers dedicate themselves largely on the nurturing their children from breastfeeding, taking a bath, telling bed time stories, etc. One of the famous examples of an excellent relationship between a mother and the children is of Dr. Jose Rizal, the Philippines national hero and her mother Theodora Alonzo. According to the biography of the hero, it can be noticed that he is much closer to his mother than his father. He considers his mother as his own childhood hero and the first teacher. He even wrote his first poems for his mother. From this example, it can be illustrated how Filipinos love the mothers, how the Filipino society respected the women.

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Motivations There are several theories of motivation. However, most scholars classify motivations into two: intrinsic and extrinsic. Wigfield, A., Guthrie, J. T., Tonks, S., and Perencevich, K. C. (2004) cited that: Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for reward. Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1970s. Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities. Extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as money or grades. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide (Brainbridge, N.D., para. 1). Other theory of motivation includes Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs wherein Physiological needs such as hunger, thirst, sleep, etc. are the primary needs of human beings. It is followed by Safety, Sense of Belongingness, Self-esteem, and selfactualization (Simons, Donald, and Beverly, 1987, para. 3). These needs can determine the motivations of women in public service. For example, women enter in politics to get a sense of belongingness as they will be in charge of political affairs. Some women in public service might also be motivated to enter the field to prove something to themselves that they can compete with male counterparts.

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Professor Steven Reiss had enumerated Sixteen (16) desires of human being that serves as motivational factors which can be applied in this study. These are:

Acceptance - the need for approval Curiosity - the need to learn Eating - the need for food Family - the need to raise children Honor - the need to be loyal to the traditional values of one's clan/ethnic group Idealism -the need for social justice Independence - the need for individuality Order -the need for organized, stable, predictable environments Physical activity -the need for exercise Power - the need for influence of will Romance -the need for sex and for beauty Saving - the need to collect Social contact -the need for friends (peer relationships) Social status -the need for social standing/importance Tranquility - the need to be safe

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Vengeance - the need to strike back and to compete

Most people who pursued public service had at least one of these needs as their motivations. Some people needed to be accepted by the society while some are curious about how is it to hold a public office. The need for food of people is basic and therefore it is related to the economic factors of motivation. Another factor that can be related to economic needs is the need to raise children in a good way and the need for a stable environment and safety. Some public servants pursue this career to regain honor or to continue the honor of their family while some people enter this career to promote equality or social justice. Of course, power is a very good motivational factor especially for politicians.

Difference motivations to enter public service between men and women

Pritchard and Ashwoord (2008) defined motivation as the process used to allocate energy to maximize the satisfaction of needs. This statement implies that motivation is driven by the human needs. Overall, the strongest motivation for both women and men was that they wanted to serve their country (Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2008). The same body also quoted that other motivations for women is the improvement of the lives of women followed by the improvement of the lives of the community they live in. Other factors for women include is their desire to be involved on the decision making that affects their lives. For men, on the other hand, the improvement of their community is their second motivation followed by the promulgation of equality between men and women. However, the lowest

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motivation factor for both men and women is their stand on their each political party, encouragement by friends and family, and the community. Channel of Entry into the Politics Most respondents from the study mentioned above stated that the primary channel of entry into the politics of both men and women are through their political parties. However, more women who entered politics are already engaging on social works and different non-government organizations (NGO). These NGOs where many women in public service once belong are advocates of Womens and Childrens rights. In the Philippines, the same entries on the Politics are being used by women. They engage in political parties, became leaders of non-governmental organizations and so on. However, the difference in the Philippines is that politicians rely on the name of their families. Certain politicians are not capable or competitive enough to run for the public office but their families are popular enough to sway the peoples votes on their favor. The same thing goes on with the local politics. Some of the women politicians are just substitutes for their father, brothers, or husbands that are already holding that post just to maintain their control of the politics of their several localities. In some cases, these women on politics even exceed the achievements on development and good governance of their husband, brother or father. Richter (1990) suggested that family ties are important on the success of women in politics specifically in elections. This family ties might be from the politically active male relative. Great example is the success of Corazon Aquino, who took advantage of

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the ties with Senator Benigno Aquino Jr, and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, who took advantage of the relationship with her father, Diosdado Macapagal, a former president. However, Silvestre (n.d.) suggested that it does not reflect the quality of their management of their positions. According to Silvestre (n.d.) another factor that determined the success of women in public service is the linkage of male politicians into corruption. Using the same examples, the two former women presidents of the Philippines gained their positions by the ousting of two male presidents who were charged with corruption. Not only through election can women achieve political power but also on the appointments. The women appointees are skilled enough to do the job but the main factors for their appointment are their close ties with the appointing authority. Despite all these, several women can excel on public service because of their hard work. Deterrents on Entering Politics On a survey conducted by inter-parliamentary union (2008), it is found out that the greatest deterrent for women to enter public service is their domestic roles. These roles are their chores or responsibilities as a mother of the family. Though most female politicians can afford to hire a babysitter, it is important for them to raise their children with their own hands. In fact, a female Greek parliamentarian stated that Women are obliged to start their activities from a different point than men. They arrive at the starting point exhausted, because of other activities, such as family responsibilities.

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Social, Political, and Economic roles of Women Amartya Sen (1999) said that several evidences that when women are given opportunities as men, they can be as equally successful as their counterparts in utilizing the resources usually given to men throughout the years. This is proven in more developed countries where women are given almost equal opportunity with men. She added that the leadership of women can be successful in countries once dominated by women like the Philippines, Sri Lanka, India, etc. The essay points out that men and women are equally capable or ruling political sphere and leading social initiatives and it is just a question of the opportunities (p. 200). In the course of history, it was shown that the economic opportunities are elusive for women. It is very hard for women to put up their own business because of the lack of control on the capital and resources. But history had also shown that women can seize control of business and other economic processes with the same, if not more, success than male businessmen. Sen (1999) also quoted that the involvement of women in economic activities does not merely exist to generate income for women but to create social benefits that can elevate their status and independence in the patriarchal society. Several ideologies regarding the role of women in economy, specifically Marxists had emerged after the industrial revolution. Early ideas state that the womens role in the economy is to give birth on future workers that will later join the work force and affect the national economy. However, radical ideas also emerged from the liberalizations on the 20th century where women can work and contribute on the national economy equally as men but the gender inequalities still emerge in this period.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Conceptual Framework This study investigated the profile and motivational factors of the women in public service in San Jose City, Nueva Ecija to determine its impact on the empowerment of women. In the thesis statement, it is indicated that Age, Age when entered public service, political background of family, educational background, number of children, private profession/occupation, were the profile that the participants was be identified with. However, most of this profile was not used to describe the characteristics of the participants. Only educational background, age when entered public service, political background of family, and private occupation/profession was investigated for its possible relationship with the other concepts. Factors of motivation of the participants was classified into three categories: personal, economic and socio-political. These factors of motivation were investigated for its possible relationship with the profile of the participants. The profile, have or does not have an effect on the factors of motivation of these women to engage or pursue a career in the public service sector of San Jose City.

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Profile of the Participants Educational background Age when entered public service Political Background of Family Private occupation/profession Motivational Factors Personal Economic Socio-Political

Fig. 1: Conceptual Paradigm Operational Definition of Terms Several terms were used in this research which might have a different context in other researches or in its daily use. There are also terms which are not familiar to many people because it requires specialization into a certain discipline. These terms are: Public Service This research defined public service as the act of serving the people by serving the government. Though it can be distinguished to civil service since in the context of this research, public service is those who hold positions and not merely an employee of the government. Public service is service to the people through the government. Employees of government institutions are public servants, and so are

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the politicians. However, a public servant does not necessarily be a politician but a politician is always a public servant (Reddy, 2011). Motivation This research defined motivation as the things or events that urged a certain person to do something. It can either be in form of a reward or punishment. Motivation, in this research came in different forms: It could be personal, economic, and socio-political. Personal Motivation It includes the urges of family members to enter politics, personal ambition, and philosophies. Economic Motivation It includes the salary, and the economic power they can get from entering public service. Socio-Political Motivation It includes the will to empower the women, encouragement of friends, and will to help the community. Executive This research adopted the global or the generally accepted definition of executive on the field of Political Science. It is one of the three branches of government

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responsible for the execution of laws. Each political unit in the Philippines has its own executives be it on the national or local sector of the government. Examples of the executive positions are the President, Governor, Mayor, and Brgy. Captain. Legislative Applying the same definition which is widely used on the political science jargon, this research defines legislative as one of the three branches of government responsible for the legislation or creation of the laws of the land. Legislative bodies on the Philippine government include the Senate, House of Representatives, Provincial Board, City or Municipal council, and Brgy. Council. Judiciary This research defined Judiciary as the branch of the government responsible for the interpretation of laws. Most members of the judicial branch of the government are members of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines. Positions on the Judicial branch of the government include the Justices on different courts around the archipelago. Research Design This research was designed to describe the motivational factors of women on public service therefore it was a descriptive research. According to Strider (2011), Descriptive research provides a detailed profile of an event, condition or situation using either quantitative, qualitative or a combination of methods. Unlike most descriptive studies, this research used the Qualitative design of research. This is the research design

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wherein statistical treatment of data will not be used and the results heavily rely on the analysis of the researcher. The rationale for the use of Qualitative research design was that the data to be gathered in this research was not treated statistically as it was be narrated by the participants as detailed as possible. Cresswell (1994) had enumerated several technique or methods of qualitative designed studies namely phenomenological, ethnographic, grounded theory, historical, case study, and action research. Each research methods have each distinct characteristic from each other. For this research, the method used was the Case Study method. This method is an in-depth examination of people or groups of people. This research examined the current situation of women, a specific group, on public service. The researcher chose the case study method because he believes that it is most suitable due to the characteristics of the participants and the scope and delimitation of the research. In addition, a case study may be considered as quantitative or qualitative research depending on the purpose of the study and the design chosen by the researcher. As is true of other types of qualitative studies, for a case study to be considered as a qualitative study, the researcher must be interested in the meaning of experiences to the subjects themselves, rather than in generalizing results to other groups of people (Younger, 1985).

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Sampling The method on the selection of the participants was purposive sampling. This is a non-probability wherein not all member of the population have the chance to be chosen as participants. Welman and Kruger (2001) argue that non-probability sampling methods are more advantageous as it is less complicated and more economical. Purposive sampling selects participants based on the knowledge of a population and the purpose of the study. The subjects were selected because of the characteristics. Purposive sampling can be very useful for situations where you need to reach a targeted sample quickly and where sampling for proportionality is not the main concern (Crossman, 2010). This form of sampling is typically used in Case studies wherein the design of the study is qualitative. Participants of the Research The participants of this research were the three top officials on public service of San Jose City Nueva Ecija. The first participant is the head of the local government unit and city mayor of the locality Hon. Marivic V. Belena. She is currently serving her second term for the top executive office and is expected to run for the May 2013 elections for her third term on office. She represented the executive department of the government on San Jose City. The second participant represented the legislative branch of the government. Hon. Glenda F. Macadangdang assumed the office on the City council since winning the 2004

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elections garnering the most votes from the populace and repeated its achievement for two consecutive elections (2007 & 2010). The first two participants came from political families and assumed their respective offices through elections. However, the third participant is Hon. Cynthia M. Florendo, is an executive judge on San Jose City Regional Trial Court. She is a member of Integrated Bar of the Philippines and assumed the position through merits and appointments. Locale of the Study This study was conducted on San Jose City, Nueva Ecija. This second-class city might be the most peaceful and politically stable political unit in the province which is a consistent member of Commission on Elections (COMELEC) hotspots. Despite the rampant violence and corruption scandals around Nueva Ecija, San Jose City managed to maintain the peace, order, and good governance on the city. The second largest economy on Nueva Ecija progresses since the end of the last decade relative to the countrys total economic growth. Though majority of the City council members are men, the top positions are being held by women. The executive judge, the top councilor, and the city Mayor control the processes on the three branches of the Philippine government namely Executive, Legislative, and Judiciary. San Jose City is located One Hundred and Sixty (160) Kilometers from the Nations capital and its primary source of income is the agriculture industry.

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Because of its good governance, the LGU of San Jose City gathered dozens of awards since its leadership was passed to a woman. Awards include 2009 Natatanging Punong Lungsod-Civil Service Commission Award (Provincial), 2009 Excellence in Service Delivery-Public Assistance Service and Delivery Audit (PASADA Award Regional), 2009 Top LGU payer from BIR, and other prestigious awards. Method The data for this research was gathered through interview. An interview is an oral interaction between two or more individuals for the purpose of gathering information. The one who are asking the questions are called the interviewer while those who are asked about something is an interviewee. This data gathering procedure is effective on eliciting the data in full detail. However, it has risks of going out of the scope of the research that is why the interviewer needed to moderate his participants. To make it happen, a list of questions was used to guide the flow of discussion between the interviewer and the interviewee. With the participants consent, the researcher audio recorded the discussion for better accuracy. Instrumentation Since the data gathering procedure in this study, the discussion between the researcher and the respondents needed to be transcribed. Fortunately, technology had provided modern day researchers with the equipment needed for successful transcription of the interview.

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These are the instruments to be used in this study: a. Pen and Notebook These probably are the earliest and widely used instrument of data even before the introduction of the new technologies. Most important points or ideas that are tackled on the research will be noted on this instrument together with the outline of the whole discussion. b. Audio/Video Recorder The researcher acknowledges the fact the he is not capable of transcribing the discussion with one hundred per cent accuracy. Therefore, he decided to use a voice recorder to be used for the references on transcribing the research. The device used was Apple iPod Touch 4th generation and Nokia E71 with audio and video recording capabilities. However, these devices was used only with the participants consent. c. ExpresScribe This is a computer software that will enable the researcher to transcribe the audio file in any format be it MP3, WMA, WAV, etc. It has the capability to lower down the speed of the conversation and eliminate distortions for better comprehension of the audio by the transcriber.

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Chapter IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter presented, analyzed, and interpreted the responses elicited from the participants of this study. These were presented in the manner prescribed by the statement of the problem which can be found earlier in this study. The profile of the participants and their motivations in entering public service through personal, economic, and sociopolitical factors was tackled. In the start of this study, several objectives were laid down namely; (1) To describe the profile of notable women holding the top public offices in the three branches of government in San Jose City Nueva Ecija; (2) To determine the factors that motivated the women public servants to enter or pursue public service; and (3) To enumerate the similarities and differences of the motivations of women on the three branches of government. These objectives were answered in this chapter. The researcher described the profile and the motivations of participant individually and comparatively. Profile of the Participants Individual Description of the profile of the participants 1. City Mayor Marivic Violago-Belena Elected at age fourty-six (46) in 2007, Mayor Marivic Belena of San Jose City now fifty-two (52), she currently serves her second term of office as City Mayor of the second-class city. Politics or rather public service is in her blood because she came from a prominent political family in Nueva Ecija. Her father once appointed as Officer in Charge of the City after the start of the Cory Aquino administration, also served for many

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years as the district representative. Her brother also followed the footsteps of their father as he now serves as the representative of the second district of Nueva Ecija. Incidentally, she is married to former Mayor Alex Belena who served two terms as the chief executive of the city. He is also the son of former political rival of Mayor Belenas father and Mayor of San Jose City. Mayor Belena entered the field of business upon finishing her degree in Accountancy on Assumption College in 1981. Eventually, she passed the board examination for Certified Public Accountants (CPA) of the same year. When she was elected as City Mayor, she took a Masters Degree of Public Management in the prestigious Ateneo de Manila University. She is the mother of four (4) children of very young ages. They are three (3) girls and one (1) boy. The reason for this is that Mayor Belena just got married at age thirtyfive (35): considered late by many people. The fourth of six (6) children of a wealthy family, she took over the family business of rice mill which she successfully managed. Her profession of Certified Public Accountant was not really practiced because it was just applied for their business. 2. City Councilor Glenda Felimon-Macadangdang Councilor Glenda Macadangdang is the second daughter of former City Mayor and incumbent Vice Mayor Atty. Jose Felimon. Having few public servants in her family with only her father and her mothers sibling having served as City Mayors of San Jose City and Talugtug, Nueva Ecija, respectively. However, her father is one of the more

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popular leaders of San Jose City as he was elected three times being the first Mayor to finish all the three terms. She had spent the last seventeen (17) years in public service after entering the field at age nineteen (19), elected as Sangguniang Kabataan Chairman at Brgy. Rafael Rueda, San Jose City. A month later, she was elected as the president of the SK federation of the City. Now at age thirty-five (35), she serves as the first councilor of San Jose City. She was elected as the fifth councilor at age twenty-seven (27) and the end of her third term of office is coming to an end. Due to this, she is now running for the vicemayoralty post. She is the mother of two (2) children. Throughout her education, City Councilor Macadangdang studied most of it on public schools being the San Jose West Central School and Constancio Padilla National High School. She studied her early years of elementary on the secular St. Joseph School but later transferred to the public school because of religious differences. She said that financial reasons were not a factor on the choice of her school because she came from a well-off family as her father then serves as the city mayor. She firmly believes that the success of a person depends heavily on himself/herself rather than the school he/she graduated. On college, she took the degree of Business Management on Philippine School of Business Administration. She also enrolled for one (1) semester of Masters degree at Araullo University for Public Administration but she did not finish it. 3. Executive Judge Cynthia Martinez-Florendo The executive judge of San Jose City Regional Trial Court entered public service at age thirty (30) after being admitted to the Integrated Bar of the Philippines. However,

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she started working as instructor in several private academic institutions and also as a private tutor at age twenty-one (21). Currently, at age fourty-six (46), she is now the administrator of the San Jose City Regional Trial Court, a job that was assigned to the executive judges in the Philippines. Without having a political line from the family, she was exposed to government service through her mother and her sister who were both school teachers. The latter served for twenty-two (22) years in a public school before becoming a court interpreter in Dagupan City, Pangasinan, while the former is now retired. Judge Florendo studied in prestigious government schools during her early years as a student. She graduated at Bayambang Central School as elementary and later spent her high school days at Pangasinan State University Laboratory High School. Both of her schools in the primary and secondary level education are located in Bayambang Pangasinan. She took up AB Political Science degree in University of Pangasinan (UPANG), which she said was a mistake because it is unemployable and she was forced to take units of teaching to be employed. She also took up Bachelors of Law at the same university while working part-time as instructor in different universities around Pangasinan. She enrolled in San Beda College for a Masters degree in Law but it was interrupted due to her appointment as judge. Despite her very busy schedule, Judge Cynthia Martinez-Florendo still attends for the needs of her children. She is the mother of three children whom the eldest takes up law at the top tier law institution of San Beda College while the second child studies Social Work at Centro Escolar University, another prestigious school in the Philippines.

