Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. It can be intermittent or continuous; continuous administration is called an intravenous drip. The word intravenous simply means "within a vein", but is most commonly used to refer to IV therapy. Therapies administered intravenously are often called specialty pharmaceuticals. Compared with other routes of administration, the intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver fluids and medications throughout the body. Some medications, as well as blood transfusions and lethal injections, can only be given intravenously.

Intravenous access devices
Needle and syringe
The simplest form of intravenous access is a syringe with an attached hollow needle. The needle is inserted through the skin into a vein, and the contents of the syringe are injected through the needle into the bloodstream. This is most easily done with an arm vein, especially one of the metacarpal veins. Usually it is necessary to use a constricting band first to make the vein bulge; once the needle is in place, it is common to draw back slightly on the syringe to aspirate blood, thus verifying that the needle is really in a vein; then the constricting band is removed before injecting. This is the most common method of intravenous drug use for euphoriants such as heroin, or in any case where a person must self-administer intravenous medication at home. It is also a convenient way to deliver life-saving medications in an emergency. However, in a controlled health-care setting, direct injection is rarely used since it only allows delivery of a single dose of medication.

Peripheral IV lines Central IV lines

Forms of intravenous therapy
Intravenous drip
An intravenous drip is the continuous infusion of fluids, with or without medications, through an IV access device. This may be to correct dehydration or an electrolyte imbalance, to deliver medications, or for blood transfusion. IV fluids There are two types of fluids that are used for intravenous drips; crystalloids and colloids. Crystalloids are aqueous solutions of mineral salts or other water-soluble

molecules. Colloids contain larger insoluble molecules, such as gelatin; blood itself is a colloid. The most commonly used crystalloid fluid is normal saline, a solution of sodium chloride at 0.9% concentration, which is close to the concentration in the blood (isotonic). Ringer's lactate or Ringer's acetate (ASERING, patented brandname of Otsuka Indonesia) is another isotonic solution often used for large-volume fluid replacement. A solution of 5% dextrose in water, sometimes called D5W, is often used instead if the patient is at risk for having low blood sugar or high sodium. The choice of fluids may also depend on the chemical properties of the medications being given. Intravenous fluids must always be sterile. Composition of Common Crystalloid Solutions Solution D5W Other [Cl-] [Glucose](mmol/L [Na+](mmol/L) [Glucose](mg/dl) Name (mmol/L) ) 5% 0 Dextrose 0 278 5000

3.3% 2/3D & Dextrose 51 1/3S / 0.3% saline Halfnormal saline 0.45% NaCl 77 154

51

185

3333

77 154 109

0 0 0

0 0 0

Normal 0.9% saline NaCl

Ringer's Lactated 130 lactate Ringer

Ringer's lactate also has 28 mmol/L lactate, 4 mmol/L K+ and 3 mmol/L Ca2+. Ringer's acetate (ASERING) also has 28 mmol/L acetate, 4 mmol/L K+ and 3 mmol/L Ca2+. Effect of Adding One Litre Solution D5W 2/3D & 1/3S Normal saline Ringer's lactate Change in ECF Change in ICF 333 mL 556 mL 1000 mL 900 mL 667 mL 444 mL 333 mL 0 mL 100 mL

Half-normal saline 667 mL

Risks of intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy has many risks and should therefore only be performed by trained personnel under medical supervision, using proper equipment.

Infection Phlebitis
Phlebitis is irritation of a vein that is not caused by infection, but from the mere presence of a foreign body (the IV catheter) or the fluids or medication being given. Symptoms are swelling, pain, and redness around the vein. It does not necessarily mean the IV device must be removed; warmth, elevation of the affected limb, or a change in the rate of flow may resolve the symptoms. Due to frequent injections and recurring phlebitis, the peripheral veins of intravenous drug addicts, and of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, become hardened and difficult to access over time.

Fluid overload Electrolyte imbalance Embolism Extravasation
Extravasation is the accidental administration of intravenously (IV) infused medicinal drugs into the surrounding tissue, either by leakage (e.g. because of brittle veins in very elderly patients), or directly (e.g. because the needle has punctured the vein and the infusion goes directly into the arm tissue).

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