Tun Ms Karen Dion SPH 4U A day at the Museum of Science and Technology James Hillier BIBLIOGRAPHY Dr.

Hillier (August 22, 1915 – January 15, 2007), the son of British immigrants, was one of Canada’s greatest scientists and inventors. He earned three degrees at the University of Toronto, a B.A. in mathematics and physics, and an M.A. and a Ph.D. in physics. Later the University of Toronto awarded him an honorary D.Sc. Over the course of his career Hillier was awarded 40 patents and numerous accolades, including the American Public Health Association's Albert Lasker Award in Medical Research in 1960, the IEEE David Sarnoff Award in 1967, the Industrial Research Institute Medal in 1975, induction into the U.S. National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1980, and the IEEE Founders Medal in 1980. Dr. Hillier was awarded an honourary Order of Canada. Honours he received: • In 1950, the James Hillier Public School in Brantford, Ontario was opened. • In 1960, he was awarded the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research. • In 1975, he was awarded the IRI Medal from the Industrial Research Institute • In 1980, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. • In 1981, he received the Founders Medal from the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. • In 1997, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada.

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In 1941, he went to the United States of America and joined the Radio Corporation of America in Camden, New Jersey. He became General Manager, RCA Laboratories (1957); Vice President, RCA Laboratories (1958); Vice President, Research and Engineering (1968); Executive Vice President, Research and Engineering (1969); and Executive Vice President and Chief Scientist (1976). New technologies developed during his tenure include the system that became RCA SelectaVision. (Note: RCA Laboratories, located in Princeton, NJ, became independent of RCA as a result of the corporate take-over by General Electric in 1986 and became Sarnoff Corporation, a subsidiary of SRI International through 2011, when it was absorbed by SRI.) Hillier spent many years refining the electron microscope and marketing it to research laboratories and universities, receiving a total of 41 patents for devices and processes. In addition to his work on the electron microscope, Hillier also accomplished major developments related to the fields of medicine and biology, including his discovery of the principle of the stigmator for correcting astigmatism of electron microscope objective lenses; his invention of the electron microprobe microanalyser; and his being the first to picture tobacco mosaic viruses and an ultra-thin section of a single bacterium. He retired from RCA in 1977. After retiring from RCA in 1977, Dr. Hillier advised on the role of technology in the Third World and promoted science education. Although he became a U.S. citizen in 1945, Hillier remained involved with the Brantford community throughout his lifetime. The James Hillier Foundation, established in 1993, awards annual scholarships to Brant County students pursuing education in science. In 1936, he married Florence Marjory Bell, a union that lasted until Florence's death in 1992. They had two sons: James Robert Hillier and William Wynship Hillier. On January 15, 2007, Hillier died in Princeton, New Jersey. Contribution in Scientific Innovation James Hillier designed and built, with Albert Prebus, the first successful high-resolution electron microscope in North America in 1938. What is Electron Microscope? An electron microscope (EM) is a type of microscope that uses an electron beam to illuminate a specimen and produce a magnified image.

Finally. biopsysamples. (C) Hillier and Prebus. 1A). Washington State University. cells. Louis. and resolution did not exceed that of the light microscope. WA (Fig. with an emission EM in 1935.jameshillierfoundation. non-confocal light microscopes are limited by diffraction to about 200 nm resolution and useful magnifications below 2000x. a visiting lecturer from Germany. James Hillier and Albert Prebus in 1938. constructed the first high-resolution EM in North America (Fig. Pullman. was demonstrated in 1934 at the University of Toronto by Walter Kohl. Industrially. Also in 1935. and a transmission EM in 1939. however.edu/invent/iow/hillier. Washington University. Scott at the Medical School of Washington University in St.000 times shorter than visible light photons.html . References: http://www. (A) Anderson and Fitzsimmons. metals. the electron microscope is often used for quality control and failure analysis.000x whereas ordinary. Figure 1.cfm http://www. Neither of these programs continued. They can achieve better than 50 pm resolution[1] and magnifications of up to about 10. History of EM An electrostatic emission electron microscope (EM). Pullman. The first transmission electron microscopes in North America.org/wiki/James_Hillier http://web. St. Gordon H. 1935. Electron microscopes are used to investigate the ultrastructure of a wide range of biological and inorganic specimens including microorganisms. Modern electron microscopes produce electronmicrographs. In the same year. This was likely the first example of electron microscopy of any kind in North America. 1C). (B) Sterling Newberry. The electron microscope uses electrostatic and electromagnetic lenses to control the electron beam and focus it to form an image. large molecules.org/about/history.mit. The first transmission EM constructed outside Germany was completed in 1935 or 1936 by Paul Anderson and Kenneth Fitzsimmons of Washington State University.F.com/ http://en. University of Toronto. using a standard cathode ray tube. These electron optical lenses are analogous to the glass lenses of a light optical microscope. using specialized digital cameras or frame grabbers to capture the image. starting with a first instrument constructed by Cecil Hall.An EM has greater resolving power than a light microscope and can reveal the structure of smaller objects because electrons have wavelengths about 100. constructed by Sterling Newberry (Fig. 1B).wikipedia. and crystals. WA. 1939. 1938.microscopy.000. Louis started an EM program. E. Burton established an EM program at the University of Toronto.