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She strived hard to be a lawyer as she worked several jobs to pay for her tuition. She said that aside from being a lawyer, she is a teacher, a respected professor of law in the province of Pangasinan. She also expressed her love for teaching. She is the second of four children of a poor family in Pangasinan. Despite all their hardships and struggles, she said that all of them became professionals. Table 1: Profile of the Participants

Indicators

Participants Marivic Belena V. Glenda F. Cynthia M. Macadangdang Florendo 35 19 46 30

a. Age

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b. Age when entered public 46 service c. Political Family Background

of Father: Former Father: Former None OIC of San Jose City Mayor City incumbent Brother: District Vice Mayor Representative

Husband: Former Mayor

City

Father-in-law: Former City Mayor

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d. Educational background Elementary San Jose West Bayambang Central School Central School Constancio Padilla Pangasinan National High State School Univesity Laboratory High School

High School

College

Post-Grad

Business ManagementBS Philippine Accountancy School of Assumption Business College Administration

AB Political Science University of Pangasinan

Units in Public Management Bachelors of Araullo Law University University MA Public of Management Pangasinan Ateneo De Manila University Units in Masters of Law San Beda College e. Number of Children f. Private Profession/Occupation 4 Businesswoman 2 Business Manager 3 Lawyer, Professor

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Comparative description of the Profile of the Participants a. Age Mayor Marivic Belena is fifty-two (52) years old and Executive Judge Cynthia Florendo is 46 years old. Meanwhile, City Councilor Glenda F. Macadangdang is at least 10 years younger than them at age thirty-five (35). b. Age when entered politics Hon. Marivic Belena served as a businesswoman for more than a couple of decade until her husband urged her to enter into politics. Alex S. Belena, her husband, then the city mayor had only served for his second term and still eligible for re-election but he urged to run for the office. In the elections of 2007, at age forty-six (46), she became the first woman to hold the position as a Mayor. On the other hand, Hon. Glenda F. Macadangdang entered politics much earlier and younger at age nineteen (19). She became the Sangguniang Kabataan for her Barangay, Rafael Rueda Sr. and a month later, elected as the president of SK federation for the whole city. At age twenty-seven (27), she won the fifth slot on the city council and later won the next two elections. She is currently the first councilor of the city. Meanwhile, Hon. Cynthia M. Florendo entered public service upon her admission in the Philippine Bar at age thirty (30). She waited five years before being eligible to be a judge of the trial courts and later executive judge of San Jose City which she holds until now.

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c. Political Background of Family Both public servant-participants who acquired their power through the means of winning the election both came from political families. The City Mayor, Hon. Marivic Belena is the fourth child of former city mayor (OIC) and representative Eleuterio Violago, sister of incumbent representative Gilbert F. Violago, and wife of former mayor Alex Belena. On the other hand, Hon. Glenda Felimon Macadangdang is the second daughter of Hon. Jose Felimon, the incumbent city vice mayor and one of the most accomplished City Mayors in San Jose City having served three terms. Hon. Cynthia M. Florendo does not come from a family of politicians but instead from a family of public servants. Like, Hon. Glenda F. Macadangdang, she is a daughter of a school teacher who taught for years in public schools. Her elder sister also served for more than a decade as a school teacher. d. Educational Attainment The representative of the executive and the legislative branch of the government of San Jose City in this research both graduated in business courses from prominent schools in Metro Manila. The Chief Executive of the city is a Certified Public Accountant having passed the board examination in the year 1981. On the other hand, the first councilor of San Jose Citys educational background can be highlighted by her affiliation in public schools in the city from elementary to high school despite their good economic standing. This is due to her, or probably their families, philosophy of education th at success cannot be determined by the school but by the student him/herself. Moreover, both of them took post-graduate studies on public management but the city councilor

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only spent one semester. However, the city mayor finished the course on a prestigious university to acquire skills and knowledge after she took the mayoralty post. Meanwhile, Judge Cynthia Martinez Florendo might have the most impressive educational background among the three. Aside from finishing her law studies and passing the prestigious Bar examinations, the executive judge of San Jose City have a lot of trainings and seminars that she attended to improve her portfolio. e. Number of Children Mayor Marivic V. Belena and Councilor Glenda Macadangdang are the mothers of four (4) and two (2) children respectively with very young ages. Meanwhile, Judge Cynthia Florendo is the mother of three (3) children wherein two of them are now young adults. f. Private profession/Occupation Hon. Marivic Belena became a Certified Public Accountant (CPA) after passing the board examinations in 1981. However, she did not use it for private practice as she quickly took over the family business of rice mill which she claimed to be very successful. As an accomplished business woman, she managed to expand their business assets and established a very efficient system of operations. Hon. Glenda F. Macadangdang holds a degree in business management, but like the city Mayor, she never used this profession as she entered in public service even before finishing her studies. According to her, her life career became public service. However, she uses her knowledge and skill in managing their business of farming.

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Hon. Cynthia M. Florendo is a well-respected professor of law in different academic institutions in Pangasinan. As a lawyer, she used this profession as her ticket to enter public service. Motivational Factors of the Participants Individual Description of Motivation of the Participants 1. Mayor Marivic Violago-Belena Mayor Marivic Belena admitted that it is never her ambition to be a public servant and a politician. During her childhood, what she wanted was to become a Medical Doctor like her father because she was inspired by the latter of his deeds giving free medical checkups in poor areas. An observation made by the researcher that even though it was not expressed in her words, that in her childhood, helping other people is one of her personal ambitions. But she said that this ambition of being a doctor changed as time progresses. Her primary goal upon finishing her studies was to live in the United States. She also answered very honestly when asked about her ambition for the community. She said that she really does not care about the people before she entered public service because she told that she already is in her comfort zone wherein she can do or buy what she wanted. She said that she only saw the reality by the time she served as a Mayor of the city. The reality that there are still a lot of things to do. In the interview, she said that her primary personal ambition is to recruit capable people in entering politics. She even expressed her willingness to step down for some people who she knows are capable of leading the city and succeeding her position.

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However, it does not necessarily be one of her family members. She said that as much as possible, she does not want to form a political dynasty. She follows a principle that only one Belena will run for public office. For example, if her husband, Alex, ran for elections, she will not run for any position. But she also said that it is inevitable that the people she knew and wanted to enter public service are family members. She also stated that it is very important for her to raise her child by the way she was also raised by her parents while acknowledging the disparity on the behavior and attitudes of kids nowadays. She said that kids nowadays are more stubborn while those in her generation are more obedient. The Mayors view on Public Service is instrumental and beneficial because she said that she learned to appreciate her life more, now that she had entered public service. She stated the decrease in the level of contentment and elevation of the level of fulfillment which means that she will be contented more easily. The level of fulfillment, she said, is dependent on God and only him will decide and judge her as she said the she knew that she will never be perfect in the perspective of the people. Mayor Belenas view of the emergence of women in politics is leaning towards gender equality rather than feminist view. This is due to the fact that she acknowledges that the people often misinterpret that women in politics are better than their male counterparts. Her words impart that men and women have equal capability in running the government. It is just a matter of the time that male and female entered politics. She said that women are now emerging because they were hidden for several years in entering politics by men. She said that whats important is the commitment and quality of service

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which she implied as not relative to the gender of the public servant. Moreover, she claims that there are still more men who are good at politics than women. Meanwhile, the mayor of the prosperous city in the district II of Nueva Ecija enumerated several advantages or rather differences between men and women in politics. She said that women are more patient which means that they are not rushing everything for immediate results. Another difference is the willingness of women to listen to people. The chief executive of San Jose City quickly followed that women have less vices than men who have many side trips or inuman sessions. Her view on the emergence of women in politics symbolizes the gender equality. However, she suggested that double standards still exist nowadays despite the presence of women who are top officials of the government. She also said that the gender equality is not yet perfect even in its main proponent, the United States of America. She said that incidence where men are given more opportunities than women still exist. But given the situation that men and women will be given equal opportunities, she said that the people will not misinterpret the existence of gender equality. She said that those women dared to enter politics are those who have enough skills to compete and outperform their male counterparts. Gilligan studied that self-esteem could be a product of the societys socialization of women. As the society treats women as inferior human beings than men, their selfesteem diminishes. However, this is not the case for Mayor Marivic Belena as she claimed to have a high self-esteem. Not that high that people will misinterpret that shes boastful but high self-esteem that she is proud of herself and have self-confidence.

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She said that her self-esteem comes eventually due to the nature of her job as a public servant. She said that there are thousands of people that she talked to from top government officials to her constituents who are asking for financial assistance. During her childhood, she claimed to have no interest in politics or anything related to it. Even when his father served as Officer in Charge of San Jose City in the late 1980s, she remained a business person. It continued until she is married to her husband who was a city mayor. It was only in 2007 that she involved herself in politics and ran for public office. She said that having high self-esteem is instrumental for her to be appreciated by people and for her subordinates to respect her. She said that self-confidence is very important for the nature of her job. If she cannot show her self-confidence, if she cannot trust herself, what more her employees. Mayor Belena also admitted that socialization to get her current position or the acquisition of power is never her game. It was her husband, former mayor Alex Belena who socializes with people. She said that her field is just to work and serve the people with her best. In fact, she said that she was seldom chosen as ninang sa kasal compared to her husband. She also does not go to birthdays and funerals which traditional politicians do. She said that she thinks that her accomplishments as mayor are enough to convince the people in voting her. She also expressed her desire to have a study that determines the effective strategy or the preferences of the voters of San Jose City whether it is the pakikisama or performance based.

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By the time the researcher asked for the economic benefits as one of her motivations, she laughed and said that entering public service is actually an economic sacrifice. This is because she cannot have another occupation or even practice her own profession. She also needed to give up her economic opportunities as the manager of their family business which she said she earns a lot. Even more than double the government gives her for her very exhausting job. There are also several extra expenses which are not covered by the government like the financial assistance asked by her constituents. She highlighted in her statement that public service is a sacrifice. Fortunately, her family continued her salary despite the fact the she does not work on their family business anymore due to legal constraints. Mayor Marivic Belenas family owns several businesses such as Gasoline station, Cemetery, and Freight services. It does not include the businesses of her siblings businesses and her cousins. Because of these, conflicts of interest often arise. However as a government official, these businesses cannot transact with the government or even join in the bidding. It is a great sacrifice as large potential income is being transferred to their competitors. It can be concluded that the economic factors from the government is not the motivation for Mayor Marivic Belena as they do not even have benefits when they retire. In addition to this, there is a great earning potential for her career when she is not on the field of public service. Mayor Belena said that the opportunity came to her when she was offered by her husband, then incumbent mayor Alex S. Belena, to join the mayoralty race. She refused

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to accept the offer first because she really had no interest in politics or public service on that time. She had doubts on taking the opportunity because public service was never her line due to years of career in business. In order to finalize her decision, she said that she consulted ten people, who she thinks will not lead her to the wrong path. There were three very close friends she consulted from Metro Manila and seven other significant people to her life including her father and daughter in San Jose City. These ten people whom she consulted had a unanimous response that she should enter public service. Most of their rationale is that not all people are given opportunity to run for that prestigious office. However, she never expected those kinds of answers to one of her friends whom she described as critical and skeptical on the government during their college days. Moreover, she was also surprised to his fathers advice that she claimed to have discouraged her during her younger years to enter public service. The top executive of San Jose City said that her political party heavily supported her in running for second term. She admitted that she was willing to withdraw from the race if the party leaders would not support her or would not encourage her to run for public office again because it signifies that they were not satisfied with her performance. She also claimed that she felt confident with her performance on her first term as city mayor. 2. City Councilor Glenda Felimon-Macadangdang During her childhood, councilor Glenda Felimon-Macadangdangs ambition is to be a school teacher. She said that part of her ambition is to help the children but primarily due to her very high respect on this profession. She said that without the teachers, there

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will be no other professionals such as doctors and lawyers. Her mother was a school teacher but she claimed that she heavily discouraged her to enter such profession because of very low salary despite the fact that their job is very difficult and the system is too strict. However, she said that her mother, as a retired teacher, now encourages people to enter this profession. Public service seem to be natural in her system as she said that she will choose government owned schools than private schools if in case that she is a teacher now. Councilor Glenda F. Macadangdang seems to have sympathy to children. One of her popular legislation as the city councilor is the newly ratified San Jose City Childrens Code that provides for the needs of the children and for the formation of their well-being as she believes that someday, they will be assets to the government. Moreover, she also advocates women empowerment and gender development. She admitted that the primary motivation in her entry to public office is to continue what her father did as city mayor. She said that she wanted to conserve the name and good reputation of the family which her father, Atty. Jose Felimon, built during his nine years of public service as city mayor. In the campaign efforts for the May 2013 elections, City Councilor Glenda uses her surname Felimon because the government gave the candidates the choice to use whatever name they prefer. In the past elections, she used the surname of her husband because she claimed that it brings pride to the clan having a family member in the public service.

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She said that she will serve as the extension of the servitude given by her father. However, she acknowledges that her father is still more accomplished than her because of the reason that her father is on the executive branch. Glenda Felimon-Macadangdangs ambition for the community is the

strengthening of the family. She said that as the basic unit of the society, strengthening family will also strengthen the community as a whole. However, she said that it is not important that the family shall live with luxury. Living a simple life with children getting educated and eating three times a day is enough to say that the family is strong. She said that most people who wants to serve have the same motivation as her. The first councilor recognizes the emergence of women in public service. She even compared the difference between the present and the past when women are kept aside while men get all of the attention especially when it comes to the politics. She observed that the voters support women politicians not only in the local scene of Nueva Ecija but nationwide. According to her, women have different behaviors and attitudes which cannot be considered as a factor in the voting preference of the voters why women emerge in politics. She claimed that it is the natural tendency of women to be more patient and caring as they understand the problems of the people. They apply their instincts as mothers not only inside the family but also on the public service. She also said that women support their fellow women as they are very proud that they are somewhat represented by people who truly understand them. However, she admits that there are still many great men in public service which cannot be forgotten for their contributions.

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Her most notable statement implies that men and women are complementary when it comes to public service because there are strengths of men which cannot be found in women while there are strengths of women which cannot be found in men. Therefore, a male-female combination in running the public office can be considered as most effective. She used this as a metaphor in describing her political partnership with her running-mate. When asked if there will be chemistry if the public office will be held by a female-female tandem, she quickly answered that if male-male tandem can do it effectively, of course female-female can do it effectively. She also cited that the difference of political party with Mayor Belena does not affect their works as public servants. Incidentally, her rival for the upcoming elections for the vice-mayoralty race is male. However, she does not cite her gender as her advantage over her competition. Instead, she said that her advantage would be her youth and the honor and reputation of her family. Emergence of women comes rapidly. She cited the gender development that women shall be empowered in all aspects of life including politics. She said again that what can be done by men can also be done by female. According to her, it also gives rise to the pride of women in her constituents because they feel that they are being represented. This increase in the number of women in politics and public service, she said, definitely shows the improvement of gender equality in the Philippines. However, it does

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not mean that the Philippines is now an egalitarian society where women are treated and looked upon equally as men. It is due to the fact there are still many people who treat women equally as several abuses and sexist behavior exists. Still, there are more people who cannot accept that women can live equally with women. She interpreted the Holy Bible saying that the God created men and women equally when Eve was made to keep company of Adam. Moreover, she added that the Holy Scripture said that women shall be inferior to her husband by the time they are married. As an elective official of the government, she has a very good self-esteem. She claimed that she is very confident of herself that she gained when going to the communities. It means that the communities support her and it makes her confident. She also cited the importance of the continuity of her confidence or self-esteem. In her acquisition of her position, or as a politician, to sway votes in her favor, Councilor Glenda Felimon-Macadangdang said that Pakikisama is the most important virtue. However, this pakikisama shall be accompanied by sincerity. She said that people will feel the sincerity which shall be continued for the whole term not just on time of campaign. This pakikisama with the people include going to birthdays, wakes, and other social gatherings but only if she was invited. The first councilor of San Jose City said that her life would have been more comfortable if ever she did not entered public service. Being a business management graduate on a well-known school and a popular yet reputable family will definitely give her so many opportunities to get a very good job with high salary. Unfortunately, she did

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not even apply her degree because of her early entry to public service which became her career. Glenda F. Macadangdang and her family do not have large businesses like other politicians in the city. Her other source of income is the 20-hectare land which yields rice crops and onions. Because of these, there are no conflict in interest that arises between her business and her office. Public servants like her will receive a financial benefit from the government by the time their term ended. She said that the economic opportunities from the government did not gave her the motivation to enter public service. Throughout her childhood, the city councilor always gets words of encouragement from her peers. She said that they assumed that she will follow that path which her father took in public service. She also get the same notion from other people which she does not personally know. In her visits to community, the people implicitly encourage her to further pursue public service because of the very good reputation her father left as mayor of the city. She always gets the same feedback despite being the second child and a woman. In fact, her older sister also tried to pursue career in public service but she is not as fortunate and popular as her. Now, her sister returned to her private life while City Councilor Macadangdang took over the legacy of their father.

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In her pursuit of the vice mayoralty post, she was heavily supported and encouraged by her political party. Out of thirty-eight (38) barangays, she took an overwhelming thirty-four (34) votes as the candidate of the party. 3. Executive Judge Cynthia Martinez-Florendo When asked about her ambition during her childhood, she quickly answered that she wanted to be a lawyer. Factors of her desire to be a lawyer during her childhood include her exposure to poverty on how people deal with problems or with other people. Another factor is the influence of her father to her to be a lawyer because she said that her father saw her natural ability, or the characteristics to be a lawyer. To elevate the status of her family in the society is one of her ambitions that might have inspired her to enter in the public service. Being a product of a poor family means that she was exposed to their struggles to keep sending everyone in school that made her dream of a prosperous life where their needs, and sometimes wants, are fulfilled. Judge Florendo has ambition for the community, for the people. However, she said that it does not become a factor in her entry to the public service because the nature of the job does not allow her to go out of the way, or go beyond the performance of her duty as judge. She admitted that she found it more fulfilling in helping the community and the people through her involvement in church activities. She said that in the judiciary, people work for the salary and dispense all the duties and responsibilities in the 8-hours of working time. She described the sad reality of the judiciary that she cannot help the people in her own way or through her own will.

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In the interview, she drew a clear line between politics and public service. She said that she do not involve in political activities like endorsements. Meanwhile, her view on women in the public service is the clamor of women for gender equality with men. She acknowledged that the women are stronger nowadays compared to the women of the past. She also described the characteristics of women in public service. She said that women are hard-working and conscientious. She suggested that women have the ability to multitask unlike most men in public service and that women involve themselves emotionally in different issues and tasks. The executive judge at Branch 39 of San Jose City RTC stated that given the same time and resources as men, women in public service can achieve more tasks. Judge Florendo, as a non-political individual in the public service has a different view or approach in politics. She said that the system in politics corrupts the people involved which include the women. She hoped that women will not be corrupted in politics because corruption is not in their values but the system itself corrupts the values of these women in politics. However, she expressed that she support women in their involvement in politics. She treats this emergence of women in politics and public service as an indicator of the development of gender equality in the Philippines. However, it does not mean that the Philippine society now possess a gender sensitized citizens or gender equality all in all. But she acknowledges the trend that the people are slowly becoming gender

sensitized as a chair of a committee is now called chairperson, not the traditional but patriarchal, chairman. She said that women, especially in public service, enjoy equality in

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work and in their disciplines. Despite saying that what men can do can be done by women, she said that women can exceed their aims because they have duties in their families. She shared that during her childhood, her father always exposes her to public service, although not in the means of politics. She said that her father brings her outside the community and clean the surroundings especially in front of their own house. They did those activities decades before the government campaigns on cleanliness in the communities. She said that their parents raised them not only for their own family but for the whole community. As a religious person, judge Florendo attributed or rather dedicate her self-esteem and confidence on God. She said that she does not care about what people will say but said that only she and her God knows. Despite of these, she works harmoniously with everybody. Method in the formation of her self-esteem is through the enhancement of herself through education. To fulfill her dreams as a lawyer, and to attain the power and position of a judge, she implied that she persevered and strives hard to get her current position. It can be observed in the interview that she started from the scratch and enhanced herself step by step. This enhancement include attending a lot of seminars, joining organizations, participating in activities, serving as a resource person, and even further studying. She said that she needed to improve herself as she realized that she is not that far from lawyers from Metro Manila who were prioritized by the government. She attributes her success on the lord as she said that she did not know anyone from the Malacanang, where

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the appointing person resides. She worked hard to improve herself to attain the position of the job. Until now, she continues the improvement of herself by not stopping as a judge because she said that it is part of her plan to get higher positions from the judiciary. It will enable her be competitive against her counterparts in the Metro Manila who are prioritized. Executive Judge Florendo said that practicing her profession privately would yield more income because she can collect whatever the clients can pay. In her position as a public servant, her salary is fixed. However, with the position of the judge, the honor and respect she earn from the people, and the salary from the government, she feels that she is very wealthy as long as she observe simple living. As executive judge, she earns a fixed amount of 73,150 from the government plus all the other benefits such as the honorariums, allowances, and driver services. She said that judges also receive a certain amount from the local and provincial government. She does not own any large businesses except a family store which sells school supplies in Pangasinan. She also said that they have a law firm which her husband, who is a private practitioner of law and her former classmate, runs. By the time they retire, Judge Cynthia Florendo said that they will receive huge amount of pension from the government. They also have survivorship which she said is the payoff of their service to the public. These retirement benefits have several conditions such as serving the government for more than 20 years, retire for at least sixty (60) years old, and stay at the judiciary until the age of seventy (70). But they were given choices on whether to retire early.

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She said that it is her personal decision to enter in public service and she consulted her family. However, her friends were not involved in her decision making of entering the public service. A very intelligent woman, Judge Florendo is even more capable than many of the Philippine leaders nowadays but she kept herself from politics because she said that she cannot do what politicians do like spreading black propaganda against other people or receiving such. She said that she simply does not see herself in politics because it is not in her values. She also said that she also wanted the truth to come out and that she can serve the people in other way aside from politics. One of her notable quotes is that her court is not gender friendly but it is a gender sensitive court. Table 2: Motivational Factors of the Participants

Indicators

Participants Mayor Marivic V. Councilor Glenda F. Executive Belena Macadangdang Cynthia Florendo Judge M.

Personal Factors 1. What is your Medical Doctor ambition when you were a child? School Teacher Lawyer

2. What is your To be elevated To protect ambition for from poverty integrity of your family? family name

the To continue the the leadership of her husband

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3. What is your None initially but it To strengthen the Her ambition for ambition for the was later developed families within the the community does community community not urge her to pursue public service. Instead, she helps the community by her involvement on the church

4. What is your Women are now Women are now It is the clamor of view on women empowered empowered in many women for gender in public aspects equality service? Women are more Women are more patient patient, particular, and detailed than men. They also There are qualities have less vices of men that cannot be found in women and vice versa Women are more hardworking, conscientious, and involves emotionally on tasks

Given the same resources as men, women can do better than men

5. What is your Women just Public Service and She supports view on women emerge in politics Politics are women in politics in politics? nowadays because synonymous but she hopes that they involved late they will not be than politics and corrupted by the that men hindered system in politics women for so many years

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6. Do you think Definitely Yes, that the emergence of women in public service and politics is an indicator of the development of Gender Equality? 7. Do you think Not yet because that men and men are still given women are now more opportunities equal in the Philippine society?

Definitely Yes,

Definitely Yes,

Not yet because there are still many people who cannot accept that women can lead

Not entirely, we are equal in the work place, in the work force, or in the field but women have more tasks including their duties for the But men and family women are created equal by God

8. How is your High, because of She is confident She enhances her self-esteem as the nature of the because of the self-esteem and she one of the job feedback of the grew it for God. highest ranking people officials in San Jose City? 9. How do you Her husband deals acquire your with the campaign current strategy and the position? socialization with the people. But she said that she thinks that the reason for voting her was based on her performance as city What is important for her acquisition of power as an elective official is the sincerity of maintaining good relationship with people. She improves herself by improving her credentials through seminars, conferences and by acquiring new knowledge

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mayor

Economic Factors 1. Will you earn more in entering public service than pursuing your private career? No, entry in public is an economic sacrifice because she earns even more than double of her current salary as a city mayor when she stayed as the manager of their family business No, she is a graduate of a very good business school and she said that she might have a more comfortable life if she did not entered public service. No, because if she practiced her profession privately, her income would not be fixed as she can collect any amount of money from the clients.

2. Do you have Farm, 20 Hectares Stockholder of Rice businesses? of Land Mill, Gasoline Station, Cemetery, Freight Services

Husband is a private practitioner of law who runs a law firm. They also have a school supplies shop

3. Do you have None, there is only Yes, because she financial benefits terminal pay pays monthly on like pension once GSIS. She will also your term ended? receive a terminal pay

Yes, there is a huge amount of benefits from the government once she retires but there are several conditions

Socio-Political Factors 1. Did your friends urge you to enter public service? Yes, she consulted close friends before running for Mayor of San Jose City. Yes, she was urged by her friends to enter public service as an extension of No, her decision in entering public service was based on her consultation

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All of them pushed her father her to grab the continue opportunity services 2. Did the No, she was not people/commu involve into politics nity urge you to before enter public service? 3. Does your political party urge you to pursue public service? Not at first but on her second run as mayor, the party heavily supported her because she believe that they were satisfied with her performance

or

to with her family. his No. Her families were the ones who urged her to enter in public service.

Yes, the people always urge her to pursue career in public service to continue what her father did.

Yes, the political N/A party conducted a secret appointment on who to run for vice mayor and party chairpersons of 34 of 38 barangays in San Jose City supported her N/A Her only participation in politics is her exercise of her right of suffrage. She said that politics is not in her values and she cannot do what politicians do like spreading black propaganda.

4. Why did you N/A not enter politics despite being highly capable? Why did you chose to be independent?

Comparative Description of the Motivation of the Participants a. Personal Factors Hon. Marivic V. Belena wanted to be a medical doctor during her childhood because she saw her father as a role model giving free checkups and treatments to the residents of San Jose City but she admitted that this ambition changed as time gone by. On the other hand, Hon. Glenda F. Macadangdang wanted to be a school teacher because

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of her high regard to that profession and that her mother is a school teacher herself but the latter discouraged her heavily because of the hardships of this profession. Both of these public servants in San Jose City never realized their childhood ambitions but it can be observed that the following professions of medical doctor and school teacher, given the reason why they got this ambition, can be interpreted as a symbolism of their ambition to serve the people during their childhood. Unlike the two public servants, Hon. Cynthia Florendo realized her childhood dream of being a lawyer because of the encouragement and support from her father who, instead of being in poverty, managed to send all of them in school. One of the factors of her desire to be a lawyer during her childhood is her exposure to poverty. Coming from a very wealthy family, Hon. Marivic V. Belena admitted that she does not care about the people prior to her entry to public service because she is in her comfort zone. She does not care about the clean water, health care, and other forms of public welfare because she said that she can have those anytime she wanted it. But this view on reality changed by the time she started serving her constituents. It can be concluded that ambition for the community is never the city mayors motivation to enter public service. Meanwhile, Hon. Glenda Macadangdang said that her ambition for the community somewhat urged her to enter public service because she said that it is important to strengthen the family, the basic unit of our society, to strengthen the society. She also said her desire to improve the lives of the children which reflects on her legislated acts. Her ambition for the community is not a factor in her entry to public service. Those were the messages relayed by Hon. Cynthia Florendo because she said that the

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nature of her job does not allow her to realize her ambition for the community. She said that the church and not her office serve as her medium in helping the community. As the fourth child of a politician, Hon. Marivic Belena is never urged to enter public service by her family. Instead, she was groomed to be a business woman. She implied that her ambition for her family is not to build a political dynasty but to urge other people to engage in politics be it a family member or a friend. Another ambition for her family is to raise her children to be good adults in the future. It can be concluded that her ambition for her family is not a motivational factor for her entry in public service. First Councilor Glenda F. Macadangdangs situation is very different. She clearly expressed that one of the reasons of her entry to public service is for the continuity of the legacy of her father. Even though his inspiration and definitely the role model is currently holding the second highest position in the executive branch, she still wanted to continue the service that was given by her father as a mayor. She also said that she would be the extension of her father and that she entered public service to give pride to their family and to protect the reputation. She also wanted to give pride to the family of her husband. As a product of a poor family, Executive Judge Cynthia M. Florendos ambition for her family is to be elevated from poverty. She said that she dreamt of a family that can provide for the needs and sometimes for their wants. She definitely fulfilled this ambition for the family. Beneficial, therapeutic, and instrumental on the self-actualization is the view of Mayor Belena on public service. She became more contented in life yet she pursues higher goals because of her position as public servant. She also realized how life really

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works as she understands the situation of the people. The city mayor drew a thin line between public service and politics while her counterpart in the legislative branch of the government described public service as being synonymous to politics. Despite of these differences, their view on the emergence of women in politics is basically the same. According to both of them, women have advantages towards men when it comes to the public service. The city mayor stated that women have fewer vices than their male counterparts in politics. They share the same sentiments regarding the characteristics of women as being more patient and more willing to listen to the people. Hon. Glenda Felimon said that it seems to be in the womans instinct to understand the peoples problem and that their attitudes as mothers are applied in public service. Both of them acknowledge that there are still many men who are very good in public service. Their view on women in public service implies that men have characteristics that cannot be found on women and vice versa making the two genders complementary. They also share the same idea that women can do what men can do. Hon. Cynthia Florendo also provided her insight on women in public service stating that they are conscientious and hardworking. She also said that what differentiates a man and a woman is that women in public service involve themselves emotionally on the issues and tasks and have the ability to multitask. Their views on the emergence of women of politics and public service as indicator of gender equality are the same. They all agree that it is an indicator of the development of gender equality in the Philippines but said that the society in this country is not yet fully gender sensitized as the opportunities are not distributed equally between genders and that there are so many people that cannot accept the fact that women can also

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lead. Hon. Glenda F. Macadangdang that women shall be empowered in all aspects of life including politics while Hon. Marivic Belena said that it is just a matter of the time that women emerge on politics. The executive judge seem to echo the sentiment of the City Mayor as she stated that given the same resources and time as men, women can achieve as much as men or can even exceed it. While Glenda F. Macadangdang acknowledges that men and women are complementary, they all agree that anything that can be done by men can also be done my women. Both Mayor Marivic Belena and Councilor Glenda Macadangdang said that their self-esteem is high. They have confidence on themselves and it can be attributed to the nature of their job that there are lots of people, from all walks of life, that they mingle with in their jobs every day. On one hand, Judge Cynthia Florendo said that her selfesteem depends on God and that she built it through the improvement of herself. Hon. Marivic Belena and Hon. Glenda Macadangdang are both elective officials so it is very important to gain the support of their constituents or of the voters through socializing but they have very different methods of this. Hon. Glenda F. Macangdang said that it is really important to establish and maintain good relationship with sincerity with the people throughout the term while Hon. Marivic V. Belena believe that her performance as a public servant is whats important for the people. Th e chief executive is also less active on social gatherings because her husband does these things for her. Meanwhile, Judge Cynthia Florendo implied that she improved herself to get to her

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position that he holds now. This improvement is her way to compete with her counterparts in Metro Manila. b. Economic Factors Being a public servant for these women professionals mean waiving the opportunities those private lives has to offer. They all agreed that their income would have been more if they chose to stay with their private lives or pursue their private careers. They have their private businesses which give them a large amount of income but their involvement on the national government hinder themselves to further pursue economic interests. As public officials, they had pledged to avoid conflicts of interests between their businesses and their office. The two elective officials also acknowledged that there are no economic benefits from the government once they retire except the terminal pay that they will receive once their term is finished. There was also no promise for these public servants who are elected of financial security in the future. On the other hand, the appointed official said that there is a desirable amount of benefits from the government by the time they retire. c. Socio-Political Factors People surrounding them are instrumental on their decision to enter public service. As members of political families, both Hon. Marivic V. Belena and Hon. Glenda F. Macadangdang should have been both motivated by their friends to pursue public service but this was not the case. As a child, Hon. Marivic V. Belena was not groomed to

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involve in politics. In fact, she was not involved until she ran for the position of Mayor in 2007 through the encouragement of her close friends. On the other hand, Hon. Glenda Macadangdang was encouraged by her friends to follow the path of her father throughout her childhood. Hon. Cynthia Florendo does not involve her friends in the decision making in entering the politics. She said that it is actually her family who she relied upon on the decision making in her entry to politics. The city councilor and the city mayor have different experience on exposing to the people. While Hon. Glenda F. Macadangdang has a lot of exposure, the people always advise her to continue what her father had accomplished for San Jose City. On the other hand, Hon. Marivic V. Belena only became exposed to people by the time she held the office of City Mayor. This case is very different for Judge Cynthia Florendo as she said that she was not inspired to enter public service to help the people but she have the desire to help them. In addition, the respect and honor that people gave her somewhat urged her to enter public service. Both of these politicians were heavily favored and supported by their respective political parties. For them, it is the sign of satisfaction on their jobs by the party leaders. However, judge Cynthia Florendo as an independent public servant, did not involve herself in politics because she said that what politicians like making stories against one another is against her values.

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Chapter V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION This study provided for the description of the profile of the top women in public service at San Jose City, Nueva Ecija and their motivations on entering and pursuing career in public service. Conclusion Political linkages had been one of the reasons why women involve in politics in support of the idea of Richter (1990). These women in politics had taken advantage of their relationship to a politically active male family member. However, this was not the case for public service as it is not necessary that they have linkages to a politically active male politician. This research had found out that women can emerge in the field of public service on their own. It is also noted in this research that women can even exceed or equal the achievement of their male counterparts. As the Inter-Parliamentary Union (2008) had cited that personal ambition is one of the motivational factors in the entry into public service, it was supported by this research that their entry into public service was inspired by their childhood ambitions. The participants had stated their respective ambitions during their childhood and it seemed that all of these are related to serving the public. The same body had also suggested that ambition for the family is one of the personal ambitions which should be considered as a factor of motivation. Elective officials who came from political families

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entered public service to continue what their politically active male relatives and to maintain the good family reputation and tradition of serving the people. The public servants do not necessarily have an ambition for the community but some of them also have experiences and ideologies that urge them to improve the status of their community. The Inter-Parliamentary Union (2008) had indicated that motivation of women in entering the public service is to improve the status of the community. However, this was not the case for the women in public service in the locale of this study. Some of them, due to being in a comfortable position, have not realized the situation of the community until holding a public office but of course, there are also public servants, especially women, who have the ambition for the community. The differences on the nature of their jobs also play a significant role in the fulfillment of their ambitions for the community but it does not assure that they will realize this by entering the public service. Some positions, specifically those in the Judiciary branch of the government, cannot conduct programs or favor someone due to personal biases. A public servant does not necessarily be a politician but a politician is a public servant, at least job description-wise. Due to this situation and the thin white line that distinguishes politics from public service and vice versa, the women in public service have differing view on politics and public service. While there are some who consider public service and politics as the same, there were also those who view politics and public service very differently which may be due to their orientation. But the bottom line is that the emergence of women on politics and public service is a sign of gradual but huge development on the gender equality of the Philippine society. However, the genders in the country are not yet entirely equal with each other due to the unequal distribution of

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resources and opportunities. It is also found out in this research that the top women in public service in San Jose City believe that what men can do, can be done by women given the same resources and opportunities as men supporting the argument of Sen (1999). The fact that women are just emerging right now is that they are hidden in the culture of silence for hundreds of years by men (Constantino, 1966). The nature of their job which exposes them to people and serving the people build the self-esteem of these women in public service. Of course, being the top officials in their respective governmental departments improve their confidence on themselves but more to that is the respect and honor that they earn from the people. While they acknowledge that women are now empowered in our society and that there are lots of women which dominated politics and public service, they still acknowledge the existence of brilliant male leaders of our country but had enumerated several characteristics of women that made them effective into public service. Obviously, the economic background of the women in public service affects their economic motivation in entering politics. The salary in public service is fixed and it hinders the public servants in the pursuant of some economic interests. These public servants consider the salary they receive from the government as far less than they can earn if they practiced their respective professions privately. Wealthy members of political families consider entering public service as economic sacrifice while those who are product of poverty consider their entry to public service as a method of elevating the economic status of the family.

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Peers also have a significant contribution in the decision of women in public service but it does not apply to anyone. Sometimes, their motivations in the entry of public service came from their own decision or of their families influence. Further indicator of the high regard of men towards women that was practiced during the colonial period is the favorable encouragement and support of male-dominated political parties to women in politics of San Jose City. Throughout the research, several motivational factors enumerated by Steven Reiss are observed by the researcher on the responses of women in public service. Factors such as acceptance, eating, family, honor, power, saving, social status and vengeance were observed. It can also be analyzed that their motivation tends towards the satisfaction of their needs which are included in Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs (1943) such as physiological, safety, love/belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization. In entering the public service, these women had achieved to satisfy the needs up to esteem and selfactualization. Moreover, the motivations of women in the public service in are both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated because they work for themselves, for the improvement of their self-esteem, confidence, and self-actualization and at the same time motivated for the community, for their family, for the salary, for the respect and honor and other incentives given while they are in public service. There are lots of motivational theories that can be used to analyze this research but these three theories are the most suitable to be applied based on the nature of the responses. There might be several interpretations but the context is very similar.

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It can also be concluded that these women give high regard to religion basedmorality as they attributed their achievements, self-esteem, and views on equality on God. There are many differences between the views and the motivations of women from different branches of the government. This may be caused by the difference on the way they acquired they position and how their jobs should be utilized. The elected officials have a very much different view on politics than the judiciary post who is not elected. These differences in the motivations of the three branches of the government include their view on politics and the fulfillment of their ambitions as motivations. One of the primary reasons for these differences in their views and motivations is the manner of their acquisition of the position. While the two elected officials have a very similar view on politics, the executive judge has a very different view on politics as she observed it through outsiders perspective. However, most of them share the same sentiments with regards to public service strengthening the idea that a public servant does not necessarily be a politician but a politician is always a public servant. The method of fulfillment of their ambitions also differs from each other because of the different nature of their job. The City Mayor fulfills her ambition for the community by implementing programs and executing the laws. Meanwhile, the City Councilor proposes several ordinances for the city which could empower the community especially the children. On the other hand, the executive judge cannot extend her services to the community directly due to the nature of her job. But whats important is that all of these women serve the people and thats why they are called public servants.

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Recommendation The results of this study gave rise to new ideas regarding the motivation of women in their involvement in public service. These ideas will be relayed to the stakeholders of this research. These stakeholders are: Women in Public Service This group shall continue pursuing for higher public office as it is a very effective method of elevating the status of women in the Filipino society. Moreover, the women and public service must continue showing their work ethic and their distinct characteristics for the advancement of the government and more importantly, the people. Government of the Republic of the Philippines This very powerful institution in the Philippine society shall encourage the entry of women in public service as it will improve the gender equality within the society. This institution must continue educating and empowering the women to produce better Filipino citizens who can serve the public. Filipino Women This group shall continue pursuing for gender equality. They should educate and improve themselves for them to have a better standing socially, politically, and economically. They should be inspired by those women who had attempted and dominated to rule the government and to lead the people.

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Future Researchers This group of people must use the results of this study for future references as several ideas were unveiled in this study. This group shall also learn from the mistakes and gaps that can be found in this research. When interviewing VIPs, the future researchers must set schedule weeks before the deadline of the research as these people have lot of work and places to go due to the nature of their jobs. The researcher acknowledges that the method used in this research did not describe the motivations fully and that the sample size is very small. The researcher recommends to future students of AB Social Sciences to use a more structured method with large sample size for the appropriate representation of the case study. They should try other methods of research aside from case study like the quantitative studies where correlations between variables can be applied. Most importantly, the future researchers must continue studying topics with regards to the emergence of women in the Philippines not just in the field of politics but also in the fields of academe, corporate, and many other aspects of life. It will help the women be empowered as these kinds of research give them voice that can be heard by the authorities concerned.

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Appendix A: Request Letter for Mayor Marivic V. Belena HON. MARIVIC V. BELENA City Mayor San Jose City, Nueva Ecija

Madam: I would like to request for your participation in my undergraduate thesis entitled Women in Public Service: A Qualitative Study on the Factors of Motivation of Women in the Three Branches of the Government which is a major requirement for my degree of AB Social Sciences (Political Science) on Central Luzon State University. My thesis aimed to describe and enumerate the factors which motivated women, like you, to engage or pursue a career on public service. Your participation in the research means disclosing several personal information about yourself, motivations, and personal views. Rest assured that the information to be elicited in this study will only be used for educational purposes and not for any political, social, or economic agenda. Your participation in this research will be significant on the promulgation of womens empowerment and emergence on the Filipino society. I, the researcher chose you as the prospective participant in this research since you have proven that women can dominate the government posts while yielding the best results. I know for the fact that you have a very tight schedule but your participation in this research will be beneficial in the long run not only for the Filipinas but also for the whole Filipino nation. I hope for your approval and cooperation for the success of my study. Thank you very much and God Bless!

Respectfully Yours,

JOSEPH NIKOLAI B. CHIOCO AB Social Science Noted by:

GIAN CARLO E. BUMANLAG Thesis Adviser

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Appendix B: Request Letter for City Councilor Glenda F. Macadangdang HON. GLENDA F. MACADANGDANG City Councilor San Jose City, Nueva Ecija

Madam: I would like to request for your participation in my undergraduate thesis entitled Women in Public Service: A Qualitative Study on the Factors of Motivation of Women in the Three Branches of the Government which is a major requirement for my degree of AB Social Sciences (Political Science) on Central Luzon State University. My thesis aimed to describe and enumerate the factors which motivated women, like you, to engage or pursue a career on public service. Your participation in the research means disclosing several personal information about yourself, motivations, and personal views. Rest assured that the information to be elicited in this study will only be used for educational purposes and not for any political, social, or economic agenda. Your participation in this research will be significant on the promulgation of womens empowerment and emergence on the Filipino society. I, the researcher chose you as the prospective participant in this research since you have proven that women can dominate the government posts while yielding the best results. I know for the fact that you have a very tight schedule but your participation in this research will be beneficial in the long run not only for the Filipinas but also for the whole Filipino nation. I hope for your approval and cooperation for the success of my study. Thank you very much and God Bless!

Respectfully Yours,

JOSEPH NIKOLAI B. CHIOCO AB Social Science Noted by:

GIAN CARLO E. BUMANLAG Thesis Adviser

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Appendix C: Request Letter for Executive Judge Cynthia M. Florendo HON. CYNTHIA M. FLORENDO Executive Judge, Regional Trial Court San Jose City, Nueva Ecija

Madam: I would like to request for your participation in my undergraduate thesis entitled Women in Public Service: A Qualitative Study on the Factors of Motivation of Women in the Three Branches of the Government which is a major requirement for my degree of AB Social Sciences (Political Science) on Central Luzon State University. My thesis aimed to describe and enumerate the factors which motivated women, like you, to engage or pursue a career on public service. Your participation in the research means disclosing several personal information about yourself, motivations, and personal views. Rest assured that the information to be elicited in this study will only be used for educational purposes and not for any political, social, or economic agenda. Your participation in this research will be significant on the promulgation of womens empowerment and emergence on the Filipino society. I, the researcher chose you as the prospective participant in this research since you have proven that women can dominate the government posts while yielding the best results. I know for the fact that you have a very tight schedule but your participation in this research will be beneficial in the long run not only for the Filipinas but also for the whole Filipino nation. I hope for your approval and cooperation for the success of my study. Thank you very much and God Bless!

Respectfully Yours,

JOSEPH NIKOLAI B. CHIOCO AB Social Science Noted by:

GIAN CARLO E. BUMANLAG Thesis Adviser

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Appendix D: Guide Questions for Interview Questions Factors of Motivation 1. What factors in the personal aspect motivated you to enter public service? a. Personal Ambition i. What are your ambitions during your childhood? b. Ambition for Family c. Ambition for the Community 2. What is your personal view on women in public service? 3. What is your personal view on women in politics? 4. What factors in the Economic aspect motivated you to enter public service? a. Financial Security i. Will you earn more in entering the public service? b. Business i. What are your current businesses? ii. Do you encounter conflicts of interest with your position and the business? iii. What are the steps that you take whenever conflicts of interest arise? c. Economic Benefits from the Government 5. What factors in the Socio-Political Aspect motivated you to enter public service? a. Community/People b. Friends c. Political Affiliation d. Political Independence Personal Profile Age Age when entered public service Political Background of Family Educational Background Number of Children Private Profession/Occupation Order of Birth in the Family

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Appendix E: Transcription of Interview with Mayor Marivic V. Belena Nikolai: This is the recorded interview with city mayor Marivc Belena of San Jose City. Maam itatanong ko po yung tungkol po sa personal profile niyo, ilang taon na po kayo mam? Mayor Belena: 52, mag 53... sa October Nikolai: Ilang taon po kayo nung naging mayor kayo? Mayor Belena: 46 mag 47 Nikolai: Tapos po yung political background po ng family niyo? Mayor Belena: ang political background ng family ko sa side ko syempre, ever since ang father ko eh tumutulong sa isang politiko pero neverhindi siya politician. mula bata ako tumutulong kami sa mga kandidato, pero yung tatay ko mismo lumaban hindi. Nangyari lang yun dahil siya ay naappoint during nung time ni cory. appointed siya na city mayor. Siya ang pumalit nung time na naupo si cory. pinalitan nila mga mayors. naupo ang tatay ko that time dun ko narealize na mas marami pa pala magagawa pag ikaw ay nasa gobyerno kesa matagal na siyang tumutulong sa private capacity niya. So dun ngstart ang sa family ko. pero hindi ko inaasahan na ako pala ay makakapagasawa ng politiko. nung tatay ko ay nasa gobyerno na that time, kaya ako nasalang ng maaga sa negosyo kasi nung time na ako ay nagtakeover sa rice mill. Business person ako kaya yung tatay ko kahit siya ay naging congressman kung ilang years hindi pa din ako exposed sa politics. Ako yung nasa private. hanggang sa nakapangasawa na ko ng politiko, asawa ko na si alex, hindi pa din ako exposed. hangga't inenganyo lang niya ko na pumasok sa politics. Nikolai:yung tulong niyo po ba sa politiko financially po ba? Mayor Belena: ung panahon ng tatay ko ang tumutulong? tumutulong kami hindi financially, more of.. nagsasarili kami ng gastos ng pagkakampanya, gumagawa ng polyetos, poster, pero yung pag bigay ng financial, hindi nmn ganun, more of, sumusuporta sa gagamitin ng isang politiko Nikolai: Sa mga kapatid niyo naman po? Mayor Belena: yung mga kapatid ko nmn kaya lng nainvolve sa politics dahil lang din don. nagstart lang talaga nung ang tatay ko e nagenter na sa congress. kasi nung naging OIC siya. nakalaban niya yung dadi ni alex. tapos the following elections as congressman, nanalo naman siya. Nikolai: mam yung educational background niyo po? Mayor Belena: ako ay graduate ng BSC accounting. pumasa ako ng the same year. graduate ako ng 81, ngboard ako ng 81, syempre narelease results 82 na. 1982. nung ako ay naging mayor

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nung 2007, ako ay nagtake ng masteral sa public management sa ateneo ng 2008. Graduate ako ng BSC accounting at saka masteral ng public management. Nikolai:Saang school po kayo nag-accounting Mayor Belena: sa Assumption Nikolai: maam ilan po ba yung anak niyo? Mayor Belena: Apat Nikolai: Ilan po ang lalake? Mayor Belena: Isa lang. ako anak ko apat, yung si alex lima. si anton. Nikolai:Yung private profession niyo po dati? businesswoman po, tapos po CPA po kayo? Mayor Belena: Oo, pero di ako ngpractice as CPA more of a negosyo ko din nagamit. Nikolai: Maam yung result po ng negosyo niyo. maganda naman po? Mayor Belena: Para sakin maganda, masasabe ko na at siguro iaadmit dn ng mga kapatid ko malaki nagawa ko sa ricemill namin kasi ako ngsimula ng branding eh. ng palay. instead na maharlika na rice. sakin nagsimula. kami nagsimula nung quality rice. kumbaga may naiset na trend. saka yung system sa ricemill, naput into place such a way na kahit umalis ako, yung susunod, may sistema ng sinusunod. Nikolai: Bale idea niyo po yung branding? Mayor Belena: Idea ng father ko nun talaga pero yung implementation talaga. yung tatay ko e yung branding. ako naman dun ako pumasok sa, kailangan may quality so ako na sa quality. kasi hindi naman na pwede ibrand yn ng hindi napapansin eh. kaya kami ng <inaudible> rice. kaya kami nghiwalay ng magagandang variety. para nga sa branding. Nikolai: Pang-ilan po ba kayo sa magkakapatid? Mayor Belena: Apat Nikolai: ilan po kayong lahat? Mayor Belena: Anim Nikolai: ilan po kayong babae Mayor Belena: (3men, 3 women)

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Nikolai: Eto naman pong mga susunod na tanong eh about sa motivations niyo. Una po yung sa personal. Anu po ba yung ambition niyo nung bata plng kayo? Mayor Belena: Naku, malayo dito sa kinalalagyan ko ngayon (laughter) ang ambisyon ko nung bata ako eh hnd actually, eh. Nung bata ako gusto ko magng doktor kasi sumasama ako sa tatay ko pag nagagamot dito.. Akala ko gusto ko maging doktor. Pero pagdating ko ng high school, college nagbago na yun,. nung nagaral ako sa manila. Pangarap ko talaga e tumira sa America kaya lang hnd ako.. nung pagkagraduate ko eh. Sabe ng tatay ko pwede ka ng magtrbho sa America kung legal ka. so pinagpursigihan ko yan pinagipunan ko na ako ay makarating talaga ng America. nagipon ako ng pwedeng puhunan. Anyway, hanggang dumating ang time na tinawag ako ng kapatid ko dito sa San Jose kasi ikakasal na siya. tingin niya baka hindi siya makasal kapag hindi ako umuwi ng San Jose. Kasi ako maiiwan sa rice mill. So nung umuwi ako sa san jose ako ako yung ngtakeover ng rice mill. Yun nga yung naging OIC yung father ko so parang naging sequence of events na anu e. na hindi ko plinano. kusang dumating sakin. kaya nung dumating na sakin, kailangan gawin ko na yung dapat kong gawin kasi nandyan na eh. hindi naman pwedeng ayawan ko yan. Natutunan ko kasi sa father ko. Yung opportunity minsan hinahanap minsan naman nandyan na igagrab mo na lang. so sa part ko, andyan na eh. yung iba naghahanap pa nga, yung sakin andyan na lang. so you make the most of it na lang. so natutunan ko dahil outright eh kasi nung time na tinawag ako ng kapatid ko yung time na OIC father ko. yung kapatid ko ikakasal na siya tapos yung father ko nasa politics. ako na lang yung magtetakeover sa rice mill. nasalpak ako as in ako talaga lahat. Kaya siguro mas minahal ko kasi talagang pinagdaaanan ko yung proseso. Isa png factor na hirap n hirap ako eh paano ko ipoprove sa empleyado namen na deserving ako mag manage. Kumbaga that time naghahanap pa ko ng gagawin sa pamilya. So yun. isa yun. yung respect na iearn ko. na irespect ako ng mga empleyado kasi mas mtatanda pa sila sakin e. So ganun. Mahal ko naman mga trbho ko nagawa ko mga gusto ko gawin. Pero malaking advantage din kasi yung tatay ko e nasa politics pwede ko siya kausapin tuwing gabe. Tungkol sa negosyo. Nikolai: maam ambisyon naman po sa family. Yung family niyo po na naitatag ngayon yung mga anak niyo po at saka yung pamilya niyo po dte, na pinagmulan. Mayor Belena: Sa akin e sa naging pamilya ko. Kasi late ako nagasawa. 35 na ko nagasawa kasi masyado na ko involved sa negosyo eh. So ang pangarap ko lang talaga sa pamilya ko e kung papaano ako pinalaki ng nanay at tatay ko ganun ko dn sila palalakihin kasi mejo magkaiba kasi mas masunurin mga bata noon kesa ngayon (Laughter). Mas iba approach. pero dahil late ako nagasawa advantage kasi dun, hindi ko masyadong kailangang. pag maaga ka kasing ngasawa.Naguumpisa ka pa lang. Pagsasabayin mo ko yung paghahanap buhay at saka pagpapalaki sa anak. Ang advantage ko e nung nagasawa ako kaya ko isang tabi yung trabaho ko kaya kong isecondary. Inuna ko yung pamilya ko talagang naging hands on na nanay kalahati ng araw ako mgwork kalahati sa pamilya. kaya kong gawin yun kasi naiset ko na nga yung negosyo in such a way na kaya kong iwanan. na hindi ako nakafulltime kasi kung ngkasabay siguro yun baka hindi mo alam kung saan atensyon mo kasi ginagawa mo pa mga dapat mo gawin sa

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negosyo tapos asikaso mo pamilya mo. pero dhl naisetup ko na to. hapon pwede na kong hnd pumasok. Anak ko na lahat yun at naniniwala naman ako na napalaki ko mga anak ko ngayon na yung values eh nung ako bata. natutunan nila Nikolai: Sa ambition for the community naman po? Mayor Belena: Ako magiging honest ako sayo ha. Bago ako naging mayor, ito'y palagi kong sinasabi sa mga anak ko. nuon kasi, kuntentong kuntento na ko eh. kumabaga meron akong comfort zone ko eh. alam ko yung gusto ko mabibili ko gusto ko, gusto kong gawin magagawa ko. Yung happy ka sa sarili mo. Pero nung nainvolve na ko sa politics, nung ko narealize na yung comfort zone ko eh hindi pala yun ung realidad ng buhay. Napakarami palang dapat, pwedeng maitulong. napakarami palang kasi kahit mayor si alex, hindi ako nakainvolve sa politics e. that time narerember ko nasa cubao ako, yung isang conductor, nglalakad ako sabe nung condoktor. ay ayun yung asawa ni mayor. sabe nung isa, ha? yung isa hindi ako kilala. kasi hnd ako lumalabas e. hindi ako nksuporta sakanya. So nung ng-enter na ko sa politics, saka ko narealize na napakarami palang dapat gawin ng bawat isa nagpapasalamat ako na napasok ako dito kasi kung andun lang ako sa comfort zone ko, siguro wla akong pakielam sa mundo. Kasi anung pakielam ko sa malinis na tubig, makakainom ako ng malinis na tubig diba parang ganun diba? Nung naging mayor ako, saka ko narealize na hindi pala. dapat yan lahat iniintindi mo mga tao. kasi ang payo ko s mga pinsan ko ngayon, na alam ko nsa comfort zone din sila, gusto ko iparealize nakayo, hindi kayo pwede manatili dyaan. kailangan tumulong din kayo. makibahagi din kayo. kaya nung sa sinasabi mo na ambisyon ko sa community, sa totoo wala dahil alam ko na nga e masaya naman ako s buhay ko ngayon ko nrealize na ang isa sa pangarap ko ngayon bilang public servant is marami pa sana na dating katulad ko na kaya na may ibibigay na pagsisilbi e. na magpapasok pa ..ng iba pang tao hnd ung tipikal na traditional politics. dapat sana, marealize nila na... maenganya ko sila. kasi takot padin. Alam ko madaming potential leaders sa San Jose na pwedengpero takot sila na wala lng. Pakiramdam nila e pagpolitician ka. yung una ung image hindi ganun kaganda. pangalawa parang sa halip na tulong sa kanila e sagabal sa kanila. sana kung meron kang sasabhn na ambisyon ko sana na..makapagenganya man lang ako kahit dalawa. Makapagpadami pa ng pwedeng mgenter ng politics na hnd tipikal n politician. Nikolai: mam yung sa pagpaparami po ba eh kasama po ba dun yung mga kamag anak? Mayor Belena: ah, yun nga eh as much as possible nga sana e mahold. Pero hnd dn naman kasi maiiwasan na kakilala mo yung tao eh yung kamag anak mo din. Pero ako, may kamag anak akong gustong gusto kong pumasok eh. Pag pumasok nga sya aalis na ko eh. (laughter) yung pwede na ko magwithdraw dahil alam ko na in good hands. Pero hindi ko maconvince pero siguro nga kung magkakaganon. Pero yun sigurong pagpapadami na sasabihin na.. ako ang binibitawn kong salita e sa belena..definitely isa lang lalaban. kung may lalaban na belena...aatras ako. Kunwari si Alex, hindi ako lalaban,. kasi kaya lang naming icontrol yung sa amin, yung saklaw mo lang e. pero yung iba na. hindi mo na saklaw yun eh. Pag sinabi mo ng

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2nd degree, 3rd degree na, hindi ko na saklaw yun e. Ang saklaw ko lang e yung kame. Actually kahit kapatid nga hindi mo na saklaw e. Hindi mo na alam direksyon nila Kung talagang my saklaw ka yun lng talagang pamilya mo. yung asawa. anak mo. Nikolai: Maam nung tumakbo po ba kayo, anu po ba yung reason talaga dun yung continuity po ba ng Belena? Mayor Belena:Sa totoo lang nung time na tumakbo ako siguro magiging honest din ako sa part ni ASB, ang talagang anu niya e unnopposed siya. pero ang talagang nagpush sakin na tumakbo, eh bagamat sabihin na natin na yung initial intention na maging ganun, talagang nagpush sakin e yung nag push sakin. as early as.. ang filing nun e hindi pa ganun katagal e. parang ilang months lang. Election is May pero ang filing e a month before lang. as early as October before that, October, September, ineenganyo na ko ni Alex na pumasok sa politika, Ayaw ko talaga. kasi hindi ko linya yun e. tapos ang nag anu nga sakin. Madasaling tao talaga ko e. so nung nagdadasal ako namili ako ng sampung tao na alam ko pag kinausap ko, hindi ako ilelead sa maling direksyon. So namili ako ng tatlong kaibigan ko sa manila, ng 7 malapit sa loob ko dito sa San Jose. Kasama dun yung anak ko at saka yung tatay ko. una ko pinuntahan kaibigan ko sa Manila. Sabi niya. hindi naman lahat ng tao nabibigyan ng chance maglingkod. bakitt hnd mo subukan. Kaya mo naman. nung una nshock na ko agad. ung friend ko na un. nung college kame. High School kame. galit yun sa gobyerno, so hindi ko ineexpect na o-oo siya kasi galit siya sa gobyerno kasi parang hindi siya naniniwala sa gobyerno. pero siya nagsabe hnd bnbgyn ng chance ang lahat. tapos anyway hanggang tatlo kinausap ko sa manila... pare parehas sila ng sagot na hindi lahat nabibigyan ng chance. Grab mo na. tayo reklamo ng reklamo tapos ayaw naman nating pumasok. Sabe ko pagdating ko dito. hindi ko tlga ineexpect yung father ko. From the very start, sabe niya. anak kahit kami nasa politika.. e ikaw, dyan ka lng sa negosyo. kasi ayaw niya i-mix yung politics sa business e. ang sagot niya sakin. sige na anak. pumasok ka kasi alam ko kaya mong gawin tutal mag-reretire naman na ko sa politics. ako na lang mag-tetake sa negosyo. hanggat sa madaling salita.nakaabot ako s pito.. lahat ng sagot pare parehas. hindi ko na tinuloy yung tatlo... kahit ganyan nangyare. Ang tagal ko pa din pinagisipan. Sabe ko last sign na lang tlaga, kasi sbe ko ky alex papasok lang ako dyan kung walang kalaban. bigla nagresign si.. Jenalyn that time kalaban niya e. nagresign, nagwithdraw so yun na yun. nako eto na yung sign ko. wala talaga akong plinano sa buhay ko e parng lahat nandyan its up to me kung kukuhanin ko o hindi. So yung time na nangyare yun. nung ngwithdraw si Jenalyn. ayan yung hinihingi mong sign. sabe mo pag walang kalaban. Pero that time kasi magkakaibigan naman kame. e hindi naman kame iba iba eh. That time, ang last na lang e gusto ko makausap yung kalaban ko ngayon. kasi ayaw ko may ill feeling noh, although nireject nila na makipagusap sakin. at ah, dun na nga nagfile yung wife niya the rest is history. Nung nag-file sila hindi man lang nakipagusap. Sabe ko siguro go for it na to. tinake ko na yung opportunity. hindi naging ganun kadali yung opportunity ha. Nikolai: Maam anu naman po yung personal view niyo po sa public service?

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Mayor Belena: Ako ang personal view ko sa public service. E siguro hindi ko maapreciate buhay ko as in ngayon kung hindi ako. kumbaga. mas appreciated ko yung buhay ko dahil din siguro sa public service noh. Kasi pati yung level of contentment, fulfilment. yung contentment mas bumaba e. so ibig sabihin mas madali kang sumaya para sa public service ka na. Level of fulfillment mas mataas kasi tingin mo... ako,, sabi ko in the end naman yung fulfillment ko eh nakabase lang sa Diyos. Alam ko hindi ako magiging.. sa mata ng tao hindi ako magiging perfect. Hindi lahat appreciated ginagawa ko. Pero in the end alam ko yung the best na dapat gawin. at in the end, sabe ko diyos lang naman maghuhusga sakin e. yun ang pinakamahalaga. Nikolai: Maam anu naman po masasabe niyo sa emergence ng women sa politics? Mayor Belena: Actually ang masasabe ko lang, mas madami lng nakakanotice na kaya siguro minsan kapag naicocompare,.. siguro hindi lang naman sa San Jose diba. kahit sa ibang lugar. Sasabihin mas mainam pa nga ang babaeng leader e.. sa totoo niyan kasi mas patient ang babae e.. mas hindi ko sasabihing mas metikuloso ako. kasi saming dalawa ni Alex e... mas metikuloso siya. Mas partikular, detalyado siya. kaya lang mas matyaga ang babae. mas matyagang makinig.. sa emergence ng women ay. hnd nakakapagtaka dahil kaya lng nmn sinasabing emergence kasi mtagal niyo kaming tinakpan e (Laughter). Kaya ngayon nag-eemerge. Pero kung ever since before ay mabigyan ng opportunity na parehas. Hindi naman mapapansin ..siguro sa totoo mas madami pa ring magaling na lalaki. Kasi sa totoo lang mas nauna silang pumasok. Mas nahuling pumasok yung babae. Kaya mas napapansin pero kung tutuusin e siguro parehas lng ng Level yun kasi nasa tao yung commitment, level ng anung klase gusto mo ng serbisyo. kaya lng nagkakaroon ng comparison dahil nga mas late. saka mas kaunti eh. Nikolai: maam yung emergence po ba ng women sa politics masasabe niyo po bang indicator siya ng equality? Mayor Belena: Oo naman, siguro dahil kasi kahit matagal na nating sinasabe na pinipilit natin na merong equal rights sa Pilipinas. Actually kahit ngayon nga kahit ngayong women leaders e.. yung sinasabeng equal rights eh may double standard padin talaga. Hindi pa din siya perfect na talagang equal. Kahit sa America. matagal na nilang sinasabe na meron silang equality, di padin naaalis na, mas nabibigyan padin ng pagkakataon ang lalake. at in the end kung talagang magkakaroon ng equal chances at equal opportunities, dun lang sigro papasok ung mga lalake na..... kasi nga dun sa field na date e puro kalalakihan lang ang pumapasok, ang mgalalakas lng n loob e ung alam niyang mkipagcompete sa men diba? so kaya sinasabing mas magagaling ang women. Pero given the chance na lahat e pare parehas, e hnd siguro magiging ganyan yung perception ng tao. Nikolai: Maam tungkol nmn po sa socialization. Mayor Belena: At ska isang advantage ng women leader. Mas kaunti ang vices. bihira ang babae eh pagkatapos ng babae e kailangan pang makipaginuman pa. Magsaside trips pa. Ang babae talagang uwi na.

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Nikolai: Maam yung self esteem niyo? tumaas po ba dahil kayo yung mayor? Mayor Belena: Siguro kasama yun nung una sa trabaho kailangan pakikita mo. kasi hindi ka naman susundin kung ikaw mismo sa sarili mo e.. parang hindi ka naniniwala sa sarili mo. kasama na yun siguro at saka sa dame na ng kausap mo.. Anu yun e.. magiging natural. Yung sasabihin na iba yung. Kasi yung iba sinasabe pumasok na sa ulo yun anu e. hnd ganun e. kapag nsa public service kanatural lang yung self esteem mo e tataas dahil dapat talaga maging ganun ka para mas maappreciate ka ng mga tao. Nikolai: Maam anu naman po masasabe niyo sa acquisition ng power ng lalake at babae. Diba po kunware yung lalake gumagamit po sila ng violence. Black propaganda, anu po masasabi niyo sa method po ng acquisition ng power babae in public service. Mayor Belena: Kasi nga sabe sayo yung posisyon ko e nabigyan lng ako ng pagkakataon. Sa akin kasi na part, yung ngayon, kung yung sitwasyon ko pinaguusapan natin, una hnd kasi ako dun sa pagdatng sa political na part. Siyempre nandyan si Alex siya yung ngatatrabho sa campaign, yung strategies. hanggang ngayon di ko linya yun, ang linya ko talaga e magtrabaho ako at saka magtrabaho ako.. Part niya kung pano imamarket yung ginawa kong trabaho. Hindi ko maitest sa level ko ngayon kasi kung ang babae kasi gusto ko sana na paniwalaan na ako a binoto ng tao dahil dun sa ginawa ko. Kasi nung first na lumaban ako. Alam ko yun na ibinoto ako dahil sa ako ako. Yon e dahil kay alex, diba. So yung second laban ko, ako talaga, ang paniwala ko e binoto ako ng tao dahil gusto ako ng tao dahil performance-wise na. at siguro karamihan ng babae nakabase sa performance. Pero realidad din sa poltiics na hindi natin alam kung ilang percent ang talagang pinagbabasehan ng tao yung performance at ilang percent ang nagbabase during the campaign na. yung level na yun. actually gusto ko malaman yung level na yon. ilang ba ang anu ba ang level na. Kasi sa amin kasi ngtatrabaho in terms of projects. Pero sa part ng katulong ko kasi si alex. In terms of pag may socialization. makikibirthday ka, ppnta ka sa patay, hnd ko kasi ginagawa un e. pero si alex gumagawa nun. Ngayon nga mas madalas pa siyang kuhaning ninong kesa sakin e (Laughter). So yung part na yun di ko alam kung. Ako nga gusto ko mgkaroon gnstudy e. ilang percent pa ba sa mga botante natin na yun ang pinagbabasehan. Yung pkikisama, or ilan yung percent na naniniwala sa program performance. Nikolai: Tapos yung sa ano naman po, economic motivation sa public service? Nikolai: anu po ba yung motivation.... Mayor Belena: ay nako hindi economic motivation yun, economic sacrifice (laughter). Dahil pag wala siguro akong negosyo nako maghihirap. maano talaga. minsan may lalapit sayo na may sakit kung hindi kayang iano sa gobyerno magsasa <inaudible>....yung economic motivation. Yung anak ko nga tinatanong ko dun e. anak kung tingin mo may economic benefits. Kailangan mgtrabaho ka ng husto saka ka maglingkod. Nikolai: magkano po ba ang monthly salary niyo ngayon?

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Mayor Belena: nagumpisa ako way back 2007 ng 32,000 yun ang nababasa ko ha pero hnd yun ang natatanggap ko. ngayon ang supposed to be natatanggap ko e 56 pero ang talagang natatanggap ko lang e siguro 49 kasi madaming deductions e. Nikolai: Maam nung businesswoman po kayo magkano po kinikita niyo? Mayor Belena: Ay definitely lampas lampas pa dyan (laughter) nandyan pa naman yung negosyo ko.although sa part namin s rice mill. Kasi pag mayor ka hnd ka na pwede mgtrabaho sa iba. Yun ang disadvantage ng executive sa legislative. Katulad si kagawad glenda, pwede pa siya mag-employee sa iba. Saka allowed sila, ako hindi allowed. Kaya nung time na yun kasi manager ako ng rice mill. So sumesweldo ako dun. Ang sweldo ko dun e hindi lang doble nyan. Pero since batas nga yunna hnd pwede. Pero dahil sa pamilya siguro., itinutuloy ng pamilya ko yung sweldo ko.. Nikolai: maam anu po ba yung mga negosyo niyong major stakeholder kayo? Mayor Belena: sa ricemill stock holder ako dyan pero basta tumatanggap ako dyan. tapos meron kaming sa rice mill namin kasi corporation kami so my natatanggap kami na dividends once a year. tapos yung petron namen. tapos yung portion na nkuha ng sa ricemill. Ako taga deliver ng darak, a1, so yung transpo nun, sa akin yun. Freight. so income ko yun. Saka kay Alex naman yung sementeryo. Kaya hindi nga kme pwede isyuhan n komo negosyo namin. Nauna yung sanctuario na yun ay private.. Bago matayo yung don canuto ramos..yung don canuto ramos e during sa time ni Alex. Nikolai: Maam diba nga po executive kayo, mayor kayo, nakakaencounter po ba kayo ng conflict of interest with your business? Mayor Belena: hindi ako pwedeng magpagas sa petron, sa caltex dito.yung LGU ha. kasi pinsan ko yun. hindi din pwede sa petron. so ang mga.. yung huli namin e shell. Pero yung pinakahuli eh ngdedeliver na samin. as in delivery from cabanatuan. Kasi kapatid ko si james puwede siya mgdeliver ng bas mababa sa presyo. hindi pwede kasi kapatid ko siya. Nikolai: may benefits po ba kayo like pension, Mayor Belena: di ko pa alam e. ang mayor may matatanggap lang na terminal fee. Pero yung yearly anu pa..palagay ko wala na. Kasi yung dadi ni Alex parang wla akong alam na natanggap. Kasi ang tagal nung mayor. Nikolai: Yung sa pangalawang pagtakbo niyo po, pano po yung support from political party? Mayor Belena: Yung leaders na din talaga ang nagsabi na ituloy. at saka naman per se, hindi na ako pinilit noon kasi alam ko naniniwala ako sa srili ko na my nagawa aq na ayaw ko namang ihinto so hindi ako pinilit. although nakapagconsult pa din kme sa mga leaders namin kasi syempre hindi lang naman yan paglilingkod kasama dyan e.. kailangan manalo ka. kaya

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nagconsultation kami with the leaders. kung ako lumaban o hindi. Kasi kung sa paniwala ng leaders e inumpisahan ko hnd na nila ngustuhan, ibig sbhn hindi appreciated, e willing naman ako umatras. Pero sakanila naman nanggaling yun na.ituloy mo na mayor kasi.... Nikolai: Anu po ba ang mga natanggap niyo na awards? Mayor Belena: maringal na palengke. slaughter house, nature park (provincial), natatanging punong lungsod (CSC-regional), 1strunner up nutrition, most important --pamana ng lahi (2x), seal of good housekeeping (na-stop nung namatay si sec. Jesse Robredo.) - maoobliga na itaas antas ng quality. saka may criteria na dapat sundin. Cassava award - excellence in service (1 of 10)

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Appendix F: Transcription of Interview with City Councilor Glenda F. Macadangdang Nikolai: maam ganito po, pumapayag po kayo na irecord yung conversation natin? Councilor Macadangdang: oo naman Nikolai: Ma'am una ko pong tatanungin ay tungkol sa personal profile niyo, ilang taon na po kayo? Councilor Macadangdang: 35 turning 36 Nikolai: Nung nagsimula po kayo sa public service ilang taon po kayo? Councilor Macadangdang: 19, kasi. valid na public service yung SK. SK federation. Nikolai: Bale yung position niyo po sa SK parang SK chairman ng Brgy. Councilor Macadangdang: Yes, SK chairman ako dito and then after a month . elected as SK city federation,. so nag-assume na may OIC ako yung number 1 sa rafael rueda. SK federation Nikolai: Ma'am tapos yung sa political background po ng family niyo? Councilor Macadangdang: family? Nikolai: opo Councilor Macadangdang: yung father ko naging city mayor Nikolai: gaano po siya katagal naging city mayor? Councilor Macadangdang: Siya yung kaunaunahang mayor na nakatapos ng term.. 9 years Nikolai: opo, bale reelected po siya ng 2 terms? Councilor Macadangdang: 3 terms. Nikolai: Ay 3 terms po ang napanalunan niya. Councilor Macadangdang: oo. sunod sunod yun. kaya natapos niya ang term niya., Nikolai: From mother side niyo po meron po bang nasa public service din? Councilor Macadangdang: aah.. meron yung kapatid ng mother ko napili nung panahon ni Cory Aquino na nagappoint siya ng OIC during nung term ni cory. yung panganay na kapatid ng mother ko nagserve as appointed mayor.....ng Talugtug Nueva Ecija.

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Nikolai: Tapos po maam yung sa ano naman po . sa mga kapatid niyo po ba meron ding nasa public service? Councilor Macadangdang: ah.wala. Nikolai: kayo lang po? Councilor Macadangdang: oo. Nikolai: Ilan po ba kayong magkakapatid? Councilor Macadangdang: Tatlong babae kame saka isang lalake yung bunso. Nikolai: Pang-ilan po kayo sa mga anak? Councilor Macadangdang: Pangalawa Nikolai: Maam yung sa educational background po? Councilor Macadangdang: Educational background? Nikolai: opo. Councilor Macadangdang: From elementary dito sa public..sa public school.. San Jose West central school ako graduate. Kasi dati St. Joseph ako eh. But then nung grade 6 lumipat ako ng San Jose west central school. Kasi hindi naman kami katoliko e. kasi kapag grade 6 obligado magkumpil yata. hindi ganun saming mga protestant. Nikolai: Maam nung High School po kayo? Councilor Macadangdang: CPNHS na lang isulat mo. High School? Sa Constancio Padilla National High School

Nikolai: opo. Maam tapos college po? Councilor Macadangdang: uhm. Philippine School of Business Administration. PSBA. Nikolai: Maam bale anu po yung course niyo? Councilor Macadangdang: Major in Management. Nikolai: Tapos po maam may post-grad po ba kayo na course? Councilor Macadangdang: administration. ah. hindi ko tinuloy eh.. sa Araullo. sa Polsci. Public

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Nikolai: Bale MA po yun? Councilor Macadangdang: Oo masteral. Pero anu lang. Nakaisang sem lang aq nun eh. Nikolai: Maam napansin ko po diba nasa public school po kayo nag-aral. Bale paano po ba yung economic situation noon ng pamilya nyo? May kaya naman po ba kayo or... Councilor Macadangdang: eh. During anu.. meron naman kaya actually mayor pa nga tatay ko

Nikolai: Tapos po pinili niyo po sa public school kesa po sa private? Councilor Macadangdang: oo Nikolai: Or parang yun po ang premiere school dito sa San Jose. yung CPNHS. Councilor Macadangdang: Kasi naniniwala din ako na pag natapos ka. <inaudible.> kung public ka o private. may factor din na school pero nasa estudyante yun. nasa estudyante pa din yung factors ng ah... isang estudyante. nasa. halimbawa madami namang nakagraduate ng private which is ngayon hindi naman sila successful. meron din namang nakagraduate sa school namen na naging successful at nasa matataas na <inaudible>. ang point ko naman dito, nasa nagaaral, nasa tao nagaaral. Nikolai: Wala po sa eskwelahan? Councilor Macadangdang: Wala sa eskwelahan kung public ka man o private Nikolai: Maam noong naging city councilor po kayo ilang taon po kayo? Councilor Macadangdang: 27 Nikolai: Kayo po ba ang naging youngest na city councilor? Councilor Macadangdang: Palagay ko hindi. kasi mas may bata sa akin. Lalake siya pero sa mga babae.. ako. Nikolai: Pang-ilan po kayo noong unang takbo niyo as city counciklor? Councilor Macadangdang: 5 Nikolai: Nung panahon po ba na yun mayor pa po yung tatay niyo? Councilor Macadangdang: Parang tapos na term niya. Nikolai: Maam tungkol naman po sa ano,. factors of motivation niyo. Nung bata po kayo anu po ba talaga yung ambition niyo nung bata kayo.

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Councilor Macadangdang: Ambition ko? ang gustong gusto ko talaga maging teacher <laughs> teacher kasi para kasi ang tingin ko sa teacher e kapag teacher ka ikaw yung pinakamataas na klase ng professional. kasi ang tingin ko kasi sa teacher. ikaw yung nagtuturo. syempre yung education sayo nguumpisa. kasi kung walang teacher walang doktor, walang atty. na magagaling. Nikolai: Bale po maam, yung sa ambition niyo po bang maging teacher kasama na po ba yung kagustuhan niyong makatulong or more on personal po yun? Councilor Macadangdang: Kasama na din yun, kasi nauna yung nanay ko na teacher e. Pero siya din ang nagdidiscourage sakin na mag-teacher. Kasi daw nung panahon nila mahirap magturo dahil...talagang.. strict ang school administration noon na kailangan ang dapat bata e dapat pumunta sa bawat level e talagang marunong bumasa grade 1 pa lang. eh syempre ang mga teacher kailangan tutukan yung mga bata diba? pero maliliit lang ang sweldo nila noon hindi tulad ngayon na.... ayun kaya dinidiscourage ako ni mama. Mahirap maging teacher sabe niya. hanggang gabe e gumagawa ka ng lesson plan tapos konti lang ang sweldo. Pero ngayon si mama as retired teacher. nageencourage na siya kasi maganda na ang mga benefits. Nikolai: Maam kung kayo po e teacher ngayon. San po kayo papasok s government po ba or private school? Councilor Macadangdang: uhm.. sa government Nikolai: Maam eto naman po yung sa ambition niyo naman po para sa family. Kunwari po yung para makilala yung family niyo as Felimon. May ambition po ba kayo sa family na naging motivation naman po sa pagtakbo? Councilor Macadangdang: pano pano? Nikolai: yung para po sa pamilya naging factor po ba yun sa pagtakbo niyo? Councilor Macadangdang: Siguro may factor sa pagpasok ko sa public kasi naumpisahan ng tatay ko yung may magandang pangalan kaya as an extension.. kasi pag may maganda kang pangalan .. hindi lang pangalan mo ang tinitignan mo bilang indibidwal.. pati buong pamilya mo hanggang sa mga anak. kaya kung may maganda kang pamilya, ingatan mo yun pero pag nagkainteres ka na pumasok sa isang public service. Isang factor yun na tinitignan ng mga botante na ito ay magandang pamilya. Nikolai: Maam anu po ba ang preferred niyo pag sa campaign,, ang ginagamit niyo pong apelyido Felimon. anu po yung prefered niyo po na ginagamit niyo po talaga or yung apelyido ng asawa niyo? Councilor Macadangdang: Nung last last election, ginamit ko silang dalawa. FelimonMacadangdang apelyido ng asawa ko ginamit kong alyas. kasi syempre may mga kamag anak din yung asawa ko na pride nila na magkaroon ng Macadangdang na sa politics. Makakatulong

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din yun. pero sa Felimon. yun ang nakalagay as my surname dahil kasi malayo na napagdaanan ng apelyido ng tatay ko. kaya dalawa sila pero ngayon. iba kasi yung sistema ng COMELEC ngayon e. kung anu yung mas preferred mo. prinefer ko na yung Felimon para hindi makalimutan ng mga tao yung inumpisahan ng tatay ko nung siya ay nasa public service. Nikolai: Diba po yung father niyo e accomplished na mayor siya. tingin niyo po ba e parang naabutan niyo na din accomplishment ng father niyo as public servant? Councilor Macadangdang: ah. sa ngayon mas malayo pa din nararating ng tatay ko kasi mayor ang nadating ng tatay ko e. kasi iba kasi ang mayor iba ang situation ng city councilor. Ang mayor hawak mo lahat ng departments. kontrolado mo yung department ng bawat munisipyo at saka hawak mo yung. ikaw ang my kontrol ng budget. mas madame ang nagagawa ng isang local executive... kesa yung nasa legislative department. Nikolai: Maam marami na po ba kayong ordinance na napatupad? Councilor Macadangdang: Kasi ang pinaka the best na ordinance na naipasa natin yung San Jose City Children Code. Meron ding mga co-sponsor na ibang ..Sa legislation kasi group yan hindi mapapasa ang isang ordinance ng magisa ka lang kasi group yan majority. kaya kung may isang napasang batas dahil yun sa.. as a body. as a legislative body. so yung maitututring na sa akin naman ang pinaka.. yung San Jose City Children's code. bago plng yan mga isang taon plng yan. Nikolai: Maam parang yung VAWC po ba yun? parang ganun po ba laman non? Councilor Macadangdang: Hindi. Mas malawak at mas madameng sakop yang sakop ng children's code. Kasi yan naka.. nakatuon yan sa mga karapatan ng bata kung panu mapapalakas ang sitwasyon ng mga bata.. kasi kung ang mga bata.. yan ang mga nation builders e.. Maitrain mo sila. Maalagahan give them childhood, Malaman nila yung kanila karapatan e matitimo sa isip nila yun hanggang sa lumaki sila.kaya kung lumaki silang may maayos na kalagayan e magiging assets din sila balang araw ng ating pamahalaan at ng ating lungsod. Yung sa kababaihan naman.. ah.. Committee chairman ng women e member tayo ng anti-VAWC. yung anti-violence against women . nakikiisa satin sa pagpapalakas ng kababaihan para maiwasan na. para maiwasan na maabuso ang mga kababaihan. Nikolai: Maam sa ano naman po, ambition niyo para s community? Councilor Macadangdang: Ang ambition ko para sa.. Nikolai: Sa community, para po sa mga tao. Councilor Macadangdang: Eh halos pare parehas ang ambition ng nagnanais na maglingkod e. magkaroon ng maayos na pamilya...ang mga bawat mamamayan kasi ang pamilya kasi yan ang pinakamaliit na yunit ng ating community. kapag malakas ang pamilya e mas malakas . Mas magiging malakas yung ating community.

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Nikolai: Bale Naging parang motivation niyo po sa pagenter e para mapalakas po yung pamilya? Councilor Macadangdang: Oo isang factor na din yun.... simple ang pamilya. hindi naman mahalaga na.. kahit simpleng pamilya lang siya basta merong nakakapagaral na mga anak at merong mga pagkaen sa pamilya malaking bagay na yun na pagsimulan ng isang malakas na pamilya. Nikolai: Anu po personal view niyo sa women in public service. Councilor Macadangdang: Ah. women in public service, sa panahon ngayon malakas na ang pwersa ng mga kababaihan sa public service.. ang nag..mga nakakaraang panahon na ang tinitignan lang e mga kalalakihan. sa ngayon marami na ang kababaihan ngayon na tinatangkilik ng ating mga botante hindi lang sa lokal na pamahalaan kundi sa national na level kasi. ah.. kumbaga hindi naman pare parehas ng ugali ng mga kababaihan e. so siguro yung katangian ng mga kababaihan na natural na mas nararamdaman nila yung problema ng pamilya. kasi kung nanay ka, mas maalalahanin ka. mas kumbaga ang kababaihan kasi mas pasensosyo...mas mapagkalinga.. yan ang natural sa kababaihan na kapag napagbibigyan sila ng pagkakataon na na mglingkod sa pamahalaan. dala dala nila s paglilingkod nila hindi lang sa pamiliya nila. sa bayan nila which is nakikita ng mga kababaihan yun ng mga supporters or voters. naappreciate nila yun .nakakarelate sila....e mas madame siguro ang pwersa ng kababaihan ngayon kasi sa ratio yta mas madami yata ang babae ... pero nasa puso padin ang paglilingkod..hindi ko naman sinasabe na,... nirerecognize ko pa din ang kakayahan ng mga kalalakihan dahil meron ding mga katangian ang mga kalalakihan na wala sa kababaihan.. kaya pagka ang kababaihan e. nasa public service, kailangan meron silang kasamang kalalakihan..at kung meron ding lalake s public service. kailangan may partner sila na babae. kasi iba yung lakas ng babae. merong lakas ang babae na wala sa lalake.. merong lakas ang lalake na wala sa babae. Nikolai: Maam para sainyo po sino po ang parang partner niyo? Councilor Macadangdang: Partner ko.. pinagmamalaki kong sabihin ang partner ko ay si kokoy. kasi nakita ko rin sakanya ang isang lakas ..bagamat mayaman na tao to e.. nakita ko sakanya ang pagiging simple na kapag mabibigyan ng pagkakataon e nararamdaman ko na magandang katandem. Nikolai: Diba ang counterpart niyo po sa kabilang party lalake naman po., anu po sa tingin niyo ang advantage niyo? Councilor Macadangdang: ah.. ako naman kasi pinakabatang kandidato para sa vice Mayor. eh ang kabataan ngayon malakas na...date nun..sinasabi nila na kapag kabataan ang kandidato parang..wala lang. ganun. pero madame ng pagkakataon na ang kabataan e nagpakitang gilas na din sa public service.. madame na ngayon na vice mayor hindi lang sa Nueva Ecija..mga bata..sa paglilingkod. actually sa vice mayor's league..madame na palang mga mas bata pa sa akin.. so mas... pangalawa..yung isang factor din na.. yung galing ako sa isang.. tatay ko e naging city mayor..which is maganda naman yung pinakita ng tatay ko at sa aking pagbabara barangay..wala ni isa akong narinig na against sa term niya..hanggang ngayon na incumbent niya.kahit hindi kasama ang mayor, naniniwala yung tatay ko na kapag para sa kapakanan ng mamamayan e.. laging nakasuporta siya kahit sino pa man. kahit hindi niya kasama yung mayor.. basta para s

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ikalalakas ..ng mamamayan at mga tga liungsod..nandun ang tatay ko. kaya isng factor sakin na... anak ako ng dating city mayor na may pinakita at may pinatunayan sa pamahalaan..which is yun kasi... respect din ng mga tao skn.. kung anu ang puno siya ang bunga..kung anu nagawa ng tatay pwede akong extension. Nikolai: Maam diba sabi niyo po kanina na ang lalake at babae..complementary..panu naman po pag naelect po e c mayor belena at kayo po as vice amyor..panu niyo po icocomplement isa't isa. Councilor Macadangdang: Siguro hindi ko pa masasabi dahil hindi ko pa naexperience e. pero ang masasabe ko na lang..babae sa babae..eh.. pagbutihin na lang namin ang pagka..halimbawa babae sa babae. Nikolai: Bale pagkatapos po ba ng eleksyon bale business as usual po ba.trabaho lang po ba..panu po ba yung current relationship ni mayor belena. Di ba nga po magkasama po kayo s public service..di po ba naapektuhan yun na magkaiba kayo ng political party? Councilor Macadangdang: Hindi naman. kasi ayos naman ang relasyon. yung isang bagay lang naman na hindi kame magkasasama e yung election.. pagkatapos niyan...after ng election..mgcoconcentrate na lang sa paglilingkod. kasi ayun tinuro ng tatay ko eh.. Councilor Macadangdang: Siguro kung nagtatagumpay yung lalake ang mayor lalake din ang vice mayor.nung unang panahon yun diba;. mas empowered lalake. minsan mayor lalake, vice amyor babae. may mga city at municipality din naman nagtatagumpay.. so sa babae sa babae naman...meron din namang nagtatagumpay. Nikolai: maam anu po yung tingin niyo s emergence po ng women sa politics? Councilor Macadangdang: eh dapat lang na tangkilikin din ang kababaihan sa politics. lalo na ngayon. Dumadami ang mga kababaihan.. kasi sabe nga sa gender and development...pinapalakas kasi dun ang mga kababaihan so kung sa ibang bagay pinapalakas ang mga kababaihan..dapat sa politics din maging malakas sila...kasi kung anu yung kayang gawin ng lalake e kaya din namang gawin ng babae.. Nikolai: maam anu naman po,.. kasi po may nabasa ako na.. panu naman po yung socialization..parang yung..trato ng society sa mga kababaihan..at saka...ayun po? Councilor Macadangdang: siguro pag lumalabas ako sa brgy. Sa ngayon tanggap nila.. kasi pag lumalabas ako..lalo na sa kababaihan..pag nakita ko ng mga kababaihan e natutuwa sila na may isang babae na...nasa public service. kasi yung.. kung anu ang nakikita nila sa akin.parang nakikita nila sa sarili nila.parang yung mga kababaihan nabubuhayan sila. Nikolai: maam tapos yung... Councilor Macadangdang: kumbaga kasi parang kababaihan din na meron ding kababaihan sa munisipyo o pamahalanaan

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Nikolai: maam tingin niyo po ba yung pag emerge ng mga babae sa politics or public service e pwede po ba siyang iconsider as indicator ng gender equality sa Pilipinas.. Councilor Macadangdang: yes.. oo Nikolai: pero sa tingin niyo po overall. tingin niyo po ba pantay na ang trato ng mga pilipino sa babae at lalake. Councilor Macadangdang: sa ngayon hindi pa ganun,.meron pading tumitingin na mas mas..sa mga lalake. kaya nga pinapalakas yung gender development. hindi pa siya kumbaga pantay kasi meron pa ding mga kwan ..lalu na s mga kalalakihan.parang ayaw padin nilang tanggapin na pwedeng pumantay ang kababaihan. pero sa mata ng diyos. pantay pantay ang babae at lalake.. dahil nilikha tayo ng diyos. nilikha din niya ang mga babae.kaya pantay yan sa mukha ng panginoon.ang sabe nga ni god. nung crineate niya ang lalake. malungkot si adan dahil wala siyang makakasama..nag isip ang panginoon ng alam niyang karapat dapat na makakasama ni adan. pamilyar ka dyan diba? naisip ng panginoon kapwa lalake.binigyan siya ng lalake nung crineate ni lord god ang babae... very good. very good na merong babae..kaya para sa kanya.ang pagsabe niya ng very good.pantay yun..dun lang naman sinasabe sa bible.ay ang babae ay magpasakop sa lalake kung kayo ay magasawa.ang mga kababaihan..bilang asawa ay magpasakop sa mga lalakeng asawa. pero snbe dn s bible na kung sino ang nsa pamahalaan..sino ang nsa authority e mas magpasakop ka..papano kung babae ang nasa authority..pasakop ka dun kahit lalake ka..kasi yun ang nasa bible. Nikolai: maam sa... pag ilan po ba kayo s city councilor.. Councilor Macadangdang: Pang-una ako... Nikolai: Bale kamusta naman po yung self-esteem niyo? Nikolai: pero parang parang tingin..parang confident naman po kayo na kaya niyong gawin? Councilor Macadangdang: self esteem, ako ba magsasabe <laughter> pakitanong na lang sa ano.. ok lang naman maayos.. Councilor Macadangdang: Confident lang naman ako kasi unang una mararamdaman yan sa paglabas labas..and hopefully e sana yung pagiging confident e mula umpisa hanggang dulo..kasi merong ibang bagay dyan na..mga ibng tao..confident siya..sa umpisa..pero pagdating sa dulo parang nawawala yung..pero sana ako...confident mula umpisa hanggang dulo. Nikolai: Maam tapos naman po sa acquisition ng power..diba po kasi elective official kayo..paano po yung strategies niyo sa pagkuha sa posisyon na gnun...kunware campaign strategy po. Councilor Macadangdang: Kailangan pakikisalamuha mo sa mga ..mamamayan mo..sa mga constituents mo. hindi lang sa araw ng eleksyon...nagpapakita ng pakikisalamuha..pakikisama..pakikiisa..kundi sa buong term mo.meron kasing mga kandidato,

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saka lang sila makikita. makikisalamuha pag kampanyahan pag malapit na eleksyon.pero pag nanalo na parang wla na.parang nagbabago..so isang malaking bagay yung kahit tapos na ang eleksyon e hindi nawawala ang pglilingkod.. Bale ako wala akong ganun kalaking pera..Gaya ng mga kalaban o kagaya ng ibang politiko. so malaking bagay din yung sincere ka sa pakikipagsalamuha. Actually mararamdaman naman ng tao yun kung simple e. Nikolai: Maam kung meron po bang mga burol, birthday.. nagpupunta po ba kayo dun? Councilor Macadangdang: Nagpupunta ako..oo. nagpupunta ako..pero sa may mga birthday,.. mas gusto ko pinupuntahan yung ngaanyaya kasi kapag inanyayahan ka e. ineexpect ka dun diba? Pero kapag hindi ka inaanyayahan at bigla kang dadating. E parang baka mabigla sila na...baka ang tingin nila sayo e gate crasher. pwede naman din sigurong pumunta na kahit hindi iniimbita pero my pasabe.. Nikolai: Maam sa.. Economic factors po ba sa pagenter sa politics. Nung nagenter po ba kayo sa public service e mas malaki po ba yung opportunity niyo kesa po yung nagprivate life po kayo. Yung kikitain niyo..parang namotivate po ba kayo..kunwari sa sweldo niyo po? Councilor Macadangdang: Siguro kapag nasa private ako... mas magaan ang buhay.. mas nakakaahon sa pagdating sa financial. Nikolai: Bale anu po ba yung private profession niyo po. Councilor Macadangdang: Business management. Nikolai: Tapos po nakapagtrabaho na po ba kayo nun bago kayo mgenter sa public service? Parang nagamit niyo po ba yung business management? Councilor Macadangdang: Ay hindi ..nung SK ko, isang taon palang.... Nikolai: Bale yung career niyo po talaga pong public service. Councilor Macadangdang: Yes, parang naging ganun na nga naging career ko.. sa public service Nikolai: Maam meron po ba kayong mga businesses? Councilor Macadangdang: ah.. farming. Nikolai: Medyo malaki naman po yung kita niyo dun? Councilor Macadangdang: Malaki din... Nikolai: Pero habang nasa public service po..diba kasi po merong iba ..pag nasa government bawal kang maging major stakeholder ng isang business..Naapektuhan po ba kayo nun?

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Councilor Macadangdang: Yung pinagbabawal na yun. Sa malalaking business naman yun eh..pero yung sa farming..hindi kame affected dun. Nikolai: Bale maam anu po yung crops sa farm niyo? Councilor Macadangdang: Mga anu..rice..mga palay lang. minsan sibuyas. Nikolai: Ganu po kaya kalaki yung land? Councilor Macadangdang: 20 hectares... Nikolai: Tapos po sa may ..sa may.meron pa po ba kayong ibang business bukod sa farming? Councilor Macadangdang: Wala na.. Nikolai: Ibig sabihin po noon wala po kayong conflict of interest sa trabaho niyo at business? Councilor Macadangdang: wala.. wala Nikolai: Tapos po maam meron po ba kayong iba pang economic benefits from the government. Diba po yung mga career employee dyan meron pong makukuhang pension. May gnun po ba kayo? Councilor Macadangdang: ah.. meron. kasi naghuhulog kami ng GSIS. pagka natapos ang term mo..Meron kang makukuha every year..Saka yung terminal pay. Nikolai: Bale maam naging parang na.motivate po ba kayo..Dahil po sa economic benefits from the government? Councilor Macadangdang: Hindi. Kasi ang talagang naging motivation ko eh yung nakita ko sa tatay ko as public servant. Nikolai: Maam eto po yung mga socio-political aspects po. Mula po sa mga kaibigan niyo. Inudyok po ba nila kayo na pumasok sa public service? Councilor Macadangdang: Noon.. lagi nila akong sinasabihan na pwede mong sundan. pwede kang sumunod sa tatay mo..parang ganun. Nikolai: Tapos po maam sa may, sa community. parang inuurge din po ba kayo ng mga tao... mga simpleng tao lang po. Mga hindi niyo personal na kakilala. parang minomotivate po ba nila kayong tumakbo? Councilor Macadangdang: Oo.kasi kung ano yung nakita kay tatay ko, parang nakikita rin nila sa hinaharap ko. Kasi marami akong naencounter na ganyan e..."ay ikaw ang susunod sa tatay niyo."

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Nikolai: Maam matanong ko lang po diba po pangalawa kayo, bakit hindi po sa panganay ipinasa yung ganun? Councilor Macadangdang: Ay pinasa na rin sa kapatid ko yan. Sa ate ko. kaya lang. hindi siya nanalo nun..kasi nagresign siya e. Nung hindi siya nanalo..Kinuha ulit ng company nila.Tapos yung sumunod yun ako na nga. Nikolai: Maam paano naman po yung support sainyo ng political party niyo? Councilor Macadangdang: Ang ginawa kasi, yung sa bawat barangay may mga party chairman kami dun. Kame naman eh talagang Balane kami, hindi kami lumilipat ng partido. Ang ginawa eh nagmeeting meeting sila tapos nag-eleksyon ng hindi naming nalalaman. Nagdecide sila na ako ang tatakbo. Out of 38 barangays, apat lang ang hindi bumoto sa akin as candidate.

-----------------------------------------------End of Recording------------------------------------------------

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Appendix G: Transcription of Interview with Executive Judge Cynthia Martinez-Florendo

Judge Florendo: So you are Joseph Nikolai? Nikolai: opo Judge Florendo: how old are you? Nikolai: 20 po. Judge Florendo: ah. 20. What year are you. 4th year or 5th year? Nikolai: Graduating po, 4th year. Judge Florendo: 4th year and what's your course? Nikolai: Anu po, AB Social Science ang major ko po eh Political Science Judge Florendo: Where? Nikolai: sa CLSU po. Judge Florendo: So. CLSU, major in political science? Nikolai: yes mam Judge Florendo: nagkamali ka anak, Nikolai: bakit po? Judge Florendo: dapat hindi political science ang tinakeup mo pumasa ka sa CLSU. when you major in political science. unless you enrolled in a college of law, you won't have a particular job or work. Nikolai: bale mam mageenter naman po ako ng law next sem. Judge Florendo: when I majored in political science. not even a clerical job is fit for you. kumuha pa ako ng 18 units ng education to ahve a job to support me in my law course. Wala kahit clerical. Ang pag-aaralan mo puro parliamentary which you cannot use. kung magkakilala sana tayo noon sasabihin ko sayo magaccountancy ka na lang. ok let's start. Nikolai: Mam ilang taon na po kayo? Judge Florendo: Ako ay 46 turning 47 in April 30.

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Nikolai: Opo. Mam tapos po nung nagenter po kayo sa public service or sa government work ilang taon po kayo?

Judge Florendo:I was 30. Sa public service ba ito? I entered government service at the age of 30 but started working at the age of 21. Nikolai: Opo, bale po mam ilang taon po kayong naging lawyer? Judge Florendo: Since 1996. I was admitted in the bar at april 1996.. Ilang taon na ko.. 15, 16 Nikolai: Bale po mam ilan po yung naging job niyo before passing the bar examination. Judge Florendo: Ah. Ok, after graduating in college, i took up AB political science with 18 units education. I worked as teacher in PUI, a chinese school from 7:30 - 1.30 o clock. 2.30 o clock in the afternoon. and Then I have a part time job at 3.30 to 4.30 . College instructor at lyceum western university. And then at 4:30 to 5.30 I have one tutorial student and from 5.30, college of law. Nikolai: Mam sa family niyo po ba meron po bang nasa public service din? Judge Florendo: Yes, my sister. my elder sister who is to be a teacher. teacher for 22 years in govt. service. and now she's a court interpreter in Dagupan city Nikolai: Mam sa father niyo po, mataas po sa inyo mga uncle. Judge Florendo: Nanay ko, she was a teacher. Retired teacher na. Nikolai: mam saan po kayo ng elementary High School and college. Judge Florendo: I finished my elementary in Bayambang central school, High Schoo. Pangasinan State Univesity laboratory high school, College, University of Pangasinan. Dagupan city. Yung dalawa elementary HS bayambang. Nikolai: Opo, mam tapos po saan po kayo ng college of law? Judge Florendo: University of Pangasinan. Dagupan city. UPANG Nikolai: Mam tapos ilan po ba anak niyo? Judge Florendo: I have 3 children. Want to know their ages? Nikolai: Sige po. Judge Florendo: first hannah sherlyn she's already 22 years old. A first year San Beda College of law student. My second daughter. Hannah Joy who is now 18 years old and a fourth year

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social work student in CEU. Centro Escolar University. And <inaudible> the youngest <inaudible> Nikolai: Ma'am diba po ang private profession ay lawyer po kayo. Dahil po lawyer kayo meron pa po ba kayong naging ibang trabaho bago kayo pumasok ng public service. Judge Florendo: I love teaching. before I took the bar, I was teaching.

Nikolai: Ma'am pero nung na.admit na po kayo sa bar? Judge Florendo: I'm a professor in the college of law. Urdaneta city university from 2010 up to present, Lyceum-Northwestern University dagupan city professor in the college of law. from 2002 up to the present. And I used to teach in PUNP urdaneta city college of law. From 2007 to 2011. Nikolai: mam pangilan po kayo sa mga anak. Judge Florendo: Second Nikolai: ilan po kayong magkakapatid? Judge Florendo: Four Nikolai: Bale yung panganay po lalake po ba siya o babae Judge Florendo: Babae. Nikolai: Mam tumungo naman po tayo sa next part yung factors of motivation. tungkol po sa ano. personal ambition. Nung bata po kayo anu po ba yung ambition niyo? Judge Florendo: My ambition. To be a lawyer. Nikolai: Saan niyo po nakuha inspiration to be a lawyer? Judge Florendo: Tagalog or... Nikolai: Kahit anu po. Judge Florendo: Kahit anu pala. pwede pala tayo mag-ilocano. <laughs> Nikolai: ay, hindi po.. hindi po ako nakakaintindi ng ilocano..<laughs> Judge Florendo: I belong to a poor family and I saw how people deal with people from different causes of the society. It was my father who actually motivated me to become a lawyer. Because he saw in me the natural ability to deal with people.

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Nikolai: Mam tapos yung ambition niyo naman po for your family kung bakit po kayo ng enter ng public service Judge Florendo: My family, unang una, to be elevated from poverty. I belong to a poor family and yet ang kahirapan namin ay hindi naging dahilan or hindrance para hindi kami makapagaral lahat. but I saw the sacrifices each of us in the family to send us to school. So I wanted a family which can go to some places, which can buy what we need and sometimes what we want. Nikolai: Mam tapos diba nga po parang sabi niyo kanina na nakita niyo po yung paghihirap ng mga tao? yung pagenter niyo po ba sa public service ay naging daan niyo po ba yun para tulungan yung mga tao? Judge Florendo: Let's not look at public service kasi involved din ako sa church activities. And I find, And this is a fact that you have to say. I find more satisfaction in helping people while I'm in church. Here in the government, we work for a salary. So we have to work 8 hours a day and out of that 8 hrs a day, what we officially do is to dispense whatever it is that we need to do. It is a duty towards the government and a duty towards political. But personally, we don't involve ourselves. Kaya dito sa church ko nakita yung we can go out of our way. Dito sa judiciary you cannot go out of the way. <inaudible> and decide a case based on the evidence without looking at the status of a person. So kung halimbawa, ang may ebidensyang naiprisinta eh yung mayaman, We need to <inaudible>. Kasi siya yung may ebidensya eh. Anu sasabihin ng mahirap, porke mahirap ako hindi ako tinulungan ni judge but no. we cannot do that directly to them. Nikolai: mam tapos anu po ba.. nadidifferentiate niyo po ba ang public service and poltiics? Judge Florendo: I do not involve myself in politics. But I see the way kung paano gumagalaw ang politics within a community. I do not even endorse politician Nikolai: Mam tapos anu po view niyo sa women in public service. Judge Florendo: Women in public service ito yung clamour ng mga kababaihan to equal rights with men even in the work area. work force area. now, we have it. malakas kami as a women, but when we say women, talagang hard-working ang mga yan. of course with the exception of some. They are more conscientious towards women. At ah.. masyado kaming nakadirekta sa kung ano ang dapat mangyari kasi we don't rest on one particular task. we multitask. nagmumultitasking kami which can be done only by women. Ang mga lalaki hindi ko alam kung bakit hindi makapagmulti-task e. I don't know if it's too much. Dito sa public service, ang mga women, they achieve more. They achieve more task. given the things and time with the male. It's just not sometimes the women. Emotionally, we are more involved in particular issue or task but we involve ourselves emotionally. Nikolai: Mam tapos naman po anu po masasbi niyo sa emergence ng women sa politics? yung politics po na may kandidato. ganun

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Judge Florendo: Ah.. ok, anu ba ang anu ko dyan. I support them. I support them, I hope they don't get corrupted by the system. kasi nga ang politics, pag sinabi mong politics, madami kang mga transaction dyan na makikita mo. which I do not agree kahit na na I will give you an example, they will be supplies from the government, I still look at the price "Abay bakit ganito" when I <inaudible> my best friend who is a provincial legal officer in pangasinan. "bestfriend. bakit triple ang presyo ng trashcan dito sa nakalagay na, binigay niyo samin. Why? samantalang ito lang yung amount niya pag bibilin kami directly outside. And she told me. That's the way in the politics. In the government. Why? because you have to practice <inaudible> But I do not like. But I do not refuse if they give us supplies. ano ba nasagot ko ba yung tanong mo? Nikolai: Opo mam. bale ang parang na-anu niyo po dyan. parang yung system po ang ngccorrupt sa women? Judge Florendo: Yes, yes naman eh. kasi men and women. it's not really in their values. we cannot be corrupted. if they do not go out of politics, there will come a time that they will become corrupt because of the system. Nikolai: Mam next naman po parang yung emergence po ba ng women in public service and politics masasabi po ba yang development in gender equality dito sa pilipinas. Judge Florendo: Yes. Nikolai: Pero maam sa overall situation po ng gender sensitivity po ng mga Pilipino, tingin niyo po ba talagang meron an tayong. nakamit na po ba natin yung gender equality. Judge Florendo: <disortion> Not in entirely. But we can see now this trend. We address. A particular chair of a committee not as chairman but as chairperson to equalize gender among the members. the respect with regards to women na.. ah...in different aspects for different agencies of the government. Kaya lang para sa atin ay. ang <distortion> naming mga babae ay clamour for equality. We are all equal in work. We are all equal in the work force, in the field. Ok, whatever a man can do we can do. Kaya pagdating ko from work ako ang in charge in the family so we got more than what we are aiming for. Mas nadodoble. We work, We earn as much as the men, we were in charge of the family. Nadodoble diba? Nikolai: bale po nung bata po kayo. diba po yung tatay niyo nagurge sainyo na maglawyer, parang. nung bata po ba kayo iniinvolve na po ba niya kayo sa activities na may patungkol sa public service? Judge Florendo: Yes, we always go out. Cleaning the community. kahit nung bata pa kami. harap mo. lilinisin mo. we did that even before na wala pa yung mga slogans na yan. na..we were raised in a way not only for our own family but for the community. Because the community is needed <inaudible> because we do not involve. we do not involve ourselves in politics. my father was a barangay kagawad but that's when we are professionals. Nikolai: Mam diba nga po masasabi natin na isa po kayo sa pinaka highest position dito sa San Jose, sa district po natin. Kamusta naman po yung self esteem niyo? Yung self-confidence niyo.

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Judge Florendo: Self-esteem. self-confidence. Well, I grow all these for God. I do not listen to other people say about me. Only me and my God know who I am. But <inaudible> I worked with everybody. I worked honestly, and I enhance myself, I educate myself, so that I can dispense of my duty as a judge in San Jose. Let's say dispense just for everybody without looking at their status. Nikolai: Mam tapos sa acquisition of power, kasi po sa may gender studies namin, parang sinabi po dun na may mga kababaihan na para maacquire yung position nila, yung power nila, eh gumagamit po sila ng method ng panglalake. Judge Florendo: Which is? anung panlalake? panlalake talaga kami <laughs> joke lang. Nikolai: Parang, ang ginagamit po eh yung mga method ng panlalake katulad po nung pagiging competitive. pagiging. Of course yung position niyo po ay through merits and appointment po yan tama po ba mam? Judge Florendo: Yes. Nikolai: Bale paano po ba yung ginawa niyong anu. para marating niyo yung position as executive judge. Judge Florendo: Ah dito? First, when I passed the bar, I realized that I am not that far from graduates of Manila. Because I graduated on a provincial university. I improved myself, at my own expense, I attended seminars at civil law institute, criminal law institute, I attended all these at my own expense so I improved myself. And when I found I already have these. ah. educational background which can help me achieve my goal, ah...waiting for five years. A requirement to apply for a first level court position as judge, I should be a five year old lawyer. During that five year time, I attended different seminars I involve myself in women lawyers association wherein we <inaudible> the needs of barangays <inaudible>legal, lectures and problems, So I did not stopped, I improved myself and so I applied for a first level court job. With the help of our lord, I would like to say this because I did not know.. no one in Malacanang. This is a judicial position and when I went to Malacanang and asked how is it done there. However, when I need.. I need endorsement from political body. I even asked the undersecretary. Sabe ko eh Sir ito po ay judicial official why do I need political endorsement. He answered because the appointing power is a political person. President. Ok, so that's it. When I was appointed in MTCC in December, October 2003. I did not stopped being a judge, I ah.. I enrolled in San Beda to take Master's of Law unfortunately before I started my thesis, I already have my outline for thesis... I was appointed. Unfortunately. But fortunately, I was appointed in RTCC San Jose. Ok, so all the work here has eaten my time <laughs> taken my chores. Noong nandito na ako nagkasakit sakit na ako sa dame ng trabaho. But trabaho is a blessing from the lord. Did I stop? no. I did not stop. when I was in my <inaudible> Philippine Judicial Academy. Educational arm of the Supreme court ... they train as trainor. I went there I trained as facilitator and trainor. And that was in <inaudible> and now I also lecture or I am a resource person in judicial integrity. So ah. Lecturing for our judges in different places here in the country. and becoming an executive judge is a privilege noh. depending on your standing on judges but

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sometimes it depends on how you give justice. And it's the OCA. Office of the court administrator of the Supreme court which assign executive judges in particular area. Nikolai: Kailangan din po ba kayong makisama din kayo sa iba. sa ibang judge? Judge Florendo: Paanong makisama? Nikolai: Para po maapoint kayo nung OCA na yun. kailangan niyo din po makisama sa ibang judge or? Judge Florendo: ang pagaappoint kasi ng executive judge, in one district court. If there's two judges. Minimum two judges, isa executive judge. So with all the employee, maintain the justice hall, and I have to administer the function and administrative overall ng court ng judicial district. Nikolai: Mam anu po ba yung jurisdiction na nakaunder sainyo? Judge Florendo: Ako as administrative judge ng San Jose City, I have administrative function over MTC LUPAO, MTC Caranglan,MTC Pantabangan and San Jose. Nikolai: Ma'am tapos next naman po yung sa economic.. yung economic factors naman po. Pag nagenter po ba kayo ng public service eh mas malaki po ba ang kikitain niyo kapag ng private practice po kayo? Judge Florendo: As a lawyer, mas malaki ang kikitain ko kapag nagprivate practice. because you can collect depending on how much your client can pay you. Sa judiciary, ah. may fixed salary. Maliit lang ang sweldo. ang benefits ng judges. nung naging judge ako nung 2003. wala pa nga kaming special allowance. But if you live simply, you can say na sa.. with your position as a judge. I feel na mayaman ka. With the honor they give you with the respect you earn from the people. And with the money coming from the government. Kaya kapag maluho, kukulangin ka.

Nikolai: Mam pwede ko po matanong kung magkano po ang monthly salary niyo? Judge Florendo: Now? 73. yung anu ha. yung gross is 73150. Nikolai: Meron pa po bang mga extra katulad po nung mga honorarium, may mga ganun pa po ba? Judge Florendo: Ya. meron kaming extra. and meron din kami mula sa local government ng San Jose. Even the judges, meron kaming 3150. and ah yung driver. that's the benefits of the.. and yung seminars. national seminars namin.nakakakuha din kami. meron din kaming provincial. Nikolai: Mam tapos po meron po ba kayong mga negosyo? Judge Florendo: Ako? baka maBIR ako dyan. <laughs>

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Nikolai: Ay hindi po. Judge Florendo: My husband is a private practitioner in a law firm. Nikolai: Lawyer din po husband niyo? Judge Florendo: Yes, kaklase ko sa undergrad, we have this law firm, and we have this ah.. family... family store. parang mga school supplies. Nikolai: Mam matanong ko lang po ilan po ba yung naging score niyo nun sa bar exam? Judge Florendo: Ay. eto. 78.33. Nikolai: Ma'am yung 78 po ba na yun e mataas na? Judge Florendo: Well, it's on the upper half Nikolai: Ma'am ang passing po ba noon eh 50? Judge Florendo: No. it's 75. but for every subject. the passing score is 50. You should not get less than 50 in every subject. Para pumasa ang total average ay 75. Nikolai: Ma'am may makukuha po ba kayong pension in case na magretire kayo? Judge Florendo: Yes, malaki. parang may survivorship pa nga kami eh.that's the benefit we get from serving the public. as a judge we get, ah.., pero may condition yun. we need to have served government service for 20 years and you should not be less than 60 years old when you retire. eh we have to stay in judiciary until 70 years old. Nikolai: Opo, Matagal pa po? Judge Florendo: Oo, ang tagal pa. <laughs> But we have optional retirement. Nikolai: Mam pinaplano niyo po ba na mas maelevate pa po yung position niyo? Judge Florendo: Yes, that's part of the plan. Anyway, I think I was able to discharge all my duties in San Jose City <inaudible>. Kaya I enhance myself kaya para pag dumating yung time na mag-apply ako as affiliate court. kasi ang gusto nila mga taga Manila ang ineexpose eh. kaya sila yung priority sa court of appeals. But no, this is a city, San Jose City, ang dame dame ding cases. Nikolai: Mam tapos sa socio-political aspects. Yung mga kaibigan niyo po ba inurge nila kayo na mag-enter sa public service or it's your own decision po?

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Judge Florendo: Actually, personal decision and the consultation comes from my family. And now, I involve my children in everyrhing I decide. like kunwari, lilipat ako sa ganito. sasabihin "mommy wag na". Nikolai: Mam tapos, alam po natin qualified po kayo na magrun for public office talaga. bakit po pinili niyo sa public service na kung saan eh neutral po kayo? Judge Florendo: Pag neutral, hindi ako nageendorse ng kahit sinong politiko, but I also vote. Kaya meron din akong pinipili actually. But I don't see myself in politics. Kaya kong magsilbi sa tao na hindi sa politika. It's not within my values. hindi ko kaya yung naninira at saka sisiraan ka ng tao. I wanted everything to be black and white I just wanted the truth to come out. Ayoko ng nagsisiraan, hindi kakayanin ng puso ko. <laughs> Nikolai: Mam, bale yun po ang cover ng interview ko, bale hihingi po sana ako sainyo ng legal advise. tungkol po kasi, diba po iniinterview ko po kayo, tapos may dalawa pa pong participant, kaya lang po. yung dalawa pong participant.nagnhihingi po ng copy ng thesis, ok lang po kayang magbigay or.. Judge Florendo: Yung thesis mo? Yung interview ko sayo? Well it's ok. It's your <inaudible> kung sino bibigyan mo. Kasi pag thesis nagiging public anu yan. It will stay in your library... Nikolai: Mam pero ok lang po sa inyo? Judge Florendo: It's ok, you have my go. Nikolai: Ma'am gusto niyo po ba ng copy nung thesis ko? Judge Florendo: oo. Nikolai: Ma'am bale masasabe po ba na advocate po kayo ng gender equality? Judge Florendo: Well, ako, masasabi ko na this is not a gender friendly court but this is a gender sensitive court. Nikolai: Bale inoobserve po sa court yung chairperson. Judge Florendo: Oo. We address the male lawyers sir and we address the female lawyers ma'am. We are not a gender friendly court but we are a gender sensitive court. Also we are child sensitive court.

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